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The Multi Store Model Of Memory And Research Into...
Discuss how memory can be explained with reference to models of memory and research into
Eyewitness Testimony. Introduction The investigation into memory – how we encode, store and
retrieve data – made great advances in the 20th century. Along with biological influences memories
define who we are, without them our individuality would be lost. This essay will scrutinize the
multi–store model of memory and working model of memory to determine their legitimacy. Each
model will be examined on its merits at how it explains cognitive functions. Through tools such as
the cognitive interview, eyewitness testimony has been deployed in countries around the world to
send millions to lengthy prison sentences. Despite its widespread use, the question remains: how
much can we trust someone's memory in the courtroom? Multi–Store Model of Memory The multi–
store model of memory (eg, Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968) claims the memory can be sectioned into
three distinctive parts: sensory store, short–term store (STM) and long–term store (LTM). Eysenck
and Keane (2005:190) states that data is first encountered by the sensory store, then depending on
the attention given, is processed to the STM and finally – if rehearsed – continues to the LTM. There
is substantial research backing this model. For example Murdock (1962) found the serial position
effect which shows when presented with a list of items, participants recalled those shown at the
beginning (primary) and those at the end (recency);
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Information Comprehension Essay
Information comprehension or also known as reading comprehension is defined as the level of
understanding of a text or message. This understanding comes from the interaction between the
words that are written and how they trigger knowledge outside the text or message. Comprehension
is one of the most important components when it comes to reading no matter what age. As much as
it is important for children to understand the words they are reading they should also be able to
understand what they are reading. Reading comprehension is something many students have trouble
with throughout their school years, and this can possibly lead them to discouragement and disliking
reading all together. Reading is used for every subject and a skill and asset we will need for the rest
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In order to understand a text the reader must be able to comprehend the vocabulary used in the piece
of writing. If the individual words don't make the sense then the overall story will not either.
Children can draw on their prior knowledge of vocabulary, but they also need to continually be
taught new words. The best vocabulary instruction occurs at the point of need. Parents and teachers
should pre–teach new words that a child will encounter in a text or aid her in understanding
unfamiliar words as she comes upon them in the writing. In addition to being able to understand
each distinct word in a text, the child also has to be able to put them together to develop an overall
conception of what it is trying to say. This is text comprehension. Text comprehension is much more
complex and varied that vocabulary knowledge. Readers use many different text comprehension
strategies to develop reading comprehension. These include monitoring for understanding,
answering and generating questions, summarizing and being aware of and using a text's structure to
aid
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Working Memory Rehearsal
Discussion Working memory allows for the immediate recall of information when given a task that
requires the use of stored memories. This study focused on analyzing the effects of mini quiz games
on the working memory's ability to recall nonsensical words in graduate students. More specifically,
it investigated how repetition aids in storing information within both the visuospatial sketchpad and
phonological loop. Due to the multiple exposures to the nonsensical words through the mini quiz
game, students were able to have consistent access to the information in order to recall what they
have learned when given the task at hand of taking a quiz. Here, their visuo–spatial sketchpad plays
a very important role as the students in the Mini Quiz
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Describe Luck And Vogel's Change Detection Experiment
5) What is the digit span? what does this indicate about the capacity of STM? The digit span is the
amount of number a person can withhold in their STM. It is stated that the STM capacity that a
person could hold is about a minimum of four items to a max of nine items . 6) Describe Luck and
Vogel's change detection experiment. What is the capacity of STM according to the results of this
experiment? Luck and Vogel's change detection experiment was made to determine exactly how
much information can a person withhold from a quick flash of stimulus. They modified the previous
change dtetction experiment alittle. Rather than asking the person if there was a change in the
display only, they also ask the person to recall the amount of items
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What Are the Difficulties Encountered by Psychologists in...
What are the difficulties encountered by psychologists in studying consciousness? To what extent
have theory and research in cognitive psychology helped overcome these difficulties?
Consciousness is an umbrella term utilised to refer to a variety of mental phenomena. Cognitive
psychologists have focused their efforts in understanding access consciousness, or how information
carried in conscious mental states is available to different cognitive processes. This is linked to
attention and working memory. However, consciousness is difficult to quantify and hence most
pieces of research study consciousness by contrasting the characteristics between conscious and
unconscious processes. Although with some limitations, research has provided ... Show more
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reaching towards fast–moving stimuli (Zeki and ffytche, 1998). Likewise, damage to the fusiform
face area causes prosopagnosia, although patients still demonstrate autonomic arousal when
presented with a familiar face (Pike and Edgar, 2010). These and other studies of altered function
following localised brain damage make ffytche (2000, as cited in Andrade, 2010) argue for the
modularity of consciousness. Beyond theory building, these examples are essential tools for the
study of the neural basis of visual awareness. Areas within the prefrontal, parietal and temporal
cortex are typically active during conscious processing (Logothetis, 1998).
Additionally, the relationship between attention and consciousness is an intimate one. Paying
attention brings objects to consciousness whilst they fade away once attention shifts. This is why
Naish (2010, p.59) states 'attention is the process which gives rise to conscious awareness'. The need
for attention in conscious processing is demonstrated in change blindness (changes in a viewed
scene are not detected, e.g. Simons and Levine, 1998) or inattentional blindness (not being able to
perceive things that are in plain sight, e.g. Simons and Chabris, 1999). Moreover, masking
experiments are a powerful tool to study the relationship between consciousness and attention.
Masking refers to the reduction of visibility of a target caused by presentation of a
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The Theory Of Measuring Intelligence
Introduction
Since childhood I can remember how the term "IQ" could make or break a person's dignity and
credibility all in one. Through the years a line has been drawn that to this day categorizes a person's
abilities both mentally and physically. Statements like "He is street smart, not book smart" have
been used and overused in today's society. Although research and new learning strategies have been
in development since the 1980s, much of society still sees intelligence in this limited manner.
Though the course of this paper we will look at theories for measuring intelligence. We will also
explore how memory plays a major role in developing intelligence and the effect these factors have
on learning.
Intellectual Development ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
IQ and You
Intelligence is defined as "the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations.
Other definitions include, "the skilled use of reason" and "the ability to apply knowledge to
manipulate one 's environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria (Hacker,
2011)." One might ask, "How can one assume to measure intelligence with such a vague description
of what intelligence is?" Doesn't everyone have the ability to think and reason? The answer comes
in the latter part of the definition where a person needs to apply the knowledge learned. The way I
see it, intelligence applies to people in the following ways. One is the ability to learn new things;
another is the ability to think things through and the last is to apply learned content to life. The
problem with trying to measure intelligence is that it can never really be fully measured. If the
ability to apply learned knowledge is absent a real measurement cannot be achieved. This is where
the theory of I.Q. tests came into play. The letters I.Q. simply stand for intelligence quotient, which
is a phrase coined by Lewis Terman after his associate and him modified the original intelligence
test developed by Binet and Simon (Boyd & Bee, 2012). The theory behind the IQ test was to find a
way to measure the child's mental development based on the difference
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The Multi Store Model And The Working Memory Model
"Memory is our ability to encode, store,retain and subsequently recall information and past
experiences in the human brain" (Luke Mastin,2010). In this review I am going to focus on the multi
store model and the working memory model, which explain in detail how memory works.
The multi–store model (MSM) of memory by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), explains that the
memory is made up of three different stores.These are: sensory memory (SM), short term
memory(STM) and long term memory(LTM). This model explains how each store works in terms of
encoding, duration and capacity.
The SM obtains the information from environmental stimuli through our five senses which are
touch,sight,smell,taste and sound. In SM the encoding is either visual,auditory or haptic; duration is
¼ to ½ seconds and the capacity is all sensory experience(McLeod S.A,2007). Attention is essential
for the information to transfer to the STM, otherwise it is lost through decay. The information in the
STM is mostly encoded acoustically. The diagram below shows us how the information is
transferred from one store to another.
According to Miller 's Magic number 7 (1956) most adults can store from 5 to 9 items, therefore
STM is known to have a capacity of 7+/–2 items and a duration of up to 18 seconds. The
information in this store can be lost through displacement which is replacing the old information
with new ones or forgetting it (decay). There are two types of rehearsals. Maintenance rehearsal is
not effective
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Comparing Working Memory And The Episodic Buffer
In 1974 the researchers Baddeley and Hitch argued that the picture of short–term memory (STM)
provided by the Multi–Store Model was far too simple. Following the Multi–Store Model, it is
believed that STM holds limited amounts of information for short periods of time with relatively
little processing, it is believed to be a unitary store. This means that due to its single store it has no
subsystems, unlike the Working Memory Model which has many subsystems. This proves that the
Working Memory is not a unitary store. Working Memory is STM. In contrast to the Multi–Store
Model, where all the information goes to one single store (Unitary store), there are different systems
for the different types of information. Working Memory consists of ... Show more content on
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This supports the idea of an immediate memory store for items that are neither visual nor
phonological and that draw on long–term memory to link the related words. It is used as both the
Phonological Loop and the Visuo–Spatial Sketch Pad have specific roles and the Central Executive
has very limited storage capacity so as a result there was no where to store both visual and acoustic
information. The Episodic Buffer is an extra storage system that has in common with all working
memory units, a limited capacity. It is handy and can integrate information from the Central
Executive, The Phonological Loop, The Visuo–Spatial Sketch Pad and also information from the
Long–Term Memory.
Researchers such as Logie, Baddeley and Bunge generally agree that the short–term memory is
made up of a number of components or subsystems. The working memory model has replaced the
idea of a unitary store short–term memory as suggested by the multistore model. The working
memory model explains a lot more and in a lot more detail than the multistore model. It makes sense
a range of tasks– verbal reasoning, comprehension, reading, problem solving and visual and spatial
processing, it also applies to real life tasks such as reading which involves the phonological loop
subsystem, problem solving which involves the central executive and navigation which involves the
visual and spatial subsystem. The Working Memory Model is supported by
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The Influence Of Brain Damage On Object-Location Memory
Examining the influence of brain damage on object location memory (OLM) may reveal the
importance of impacted regions of the brain and in turn identify specific interventions needed.
Multiple models have been developed to understand the complex nature of memory. These models
include: the multi–store, working memory and object–location (Lawton, 2011).Object–location is
the ability to remember the position of items in our environment (Shih, Meadmore & Liversedge,
2012); it is made of up of three distinct counterparts:(a) object processing; (b) spatial–location
processing; (c) object–to– location binding processing (Postma, Kessels & Vanasselen, 2008).
Process (a) is responsible for object recognition (Heeger, 2006). Whereas, process (b) focuses ...
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Those with defects in this region often show insufficiencies, such as abnormalities in body image
and spatial relations (Kandel, Schwartz & Jessell, 1991). This is predominantly evident in studies
which compare those with defects in this area to those without. These studies have shown the central
role of the parietal role to spatial processing through assigning participants multiple tasks. Some of
these tasks include location, shape and colour. Through the assignment of these tasks one can isolate
the area most affected by parietal dysfunction and will in turn find defects in location working
memory (Kessels, et al.,
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Working Memory : The State Of Memory
Working Memory describes the state of memory we are actively engaged with. It performs the
functions of receiving, temporarily holding and manipulating information (Baddeley, 2010). To
assess memory psychologists have found it helpful to define their theories as models. Atkinson and
Shiffrin 's 1968 Stage Model of Memory defined 3 main components of memory systems; sensory
memory from perception of experience that becomes short–term memory (STM), which through
rehearsal loads more permanent connections as long term memory (LTM) (Andrade, 2001). Digit
span a test where a sequence of digits is heard and then repeated back, was often used to measure
the capacity of STM. The average people usually reach before error is 7 digits (Baddeley, ... Show
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The primacy effect was thought to provide evidence of the rehearsal process that gets incoming
information from STM to LTM. (Andrade, 2001) Problems began to arise for the Stage Model of
Memory. Warrington and Shallice were studying patients in neuropsychology and found a patient
KF who had the reverse effects to HM of the ability to make long–term memories whereas his digit
span was around two (Andrade, 2001). It made Baddeley question the idea of STM feeding the
LTM. Further experiments of the recency effect and interference by Tzeng (1973) cited by Andrade
(2001) suggested there might be an alternative explanation other than STM disposition. Baddeley
and Hitch's Working Memory Model was published in 1974 in response to the limitations of the
Stage Model. The theory of Working Memory saw processing and storage contained in the present
activated memory (Andrade, 2001). Digit span interspersed with a simple comprehension task had
revealing results. The digit span of 1, 2 or 3 had hardly any impact on the accuracy or speed of the
comprehension task whereas 6 digits impacted in terms of slower speed but not as much as
predicted. (Baddeley 2010). Baddeley thought this showed that WM was capable of more than
verbal short–term storage and there must be at least another component that handled reasoning; the
central executive (Andrade, 2001). The WMM first comprised of 3 components, the central
executive controlling two sub systems, the phonological
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The Theoretical Framework Of Wm
Mrs. F is having difficulty following recipes while cooking as she is unable to mentally adjust the
amount of each ingredient called for in order to make only two portions. This is because of a deficit
in her memory, specifically her working memory (WM). While memory is defined as the "storage of
things learned and retained from an organism's activity or experience" (Merriam–Webster, 2015),
WM can be described as the cognitive systems that are required to temporarily store and manipulate
information (Baddeley, 2012). This report provides an overview of the theoretical multicomponent
WM framework as well as an in–depth look at one component of the framework, termed the
phonological loop (PL). Overview The theoretical framework of WM was introduced by Baddeley
and Hitch in 1974 in response to experiments and neuropsychological case studies that suggested
that STM had three components, which was in contrast to the dominant model at the time (as stated
in Baddeley, 2010, 2012). To develop evidence to support their notion of multiple STM components,
they performed experiments, some of which used the methodology of functionally disabling parts of
participants ' STM systems by having them perform multiple memory tasks concurrently (Baddeley,
2012). After 26 years of experimentation a fourth component was added to the framework: the
episodic buffer (EB) (Baddeley, 2000). Components: The central executive (CE) is the least
understood of the four components, but is also of
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Human Memory: a Passive Mechanism or Dynamic System? Essay
Memory is a capacity that humans rely upon to relate to different events, experiences, conditions,
and people. It is a vitally important process and system whereby the brain receives information from
(external or internal) stimuli, stores it (encoding), and makes it available on a future occasion
(retrieval). It provides continuity to people's experiences across different periods of time.
