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Essay On Epigenetic Resetting In Plants
Embryonic epigenetic reprogramming by a transcription factor in plants
Abstract: Epigenetic modifications have important roles in flowering which requires vernalization
(cold winder) for many plants. Epigenetic marks that accumulated during vernalization need to be
removed to ensure proper development of the offspring. However, the knowledge about the key
gene required for such resetting and the underlying mechanism is limited. Here, the author
demonstrated that LEAFY COTYLEDONI (LEC1) could de novo activate FLOWERING LOCUS
C (FLC) expression in the pre–embryo by establishment of active chromatin, thus reversing the
silenced state at FLC. Besides, the active chromatin state can be transmitted to post–embryonic life.
Taken together, these ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
To understand the timing of FLC activation in embryogenesis, the author first examine when FLC is
reactivated using an FLC:: GUS reporter line. They found that FLC expression was activated in pro–
embryo within 1 day after pollination and onwards from both non–vernalized parental plants and
vernalized parental plants, despite that FLC expression is lower from vernalized plants than that
from none–vernalized plants. These results were further confirmed by in situ mRNA hybridization.
Then the author postulated that LEC1, a master embryo transcription factor and expressed in the
pro–embryo and throughout embryogenesis, is a good candidate required for embryonic de novo
FLC activation. To support their hypothesis, the author first introduced loss of function null lec1
allele in FRI–Col and found that this FLC–dependent later flowering phenotype was suppressed.
Next, they crossed lec1 with FLC:: GUS line and found that FLC expression was suppressed in the
pro–embryo stage and onwards. These results suggest that LEC1 reactivate FLC expression in early
embryogenesis and onwards in non–vernalized plants. To explore whether LEC1 could reactivate
FLC expression after parental vernalization, the FLC expression was traced for two generations in
LEC1/lec1 seedlings by FLC–GUS reporter. FLC was fully activated in LEC1/lec1 before cold and
silenced after vernalization, and the
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Background Explanation Of Epigenetics By Conrad Waddington
DNA than the their less depressed counterparts (Reiche, Vargas Nunes, & Kaminami Morimoto,
2004).
Background Explanation of Epigenetics
Epigenetics
What is epigenetics? Epigenetics is a term that was coined by Conrad Waddington that describes the
heritable changes in the cellular phenotypes that are observed independently of alterations that
occurs in the DNA sequence (Dawson & Kouzarides, 2012). He proposed that there was a link
between development and genetics, which is where the field of epigenetics came from. The word
epigenetics itself was derived from a Greek word epigenesist. Epigenesist is the theory of
development that proposed the early embryo was undifferentiated. The broad meaning of
epigenetics would be defined as the unfolding of the genetic program for development. However,
Waddington's definition of epigenetics was not much different than that of embryology (Holliday,
2006). Over time the definition of epigenetics has evolved into the study of heritable changes in
gene expression that occurs independently of the changed in the primary DNA sequence (Sharma,
Kelly, & Jones, 2010). Ernst Hadorn, another scientist that became important in the study of
epigenetics for his research with Drosophila, and the discovery of the imaginal discs. These discs
were completely undifferentiated cells that existed during development. Hadorn later went on to
determine that each of these imaginal disc developed into symmetrical parts of the adult structure.
This led Hadorn and
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Beckwith – Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS)
Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) (OMIM:130650) is a heterogeneous condition both in its
clinical presentation and its molecular etiology. Clinical diagnostic criteria include at least several of
the following signs: macrosomia (somatic overgrowth), macroglossia (omphalocele, umbilical
hernia, diastasis recti), ear creases and/or pits, hemihyperplasia (asymmetric overgrowth),
visceromegaly, renal malformations, neonatal hypoglycemia, cytomegaly of the fetal adrenal cortex,
cleft palate (rare), facial nevus flammeus, and cardiomegaly or structural cardiac anomalies
(Weksberg et al., 2010). About 5–20% of children with BWS have an increased risk of embryonal
tumors (Sunil Sinha, 2014). These tumors most commonly include Wilms tumor and
hepatoblastoma ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The epigenetic changes as methylation at H19 seen in patients with BWS who develop Wilms'
tumor are also seen in patients who develop Wilms' tumor without BWS. This indicates that the
timing of epigenetic change may determine whether one develops a syndrome like BWS or a cancer.
For example such a change in an early embryo can present as BWS and cancer predisposition
whereas such a change in an embryonic precursor for an organ generates predisposition to cancer in
that organ. Common pediatric embryonal tumor types can also be associated with BWS including
rhabdomyosarcoma, adrenal cortical carcinoma, gonadoblastoma and neuroblastoma. We have
recently shown that BWS cases with these tumors exhibit loss of methylation at DMR2 and not at
DMR1. These data indicate that there are likely to be two distinct cancer–predisposing regions on
11p15 (Rosanna Weksberg et al.,
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Epigenetic Modifications
INTRODUCTION
Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications are widely considered
to be important in controlling the differentiation of cells. However some argue that since these
mechanisms are not seen or transient in model organisms such as worms and flies that epigenetics
cannot be important. However it is also important to mention that there are very different definitions
of the word epigenetics formed from independent reasoning which may affect the debate on whether
epigenetics is important or not in controlling cell differentiation. (Berger et al., 2009)For example,
to Conrad Waddington, it was the study of epigenesist ie. How genotypes give rise to phenotypes
during development. On the other hand, Arthur Riggs ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In the first cell division these transcription factors are distributed asymmetrically to the daughter
cells. Then, and in subsequent cell generations, new patterns of gene expression arise in two ways:
as a matter of course (some transcription factors activating expression of genes encoding other
regulatory proteins, etc.), and in response to signals sent by other cells. Signalling used in
development affects expression of genes encoding yet more transcription factors–it does so by
changing activities of transcription factors, already present, which target those genes. Retinoic acid
and growth hormone are examples of such signalling molecules. (Ptashne, 2013)
There are two things we need to keep in mind when we talk about cell differentiation. These are
specificity and memory. Transcription regulators work specifically. They activate one gene or set of
genes and not another. Therefore, for many regulators and genes, any regulator will work on any
gene as determined by the locations of its affined cis–regulatory sequence. (Ptashne,
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Epigenetics
ONE of biology's hottest topics is epigenetics. The term itself covers a multitude of sins. Strictly
speaking, it refers to the regulation of gene expression by the chemical modification of DNA, or of
the histone proteins in which DNA is usually wrapped. This modification is either the addition of
methyl groups (a carbon atom and three hydrogens) to the DNA or of acetyl groups (two carbons,
three hydrogens and an oxygen) to the histones. Methylation switches genes off. Acetylation
switches them on. Since, in a multicellular organism, different cells need different genes to be
active, such regulation is vital.