Research is increasingly concluding that the brain works as an integrated whole rather than a series
of discrete parts. In forming memory the brain passes information along the Papez circuit which
involves a number of regions of the brain. Brain research indicates that memory formation produces
physical changes to the way neurons are organized and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
(Gross et al.2000:16)Their research could however be said to support Atkinson and Shiffrin's (1968:
Ibid) theory of a separate store storage facility for STM and LTM.
Craik and Lockhart (1972: Ibid) examined how information is encoded once registered and
proposed the levels of processing theory, which focuses on the depth to which data is processed as a
means of improving retention. According to this theory encoding is carried out by a central
processor which can analyze stimulus on a shallow level, an intermediate acoustic level which
phonemic or phonetic in nature, and a deep semantic level, where the meaning is analyzed.
Craik and Tulving (1975, as cited in Gross et al. 2000:18) conducted an experiment whereby
participants were presented with a list of words and subsequently asked questions which required
them to process the data, shallowly, phonemically an semantically. There was a significant better
recognition of the word that had been processed semantically. While the LOP theory was the first to
propose that perception, attention and memory are all interrelated processes. It doesn't however
explain why semantic processing produces better recall, or definitively measure the so called 'depth'
of participants retention score.
Further examples of the significance of semantic processing and prior learning can be seen in the
work of De Groot (1966; as cited in Gross et al; 2000:15). De Groot (1966: Ibid)
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Learning Theory
Learning theory (education)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be
challenged and removed. (April 2008)
This article may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and
adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. More details
may be available on the talk page. (January 2010)
In psychology and education, learning is commonly defined as a process that brings together
cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing, or
making changes in one's knowledge, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Briefly, a behavior may result either in reinforcement, which increases the likelihood of the behavior
recurring, or punishment, which decreases the likelihood of the behavior recurring. It is important to
note that, a punishment is not considered to be applicable if it does not result in the reduction of the
behavior, and so the terms punishment and reinforcement are determined as a result of the actions.
Within this framework, behaviorists are particularly interested in measurable changes in behavior.
Educational approaches such as applied behavior analysis, curriculum based measurement, and
direct instruction have emerged from this model.[1]
[edit] Cognitivism
Main article: Cognitivism (psychology)
The earliest challenge to the behaviorists came in a publication in 1929 by Bode, a gestalt
psychologist. He criticized behaviorists for being too dependent on overt behavior to explain
learning. Gestalt psychologists proposed looking at the patterns rather than isolated events. Gestalt
views of learning have been incorporated into what have come to be labeled cognitive theories. Two
key assumptions underlie this cognitive approach: (1) that the memory system is an active organized
processor of information and (2) that prior knowledge plays an important role in learning. Cognitive
theories look beyond behavior to explain brain–based learning. Cognitivists consider how human
memory works to promote learning. For example, the physiological processes of sorting
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Memory Processes Essay
General Psychology: Chapter 7
1.
2. The study of memory primarily involves examining the processes of
3. A)
4. extinction, generalization, and discrimination.
B)
reinforcement, primacy, and recency.
C)
classical conditioning and operant conditioning.
D)
encoding, storage, and retrieval.
5.
6. Encoding is the memory process primarily concerned with
7. A)
8. getting information into memory.
B)
retaining information over time.
C)
taking information out of storage.
D)
registering information with our senses.
9.
10. Storage is the memory process primarily concerned with
11. A)
12. getting information into memory.
B)
retaining information over time.
C)
taking information out of storage.
D)
registering ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
A)
72. phonological loop
B)
visuospatial scratch pad
C)
central executive
D)
rehearsal
73.
74. Raymond remembers, "When I was a sophomore, I took the hardest physics test of my life, and I
was happy with my C." This memory represents a(n)
75. A)
76. implicit memory.
B)
procedural memory.
C)
explicit memory.
D)
prime memory.
77.
78. Episodic memory is a form of
79. A)
80. implicit memory.
B)
explicit memory.
C)
traumatic memory.
D)
involuntary memory.
81.
82. Remembering the three stages of memory is an example of
83. A)
84. procedural memory.
B)
nondeclarative memory.
C)
semantic memory.
D)
episodic memory.
85.
86. Tiger Woods probably relies mainly on which type of memory while playing golf?
87. A)
88. explicit
B)
declarative
C)
semantic
D)
procedural
89.
90. Priming refers to
91. A)
92. activation of information already in storage to help remember new information better
B)
preexisting mental frameworks that helps organize information
C)
a schema for an event
D)
grouping information that exceeds the working memory span into higher order units
93.
94. You are studying for a test and you want to make sure that you thoroughly incorporate the new
information into your memory network. What would be the best strategy for you to use?
95. A)
96. Cram the night before the test.
B)
Discuss the material with
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Rock Climbing As An Adventure Sport
1. Introduction
Between the years 1990 and 2006, there was a 37,514 person increase in membership of the British
Mountaineering Council (BMC – the National Governing Body for rock climbing in the UK). Rock
climbing, as an adventure sport, is constantly growing in popularity (Haas & Meyers, 1995; Long,
1993; Watts, Martin, & Durtschi, 1993). It is a multiple–discipline activity that encompasses
different forms such as bouldering, top roping and lead climbing on real and artificial surfaces.
There are now over 63,000 UK members of the BMC and more than 150,000 active climbers in the
UK alone (BMC, 2004;, BMC, 2006). As popularity in the sport has increased, the physiological
demands of rock climbing have become a major focus of recent ... Show more content on
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Studies have addressed topics such as risk taking and personality (Levenson, 1990), self–esteem (
Ewert, 1994; Magni, Rupolo, Simini, De Leo & Rampazzo, 1985; Freischlag & Freischlag, 1993;
Iso–Ahola, LaVerde & Graefe, 1988; ), stress seeking (Robinson, 1985; Rossi & Cereatti, 1993), and
psychophysiological relationships ( Edwards, 1967; Delignieres, Famose, Thepaut–Mathieu &
Fleurance,1993; Missoum, Rosnet & Richalet, 1992; Hardy & Whitehead, 1984; Ryn, 1971).
Research regarding the physiology of rock climbing has indicated the importance of taking climbing
style into consideration when making comparisons between studies (Sheel, 2004; Watts, 2004) due
to the different physiological effects on performance. Draper et al (2008) report onthat the
differences between the physiological and psychological responses to the different forms of rock
climbing,; indicating that climb–time, post–climb lactate concentrations, peak heart–rate, average
heart–rate and self–reported anxiety (CSAI–2R) were significantly higher for lead climbing (LC)
than for top–roping (TRC) . However, Draper et al (2008) offer no explanation for these findings.
Similarly, Hardy and Hutchinson, (2007) report that anxiety levels in beginner climbers were
significantly higher for their lead climb than in their top–rope ascent. It is now widely accepted that
the inherent threat of physical harm which is evidenced to be apparent during lead climbing, leads to
elevated levels of anxiety which are
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working memory
SMITMC06_0131825089.QXD 3/28/06 6:57 AM Page 239
REVISED PAGES
CHAPTER
Working
Memory
6
Le arn i ng O b j ec t i ves
1. Using Working Memory
1.1. A Computer Metaphor
1.2. Implications of the Nature of Working
Memory
2. From Primary Memory to Working Memory:
A Brief History
2.1. William James: Primary Memory,
Secondary Memory, and
Consciousness
2.2. Early Studies: The Characteristics of
Short–Term Memory
2.2.1. Brevity of Duration
2.2.2. Ready Accessibility
2.3. The Atkinson–Shiffrin Model: The
Relationship of Short–Term and LongTerm Memory
2.4. The Baddeley–Hitch Model: Working
Memory
3. Understanding the Working Memory Model
3.1. The Phonological Loop: When It Works and When It Doesn't
3.2. The Visuospatial Scratchpad
3.3. The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
These short–term mental storage and manipulation operations are collectively called working
memory. Think of working memory as involving a mental blackboard–that is, as a workspace that
provides a temporary holding store so that relevant information is highly accessible and available for
inspection and computation. When cognitive tasks are accomplished, the information can be easily
erased, and the process can begin again with other information.
1.1. A Computer Metaphor
The computer, so useful a metaphor in cognitive psychology, offers an intuitively appealing model
for thinking about the nature and structure of working memory.
SMITMC06_0131825089.QXD 3/28/06 6:57 AM Page 241
REVISED PAGES
1. Using Working Memory
Simplifying the workings of a computer, there are two means by which information is stored, the
hard disk and random–access memory (RAM). The hard disk is the means by which information is
stored permanently in a stable and reliable form; all software programs, data files, and the operating
system of the computer are stored on the hard disk. To use this stored information you must retrieve
it from the hard disk and load it into RAM. Now for the analogy: the information stored in the hard
disk is like long–term memory, RAM corresponds to working memory. The notion of working
memory as a temporary workspace
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Critical Review Essay
" Fitness Effects on the Cognitive Functions of Older Adults" by Stanley Colcombe and Arthur F.
Kramer (2003) is a meta–analytic study aimed to understand the effect of aerobic fitness on various
cognitive processes in older, sedentary adults. The authors stated that there are some statistical
discrepancies between various scientific articles regarding fitness–cognition relationship and thus
needed to find a better methodological approach to finding an answer(Colcombe & Kramer, 2003).
The purpose of the study by (Colcombe & Kramer, 2003) was to examine whether or not an aerobic
fitness training enhances perceptual, cognitive and motor processes in healthy but inactive older
adults. They discussed that through animal studies, researchers have found a positive correlation
between aerobic ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In executive category, tasks such as coordination, scheduling, planning, and working
memory(Colcombe & Kramer 2003). The "central executive" plays a large role in working memory
as it helps to regulate attention and overall monitor the brain's cognition (Psych 240 Lecture
2/8/2016). Based on the brain imaging and studies made on Frontal Lobe Syndrome, it appears that
executive processes take place in the frontal lobe. Frontal lobe syndrome shows difficulties in
concentration, organization, and proper behavior control due to damage to the frontal lobe. (Psych
40 Lecture 2/8/16). Thus fitness may have an effect on the frontal lobe. The executive–control
hypothesis aims to see the fitness's role in working memory as it does diminish with age.
Considering these four cognitive processes, Colcombe and Kramer hypothesized that 1) there would
be a positive correlation between aerobic fitness and the cognition of sedentary older adults; 2) the
fitness will have a greater beneficial effect on the executive
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Evaluate two models of one cognitive process
Cecilia Nguyen Evaluate two models of one cognitive process This essay will be discussing one
particular cognitive process: the memory by evaluating two models, which are the Multi store model
introduced by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968 and the Working memory model by Baddeley and
Hitch in 1974. The first model is the multi store model. It was first proposed by Atkinson and
Shiffrin in 1968 and is a typical example of the information–processing approach. According to this
model, memory consists of three types of memory stores: sensory stores, short–term store and long
term store. Sensory stores consist of the eyes, nose, fingers, tongue, etc and the corresponding area
of the brain. The sensory stores ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The visuo–spatial sketchpad when planned a spatial task and it saves memory temporarily. The
episodic buffer is the general store, it integrates info from the central executive, the phonological
loop and the visuo–spatial sketchpad and forms long term store. Research evidence for the working
model of memory varies. Case studies of brain damaged patients support this model a lot. The case
study of KF – a brain damaged patient with no problem with long term learning but some aspects of
his immediate memory were impaired. This has proven that the working model of memory was right
when suggesting that short term store works independently of long term store. In addition to
evidence supporting this model, Baddeley and Hitch did a research on making participants do two
tasks using the same or different components. Task one occupied the central executive, task two
either involved the articulatory loop or both the central executive and the articulatory loop. Speed on
task one was the same whether using the articulatory loop or no extra task. This shows that doing
two tasks that involve the same component causes difficulty. It also suggested that when two
different components are used, performance is not affected. Even though the working model of
memory is better than the multi store model, it still has some weaknesses. For example the role of
the central executive is vague and it needs more research. Also there were problems with
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Essay about Mulit-Store Model of Memory vs. Working Memory...