What has got a lot of people excited, though, is the idea that epigenetic switches might be
transmitted down the generations. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The term itself covers a multitude of sins. Strictly speaking, it refers to the regulation of gene
expression by the chemical modification of DNA, or of the histone proteins in which DNA is
usually wrapped. This modification is either the addition of methyl groups (a carbon atom and three
hydrogens) to the DNA or of acetyl groups (two carbons, three hydrogens and an oxygen) to the
histones. Methylation switches genes off. Acetylation switches them on. Since, in a multicellular
organism, different cells need different genes to be active, such regulation is vital.
What has got a lot of people excited, though, is the idea that epigenetic switches might be
transmitted down the generations. Some see this as contrary to Darwinism, since it would permit
characteristics acquired during an organism's lifetime to be passed on to its offspring, as suggested
by a rival theory of evolution put forward by Jean–Baptiste Lamarck. This is an exaggeration. The
DNA sequence itself is not being permanently altered. Even those epigenetic changes that are
inherited seem to be subsequently reversible. But the idea that acquired characteristics can be
inherited at all is still an important and novel one, and a worrying example of the phenomenon has
been published this week in BioMed Central Medicine.
In this section * Lake monsters * A third–world dimension *
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Diet Mediated And Transgenerational Epigenetic Effects
Diet–Mediated and Transgenerational Epigenetic Effects An offspring's microbial composition is
initially determined through maternal transmission in utero and during birth, however, after delivery,
the microbiota is not fixed and may be changed by a multitude of environmental factors. The mode
of delivery (vaginal or caesarean section), diet, and many other factors continue to play dynamic
roles throughout an individual's lifetime (Marques et al., 2010). Recent studies have indicated that
maternal and neonatal nutrition significantly alter the epigenome of offspring, with the food
consumed during pregnancy modulating the gut microbiota as well as the metabolites produced
(Turnbaugh et al., 2009). Dietary intervention studies indicate that the diet sensitive nature of the gut
persists throughout life, and that the gut microbiota often responds rapidly to changes in diet (Hullar
& Fu, 2014). More specifically, dietary alterations modulate the exposure of the host to microbial
metabolites (such as butyrate) which could have a multiplicity of epigenetic effects in the offspring
(Duncan et al., 2007). Not only do the foods consumed during pregnancy alter the epigenetic marks
of offspring, significant evidence is showing that those epigenetic marks can have transgenerational
effects (Heard & Martienssen, 2014). One recent study showed that children of obese fathers were at
a higher risk of developing obesity themselves. The epigenetic marks of lean and obese men showed
similar
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Write An Essay On Epigenetics
Epigenetics is the study of change in inherited genes without changing ones DNA as well as
modifying genes that are transferred. Various factors such as aging, what we eat, lifestyles,
exercising or even smoking can influence the change in epigenetics which is normal but can
sometimes enhance diseases, behavior disorders and many other disorders that have been transferred
either through pregnancy or carried on from previous generation into our DNA. These disorders can
be shown at different stages in life or even carried on to the next generation. Studies have shown
that during pregnancy the environment and what was being consumed during the time are the most
influential factors that increase the chances of diseases and behavior disorders that ... Show more
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Evidence has shown that epigenetic can be changed to terminate the bad genes. This change can
give the hopeful chance to end obesity, cancer, Alzheimer, etc. Epigenetic processes control normal
growth and development to fight off abnormal diseases in the body, research on processes such as
methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitylation and sumolyation have been discovered to
reverse genes. DNA methylation is the process of modifying the genes and is used in
reprogramming many diseases including tumor process. Acetylation works to increase the
expression of genes through transcription activation plus alters the chromatin. Phosphorylation is
necessary for protein function which controls enzymes. Ubiquitylation is also a protein found in
tissue that can affect protein deficiency. Sumolyation is very similar to the ubiquitylation cycle that
deals with protein and cells, it does not break down the protein like ubiquitylation, instead it plays
the role of regulating the cell process. The most common ways of processing with science and
technology today is DNA methylation and chromatin
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Nicotine And Epigenetic Analysis
In this article, nicotine is utilized to figure out whether it causes emotional distress, for example,
anxiety and depression. These emotional symptoms might be brought about because of epigenetic
mechanisms or alterations, for example, histone acetylation. Nicotine is a profoundly addictive part
of tobacco. The chronic utilization of nicotine is believed to increment emotional side effects such
as anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression is seen in dependent smokers as withdrawal
indications. Epigenetics is the study of alteration of gene expression which causes changes in an
organism. Mechanisms can be methylation, histone acetylation and alteration in microRNAs.
Studies recommend that epigenetic changes, for example, histone acetylation ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
The outcomes utilizing histone deacetylase inhibitors demonstrate the inclusion of epigenetic
histone acetylation in the weakening of nicotine and additionally immobilization stress induced
anxiety and depression like behavioral modifications. The selective CB1 agonist AC, similar to
histone deacetylase inhibitors, gave anxiolytic and antidepressant like impacts against these
behavioral adjustments, which recommends the association of the endocannabinoid system, and the
selective CB1 antagonist SR antagonized the impacts of AC. Some weakening impact of SR was
seen on the anxiolytic and antidepressant like impacts of histone deacetylase inhibitor–induced
histone acetylation, at the same time connected with both function of the endocannabinoid system,
one of the targets for histone deacetylase inhibitors, and stressor induced emotion related behaviors.
Be that as it may, against the antidepressant like impacts of histone deacetylase inhibitors, the
lessening impact of SR was restricted in the nicotine treatment
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Autism In Children: A Qualitative Study
It is alarming to see how many are diagnosed with autism each year. In order to reduce the number
of children affected by this disorder, we need to first understand what causes it. Researchers have
been working diligently over the years, but the exact mechanism of what causes autism is still
unknown. The extensive research has been able to rule out factors that do not contribute to autism
and has made advancements in possible causative factors. As of right now, it appears that the source
is possibly multi–factorial, just like the disorder. Theories that are believed to be a part of the cause
include genetic, environmental, maternal age, viruses, toxins, and medical conditions. In order to
test the theory of maternal age and its' association to autism, the largest–ever multinational study of
parental age was performed. This study aimed to see if parental age was an independent factor in the
risk of autism. Researchers examined the rates of autism for over five million children born between
1985 and 2004. The age, sex, and birth year of the parents were obtained from birth and/or civil
registers. Additionally, they followed up on the child's development between 2004 and 2009 (Large,
2015). The study found that children born with father's over 50 years of age had an autism diagnosis
that was 66% higher than children born to fathers in their 20's and there was a 28% higher rate of
autism for fathers in their 40's versus 20's. Furthermore, teen mom's had an 18% higher autism
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Out-Of-Pocket Medical Treatment
Imagine taking the time, making the effort, spending the money to raise a child then see this child
murdered in public due to policy of public insurance companies. Proper treatment to rehabilitate
individuals developing mental health problems is a significant out–of–pocket medical expense.
Shouldn't the public insurance companies be brought up on murder charges for negligence? We see
it in the news over and over. Some shooting happened out in public due to mental instability. Tax
payers ask what could be done to prevent this problem. No better idea than increasing security has
not been thought up. It is very difficult to keep anything 100% secure as one individual took a run
across the White House lawn before security caught up to them. Here ... Show more content on
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When this condition is not treated around this age some loss of ability typically occurs that is not
congruent with one's potential. The human body is very forgiving at repairing itself. The biggest
obstacle for this condition is getting it properly treated as insurance companies refuse to cover the
cost of proper treatment. The proper treatment has been available to the public for 27 years. Yet
public insurance companies refuse and neglect to cover this treatment. I feel any insurance company
should be obligated to pay a good portion of the cost of doctor appointments along with what the
doctor prescribes. The cost of the supplements makes up most of the cost of receiving proper
treatment. Typically the cost for proper treatment increases the longer an individual goes without
proper treatment. The form of the supplement and whether or not the supplement can be bought
without a prescription should not matter. From my experience, public insurance companies will
refuse to cover any pharmaceutical grade supplements prescribed or suggested by doctors with
medical degrees. To make matters worse politics have influenced the rise in cost for treatment.
Making it un–affordable without
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Epigenetic Modifications to the Human Genome
Epigenetic modifications to the human genome have increasingly become the subject of scientific
research due to a presumptive role in the pathology and progression of degenerative diseases.
Conventionally, methylation of a nucleotide residue is associated with gene repression, whereas
acetylation of a nucleotide residue is associated with gene expression. Through a member of the
DNA methyltransferase protein family, the formation of 5–methylcytosine (5mC) from a previously
unmodified cytosine residue is a classic representation of a widely–occurring, principal epigenetic
modification event. This process is subject to dynamic regulation and as such, the regulatory
mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. In regards to demethylation of these particular residues,
humans lack a corresponding methylcytosine specific DNA glycosylase; however, a potential
alternate pathway has been identified. Catalyzed by the human ten eleven translocation 1 (TET1)
proteins, oxidation of 5mC results in formation of 5–hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC); when 5hmC is
further subject to oxidation, 5–formylcytosine (5fC) is produced. These oxidized derivatives are
suspected to be substrates designated for removal by the base excision repair pathway. Scientists at
the University of Kentucky resolved to explore an epigenetic change in the progression of a neuro–
degenerative disease such as Alzheimer's. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized
by the appearance of three key features in brain
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Dna And The Human Body
Each cell in the human body has the same exact genetic material, with a few exceptions, and yet
each cell does something different than all the other cells. Contained within the nucleus, the entire
genome can be found, and within the genome, there is all the information needed to construct a
specific organism. The genome is composed of deoxyribose nucleic acids, also called DNA, which
breaks down into smaller units called genes. A gene has a specific sequence of adenine, thymine,
cytosine, and guanine molecules that will code for a specific polypeptide. Polypeptides can then go
on to become proteins for the cell to use. The genome is the same in every cell, but with about 200
different cell types, there must be something telling the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Such things (include?)like the histone modification or methylation of DNA. Some sources debate
that 'epigenetics' refers to all environmental factors which cause the alterations to occur. Things like
the smoke from cigarettes, the food that you eat, the environment inside the placenta, you amount of
sleep you get, and your exercising habits[3]. As epigenetics becomes more prominent in science, the
debate evolves and the definition changes. Scientists are considering the effects of these epigenetic
modifications as well as what creates the modifications. Several mechanisms cause these alterations
to gene expression. The most commonly considered factors are DNA methylation, histone
modification, and the effects of non–coding RNA. With DNA methylation, methyl groups (CH3) are
added directly to the DNA. These methyl groups attach to the fifth carbon of the cytosine
nitrogenous base by a protein called DNA–methyltransferase. The most common location for these
methylations is at CpG sites, which are locations with a high amount of cytosine–guanine base pairs.