Compare and contrast the multi–store model of memory with the working memory model.
This essay will firstly briefly describe the theories and important facts about the original multi–store
model of memory (MSM) and the working memory model (WMM).
This essay will then evaluate the key studies within these two models and explain the strengths and
weaknesses of the main theories.
The final part of this essay will be to examine the similarities and differences between the two
models.
The first issue that needs to be addressed however is what exactly is memory? " Without memory
we would be servants of the moment, with nothing but our innate reflexes to help us deal with the
world. There would be no language, no art, no science, no ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
The existence of sensory memory was proven by Sperling (1960), in this experiment Sperling
discovered that after showing the participants a series of letters for less than a second they where
then asked to recall as many letters as possible but on average they only could recall about 36%.
According to Lloyd et al (1984) about 5% of all of a persons memories that are stored in their
sensory memory are transferred to their short–term memory.
The short–term memory allows a person to store the information for long enough for it to be used,
the short–term memory can also be called the working memory however this term later came to
have a different meaning. The short–term memory however only has a limited capacity to store
information; Miller (1956) claims that in order to save space in a person's short–term memory they
chunk information together but despite this space saving the short–term memory can only hold
seven plus or minus two of these chunks of information. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin (1971)
this information can be stored unaided for about 15–30 seconds, this time frame can be extended by
rehearsal.
It is commonly accepted that a person's long–term memory has an unlimited capacity to store
information; this information can effectively be stored for the persons entire life if needed. Bower
(1975) claims that among other information that is stored within a person's long–term memory are
five key pieces of information. " A spatial model of the world
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The Maintenance Of Cross Domain Association
The Maintenance of Cross–Domain Association in the Episodic Buffer:
Why is it very low?
Mohammed Alsahli
Dr. J. Aplril Park
Fort Hays State University
Exploring the working memory
The multiple components model: A brief look at the history of the working memory can show a
graduate movement toward separate components of the memory. It can acknowledge that one of the
first models to separate the different components of working memory was the model modal
presented by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). They proposed that the short–term memory is a single
unity in which different stimuli modality is stored in one unit. This assumption encountered some
problems; one is that if the short–term memory were a single unit to all information modality, than
an individual with short term memory defect would be impaired in all cognitive tasks, which is not
the case in many short–term memory patients.
The multiple component of the working memory presented by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) gave a
reasonable conception as to how the short term memory function. Contrary to models presented by
Atkinson and Shiffrin who describe the short term memory as a single unity (1968) the working
memory model originally thought to be composed of three systems: the central enactive, the
phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and most recently, the episodic buffer. Each
component has a unique function that separates it from the other component. (Baddeley & Logie,
1999), this problem has
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Working Memory Model Essay
Baddeley and Hitch (1974) criticised the multi–store model for being a very simplistic view of
memory. They saw short term memory as a store that had many individual sections inside it. This
was supported by patient KF who had epilepsy, the doctor wanted to try and remedy this by
removing his hippocampus. This surgery was done, however instead of fixing his epilepsy, it
damaged his short term memory, yet he still had his long term memory intact. In the multi–store
model it states that in order to have long term memory, one needs to have gone through the several
stores, such as the sensory memory store, the short term memory and then by adding meaning and
rehearsal, into the long term memory store. Seen as patient KF could still encode long ... Show more
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Another positive is the fact that it can be applied, or rather generalised to real life. For example in
job interviews when we talk, or when people text and drive, and it can cause us to crash. Finally
another strength of the working memory model is that is provides us an explanation for the brain
damaged patients KF and SC. As it shows us logical evidence that there is other stores in memory,
rather than the oversimplified view of the multi–store model. However, it does have its weakness,
one such weakness is its only address short term memory, not long term memory, and therefore it is
not a detailed model of memory, as it doesn 't address long term memory. Another weakness is the
circular argument, as it makes it difficult to find fault with the working memory mode. The circular
argument is that if two task cannot be done together, then it 's assumed that tis is because both of
which are overloading on of the components in the working model. If two tasks can be done
together, it 's assumed they are from different components of the working model, meaning the model
can explain any results. Finally another weakness is the fact that the working memory model has
been conducted in laboratories. Therefore it means that it may not be able to generalise these result
into everyday
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Unrelated Short Term Memory
Short Term Memory: Related or Unrelated? Iris Medina California State University, Fullerton
ABSTRACT WILL GO HERE Short Term Memory: Related or Unrelated? Short term memory
(STM) is the second process in the ever so popular Information Processing Model and it is the area
where information is the most readily available, but also most susceptible to being forgotten
(Baddeley, 1986). STM has a very limited capacity, and can usually only hold so much information,
the magic formula for this being "7 +/– 2" (Insert source). The formula of plus or minus two, simply
stated is that humans STM's can only store five to nine items of information at a time. Research has
also shown that there is trace decay theory for items being STM, where items are easily forgotten
within seconds if they are not put through the articulatory loop (Baddeley, 1986). As described by
Baddeley, the articulatory loop is rehearsal of items that are currently stored in the STM. If items are
not mentally rehearsed, then they are lost. Baddeley was the first to coin the term articulatory loop,
but most researchers use it interchangeably with the term phonological loop. The phonological loop
is specific to rehearsing verbal information in order to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The persons must then recall the items in the correct order in which they were shown. As mentioned
before, immediate serial recall has been the "holy grail" for theorizing about STM because the
phonological loop in Baddeley's working memory (short term memory) model supported recall in
this task. While Baddeley made it known that verbal items have to be mentally rehearsed in order
for them to be retained and properly recalled, he and other researchers took it to the next level, and
began to determine if relatedness of the items could increase how much is retained and performance
level of immediate serial
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Work Memory Analysis
Introduction
The working memory aids our ability to remember words over non–words, specifically the
phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad (Baddeley, Hitch, 1994). Other studies by (Paivio,
1991) have shown that concrete words are easier to recall than abstract words due to semantic
associations. The purpose of this paper is to explore the parts of memory that help certain words to
be more easily remembered than others. Memory is the system that enables us to learn skills and
gain information through sensory memory and short–term storage. It is also the process that allows
us to retrieve this information from long–term storage (Baddeley, 1974). Being able to create a new
memory, put that memory away in storage, and bring it back when ... Show more content on
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They proposed the phonological loop had evolved for language acquisition and storage. Also their
study found that the ability to pronounce a word places it in phonological storage, allowing you to
recall the memory quicker (Baddeley, 1994). The phonological loop has been found to be a
workspace for verbal information (Baddeley, 1994). Other studies have also found that the
phonological loop works to process auditory information as well (Reisberg, 2013). The visuospatial
sketchpad, (Baddeley, 1994) was used to recall a visual object. In the visuospatial sketchpad images
are placed on different spatial maps, which then tied together with the spatial workspace on the
visuospatial sketchpad. The decision maker of working memory is the central executive. It decides
which memories are retrieved, what information you should focus on, how important the
information is, and how to attain goals (Riesberg, 2013). Without the central executive, our thoughts
and actions would be unorganized in our working memory (Riesberg, 2013). In order to reduce the
workload of the central executive, and allow it to focus towards important tasks, the episodic buffer
works to store the information gathered from the visuospatial sketchpad and phonological loop
(Baddeley, 1974). These models of memory show us how it is organized and operates, and there are
other models of memory that go into how memory aids our
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Working Memory
Working Memory
● Working memory enables us to keep things in mind for short periods (215 seconds) as we think,
e.g. while reading, making a list etc.
● It 's related to but different to short–term–memory (STM) and long–term–memory (LTM).
● Chapter focuses on Baddley 's (1986) model of phonological working memory, vocabulary
acquisition and computational modelling of working–memory.
● The concept of 'span ' means how many items from a briefly presented set can be remembered,
e.g. 'word span ' is the number of words that can be recalled if reading a list of say 20 words. Digit
span, operation span, reading span etc. are similar tests.
Models of working memory evolved over time:
Atkinson & Shiffrin
(1971)
Baddeley & Hitch
(1974) ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
■ However he tested normally for long–term learning and memory, and had no problems
understanding normal speech, so spared LTM.
■ This suggests STM and LTM are distinct and normal STM is not required for LTM to function
normally.
● Garden path sentences show we do retain words in memory as we process them (building up and
interpreting sentences) but there are competing theories:
○ Just and Carpenter (1992) claimed individual ability to hold multiple interpretations depends on
working memory capacity;
○ Caplan and Waters (1999) argued working memory isn't involved as comprehension is done by a
separate system.
5.1.3 Working memory as more than STM
● Baddeley and Hitch (1974) investigated whether STM acts as working memory:
○ They used a dualtask paradigm (if two tasks interfere with each other they may be competing for
the same limited resource):
■ Participants simultaneously did an STM test, remembering and repeating a sixdigit sequence,
along with one of three cognitive tasks: reasoning, language comprehension or list learning;
○ They found:
■ load in the STM task adversely affected cognitive performance, although a small number of items
could be remembered without affecting the main task much, suggesting that information might be
transiently stored and processed simultaneously by working memory, and that there may be two
systems involved, one for storage and one for
processing;
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Alan Baddeley's Working Memory Model
Do you know what the Working memory model is? Per the website explorable.com, the working
memory model was proposed by Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch in 1974. They had studied the
1968 Atkinson–Shiffrin model in 1968 and believed that the model's short term memory store lacked
detail. The 4 main components of the working memory model are; Central executive, Articulatory–
Phonological loop, Visuospatial sketchpad, and Episodic buffer.
The Central executive is the main component of Baddeley's working memory model and coordinates
the other two systems and ensures they don't go astray. It is also involved in directing attention and
resources towards tasks. Information is received from the senses or long–term memory and the
capacity is limited. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
It also deals with cognitive tasks such as mental arithmetic and problem solving. The Phonological
loop consists of two parts; the phonological store & articulatory control process. The phonological
store, acts as an inner ear and holds information in speech–based form for one to two seconds.
Spoken words enter the store directly. Written words must first be converted into an articulatory
code before they can enter the phonological store. The articulatory control process, acts like an inner
voice rehearsing information from the phonological store. It circulates information round and round
like a tape loop. This is how we remember a telephone number we have just heard. If we keep
repeating it, we can retain the information in working memory. The articulatory control process also
converts written material into an articulatory code and transfers it to the phonological store. The
Phonological loop and Visuospatial sketchpad deal with the processing and temporary storage of
specific types of information. The visuospatial sketchpad component processes visual information
through the senses or long term memory on what things
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The Foundation Of Interaction Hypothesis By Michael H. Long
Introduction Since the foundation of Interaction Hypothesis by Michael H. Long in 1983, there has
been a plethora of empirical research which has pointed to the benefits that L2 learning reaps from
conversational interaction (Keck, Iberri–Shea, Tracy–Ventura, & Wa–Mbaleka 2006; Li 2010;
Lyster & Saito, 2010; Mackey and Goo 2007; Russel and Spada 2006). Long (1981, 1983) asserted
that comprehensible input, although necessary, is not sufficient in the process of L2 learning, and
that through interaction learners notice the differences between their own formulation of the target
language and those of their conversational partners, which in turn may lead them modify their
output in order to make themselves understood. Mackey (2012) argues that Interaction often
involves the provision of feedback as interlocutors try to resolve the communication problems.
Feedback, according to Leeman (2007: 212), can be either positive confirming that the process of
communication has been successful, or negative, confirming that the process of conversation has
failed. Recast as a form of implicit corrective feedback has gained much saliency through research
(see for example Chaudron 1997, 1998). In support of recast, Long (1996) claims that input,
learner's internal cognitive processes, and output are all present in recast, thus providing the
opportunity for interaction–driven learning. Recasts provided on students' specific morphosyntactic
errors, namely question formation errors, have shown to
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evaluation of the WMM
CEP – Evaluation of the Working Memory Model
Atkinson's and Shiffrin's (1968) multi–store model was extremely successful in terms of the amount
of research it generated. However, as a result of this research, it became apparent that there were a
number of problems with their ideas concerning the characteristics of short–term memory. Building
on this research, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) developed an alternative model of short–term memory
which they called working memory. Baddeley and Hitch (1974) argued that the picture of short–
term memory (STM) provided by the Multi–Store Model is far too simple. According to the Multi–
Store Model, STM holds limited amounts of information for short periods of time with relatively
little processing. It is ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
It is helpful to think of it as the system that you use to mentally rehearse information by repeating it
over and over again4. And the Phonological Store (The Inner Ear – but not to be confused with the
canals in your actual ear) The phonological store uses a sound based code to store information, but
this information decays after about 2 seconds, unless it is rehearsed by the articulatory control
system. The phonological store receives its input either directly from the ears or from long term
memory. If you imagine your favourite piece of music you are using your phonological store.5 The
phonological loop explains why the word length effect occurs – the fact that people cope better with
short words than long words in working memory (short–term memory). It would appear that the
phonological loop holds the amount of information that you can say within 2 seconds (Baddeley et
al, 1975). This makes it hard to remember a list of long words such as 'anthropomorphic' and
'representative' compared to shorter words like 'walk' or 'again'. The longer can't be rehearsed on the
phonological loop because they don't fit (into the two second limit). But the word length effect goes
away if a person is given an articulatory suppression task, for instance if you are asked to say 'the
the the...' while reading a group of words. This repetitive task ties up the articulatory process and
means you can't rehearse the shorter words more quickly than the
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Working Memory Is A Cognitive System That Maintains And...