The methylated cytosine is called a 5–methylcytosine (5–mc)[4]. The bound methyl group protrudes
into the major grove of the DNA double helix and does not allow for any proteins to bind. DNA can
either be hypermethylated, with a high number of methyl groups attached, or hypomethylated, with
a low number of methyl groups attached. Hypermethylation typically causes genes to
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The Pros And Cons Of Epigenetics
What makes one individual different from the other? Many have attempted to answer this question–
from ancient philosophers and theologists to modern day scientists. Regardless of whether the
individual concerned is a cell or a whole organism, the answer is said to lie in the nature vs. nurture
debate. Thus arose another, related question– How do individuals with extremely similar blueprints
develop an astounding amount of differences? Biological research attempting to settle the debate for
once and for all has found that differences amongst a cohort of individuals is established by an
interplay of both– genetics (nature) and various environmental influences (nurture).
Epigenetics, a term coined by Conrad Waddington (from Greek epi–, 'over', 'outside of', 'around')
initially to mean "the branch of biology which studies the causal interactions ... Show more content
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A related phrase described by Waddington to help elaborate the phenomenon of epigenetics, the
'epigenetic landscape' attempts to explain how identical genotypes could result in a wide variety of
phenotypic variation through the process of development. This epigenetic landscape can be dynamic
– capturing genetic, environmental, and cell lineage effects – and has been shown to be at least
partly heritable. (Szyf, M. (2015) Nongenetic inheritance and transgenerational epigenetics. Trends
Mol. Med. 21, 134–144). The epigenetic code is hypothesized to be a defining code in every
eukaryotic cell consisting of the specific epigenetic modifications in each cell. While in one
individual the genetic code in each cell is the same, the epigenetic code is tissue & cell
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Cct Is A Highly Heritable And One Of The Most Correlated...
CCT is a highly heritable and one of the most correlated quntitive ocular trait (Ref). It is a hallmark
of diseases such as keratoconus and a rsik facor for POAG in individuals with high IOP. In table 1B,
we compile information on following fifteen genes and sequence variants identified through GWAS
using CCT as a quantitative trait; 1. A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 13 (AKAP13), 2. fibroblast
growth factor 9 related (AVGR8/FGF9–SGCG); 3. Chondroitin sulfate synthase 1 (CHSY1); 4.
Collagen type 8 alpha 2 (COL8A2); 5. CWC27 spliceosome–associated protein homolog (CWC27–
ADAMTS6); 6. fibronectin type III domain containing 3B (FNDC3B); 7. forkhead box O1
(FOXO1); 8. G protein–coupled receptor 15 (GPR15); 9. heparan sulfate (glucosamine) ... Show
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Caveolin1/2 (CAV1/CAV2); 4. cyclin–dependent kinase inhibitor 2B family (CDKN2B and
CDKN2B–AS1); 5. family with sequence similarity 125, member B (FAM125B); 6. FND3B; 7.
growth arrest–specific 7 (GAS7); 8. glucocorticoid induced transcript 1 (GLCCI1/ICA1) [36]; 9.
RAB9B, member RAS oncogene family pseudogene 1 (RAB9BP1); 10. SIX homeobox 1/6
(SIX1/SIX6); 11. solute carrier family 2 (SLC2A14/SLC2A3) and 12. transmembrane and coiled–
coil domains 1 (TMCO1)
3e. Genes identified in GWAS with optic nerve/disc paramters as the quantitative trait:
As mentioned before, glaucomatous optic neuropathies are recognized by changes in the
characteristics of the optic nerve head, or optic disc, caused by loss of retinal ganglion cells and
thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer. GWAS utilizing quantitative optic nerve parameters have so
far yeilded 28 genes and genomic regions as listed in Table 1D.
3f. POAG/NTG genes identified from POAG/NTG based GWAS
:
The GWAS approach has been used very successfully in the past five years to identify genes
associated with various endophenotypes of POAG. [Add discussion of GWAS findings]
Recently genome–wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ten genomic loci statistically
associated with POAG or NTG, including atonal homolog 7 (ATOH 7), caveolin1/2 (CAV1/CAV2),
phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2), SIX homeobox 1/6 (SIX1/SIX6), transmembrane and coiled–coil
domains 1 (TMCO1), variants near ATP–binding cassette, sub–family A (ABC1),
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In September 1944, World War II was close to an end, and...
In September 1944, World War II was close to an end, and the German troops were retiring from
their conquered countries throughout Europe. The Netherlands was the last country retained by the
Nazis which around this time was stricken by the Allied Forces, to which the exiled Dutch
government responded with a railway strike. The intents of the Allied Forces with the help of the
strike were futile, which gave the German government the opportunity to order a food embargo to
the Netherlands as a lesson for their disobedience. The embargo coincided with a cruel winter which
rendered poor crops starting a season of famine in the region. The daily calorie intake went from
2,300–2,900 to 1,000 initially, 580 calories for the crude winter months. ... Show more content on
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By the time these people reached their 50's researchers focused on cardiovascular and physiological
functions, they found high levels of obesity, cholesterol and type II diabetes. The study continues
until present day. Epigenetics is the study of reactions that switch part of the genome at specific
locations and time, and what factors influence them. A cell has a sum of signals that help on
stabilizing the gene expression; these are epigenetics tags that are accumulated through cell
development. While for decades scientists thought the new embryo's epigenome was made from
scratch it is now know that parents' epigenetic tags play an important role in the life of the new
creature. Most of the epigenetic tags are erased during the process of development in a process
called "reprogramming" leaving the majority of the cell in a blank state though a few genes make it
through the process without successful removal of the tags. The study greatly helped in
understanding the mechanism of nutrition and epigenetic inheritance to the child while in the womb.
It has been shown through animal studies that a methyl rich diet of the mother gives a progeny with
a highly methylated DNA. Specifically, studies in mice have shown that diet affects the Agouti gene
(present in all mammals) when the gene is not methylated the mice shows a yellow coat, a fatter
complexion and is likely to develop diabetes and cancer. Unlike the healthy mice
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A Study Of Dynamic Regulation Of Gene Expression Essay
The majority of cells in the human body are not human at all. The 100 trillion prokaryotic cells that
make up our microbiota, constitute 90% of the cells in our bodies, and are derived from more than
40,000 bacterial strains (Forsythe & Kunze, 2012). Bacterial cells reside in animal hosts as
commensals, symbionts, or as pathogenic parasites, forming a veneer over almost all body surfaces
(Dave et al., 2012). Increasingly, research is showing the importance of host microbiota composition
and the bidirectional signaling pathways between the brain and the gut, some of which are
epigenetic. These studies elucidate the profound impacts that signaling pathways, such as short–
chain fatty acid mediated effects, nucleomodulins, and other bacterial metabolites, can have on
health, behavior and cognition (Sommer & Backhed, 2013). 'Epigenetics,' derived from the Greek
root 'epi ' meaning on top of, is the study of dynamic regulation of gene expression due to factors
that act on chromatin structure, nuclear architecture and other molecular events that do not change
the DNA sequence (Stilling et al., 2014). In addition, epigenetics has sometimes been defined as
sequence– independent heritable changes in gene expression (Holliday, 1987). Epigenetic processes
include post–translational histone modification, as well as cytosine methylation and interactions of
non–coding RNAs (Jaenisch & Bird, 2003; Landry et al., 2013). Post–translational histone
acetylation results in a decreased
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Behavioral Epigenetics : Biological Heredity And Nurture
Do the experiences or events that your parents, grandparents or even great grandparents had in the
past affect your genes? Why do some humans have mental health issues and others do not?
Behavioral epigenetics examines how nurture shapes nature, where nature refers to biological
heredity and nurture refers to everything that occurs during the animal 's lifespan. Epigenetics is the
study of alterations in an organism caused by modifications of gene expressions instead of
alterations of the genetic code itself. Behavioral epigenetics is the field of study, which analyzes the
role epigenetics have in shaping human or animal behavior. Epigenetics works by wrapping DNA
around histone octamers to form nucleosomes. Genes will be transcribed or silenced depending on
the spacing of nucleosomes, which is determined by complex processes, including post–translational
modification of DNA and histones as well as the large numbers of chromatin regulatory proteins
recruited to interact with these modifications (Nestler). Behavioral epigenetics explains why humans
and animals behave the way they do, not by changing the DNA, but by modification of gene
expression rather than alteration of the genetic code, which in turn changes behavior in multiple
generations. To study behavioral epigenetics, scientists first used rats because it was easy to observe
and collect data over many generations. One experiment, scientists observed behavioral epigenetics
with rats is maternal care. Rat pups that
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Addiction, Addiction, Depression, Poverty And Mental Illness?
Addiction, Depression, Poverty and Mental Illness; Doomed by Epigenetics Similar to other
causality dilemmas, the question of which comes first: poverty, low SES, or mental instability, is
discussed when modeling the development of psychological problems in human beings. Low
socioeconomic status (SES), a marker dependent on income level, education and occupation, is
often used interchangeably to title poor individuals as well as those with psychological health issues.
Factors such as stress, negative environment, low quality of living, exposure to noise pollution and
violence can all lead to bad health problems and play a role in the development of mental illnesses.
Often, it is assumed that a positive family history for mental illness is one of the strongest predictors
of the future development of depression and other psychological issues. Yet, we have an
understanding that not all individuals with this risk factor later suffer from depression. From a
biological stand point, one's biological brain functions can also be another considerable co–factor
for mental development. The highlighted biological mechanism researchers focus on is epigenetic
modification, specifically methylation of gene regulatory regions, in parts of the brain. The
amygdala, the portion of the brain that deals with one's emotion behavior, and motivation, undergoes
various biological mechanisms that later in turn shape that brain and other processes in this region.
Serotonin, a hormonal product
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Epigenetics Essay
Epigenetics, involves the expression of phenotypical characteristics in an individual without directly
altering the genetic code. Instead the phenotypes manifest through the use of external factors, such
as, trauma, stressors, environment and chemical exposure that result in the silencing and alteration
of gene expression without altering or mutating the genetic code. This essay will look into the
importance of the study of epigenetics through the effects of epigenetics on genes, as well as the
effects of experience and inheritance on the development of epigenetic based phenotypical
characteristics.
The first major effects of epigenetics on genes can be seen in the role of DNA methylation in
mammalian epigenetics. DNA methylation provides a method of gene control in an organism, where
it assures proper gene expression, as well as silencing of genes within cells, it does this through the
manipulation of chromosome architecture, where it affects the packaging of the DNA by the binding
of a methyl group to cytosine (Kullis & Esteller, 2010). The effects of this can ... Show more content
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The expression of these phenotypes and their acquisition can then clearly be seen in the effects of
chemical compounds such as arsenic, nickel and BPA on the development of cancer as well as the
effects of life experiences, such as childhood abuse, on the manifestation of depression. While,
lastly it can be seen how the possible acquisition of epigenetic phenotypes by an individual can
behave similarly to genetic code and be passed through the germ–line to subsequent individuals.
Therefore, this epic influence on survival through epigenetic expression, emphasizes the importance
of the study of
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Determining the Underlying Causes of Asthma Essay
Asthma is the most common worldwide chronic condition that affects both young and old. It is a
condition in which the air way passages are narrowed leading to symptoms of wheezing, shortness
of breath, chest tightness, and cough (Bijanzadeh, Mahesh, Nallur 1). Asthma is caused by increased
infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airway, constriction, airway smooth–muscle hypertrophy,
and mucous hypersecretion in the bronchiolar walls of the lung (Bijanzadeh, Mahesh, Nallur 1).