Working memory is a cognitive system that maintains and manipulates task–relevant information for
a short period of time. (Cowan, J. 1999) Memory plays a crucial role in everyday life. It enables one
to effectively perform complex tasks such as the ability to reason and solve new problems
independently on a daily basis. Working memory is limited in capacity and sensitive to
interruptions. "Without memory, our awareness would be confined to an external present and our
lives would be virtually devoid of meaning." (Schacter,D..L and Scarry,E 2001) Impairments in
working memory are often apparent in individuals with ADHD, acquired brain injury, depression
and several other conditions. It is important that researchers grasp an in–depth understanding of
what working memory is and how it works in order to develop interventions and ways to improve
working memory. Recent research has revealed that working memory can be enhanced through
Cogmed Working Memory Training. (Söderqvist,S. and Nutley, S. 2015) This essay will focus
predominantly on Baddeley's working memory model. It will outline the constituents of the model,
drawing upon evidence for and against the model. Atkinsons and Shiffrin's multistore model of
memory will be briefly mentioned. However, it is apparent that this model lacked detail and is
outdated.
Atkinson and Shriffin (1968) established a model known as the multi–store model. The model
depicts that memory can be interpreted as a sequence of steps, whereby
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Four Components Of Baddeley's Working Memory Model
People rely on incoming information and stored information to perform their everyday functions.
However, humans have a natural capacity of how much information they can attain. We are unable
to store all of our acquired information without different systems that organize our information.
Working memory is one of these systems that temporarily holds and manages information for
cognitive processing (119). Baddeley's working memory model is made up of four components that
allow for temporary information to be stored (109). The central executive directs the flow of
information. It functions more with delegating the way resources are used in cognitive tasks. The
central executive also coordinates information from the person's current environment with retrieval
of their prior information (119). The phonological loop is used to carry out rehearsed maintained
verbal material. It plays an important role in the acquisition of vocabulary, learning how to read, and
comprehending language. The visuospatial sketchpad maintains material through visualization. The
visuospatial sketchpad creates and manages our mental images. The episodic buffer is a temporary
system that connects information from long term memory to working memory. Mnemonic devices
are techniques people can use to help improve their ability to remember something. There are
various types of mnemonic devices people use to develop the associations. For example, the method
of loci relies on visualizing mental images
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Short Note On Short Term Memory Essay
When students are immersed in a situation where they are required to memorize a certain amount of
information in a limited period of time, students often use memory techniques in order to store a
given information. Most studies have suggested; students resort to using short–memory as a tool in a
last minute exam/quiz study session. Short–term memory is defined as a finite amount of
information that can be temporarily stored and retrieved for up to 20 seconds. Short–term memory
can also hold up to nine groups of stimuli in a given information (Weiten, Stalling, & Wasden,
2007). Models that have been used in the past demonstrate that short–term memory involves a
rehearsal loop: the process of repeating information by practicing either verbally or cognitively.
In Baddeley's (2001) model of working memory, he concluded that short–term memory involved
more than just a rehearsal loop. Baddeley's model involves: a central executive system, the given
undivided attention when needed; a visuospatial sketchpad, which allows individuals to store
visualized images; an episodic buffer, where working memory components are temporarily stored
up until retrieval; and a phonological loop, the process of repeating information by practicing either
verbally or cognitively.
In Woo and Kanachi's study (2005), university students in Japan were asked to memorize a given list
of words and were either placed into a no music group, where the participants had to memorize as
many words as they could
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Essay on Baddeley and Hitch’s Working Memory Model
This essay addresses the working memory model which was proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974
in Smith & Kosslyn, 2007) as a response to Atkinson and Shiffrins (1968 in Smith, 2007) multi–
store model. According to Baddely and Hitch the multi–store model failed to explain most of the
complexities of the human memory and viewed it as being too simplistic. They argued that the short
term memory store must have more components rather it being a single inflexible store as suggested
previously by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). The working memory model is therefore an
enhancement of the multi store model. According to Baddeley and Hitch working memory is a
limited– capacity system that stores and processes information.
According to Baddeley and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
This is interpreted as because the capacity of the phonological loop is limited in time (in Smith,
2007).
Further evidence for the existence of the phonological loop comes from Conrads and Hulls (1975 in
Passer, 2009) experiment in which they examined the effect of phonological similarity. They found
that serial recall in a list of similar sounding words tended to yield poorer results with participants
finding it difficult to remember compared to words that sounded different. It has also been found
that recall in semantically similar words tended to have little or no effect, supporting the idea that
verbal information is transferred in a phonological manner in working memory. In addition, Vallar
and Papagno (1995 in Smith, 2007) found that the phonological store in brain damaged patients
were dysfunctional.
Moreover, Hardyk and Petrinovich (1970 in Parkin, 1993) found the articulatory loop to be crucial
when being presented with complex information. In their study they measured participants throat
muscle and forearm muscle activity although some may argue that this was not a good technique to
carry out. Their findings led to them conclude that when participants were presented with complex
material their articulatory loop would come in to function (in Parkin, 1993).
In addition, memory span tasks support the existence of the articulatory loop showing that task
ability heavily depends on a
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Research Paper On Baddeley
Baddeley (1966) replication
The Introduction
Cognitive Psychology is the scientific study of the mind as an information processor. It is the area
that focuses on internal mental processes such as thinking, decision making, Problem–solving,
language, attention, and memory.
This research is about replicating Baddeley's study on the semantic coding of long–term memory.
Baddeley's study on the semantic coding of long–term memory is one his famous 3 experiments in
finding a cognitive alternative for how memory works. Baddeley's working memory model charts
his growing realization that memory was much more complicated than the multi–store model made
out.
Memory models are schemas of the concept of memory.
There are 2 types of memory models:
1) Multi–store model
2) ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The working memory model is the main model to be focused in the research because it gives one the
concept of how one would store data more accurately.
Some studies were done in order to find out how memory works such as Baddeley's working
memory model, Schmolck et al (2002) semantic knowledge in patient HM: Scoville and Milner
(1957).
The aim of this research is to replicate Baddeley's study is it further prove his theory on how the
LTM encodes information. Cognitive psychology is about finding out how parts of the brain help in
storing data. Baddeley's research is reliable and can be easily replicated to find how memory works.
The investigation will be carried out as a lab experiment in high school. The experiment will be
controlled as possible.
According to Baddeley the LTM stores memories are encoded semantically and STM encodes
acoustically, therefore, the semantically similar word list would tend to have a lower percentage of
better recollection than acoustically similar.
Hypothesis: the LTM encodes information
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The Working Memory Model Was Proposed By Baddeley And Hitch
Working Memory The working memory model was proposed by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974. They
replaced the concept of short– term memory, which was proposed in 1986 by Atkinson– Shiffrin
model because they believed the model–lacked detail. Every day we have occasions where we keep
particular pieces of important information briefly in our mind, storing them until an opportunity
arises. For example remembering a phone number while you are hearing it and dialling it or holding
directions in your mind until you get to that landmark (take the first right, continue for three miles,
past the university and then the third exit at the roundabout). There might be times where the person
can have solutions to a problem for example in a chess game. The ... Show more content on
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The phonological and the visuo– spatial sketchpad are known as the slave systems. The
phonological loop contains the order the way words are presented and the visual– spatial sketchpad
is used to hold visual information; the eyes are used to store and manipulate visual and spatial
information such as remembering 3–D molecules or colour of solutions 5 6 7. All three–component
work independently to other components. There are two assumptions that can be made: 1. If the task
requires using the same component then it cannot be performed together successfully. 2. If both the
tasks require different components; it should not be a problem performing both the task separate
successfully. Phonological loop The phonological loop also known as the articulatory loop deals
with sound or phonological information. The loop consists of two parts: a short term memory store
with auditory memory traces which can rapidly decay and an articulatory rehearsal component that
can recover the memory traces. It is assumed that articulatory verbal information automatically
enters the phonological store. Information that is presented visually can be transformed into
phonological code by silent articulation hence encoded into the phonological store 8. The sound of
the speech is stored in the phonological store "inner ear" so that it can be remembered in the
temporal order on the
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Child Observation Essay examples
For this assignment, I observed my six year old niece, Faustine Bui who was born on August 16,
2007, at the park where I was babysitting her with her mom for approximately thirty minutes. The
park I observed her at is packed with children and dogs are allowed. There is a large play area with
jungle–jims and slide and it includes a sandy area which has a variety of playing equipment as well.
I first observed Faustine's biosocial development such as physical growth, gross motor and fine
motor skills. Faustine is 3 feet tall and she weighs 41 pounds according to my Aunt. She is a little
shorter than a lot of the six year old that she hangs out with and the ones in the park but I think that
her height is in the normal range for kids her age ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
She had a hard time conquering the jugle–jim though. She kept waddling back and forth every time
she tried to get her feet up on the next bar and she eventually gave up and refused to return to the
jungle jim again. She threw a few balls here and there but she was unable to throw it very far or
accurate. By the age of three, children can already kick, throw, jump and climb things such as
ladder. By the age of six, children can skip, climb trees and over things, and catch a ball
(uofmchildrenshospital.org). I was unable to observe a lot of fine motor skills from Faustine but she
did pick up a stick from the ground, hold it like a normal adult would hold a pencil, and started
drawing in the sand. By the age of 2, children can scribble, fold paper, draw vertical lines and
manage semi–large object with their hands. By the age of six, children can copy letters, grasp
pencils like a grown adult, and copy complex shapes (kamloopschildrenstherapy.org).
I then observed her cognitive skills which included her language, memory, and perception. When
observing Faustine, I realized that she is one extremely talkative child. She would talk about
everything and anything sometimes she'd just sit in front of us and talk to us and to herself while
playing in the sand. According to Lev Vygotsky and his social learning theory, children use private
speech ("The internal dialogue that occurs when people talk to themselves, either silently or out
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The Effects Of Age On Short Term Memory
The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of age on short–term memory and to
examine if familiar music or unfamiliar music produced more errors in a word recall task. The
results showed that participants scored similarly in both the familiar music and the unfamiliar music
condition. The lack of a significant difference between the familiar music and the unfamiliar music
condition signifies that short–term memory is equally impacted while listening to familiar music as
it is when listening unfamiliar music. These findings oppose my original prediction that participants
would recall more words in the familiar music condition than they would in the unfamiliar familiar
music condition by showing that there was no difference in the average amount of words recalled
between the music conditions. It is possible that these results did not reach statistical significance
because, while the participants were familiar with the melody and lyrics of the song used in the
familiar music condition, they were unfamiliar with the specific version of the song. However, the
results replicated those of Alley and Greene (2008), which also showed that music familiarity had no
impact on short–term music performance. The results also revealed that the older participants and
younger participants performed equally as well on the recall task. Fascinatingly, this result suggests
that age has little relevance on the immediate recall of words. The implication of this finding is
unexpected
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Action Video Games
The goal of this study was to determine if action video games (AVG) improved reading abilities and
visual–to–auditory attentional shifting in English–speaking children with dyslexia. Based on several
studies Italian speaking children had positive results with overall speed and accuracy in reading,
when action video games (AVG) were used. (Franceschini et al. 2017) However, a significant
variable was the difference in languages. This study wanted to determine would the same results
occur with participants that had a deeper orthographic language, like English.
Two groups of English speaking children with dyslexia were tested before and after playing AVG
and non–action video games (NAVG) focusing on their reading skills in phonological ... Show more
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(Franceschini et al. 2017) The dual route model involves the grapheme–phoneme conversion,
requiring the serial left to right processing, thus causing the length of the words to determine the
time it takes to say them. The parallel processing has little to no effect based from the length or the
time taken to say the words. It is the length that generally has more effect on the pronunciation of
the words than the actual word itself. (Eysenck and Keane, 2015) In the text Jalbert et al. (2011)
found there was an important confounding between word length and orthographic neighbourhood.
(Eysenck and Keane, 2015) Like what the study was attempting to resolve, since the English
language is more orthographic than most languages.
Further, considering the systems of how dyslexics increase accuracy Paul et al. (1996) and Harm
and Seidenberg (2004) found the approach of the triangle model. This model focusing on this
disease know that the damage occurs mainly because of damage to the semantic system. This model
assumes phonological dyslexia is due to general impairment. (Eysenck and Keane, 2015)
Although, the text shows different theories that can relate to this study and how to better understand
the complexity, it is important to see that the increase in accuracy during reading from participants
increased with the assistance of AVG. During the study word reading was recorded, the time it took
the participants to pronounce the word correctly,
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
The Atkinson And Shiffrin Modal Model Of Memory
Memory is a very crucial topic not everyone understands. We might hear an individual saying "He
has a great memory," or others mentioning they have a "bad memory" whenever they have forgotten
an important subject. People use the term memory frequently but often not knowing its true
meaning. According to Baddeley (1999), memory is not an actual organ as the heart, the kidneys, or
the liver; instead, it consists of a network in which many systems work together, allowing us to be
capable of remembering past events and in predicting the future. Reisberg (2013) presents the
Atkinson and Shiffrin Modal Model of Memory, in which they explained that when human body
receives an input, it is received as sensory information, which travels to our short–term memory
(also known as working memory) and is then processed to our long term memory (where it remains
permanently). According to Reisberg (2013) working memory includes conscious and active
processing of incoming auditory as well as visual–spatial information. It also retrieves information
stored from the long–term memory. In other words, it is the memory a person uses when actively
working on a specific task. Moreover, human working memory has a limited capacity; therefore,
there is a "magic" number 7 plus or minus 2, which demonstrates that the average capacity of words
that our working memory can store is 5 to 9 items (Reisberg, 2013). Baddeley developed a model
acknowledged as the Working Memory System. This model
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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The Multi Store Model Of Memory And Research Into...

  • 1. The Multi Store Model Of Memory And Research Into... Discuss how memory can be explained with reference to models of memory and research into Eyewitness Testimony. Introduction The investigation into memory – how we encode, store and retrieve data – made great advances in the 20th century. Along with biological influences memories define who we are, without them our individuality would be lost. This essay will scrutinize the multi–store model of memory and working model of memory to determine their legitimacy. Each model will be examined on its merits at how it explains cognitive functions. Through tools such as the cognitive interview, eyewitness testimony has been deployed in countries around the world to send millions to lengthy prison sentences. Despite its widespread use, the question remains: how much can we trust someone's memory in the courtroom? Multi–Store Model of Memory The multi– store model of memory (eg, Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968) claims the memory can be sectioned into three distinctive parts: sensory store, short–term store (STM) and long–term store (LTM). Eysenck and Keane (2005:190) states that data is first encountered by the sensory store, then depending on the attention given, is processed to the STM and finally – if rehearsed – continues to the LTM. There is substantial research backing this model. For example Murdock (1962) found the serial position effect which shows when presented with a list of items, participants recalled those shown at the beginning (primary) and those at the end (recency); ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5. Information Comprehension Essay Information comprehension or also known as reading comprehension is defined as the level of understanding of a text or message. This understanding comes from the interaction between the words that are written and how they trigger knowledge outside the text or message. Comprehension is one of the most important components when it comes to reading no matter what age. As much as it is important for children to understand the words they are reading they should also be able to understand what they are reading. Reading comprehension is something many students have trouble with throughout their school years, and this can possibly lead them to discouragement and disliking reading all together. Reading is used for every subject and a skill and asset we will need for the rest ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In order to understand a text the reader must be able to comprehend the vocabulary used in the piece of writing. If the individual words don't make the sense then the overall story will not either. Children can draw on their prior knowledge of vocabulary, but they also need to continually be taught new words. The best vocabulary instruction occurs at the point of need. Parents and teachers should pre–teach new words that a child will encounter in a text or aid her in understanding unfamiliar words as she comes upon them in the writing. In addition to being able to understand each distinct word in a text, the child also has to be able to put them together to develop an overall conception of what it is trying to say. This is text comprehension. Text comprehension is much more complex and varied that vocabulary knowledge. Readers use many different text comprehension strategies to develop reading comprehension. These include monitoring for understanding, answering and generating questions, summarizing and being aware of and using a text's structure to aid ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. Working Memory Rehearsal Discussion Working memory allows for the immediate recall of information when given a task that requires the use of stored memories. This study focused on analyzing the effects of mini quiz games on the working memory's ability to recall nonsensical words in graduate students. More specifically, it investigated how repetition aids in storing information within both the visuospatial sketchpad and phonological loop. Due to the multiple exposures to the nonsensical words through the mini quiz game, students were able to have consistent access to the information in order to recall what they have learned when given the task at hand of taking a quiz. Here, their visuo–spatial sketchpad plays a very important role as the students in the Mini Quiz ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. Describe Luck And Vogel's Change Detection Experiment 5) What is the digit span? what does this indicate about the capacity of STM? The digit span is the amount of number a person can withhold in their STM. It is stated that the STM capacity that a person could hold is about a minimum of four items to a max of nine items . 6) Describe Luck and Vogel's change detection experiment. What is the capacity of STM according to the results of this experiment? Luck and Vogel's change detection experiment was made to determine exactly how much information can a person withhold from a quick flash of stimulus. They modified the previous change dtetction experiment alittle. Rather than asking the person if there was a change in the display only, they also ask the person to recall the amount of items ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17. What Are the Difficulties Encountered by Psychologists in... What are the difficulties encountered by psychologists in studying consciousness? To what extent have theory and research in cognitive psychology helped overcome these difficulties? Consciousness is an umbrella term utilised to refer to a variety of mental phenomena. Cognitive psychologists have focused their efforts in understanding access consciousness, or how information carried in conscious mental states is available to different cognitive processes. This is linked to attention and working memory. However, consciousness is difficult to quantify and hence most pieces of research study consciousness by contrasting the characteristics between conscious and unconscious processes. Although with some limitations, research has provided ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... reaching towards fast–moving stimuli (Zeki and ffytche, 1998). Likewise, damage to the fusiform face area causes prosopagnosia, although patients still demonstrate autonomic arousal when presented with a familiar face (Pike and Edgar, 2010). These and other studies of altered function following localised brain damage make ffytche (2000, as cited in Andrade, 2010) argue for the modularity of consciousness. Beyond theory building, these examples are essential tools for the study of the neural basis of visual awareness. Areas within the prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortex are typically active during conscious processing (Logothetis, 1998). Additionally, the relationship between attention and consciousness is an intimate one. Paying attention brings objects to consciousness whilst they fade away once attention shifts. This is why Naish (2010, p.59) states 'attention is the process which gives rise to conscious awareness'. The need for attention in conscious processing is demonstrated in change blindness (changes in a viewed scene are not detected, e.g. Simons and Levine, 1998) or inattentional blindness (not being able to perceive things that are in plain sight, e.g. Simons and Chabris, 1999). Moreover, masking experiments are a powerful tool to study the relationship between consciousness and attention. Masking refers to the reduction of visibility of a target caused by presentation of a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. The Theory Of Measuring Intelligence Introduction Since childhood I can remember how the term "IQ" could make or break a person's dignity and credibility all in one. Through the years a line has been drawn that to this day categorizes a person's abilities both mentally and physically. Statements like "He is street smart, not book smart" have been used and overused in today's society. Although research and new learning strategies have been in development since the 1980s, much of society still sees intelligence in this limited manner. Though the course of this paper we will look at theories for measuring intelligence. We will also explore how memory plays a major role in developing intelligence and the effect these factors have on learning. Intellectual Development ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... IQ and You Intelligence is defined as "the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations. Other definitions include, "the skilled use of reason" and "the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one 's environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria (Hacker, 2011)." One might ask, "How can one assume to measure intelligence with such a vague description of what intelligence is?" Doesn't everyone have the ability to think and reason? The answer comes in the latter part of the definition where a person needs to apply the knowledge learned. The way I see it, intelligence applies to people in the following ways. One is the ability to learn new things; another is the ability to think things through and the last is to apply learned content to life. The problem with trying to measure intelligence is that it can never really be fully measured. If the ability to apply learned knowledge is absent a real measurement cannot be achieved. This is where the theory of I.Q. tests came into play. The letters I.Q. simply stand for intelligence quotient, which is a phrase coined by Lewis Terman after his associate and him modified the original intelligence test developed by Binet and Simon (Boyd & Bee, 2012). The theory behind the IQ test was to find a way to measure the child's mental development based on the difference ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. The Multi Store Model And The Working Memory Model "Memory is our ability to encode, store,retain and subsequently recall information and past experiences in the human brain" (Luke Mastin,2010). In this review I am going to focus on the multi store model and the working memory model, which explain in detail how memory works. The multi–store model (MSM) of memory by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), explains that the memory is made up of three different stores.These are: sensory memory (SM), short term memory(STM) and long term memory(LTM). This model explains how each store works in terms of encoding, duration and capacity. The SM obtains the information from environmental stimuli through our five senses which are touch,sight,smell,taste and sound. In SM the encoding is either visual,auditory or haptic; duration is ¼ to ½ seconds and the capacity is all sensory experience(McLeod S.A,2007). Attention is essential for the information to transfer to the STM, otherwise it is lost through decay. The information in the STM is mostly encoded acoustically. The diagram below shows us how the information is transferred from one store to another. According to Miller 's Magic number 7 (1956) most adults can store from 5 to 9 items, therefore STM is known to have a capacity of 7+/–2 items and a duration of up to 18 seconds. The information in this store can be lost through displacement which is replacing the old information with new ones or forgetting it (decay). There are two types of rehearsals. Maintenance rehearsal is not effective ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29. Comparing Working Memory And The Episodic Buffer In 1974 the researchers Baddeley and Hitch argued that the picture of short–term memory (STM) provided by the Multi–Store Model was far too simple. Following the Multi–Store Model, it is believed that STM holds limited amounts of information for short periods of time with relatively little processing, it is believed to be a unitary store. This means that due to its single store it has no subsystems, unlike the Working Memory Model which has many subsystems. This proves that the Working Memory is not a unitary store. Working Memory is STM. In contrast to the Multi–Store Model, where all the information goes to one single store (Unitary store), there are different systems for the different types of information. Working Memory consists of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This supports the idea of an immediate memory store for items that are neither visual nor phonological and that draw on long–term memory to link the related words. It is used as both the Phonological Loop and the Visuo–Spatial Sketch Pad have specific roles and the Central Executive has very limited storage capacity so as a result there was no where to store both visual and acoustic information. The Episodic Buffer is an extra storage system that has in common with all working memory units, a limited capacity. It is handy and can integrate information from the Central Executive, The Phonological Loop, The Visuo–Spatial Sketch Pad and also information from the Long–Term Memory. Researchers such as Logie, Baddeley and Bunge generally agree that the short–term memory is made up of a number of components or subsystems. The working memory model has replaced the idea of a unitary store short–term memory as suggested by the multistore model. The working memory model explains a lot more and in a lot more detail than the multistore model. It makes sense a range of tasks– verbal reasoning, comprehension, reading, problem solving and visual and spatial processing, it also applies to real life tasks such as reading which involves the phonological loop subsystem, problem solving which involves the central executive and navigation which involves the visual and spatial subsystem. The Working Memory Model is supported by ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30.