Most asthma attacks are short, a few minutes to a few hours, and the person recovers completely this
is called episodic asthma disease. However, those who have acute severe asthma is much more
serious because the asthma attacks lasts for days or weeks, and ... Show more content on
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As the people involved in this study observed the degree of expression of asthma within genetically
similar populations they discovered that asthma between children of similar genetic ancestry that
live in different environments have significant differences in prevalence rates (Subbarao, Mandhane,
and Sears 182). The results included Chinese children who lived in China had a lower prevalence
rate, Chinese who were born in China but migrated to Canada had an intermediate rate, and Chinese
students who were born and lived in Canada had the greatest prevalence rate (Subbarao, Mandhane,
and Sears 182). In addition, the non Chinese children living in Canada still had a greater prevalence
rate compared to the Chinese children living there (Subbarao, Mandhane, and Sears 182). This result
from this study strongly supports their hypothesis of gene–by–environment interactions in which
people with similar genetic makeup inherit sensitivity to the effects of various environmental risk
factors.
However on the other hand whether genetics plays an important role in the development of asthma
has been strongly accepted as numerous family and twin studies have been made. "Genome–wide
linkage studies and case–control studies have identified 18 genomic regions and more than 100
genes associated with allergy and asthma in 11 different populations" (Subbarao, Mandhane, and
Sears
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Difference Between Absolute And Relative Continuity
1. Describe the difference between absolute and relative continuity. Explain why it is important to
differentiate the two. Provide two of YOUR OWN real–world examples of the difference between
the two types of continuity. The concept of continuity is difficult and includes several different
meanings that are distinguished mostly by different ways of measuring continuity. There are two
that need to be specifically differentiated: relative and absolute continuity. Relative continuity is the
degree to which individuals hold their rank order in a specific sample from one assessment time
point to another specific time point. Relative continuity is measured by the correlation coefficient
for the scores taken at the two different time points or ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
An example of maturation would be acquiring a language, because language acquisition is
something that happens to an individual innately during a certain time in development, it is not
something an individual can do or learn. Environmental learning refers to developmental change
that is brought about mainly by influences in the external environment and that can be described by
mechanisms of learning. An example of environmental learning would be a child who see's their
older sibling get into trouble for having dessert before completing dinner, will first finish their
dinner and then eat their dessert. Constructivism can be defined as the belief that the mind actively
participates in gathering knowledge of the world while interacting with the environment, rather than
passively gaining such knowledge through direct perception. Constructivism states that children act
as active participants in their own development and help establish their own fate by virtue of the
meanings they impose on the world. An example of constructivism would be a person attending
zumba classes at the gym. While attending zumba classes at the gym, the person is actively
participating in and learning how to do zumba, while also interacting with other people in the
environment. The person would By watching
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What´s Epigenetic Landscape?
For 70+ years now we have been working on our Epigenome but not really understood what it is or
what it can do for us but, thanks to the works of Dr. Conrad H. Waddington "Epigenetic Landscape"
1939, which was followed up and expanded on by Dr. Adrian Bird and Danny Reinberg (1975~) we
know that it does exist and it has far reaching implications for future development in medical
research and biological development fields.
 Risk assessment
 Prevention
 Progression analysis
 Prognosis and biomarker development
Epigenetics ~ is the term coined to explain a variety of "bizarre" phenotypic phenomena in different
organisms that can't be elucidated by Mendelian Genetics. It is like a bridge between geno and
phenotypes ~ giving explanation to how cells carrying identical DNA differentiate into different cell
types and how this differentiated state remains stable; o More recently it has evolved to mean
"modifications" to DNA that affect gene expression but do not involve base changes
 These changes are regular and naturally occurring but can be heavily influenced by several
factors such as;
Age
Environment & life style
Or disease state.
"According to Dr. Lipton, the true secret to life does not lie within your DNA, but rather within the
mechanisms of your cell membrane."
"If Genetics was the recipe then Epigenetics would be the Chef who would create his own idea of
how to present the dish", ~ Eliza Hazlerigg
There are 4 main mechanisms of modification and regulation
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A Study Of Changes Throughout Gene Expression
Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression which may be inherited with no changes to
the DNA sequence itself– it may account for non–Mendelian population inheritance patterns.
Transgenerational inheritance requires a chromosomal or epigenetic change in the germline allowing
the information to be passed on from one generation to another (Anway et al 2005a). In order for
epigenetic marks to be passed down, the gametes need to conserve their epigenomes by avoiding
two reprogramming events; in the gamete and zygote. DNA demethylation is avoided in some genes
called imprinting genes which retain their sex–specific patterns. The environment and external
factors may cause additional information to be added on top of the genome. It has generally been
accepted that epigenetic marks are removed and re–established in the preceding generation, thus not
inherited. Nevertheless, many studies carried out on model organisms are challenging this concept
and suggesting that this may not be entirely correct. There may be an incomplete clearing of
epigenetic marks resulting in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. The present generations
where being synthesised in the womb of their grandmother. Therefore, does the food my
grandmother ate affect my development? Could the air we breathe affect our grandchildren? Many
questions are still unknown in the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance field (Youngson and
Whitelaw 2008). Phenotypic variation and disease caused by
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An Interesting And Informative Video
This was an interesting and informative video, which talks about epigenetic. I would define
epigenetic as a change in the observable physical traits of an organism without a change in the
inherited genetic of a cell. In the video, there were people (twins) and rats as an example just to
show and explain how epigenetic works, which is amazing. The twins' participants in the video, look
alike. Even though, their spotting image are incredible, they also have their differences. Like one of
the twin asked an important question, which was if one of them has a disease, will it be possible for
the other one to have the same disease and actually, there might be a chance for the other twin to
develop the same disease, which shows me how mysterious epigenetic is.
There are two articles that I found, which gave a lot of informations about epigenetic and explained
how the process of epigenetic works and how weird it can be. The process of epigenetic works by
chemical tags, which is known as epigenetic marks that are tied to the deoxyribonucleic acid and
which permit to either use or ignore specific gene. The most important epigenetic mark is a methyl
group and it was said that in the midst of each generation there is a cell called primordial gene cell,
where the epigenetic marks are removed from. The deoxyribonucleic acid methylation is also
removed in primordial gene cell, which are changed to hydroxymethylation and it also restarts the
gene of each generation.