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  • 33. The Influence Of Brain Damage On Object-Location Memory Examining the influence of brain damage on object location memory (OLM) may reveal the importance of impacted regions of the brain and in turn identify specific interventions needed. Multiple models have been developed to understand the complex nature of memory. These models include: the multi–store, working memory and object–location (Lawton, 2011).Object–location is the ability to remember the position of items in our environment (Shih, Meadmore & Liversedge, 2012); it is made of up of three distinct counterparts:(a) object processing; (b) spatial–location processing; (c) object–to– location binding processing (Postma, Kessels & Vanasselen, 2008). Process (a) is responsible for object recognition (Heeger, 2006). Whereas, process (b) focuses ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Those with defects in this region often show insufficiencies, such as abnormalities in body image and spatial relations (Kandel, Schwartz & Jessell, 1991). This is predominantly evident in studies which compare those with defects in this area to those without. These studies have shown the central role of the parietal role to spatial processing through assigning participants multiple tasks. Some of these tasks include location, shape and colour. Through the assignment of these tasks one can isolate the area most affected by parietal dysfunction and will in turn find defects in location working memory (Kessels, et al., ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 37. Working Memory : The State Of Memory Working Memory describes the state of memory we are actively engaged with. It performs the functions of receiving, temporarily holding and manipulating information (Baddeley, 2010). To assess memory psychologists have found it helpful to define their theories as models. Atkinson and Shiffrin 's 1968 Stage Model of Memory defined 3 main components of memory systems; sensory memory from perception of experience that becomes short–term memory (STM), which through rehearsal loads more permanent connections as long term memory (LTM) (Andrade, 2001). Digit span a test where a sequence of digits is heard and then repeated back, was often used to measure the capacity of STM. The average people usually reach before error is 7 digits (Baddeley, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The primacy effect was thought to provide evidence of the rehearsal process that gets incoming information from STM to LTM. (Andrade, 2001) Problems began to arise for the Stage Model of Memory. Warrington and Shallice were studying patients in neuropsychology and found a patient KF who had the reverse effects to HM of the ability to make long–term memories whereas his digit span was around two (Andrade, 2001). It made Baddeley question the idea of STM feeding the LTM. Further experiments of the recency effect and interference by Tzeng (1973) cited by Andrade (2001) suggested there might be an alternative explanation other than STM disposition. Baddeley and Hitch's Working Memory Model was published in 1974 in response to the limitations of the Stage Model. The theory of Working Memory saw processing and storage contained in the present activated memory (Andrade, 2001). Digit span interspersed with a simple comprehension task had revealing results. The digit span of 1, 2 or 3 had hardly any impact on the accuracy or speed of the comprehension task whereas 6 digits impacted in terms of slower speed but not as much as predicted. (Baddeley 2010). Baddeley thought this showed that WM was capable of more than verbal short–term storage and there must be at least another component that handled reasoning; the central executive (Andrade, 2001). The WMM first comprised of 3 components, the central executive controlling two sub systems, the phonological ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 41. The Theoretical Framework Of Wm Mrs. F is having difficulty following recipes while cooking as she is unable to mentally adjust the amount of each ingredient called for in order to make only two portions. This is because of a deficit in her memory, specifically her working memory (WM). While memory is defined as the "storage of things learned and retained from an organism's activity or experience" (Merriam–Webster, 2015), WM can be described as the cognitive systems that are required to temporarily store and manipulate information (Baddeley, 2012). This report provides an overview of the theoretical multicomponent WM framework as well as an in–depth look at one component of the framework, termed the phonological loop (PL). Overview The theoretical framework of WM was introduced by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974 in response to experiments and neuropsychological case studies that suggested that STM had three components, which was in contrast to the dominant model at the time (as stated in Baddeley, 2010, 2012). To develop evidence to support their notion of multiple STM components, they performed experiments, some of which used the methodology of functionally disabling parts of participants ' STM systems by having them perform multiple memory tasks concurrently (Baddeley, 2012). After 26 years of experimentation a fourth component was added to the framework: the episodic buffer (EB) (Baddeley, 2000). Components: The central executive (CE) is the least understood of the four components, but is also of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 45. Human Memory: a Passive Mechanism or Dynamic System? Essay Memory is a capacity that humans rely upon to relate to different events, experiences, conditions, and people. It is a vitally important process and system whereby the brain receives information from (external or internal) stimuli, stores it (encoding), and makes it available on a future occasion (retrieval). It provides continuity to people's experiences across different periods of time. Research is increasingly concluding that the brain works as an integrated whole rather than a series of discrete parts. In forming memory the brain passes information along the Papez circuit which involves a number of regions of the brain. Brain research indicates that memory formation produces physical changes to the way neurons are organized and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... (Gross et al.2000:16)Their research could however be said to support Atkinson and Shiffrin's (1968: Ibid) theory of a separate store storage facility for STM and LTM. Craik and Lockhart (1972: Ibid) examined how information is encoded once registered and proposed the levels of processing theory, which focuses on the depth to which data is processed as a means of improving retention. According to this theory encoding is carried out by a central processor which can analyze stimulus on a shallow level, an intermediate acoustic level which phonemic or phonetic in nature, and a deep semantic level, where the meaning is analyzed. Craik and Tulving (1975, as cited in Gross et al. 2000:18) conducted an experiment whereby participants were presented with a list of words and subsequently asked questions which required them to process the data, shallowly, phonemically an semantically. There was a significant better recognition of the word that had been processed semantically. While the LOP theory was the first to propose that perception, attention and memory are all interrelated processes. It doesn't however explain why semantic processing produces better recall, or definitively measure the so called 'depth' of participants retention score. Further examples of the significance of semantic processing and prior learning can be seen in the work of De Groot (1966; as cited in Gross et al; 2000:15). De Groot (1966: Ibid) ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 49. Learning Theory Learning theory (education) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2008) This article may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. More details may be available on the talk page. (January 2010) In psychology and education, learning is commonly defined as a process that brings together cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing, or making changes in one's knowledge, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Briefly, a behavior may result either in reinforcement, which increases the likelihood of the behavior recurring, or punishment, which decreases the likelihood of the behavior recurring. It is important to note that, a punishment is not considered to be applicable if it does not result in the reduction of the behavior, and so the terms punishment and reinforcement are determined as a result of the actions. Within this framework, behaviorists are particularly interested in measurable changes in behavior. Educational approaches such as applied behavior analysis, curriculum based measurement, and direct instruction have emerged from this model.[1] [edit] Cognitivism Main article: Cognitivism (psychology) The earliest challenge to the behaviorists came in a publication in 1929 by Bode, a gestalt psychologist. He criticized behaviorists for being too dependent on overt behavior to explain learning. Gestalt psychologists proposed looking at the patterns rather than isolated events. Gestalt views of learning have been incorporated into what have come to be labeled cognitive theories. Two key assumptions underlie this cognitive approach: (1) that the memory system is an active organized processor of information and (2) that prior knowledge plays an important role in learning. Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to explain brain–based learning. Cognitivists consider how human memory works to promote learning. For example, the physiological processes of sorting ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 53. Memory Processes Essay General Psychology: Chapter 7 1. 2. The study of memory primarily involves examining the processes of 3. A) 4. extinction, generalization, and discrimination. B) reinforcement, primacy, and recency. C) classical conditioning and operant conditioning. D) encoding, storage, and retrieval. 5. 6. Encoding is the memory process primarily concerned with 7. A) 8. getting information into memory. B) retaining information over time. C) taking information out of storage. D) registering information with our senses. 9. 10. Storage is the memory process primarily concerned with 11. A) 12. getting information into memory. B) retaining information over time. C) taking information out of storage. D) registering ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... A)
  • 54. 72. phonological loop B) visuospatial scratch pad C) central executive D) rehearsal 73. 74. Raymond remembers, "When I was a sophomore, I took the hardest physics test of my life, and I was happy with my C." This memory represents a(n) 75. A) 76. implicit memory. B) procedural memory. C) explicit memory. D) prime memory. 77. 78. Episodic memory is a form of 79. A) 80. implicit memory. B) explicit memory. C) traumatic memory. D) involuntary memory. 81. 82. Remembering the three stages of memory is an example of 83. A) 84. procedural memory. B) nondeclarative memory. C) semantic memory. D) episodic memory. 85. 86. Tiger Woods probably relies mainly on which type of memory while playing golf? 87. A) 88. explicit
  • 55. B) declarative C) semantic D) procedural 89. 90. Priming refers to 91. A) 92. activation of information already in storage to help remember new information better B) preexisting mental frameworks that helps organize information C) a schema for an event D) grouping information that exceeds the working memory span into higher order units 93. 94. You are studying for a test and you want to make sure that you thoroughly incorporate the new information into your memory network. What would be the best strategy for you to use? 95. A) 96. Cram the night before the test. B) Discuss the material with ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 59. Rock Climbing As An Adventure Sport 1. Introduction Between the years 1990 and 2006, there was a 37,514 person increase in membership of the British Mountaineering Council (BMC – the National Governing Body for rock climbing in the UK). Rock climbing, as an adventure sport, is constantly growing in popularity (Haas & Meyers, 1995; Long, 1993; Watts, Martin, & Durtschi, 1993). It is a multiple–discipline activity that encompasses different forms such as bouldering, top roping and lead climbing on real and artificial surfaces. There are now over 63,000 UK members of the BMC and more than 150,000 active climbers in the UK alone (BMC, 2004;, BMC, 2006). As popularity in the sport has increased, the physiological demands of rock climbing have become a major focus of recent ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Studies have addressed topics such as risk taking and personality (Levenson, 1990), self–esteem ( Ewert, 1994; Magni, Rupolo, Simini, De Leo & Rampazzo, 1985; Freischlag & Freischlag, 1993; Iso–Ahola, LaVerde & Graefe, 1988; ), stress seeking (Robinson, 1985; Rossi & Cereatti, 1993), and psychophysiological relationships ( Edwards, 1967; Delignieres, Famose, Thepaut–Mathieu & Fleurance,1993; Missoum, Rosnet & Richalet, 1992; Hardy & Whitehead, 1984; Ryn, 1971). Research regarding the physiology of rock climbing has indicated the importance of taking climbing style into consideration when making comparisons between studies (Sheel, 2004; Watts, 2004) due to the different physiological effects on performance. Draper et al (2008) report onthat the differences between the physiological and psychological responses to the different forms of rock climbing,; indicating that climb–time, post–climb lactate concentrations, peak heart–rate, average heart–rate and self–reported anxiety (CSAI–2R) were significantly higher for lead climbing (LC) than for top–roping (TRC) . However, Draper et al (2008) offer no explanation for these findings. Similarly, Hardy and Hutchinson, (2007) report that anxiety levels in beginner climbers were significantly higher for their lead climb than in their top–rope ascent. It is now widely accepted that the inherent threat of physical harm which is evidenced to be apparent during lead climbing, leads to elevated levels of anxiety which are ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 63. working memory SMITMC06_0131825089.QXD 3/28/06 6:57 AM Page 239 REVISED PAGES CHAPTER Working Memory 6 Le arn i ng O b j ec t i ves 1. Using Working Memory 1.1. A Computer Metaphor 1.2. Implications of the Nature of Working Memory 2. From Primary Memory to Working Memory: A Brief History 2.1. William James: Primary Memory, Secondary Memory, and Consciousness 2.2. Early Studies: The Characteristics of Short–Term Memory 2.2.1. Brevity of Duration 2.2.2. Ready Accessibility 2.3. The Atkinson–Shiffrin Model: The Relationship of Short–Term and LongTerm Memory 2.4. The Baddeley–Hitch Model: Working Memory 3. Understanding the Working Memory Model 3.1. The Phonological Loop: When It Works and When It Doesn't 3.2. The Visuospatial Scratchpad 3.3. The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... These short–term mental storage and manipulation operations are collectively called working
  • 64. memory. Think of working memory as involving a mental blackboard–that is, as a workspace that provides a temporary holding store so that relevant information is highly accessible and available for inspection and computation. When cognitive tasks are accomplished, the information can be easily erased, and the process can begin again with other information. 1.1. A Computer Metaphor The computer, so useful a metaphor in cognitive psychology, offers an intuitively appealing model for thinking about the nature and structure of working memory. SMITMC06_0131825089.QXD 3/28/06 6:57 AM Page 241 REVISED PAGES 1. Using Working Memory Simplifying the workings of a computer, there are two means by which information is stored, the hard disk and random–access memory (RAM). The hard disk is the means by which information is stored permanently in a stable and reliable form; all software programs, data files, and the operating system of the computer are stored on the hard disk. To use this stored information you must retrieve it from the hard disk and load it into RAM. Now for the analogy: the information stored in the hard disk is like long–term memory, RAM corresponds to working memory. The notion of working memory as a temporary workspace ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 68. Critical Review Essay " Fitness Effects on the Cognitive Functions of Older Adults" by Stanley Colcombe and Arthur F. Kramer (2003) is a meta–analytic study aimed to understand the effect of aerobic fitness on various cognitive processes in older, sedentary adults. The authors stated that there are some statistical discrepancies between various scientific articles regarding fitness–cognition relationship and thus needed to find a better methodological approach to finding an answer(Colcombe & Kramer, 2003). The purpose of the study by (Colcombe & Kramer, 2003) was to examine whether or not an aerobic fitness training enhances perceptual, cognitive and motor processes in healthy but inactive older adults. They discussed that through animal studies, researchers have found a positive correlation between aerobic ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In executive category, tasks such as coordination, scheduling, planning, and working memory(Colcombe & Kramer 2003). The "central executive" plays a large role in working memory as it helps to regulate attention and overall monitor the brain's cognition (Psych 240 Lecture 2/8/2016). Based on the brain imaging and studies made on Frontal Lobe Syndrome, it appears that executive processes take place in the frontal lobe. Frontal lobe syndrome shows difficulties in concentration, organization, and proper behavior control due to damage to the frontal lobe. (Psych 40 Lecture 2/8/16). Thus fitness may have an effect on the frontal lobe. The executive–control hypothesis aims to see the fitness's role in working memory as it does diminish with age. Considering these four cognitive processes, Colcombe and Kramer hypothesized that 1) there would be a positive correlation between aerobic fitness and the cognition of sedentary older adults; 2) the fitness will have a greater beneficial effect on the executive ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 72. Evaluate two models of one cognitive process Cecilia Nguyen Evaluate two models of one cognitive process This essay will be discussing one particular cognitive process: the memory by evaluating two models, which are the Multi store model introduced by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968 and the Working memory model by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974. The first model is the multi store model. It was first proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968 and is a typical example of the information–processing approach. According to this model, memory consists of three types of memory stores: sensory stores, short–term store and long term store. Sensory stores consist of the eyes, nose, fingers, tongue, etc and the corresponding area of the brain. The sensory stores ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The visuo–spatial sketchpad when planned a spatial task and it saves memory temporarily. The episodic buffer is the general store, it integrates info from the central executive, the