From the second article
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A Research On Schizophrenia And Anorexia Nervosa
Epigenetic's is a term that describes everything that happens in the gene expression process that is
above the genome. The epigenetic process is typically due to histone modification, CpG island
methylation, RNA associated silencing, and some other factors. The process is triggered via cell–to–
cell signaling, neighborhood cells sending signals, physiology, and environment. The epigenetic
change can be transient, permanent, or heritable. In my chosen paper, the researchers are looking
into how the social environment can 'get into the mind' in a way that results in psychiatric disorders
such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), post–dramatic stress disorder (PTSD),
anorexia nervosa, and substance dependence. Even though the review article covers five types of
mental disorders, I'm going to focus on schizophrenia and anorexia nervosa. Overtime, research has
shown a robust relation between the social environment and the prevalence of mental illness. In
large western cities, like NYC, there is a higher frequency in those that have schizophrenia,
increased labor stress helps facilitate MDD development, natural disasters have been associated with
PTSD, and social and relationship problems help induce the onset of eating disorders. It is also
important to note that heritable factors also play a part, and that the resulting mental disorder is
thought to occur due to an interaction between the social environment and heritable factors. In a
schizophrenia twin study, even
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Introduction:. Epigenetics Studies The Biological Information
Introduction:
Epigenetics studies the biological information that can be inherited in addition to the DNA, through
biochemical changes such as methylation and histone modifications that can affect gene expression
and lead to a particular phenotype [9]. Epigenetic plasticity can be influenced by internal and
external factors, such as the in utero environment of early development [9]. The intrauterine
environment can have short and long term effects on the health and future disease state of offspring.
To look into the effects of the intrauterine environment, several factors need to be taken into
account. This discussion will include the effects of maternal environmental conditions on the health
of offspring, including type 1 and 2 diabetes, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The outcomes of gestational diabetes can be studied by looking at the health of offspring of these
mothers over time. In one study, intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus was related to
metabolic syndrome in children of mothers with and without GDM and with conditions such as
large–for–gestational–age (LGA) and appropriate–for–gestational age (AGA) [2]. Through
biochemical testing of the experimental groups of children, components of metabolic syndrome
could be detected, such as obesity by BMI, blood pressure, and glucose levels [2]. It was found that,
in a controlled study, the LGA/GDM group correlated to maternal obesity environments by having
higher occurrence of insulin resistance, which would be expected with weight gain and exposure to
diabetes [2]. This suggests that metabolic factors due to the intrauterine environment contribute to
disease in later life through epigenetic changes.
Many research studies have looked into the mechanisms that lead offspring exposed to GDM to be
at higher risk for diseases, metabolic and chronic [13]. It was found through research that the
mechanism with GDM exposure evaluated the methylome of the offspring using epigenetics [13]. In
this study, 30 out of 44 newborns were exposed to GDM and their DNA methylation was measured
at more than 485,000 CpG sites with over 3000 genes from placenta and cord blood samples [13].
Though the results were not
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Essay about What is Epigenetics and How Can It Effect Me?
Before conducting research and watching numerous informational videos on epigenetics, I would
have never believed that when my grandmother was my age, she made dietary decisions that have
affected me. Technically speaking, epigenetics simply means above genetics. In other words,
epigenetics is the traits that you and I inherit, but do not necessarily necessitate the sequence of
genes. I took me a while to actually grasp the concept until I thought of it from a musical
perspective. Imagine our DNA helix strands as a musical score. There are different music notes as
there are genes. If someone were to play Beethoven's Symphony Number 5 correctly, it would sound
the same every time. Basically, if one note is changed, the whole musical piece ... Show more
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Instead they go through a process of change overtime, or sometimes they're hereditary. While
watching the video, the host Neil deGrasse Tyson stated that our epigenomes tend to change during
crucial times in our lives such as puberty and pregnancy. While our mothers were carrying us in
their wombs for 9 months, they were passing on these epigenomes that we may pass on to our
children. "Just as the genome is passed along from parents to their offspring, the epigenome can also
be inherited. The chemical tags found on the DNA and histones of eggs and sperm can be conveyed
to the next generation" ("Epigenomics," 2012).
I also learned that these epigenomes change because of environmental factors which include what
we do, what we eat, what we drink, or what we smoke. This has been said to be one of the pivotal
contraries amongst epigenetics and genetics. I found the groundbreaking study identical twins very
interesting. The point of this experiment was to discover if twins were epigenetically identical or
not. After obtaining DNA from 40 sets of twins, researchers were able to conclude that as twins age,
the chance of epigenetic differences increases.
I conducted an intriguing research on the relationship between epigenetics and psychiatric disorders.
It is known that epigenomes are affected by environmental surroundings which can cause life
changing results as we age. Also, a mother's maternal behavior inspires the stress
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Biochemical Approaches On The Import Of Genetics Essay
Sociogenomics: Biochemical Approaches to Study the Import of Genetics in Social Behaviours
Literature Review
Sociogenomics is a relatively new research area that isn 't very well understood. Scholarly articles
(e.g., Roberts & Jackson, 2008) describe it as a field that explores the following: the identification of
genes that influence social behavior, the understanding of the influence of these genes on underlying
neural and endocrine mechanisms, and understanding the effects of the environment, particularly the
social environment, on gene action.
Technological advances paired with impressive progress in molecular biology and genomics make
this an appropriate time to attempt to understand the molecular basis of social life.
In Psychology 241, we were introduced to the OPRM1 gene, which is a single nucleotide
polymorphism (SNP). This gene can vary, in people, by a single nucleotide (A ↔ G). Ways et al.
(2009) discovered that people with the G allele showed more pain activation after social rejection. In
addition, these subjects show reduced opiate potency and, therefore, need more morphine to
counteract both physical and social pain. Ultimately, from this study, scientists made the novel
discovery that specific genetic mutations (i.e. OPRMI allele) can affect our social and psychological
behaviors (i.e. tolerance to social rejection).