phonological loop and the visuo–spatial sketchpad and forms long term store. Research evidence for the working model of memory varies. Case studies of brain damaged patients support this model a lot. The case study of KF – a brain damaged patient with no problem with long term learning but some aspects of his immediate memory were impaired. This has proven that the working model of memory was right when suggesting that short term store works independently of long term store. In addition to evidence supporting this model, Baddeley and Hitch did a research on making participants do two tasks using the same or different components. Task one occupied the central executive, task two either involved the articulatory loop or both the central executive and the articulatory loop. Speed on task one was the same whether using the articulatory loop or no extra task. This shows that doing two tasks that involve the same component causes difficulty. It also suggested that when two different components are used, performance is not affected. Even though the working model of memory is better than the multi store model, it still has some weaknesses. For example the role of the central executive is vague and it needs more research. Also there were problems with ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 76. Essay about Mulit-Store Model of Memory vs. Working Memory... Compare and contrast the multi–store model of memory with the working memory model. This essay will firstly briefly describe the theories and important facts about the original multi–store model of memory (MSM) and the working memory model (WMM). This essay will then evaluate the key studies within these two models and explain the strengths and weaknesses of the main theories. The final part of this essay will be to examine the similarities and differences between the two models. The first issue that needs to be addressed however is what exactly is memory? " Without memory we would be servants of the moment, with nothing but our innate reflexes to help us deal with the world. There would be no language, no art, no science, no ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The existence of sensory memory was proven by Sperling (1960), in this experiment Sperling discovered that after showing the participants a series of letters for less than a second they where then asked to recall as many letters as possible but on average they only could recall about 36%. According to Lloyd et al (1984) about 5% of all of a persons memories that are stored in their sensory memory are transferred to their short–term memory. The short–term memory allows a person to store the information for long enough for it to be used, the short–term memory can also be called the working memory however this term later came to have a different meaning. The short–term memory however only has a limited capacity to store information; Miller (1956) claims that in order to save space in a person's short–term memory they chunk information together but despite this space saving the short–term memory can only hold seven plus or minus two of these chunks of information. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin (1971) this information can be stored unaided for about 15–30 seconds, this time frame can be extended by rehearsal. It is commonly accepted that a person's long–term memory has an unlimited capacity to store information; this information can effectively be stored for the persons entire life if needed. Bower (1975) claims that among other information that is stored within a person's long–term memory are five key pieces of information. " A spatial model of the world ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 80. The Maintenance Of Cross Domain Association The Maintenance of Cross–Domain Association in the Episodic Buffer: Why is it very low? Mohammed Alsahli Dr. J. Aplril Park Fort Hays State University Exploring the working memory The multiple components model: A brief look at the history of the working memory can show a graduate movement toward separate components of the memory. It can acknowledge that one of the first models to separate the different components of working memory was the model modal presented by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). They proposed that the short–term memory is a single unity in which different stimuli modality is stored in one unit. This assumption encountered some problems; one is that if the short–term memory were a single unit to all information modality, than an individual with short term memory defect would be impaired in all cognitive tasks, which is not the case in many short–term memory patients. The multiple component of the working memory presented by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) gave a reasonable conception as to how the short term memory function. Contrary to models presented by Atkinson and Shiffrin who describe the short term memory as a single unity (1968) the working memory model originally thought to be composed of three systems: the central enactive, the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and most recently, the episodic buffer. Each component has a unique function that separates it from the other component. (Baddeley & Logie, 1999), this problem has ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 84. Working Memory Model Essay Baddeley and Hitch (1974) criticised the multi–store model for being a very simplistic view of memory. They saw short term memory as a store that had many individual sections inside it. This was supported by patient KF who had epilepsy, the doctor wanted to try and remedy this by removing his hippocampus. This surgery was done, however instead of fixing his epilepsy, it damaged his short term memory, yet he still had his long term memory intact. In the multi–store model it states that in order to have long term memory, one needs to have gone through the several stores, such as the sensory memory store, the short term memory and then by adding meaning and rehearsal, into the long term memory store. Seen as patient KF could still encode long ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Another positive is the fact that it can be applied, or rather generalised to real life. For example in job interviews when we talk, or when people text and drive, and it can cause us to crash. Finally another strength of the working memory model is that is provides us an explanation for the brain damaged patients KF and SC. As it shows us logical evidence that there is other stores in memory, rather than the oversimplified view of the multi–store model. However, it does have its weakness, one such weakness is its only address short term memory, not long term memory, and therefore it is not a detailed model of memory, as it doesn 't address long term memory. Another weakness is the circular argument, as it makes it difficult to find fault with the working memory mode. The circular argument is that if two task cannot be done together, then it 's assumed that tis is because both of which are overloading on of the components in the working model. If two tasks can be done together, it 's assumed they are from different components of the working model, meaning the model can explain any results. Finally another weakness is the fact that the working memory model has been conducted in laboratories. Therefore it means that it may not be able to generalise these result into everyday ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 88. Unrelated Short Term Memory Short Term Memory: Related or Unrelated? Iris Medina California State University, Fullerton ABSTRACT WILL GO HERE Short Term Memory: Related or Unrelated? Short term memory (STM) is the second process in the ever so popular Information Processing Model and it is the area where information is the most readily available, but also most susceptible to being forgotten (Baddeley, 1986). STM has a very limited capacity, and can usually only hold so much information, the magic formula for this being "7 +/– 2" (Insert source). The formula of plus or minus two, simply stated is that humans STM's can only store five to nine items of information at a time. Research has also shown that there is trace decay theory for items being STM, where items are easily forgotten within seconds if they are not put through the articulatory loop (Baddeley, 1986). As described by Baddeley, the articulatory loop is rehearsal of items that are currently stored in the STM. If items are not mentally rehearsed, then they are lost. Baddeley was the first to coin the term articulatory loop, but most researchers use it interchangeably with the term phonological loop. The phonological loop is specific to rehearsing verbal information in order to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The persons must then recall the items in the correct order in which they were shown. As mentioned before, immediate serial recall has been the "holy grail" for theorizing about STM because the phonological loop in Baddeley's working memory (short term memory) model supported recall in this task. While Baddeley made it known that verbal items have to be mentally rehearsed in order for them to be retained and properly recalled, he and other researchers took it to the next level, and began to determine if relatedness of the items could increase how much is retained and performance level of immediate serial ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 92. Work Memory Analysis Introduction The working memory aids our ability to remember words over non–words, specifically the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad (Baddeley, Hitch, 1994). Other studies by (Paivio, 1991) have shown that concrete words are easier to recall than abstract words due to semantic associations. The purpose of this paper is to explore the parts of memory that help certain words to be more easily remembered than others. Memory is the system that enables us to learn skills and gain information through sensory memory and short–term storage. It is also the process that allows us to retrieve this information from long–term storage (Baddeley, 1974). Being able to create a new memory, put that memory away in storage, and bring it back when ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... They proposed the phonological loop had evolved for language acquisition and storage. Also their study found that the ability to pronounce a word places it in phonological storage, allowing you to recall the memory quicker (Baddeley, 1994). The phonological loop has been found to be a workspace for verbal information (Baddeley, 1994). Other studies have also found that the phonological loop works to process auditory information as well (Reisberg, 2013). The visuospatial sketchpad, (Baddeley, 1994) was used to recall a visual object. In the visuospatial sketchpad images are placed on different spatial maps, which then tied together with the spatial workspace on the visuospatial sketchpad. The decision maker of working memory is the central executive. It decides which memories are retrieved, what information you should focus on, how important the information is, and how to attain goals (Riesberg, 2013). Without the central executive, our thoughts and actions would be unorganized in our working memory (Riesberg, 2013). In order to reduce the workload of the central executive, and allow it to focus towards important tasks, the episodic buffer works to store the information gathered from the visuospatial sketchpad and phonological loop (Baddeley, 1974). These models of memory show us how it is organized and operates, and there are other models of memory that go into how memory aids our ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 96. Working Memory Working Memory ● Working memory enables us to keep things in mind for short periods (215 seconds) as we think, e.g. while reading, making a list etc. ● It 's related to but different to short–term–memory (STM) and long–term–memory (LTM). ● Chapter focuses on Baddley 's (1986) model of phonological working memory, vocabulary acquisition and computational modelling of working–memory. ● The concept of 'span ' means how many items from a briefly presented set can be remembered, e.g. 'word span ' is the number of words that can be recalled if reading a list of say 20 words. Digit span, operation span, reading span etc. are similar tests. Models of working memory evolved over time: Atkinson & Shiffrin (1971) Baddeley & Hitch (1974) ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... ■ However he tested normally for long–term learning and memory, and had no problems understanding normal speech, so spared LTM. ■ This suggests STM and LTM are distinct and normal STM is not required for LTM to function normally. ● Garden path sentences show we do retain words in memory as we process them (building up and interpreting sentences) but there are competing theories: ○ Just and Carpenter (1992) claimed individual ability to hold multiple interpretations depends on working memory capacity; ○ Caplan and Waters (1999) argued working memory isn't involved as comprehension is done by a separate system. 5.1.3 Working memory as more than STM ● Baddeley and Hitch (1974) investigated whether STM acts as working memory: ○ They used a dualtask paradigm (if two tasks interfere with each other they may be competing for the same limited resource):
  • 97. ■ Participants simultaneously did an STM test, remembering and repeating a sixdigit sequence, along with one of three cognitive tasks: reasoning, language comprehension or list learning; ○ They found: ■ load in the STM task adversely affected cognitive performance, although a small number of items could be remembered without affecting the main task much, suggesting that information might be transiently stored and processed simultaneously by working memory, and that there may be two systems involved, one for storage and one for processing; ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 101. Alan Baddeley's Working Memory Model Do you know what the Working memory model is? Per the website explorable.com, the working memory model was proposed by Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch in 1974. They had studied the 1968 Atkinson–Shiffrin model in 1968 and believed that the model's short term memory store lacked detail. The 4 main components of the working memory model are; Central executive, Articulatory– Phonological loop, Visuospatial sketchpad, and Episodic buffer. The Central executive is the main component of Baddeley's working memory model and coordinates the other two systems and ensures they don't go astray. It is also involved in directing attention and resources towards tasks. Information is received from the senses or long–term memory and the capacity is limited. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It also deals with cognitive tasks such as mental arithmetic and problem solving. The Phonological loop consists of two parts; the phonological store & articulatory control process. The phonological store, acts as an inner ear and holds information in speech–based form for one to two seconds. Spoken words enter the store directly. Written words must first be converted into an articulatory code before they can enter the phonological store. The articulatory control process, acts like an inner voice rehearsing information from the phonological store. It circulates information round and round like a tape loop. This is how we remember a telephone number we have just heard. If we keep repeating it, we can retain the information in working memory. The articulatory control process also converts written material into an articulatory code and transfers it to the phonological store. The Phonological loop and Visuospatial sketchpad deal with the processing and temporary storage of specific types of information. The visuospatial sketchpad component processes visual information through the senses or long term memory on what things ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 105. The Foundation Of Interaction Hypothesis By Michael H. Long Introduction Since the foundation of Interaction Hypothesis by Michael H. Long in 1983, there has been a plethora of empirical research which has pointed to the benefits that L2 learning reaps from conversational interaction (Keck, Iberri–Shea, Tracy–Ventura, & Wa–Mbaleka 2006; Li 2010; Lyster & Saito, 2010; Mackey and Goo 2007; Russel and Spada 2006). Long (1981, 1983) asserted that comprehensible input, although necessary, is not sufficient in the process of L2 learning, and that through interaction learners notice the differences between their own formulation of the target language and those of their conversational partners, which in turn may lead them modify their output in order to make themselves understood. Mackey (2012) argues that Interaction often involves the provision of feedback as interlocutors try to resolve the communication problems. Feedback, according to Leeman (2007: 212), can be either positive confirming that the process of communication has been successful, or negative, confirming that the process of conversation has failed. Recast as a form of implicit corrective feedback has gained much saliency through research (see for example Chaudron 1997, 1998). In support of recast, Long (1996) claims that input, learner's internal cognitive processes, and output are all present in recast, thus providing the opportunity for interaction–driven learning. Recasts provided on students' specific morphosyntactic errors, namely question formation errors, have shown to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 109. evaluation of the WMM CEP – Evaluation of the Working Memory Model Atkinson's and Shiffrin's (1968) multi–store model was extremely successful in terms of the amount of research it generated. However, as a result of this research, it became apparent that there were a number of problems with their ideas concerning the characteristics of short–term memory. Building on this research, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) developed an alternative model of short–term memory which they called working memory. Baddeley and Hitch (1974) argued that the picture of short– term memory (STM) provided by the Multi–Store Model is far too simple. According to the Multi– Store Model, STM holds limited amounts of information for short periods of time with relatively little processing. It is ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It is helpful to think of it as the system that you use to mentally rehearse information by repeating it over and over again4. And the Phonological Store (The Inner Ear – but not to be confused with the canals in your actual ear) The phonological store uses a sound based code to store information, but this information decays after about 2 seconds, unless it is rehearsed by the articulatory control system. The phonological store receives its input either directly from the ears or from long term memory. If you imagine your favourite piece of music you are using your phonological store.5 The phonological loop explains why the word length effect occurs – the fact that people cope better with short words than long words in working memory (short–term memory). It would appear that the phonological loop holds the amount of information that you can say within 2 seconds (Baddeley et al, 1975). This makes it hard to remember a list of long words such as 'anthropomorphic' and 'representative' compared to shorter words like 'walk' or 'again'. The longer can't be rehearsed on the phonological loop because they don't fit (into the two second limit). But the word length effect goes away if a person is given an articulatory suppression task, for instance if you are asked to say 'the the the...' while reading a group of words. This repetitive task ties up the articulatory process and means you can't rehearse the shorter words more quickly than the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 113. Working Memory Is A Cognitive System That Maintains And... Working memory is a cognitive system that maintains and manipulates task–relevant information for a short period of time. (Cowan, J. 1999) Memory plays a crucial role in everyday life. It enables one to effectively perform complex tasks such as the ability to reason and solve new problems independently on a daily basis. Working memory is limited in capacity and sensitive to interruptions. "Without memory, our awareness would be confined to an external present and our lives would be virtually devoid of meaning." (Schacter,D..L and Scarry,E 2001) Impairments in working memory are often apparent in individuals with ADHD, acquired brain injury, depression and several other conditions. It is important that researchers grasp an in–depth understanding of what working memory is and how it works in order to develop interventions and ways to improve working memory. Recent research has revealed that working memory can be enhanced through Cogmed Working Memory Training. (Söderqvist,S. and Nutley, S. 2015) This essay will focus predominantly on Baddeley's working memory model. It will outline the constituents of the model, drawing upon evidence for and against the model. Atkinsons and Shiffrin's multistore model of memory will be briefly mentioned. However, it is apparent that this model lacked detail and is outdated. Atkinson and Shriffin (1968) established a model known as the multi–store model. The model depicts that memory can be interpreted as a sequence of steps, whereby ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 117. Four Components Of Baddeley's Working Memory Model People rely on incoming information and stored information to perform their everyday functions. However, humans have a natural capacity of how much information they can attain. We are unable to store all of our acquired information without different systems that organize our information. Working memory is one of these systems that temporarily holds and manages information for cognitive processing (119). Baddeley's working memory model is made up of four components that allow for temporary information to be stored (109). The central executive directs the flow of information. It functions more with delegating the way resources are used in cognitive tasks. The central executive also coordinates information from the person's current environment with retrieval of their prior information (119). The phonological loop is used to carry out rehearsed maintained verbal material. It plays an important role in the acquisition of vocabulary, learning how to read, and comprehending language. The visuospatial sketchpad maintains material through visualization. The visuospatial sketchpad creates and manages our mental images. The episodic buffer is a temporary system that connects information from long term memory to working memory. Mnemonic devices are techniques people can use to help improve their ability to remember something. There are various types of mnemonic devices people use to develop the associations. For example, the method of loci relies on visualizing mental images ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 121. Short Note On Short Term Memory Essay When students are immersed in a situation where they are required to memorize a certain amount of information in a limited period of time, students often use memory techniques in order to store a given information. Most studies have suggested; students resort to using short–memory as a tool in a last minute exam/quiz study session. Short–term memory is defined as a finite amount of information that can be temporarily stored and retrieved for up to 20 seconds. Short–term memory can also hold up to nine groups of stimuli in a given information (Weiten, Stalling, & Wasden, 2007). Models that have been used in the past demonstrate that short–term memory involves a rehearsal loop: the process of repeating information by practicing either verbally or cognitively. In Baddeley's (2001) model of working memory, he concluded that short–term memory involved more than just a rehearsal loop. Baddeley's model involves: a central executive system, the given undivided attention when needed; a visuospatial sketchpad, which allows individuals to store visualized images; an episodic buffer, where working memory components are temporarily stored up until retrieval; and a phonological loop, the process of repeating information by practicing either verbally or cognitively. In Woo and Kanachi's study (2005), university students in Japan were asked to memorize a given list of words and were either placed into a no music group, where the participants had to memorize as many words as they could ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 125. Essay on Baddeley and Hitch’s Working Memory Model This essay addresses the working memory model which was proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974 in Smith & Kosslyn, 2007) as a response to Atkinson and Shiffrins (1968 in Smith, 2007) multi– store model. According to Baddely and Hitch the multi–store model failed to explain most of the complexities of the human memory and viewed it as being too simplistic. They argued that the short term memory store must have more components rather it being a single inflexible store as suggested previously by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). The working memory model is therefore an enhancement of the multi store model. According to Baddeley and Hitch working memory is a limited– capacity system that stores and processes information. According to Baddeley and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This is interpreted as because the capacity of the phonological loop is limited in time (in Smith, 2007). Further evidence for the existence of the phonological loop comes from Conrads and Hulls (1975 in Passer, 2009) experiment in which they examined the effect of phonological similarity. They found that serial recall in a list of similar sounding words tended to yield poorer results with participants finding it difficult to remember compared to words that sounded different. It has also been found that recall in semantically similar words tended to have little or no effect, supporting the idea that verbal information is transferred in a phonological manner in working memory. In addition, Vallar and Papagno (1995 in Smith, 2007) found that the phonological store in brain damaged patients were dysfunctional. Moreover, Hardyk and Petrinovich (1970 in Parkin, 1993) found the articulatory loop to be crucial when being presented with complex information. In their study they measured participants throat muscle and forearm muscle activity although some may argue that this was not a good technique to carry out. Their findings led to them conclude that when participants were presented with complex material their articulatory loop would come in to function (in Parkin, 1993). In addition, memory span tasks support the existence of the articulatory loop showing that task ability heavily depends on a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 129. Research Paper On Baddeley Baddeley (1966) replication The Introduction Cognitive Psychology is the scientific study of the mind as an information processor. It is the area that focuses on internal mental processes such as thinking, decision making, Problem–solving, language, attention, and memory. This research is about replicating Baddeley's study on the semantic coding of long–term memory. Baddeley's study on the semantic coding of long–term memory is one his famous 3 experiments in finding a cognitive alternative for how memory works. Baddeley's working memory model charts his growing realization that memory was much more complicated than the multi–store model made out. Memory models are schemas of the concept of memory. There are 2 types of memory models: 1) Multi–store model 2) ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The working memory model is the main model to be focused in the research because it gives one the concept of how one would store data more accurately. Some studies were done in order to find out how memory works such as Baddeley's working memory model, Schmolck et al (2002) semantic knowledge in patient HM: Scoville and Milner (1957). The aim of this research is to replicate Baddeley's study is it further prove his theory on how the LTM encodes information. Cognitive psychology is about finding out how parts of the brain help in storing data. Baddeley's research is reliable and can be easily replicated to find how memory works. The investigation will be carried out as a lab experiment in high school. The experiment will be controlled as possible. According to Baddeley the LTM stores memories are encoded semantically and STM encodes acoustically, therefore, the semantically similar word list would tend to have a lower percentage of better recollection than acoustically similar. Hypothesis: the LTM encodes information ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 133. The Working Memory Model Was Proposed By Baddeley And Hitch Working Memory The working memory model was proposed by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974. They replaced the concept of short– term memory, which was proposed in 1986 by Atkinson– Shiffrin model because they believed the model–lacked detail. Every day we have occasions where we keep particular pieces of important information briefly in our mind, storing them until an opportunity arises. For example remembering a phone number while you are hearing it and dialling it or holding directions in your mind until you get to that landmark (take the first right, continue for three miles, past the university and then the third exit at the roundabout). There might be times where the person can have solutions to a problem for example in a chess game. The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The phonological and the visuo– spatial sketchpad are known as the slave systems. The phonological loop contains the order the way words are presented and the visual– spatial sketchpad is used to hold visual information; the eyes are used to store and manipulate visual and spatial information such as remembering 3–D molecules or colour of solutions 5 6 7. All three–component work independently to other components. There are two assumptions that can be made: 1. If the task requires using the same component then it cannot be performed together successfully. 2. If both the tasks require different components; it should not be a problem performing both the task separate successfully. Phonological loop The phonological loop also known as the articulatory loop deals with sound or phonological information. The loop consists of two parts: a short term memory store with auditory memory traces which can rapidly decay and an articulatory rehearsal component that can recover the memory traces. It is assumed that articulatory verbal information automatically enters the phonological store. Information that is presented visually can be transformed into phonological code by silent articulation hence encoded into the phonological store 8. The sound of the speech is stored in the phonological store "inner ear" so that it can be remembered in the temporal order on the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 137. Child Observation Essay examples For this assignment, I observed my six year old niece, Faustine Bui who was born on August 16, 2007, at the park where I was babysitting her with her mom for approximately thirty minutes. The park I observed her at is packed with children and dogs are allowed. There is a large play area with jungle–jims and slide and it includes a sandy area which has a variety of playing equipment as well. I first observed Faustine's biosocial development such as physical growth, gross motor and fine motor skills. Faustine is 3 feet tall and she weighs 41 pounds according to my Aunt. She is a little shorter than a lot of the six year old that she hangs out with and the ones in the park but I think that her height is in the normal range for kids her age ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... She had a hard time conquering the jugle–jim though. She kept waddling back and forth every time she tried to get her feet up on the next bar and she eventually gave up and refused to return to the jungle jim again. She threw a few balls here and there but she was unable to throw it very far or accurate. By the age of three, children can already kick, throw, jump and climb things such as ladder. By the age of six, children can skip, climb trees and over things, and catch a ball (uofmchildrenshospital.org). I was unable to observe a lot of fine motor skills from Faustine but she did pick up a stick from the ground, hold it like a normal adult would hold a pencil, and started drawing in the sand. By the age of 2, children can scribble, fold paper, draw vertical lines and manage semi–large object with their hands. By the age of six, children can copy letters, grasp pencils like a grown adult, and copy complex shapes (kamloopschildrenstherapy.org). I then observed her cognitive skills which included her language, memory, and perception. When observing Faustine, I realized that she is one extremely talkative child. She would talk about everything and anything sometimes she'd just sit in front of us and talk to us and to herself while playing in the sand. According to Lev Vygotsky and his social learning theory, children use private speech ("The internal dialogue that occurs when people talk to themselves, either silently or out ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 141. The Effects Of Age On Short Term Memory The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of age on short–term memory and to examine if familiar music or unfamiliar music produced more errors in a word recall task. The results showed that participants scored similarly in both the familiar music and the unfamiliar music condition. The lack of a significant difference between the familiar music and the unfamiliar music condition signifies that short–term memory is equally impacted while listening to familiar music as it is when listening unfamiliar music. These findings oppose my original prediction that participants would recall more words in the familiar music condition than they would in the unfamiliar familiar music condition by showing that there was no difference in the average amount of words recalled between the music conditions. It is possible that these results did not reach statistical significance because, while the participants were familiar with the melody and lyrics of the song used in the familiar music condition, they were unfamiliar with the specific version of the song. However, the results replicated those of Alley and Greene (2008), which also showed that music familiarity had no impact on short–term music performance. The results also revealed that the older participants and younger participants performed equally as well on the recall task. Fascinatingly, this result suggests that age has little relevance on the immediate recall of words. The implication of this finding is unexpected ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 145. Action Video Games The goal of this study was to determine if action video games (AVG) improved reading abilities and visual–to–auditory attentional shifting in English–speaking children with dyslexia. Based on several studies Italian speaking children had positive results with overall speed and accuracy in reading, when action video games (AVG) were used. (Franceschini et al. 2017) However, a significant variable was the difference in languages. This study wanted to determine would the same results occur with participants that had a deeper orthographic language, like English. Two groups of English speaking children with dyslexia were tested before and after playing AVG and non–action video games (NAVG) focusing on their reading skills in phonological ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... (Franceschini et al. 2017) The dual route model involves the grapheme–phoneme conversion, requiring the serial left to right processing, thus causing the length of the words to determine the time it takes to say them. The parallel processing has little to no effect based from the length or the time taken to say the words. It is the length that generally has more effect on the pronunciation of the words than the actual word itself. (Eysenck and Keane, 2015) In the text Jalbert et al. (2011) found there was an important confounding between word length and orthographic neighbourhood. (Eysenck and Keane, 2015) Like what the study was attempting to resolve, since the English language is more orthographic than most languages. Further, considering the systems of how dyslexics increase accuracy Paul et al. (1996) and Harm and Seidenberg (2004) found the approach of the triangle model. This model focusing on this disease know that the damage occurs mainly because of damage to the semantic system. This model assumes phonological dyslexia is due to general impairment. (Eysenck and Keane, 2015) Although, the text shows different theories that can relate to this study and how to better understand the complexity, it is important to see that the increase in accuracy during reading from participants increased with the assistance of AVG. During the study word reading was recorded, the time it took the participants to pronounce the word correctly, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 149. The Atkinson And Shiffrin Modal Model Of Memory Memory is a very crucial topic not everyone understands. We might hear an individual saying "He has a great memory," or others mentioning they have a "bad memory" whenever they have forgotten an important subject. People use the term memory frequently but often not knowing its true meaning. According to Baddeley (1999), memory is not an actual organ as the heart, the kidneys, or the liver; instead, it consists of a network in which many systems work together, allowing us to be capable of remembering past events and in predicting the future. Reisberg (2013) presents the Atkinson and Shiffrin Modal Model of Memory, in which they explained that when human body receives an input, it is received as sensory information, which travels to our short–term memory (also known as working memory) and is then processed to our long term memory (where it remains permanently). According to Reisberg (2013) working memory includes conscious and active processing of incoming auditory as well as visual–spatial information. It also retrieves information stored from the long–term memory. In other words, it is the memory a person uses when actively working on a specific task. Moreover, human working memory has a limited capacity; therefore, there is a "magic" number 7 plus or minus 2, which demonstrates that the average capacity of words that our working memory can store is 5 to 9 items (Reisberg, 2013). Baddeley developed a model acknowledged as the Working Memory System. This model ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...