Furthermore, scientists have recently claimed that the actual expression level of genes, at any given
time, also affects our social
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The, Genetic And Epigenetic Mutations
Cancer, one of the most common diseases in the world, is a result of genetic and epigenetic
mutations. Where genetics was at first used to explain phenotypes and disease, genetics alone could
not explain the sheer amount of phenotypic diversity in a population–nor could it explain
phenomenon such as how, "monozygotic twins or cloned animals [could] have different phenotypes
and different susceptibilities to a disease." Thus entered the field of epigenetics. Epigenetics is, "the
study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur independent of changes in the primary
DNA sequence." Therefore, epigenetics has its own, independent mechanisms to affect the
genotypes and phenotypes of individuals.
Although technically independent of one another, like genetics, epigenetics can be greatly
influenced and altered by external factors such as ones environment. For example, one study looked
at the importance of nutrition in early life and its effects on the epigenome. Using families involved
in the Dutch Hunger Winter and the Great Leap Forward in China, the study found that children
exposed to famine in utero had DNA methylation changes in genes associated with birth weight and
low–density lipoprotein. When followed up, years later, with a study of nutritional deprivation in
mice, data showed that epigenetic changes not only affected the babies in utero, but also affected the
next generation of mice.
A Brief History of Epigenetics
In 1930, Hermann J. Muller did one of the
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The Effects Of Epigenetics Studies Genetic Effects On...
Epigenetics studies genetic effects not encoded in the DNA sequence of an organism, hence the
prefix epi– . Such effects on cellular and physiological phenotypic traits may result from external or
environmental factors that switch genes on and off and affect how cells express genes. These
alterations may or may not be heritable, although the use of the term epigenetic to describe
processes that are heritable is controversial. instead, non–genetic factors cause the organism 's genes
to behave differently.
One example of an epigenetic change in eukaryotic biology is the process of cellular differentiation.
During morphogenesis, totipotent stem cells become the various pluripotent cell lines of the embryo,
which in turn become fully differentiated cells. In other words, as a single fertilized egg cell – the
zygote – continues to divide, the resulting daughter cells change into all the different cell types in an
organism, including neurons, muscle cells, epithelium, endothelium of blood vessels, etc., by
activating some genes while inhibiting the expression of others.
Definitions
The term epigenetics in its contemporary usage emerged in the 1990s, but for some years has been
used in somewhat variable meanings.
From this, and the associated adjective epigenetic, the term epigenetics was coined by C. H.
Waddington in 1942 as pertaining to epigenesis in parallel to Valentin Haecker 's 'phenogenetics ' .
Epigenesis in the context of biology refers to the differentiation of
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How Does The Change Affect Our Grandchildren?
By studying Epigenetics, we learn about the changes in heritable genome function without changes
in the DNA sequence itself. Transgenerational inheritance requires a chromosomal or epigenetic
change in the germline allowing the information to be passed on from one generation to another
(Anway et al 2005a). In order for epigenetic marks to be passed down, the gametes need to conserve
their epigenomes by avoiding two reprogramming events; in the gamete and zygote. It has generally
been accepted that epigenetic marks are removed and re–established in the preceding generation,
thus not inherited. However, studies being carried out on model organisms are challenging this
concept and suggesting that this may not be entirely correct. There may be an incomplete erasure of
epigenetic marks resulting in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance (Youngson and Whitelaw
2008). The present generations were being synthesised in the womb of their grandmother. Therefore,
did the food my grandmother ate affect my development? Could the air we breathe affect our
grandchildren? Many questions are still unknown in this field. The environment and external factors
may cause additional information to be added on top of the genome resulting in phenotypic variation
and disease leading to transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Epigenetic modifications of the
germline are not only important to evolutionary biologists and disease aetiology but also ecologists,
as incomplete epigenetic changes can
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Zebrafish Synthesis
Abstract
Oxygen is essential for human life, but an excess of oxygen could easily become toxic and have an
adverse effects on the mammalian brain due to excessive formation of reactive oxygen species,
commonly known as ROS. In previous studies, changes in hippocampal DNA material have been
observed in validated animal models of PTSD (Chertkow–Deutsher, Cohen, Klein, & Ben–Shachar,
2010). These changes in the genome may very well be the underlying cause of long–term traumatic
memories. Previous studies conducted at Texas A&M University – Commerce used zebrafish as a
model for post–traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), however, the results not only proved that zebrafish
show symptoms of PTSD, but in fact we observed modification in the neural progenitor cells around
the hippocampal area of the zebrafish brain. High concentrations of ROS can be the reason behind
the modification of the neural cells. Therefore, the importance of this study is to investigate the
molecular pathways of ROS in the zebrafish brain. We hypothesize that using an antioxidant, N–
acetyl–L–cysteine (NAC) could reduce the concentrations of trauma induced ROS, which would
ultimately prevent the modifications in the neural progenitor cells in zebrafish.
Introduction
Zebrafish: ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
2013;90:118–126). Zebrafish are not only cost–efficient, but also easy to house. Therefore, they are
considered ideal species for studying genetic mutations and molecular pathways (Ali S, et
al.2012;228:272–283). Zebrafish are known to be social animals, which is an effective
representation of human nature. Zebrafish also make very good research models to test for long–
term stress disorders since they have the ability to show a wide variety of behavioral changes that
can be observed in human
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What Is Epigenetics?
What is Epigenetics?
The word "epigenetic" means "in addition to changes in genetic sequence." The term has changed to
include any process that alters gene activity without changing the DNA sequence, and leads to
modifications that can be transmitted to daughter cells. The term epigenetics was first used in the
early 1940s, when embryologist Conrad Waddington used it to describe the interactions between
genes and their products, which give rise to an organism's observable characteristics or phenotype.
Epigenetics involves genetic control by factors other than an individual's DNA sequence. Certain
circumstances in life can cause genes to be silenced or expressed over time. They can be turned off,
becoming dormant, or turned on, becoming active. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
If we could map every single cause and effect of the different combinations, and if we could reverse
the gene's state to keep the good while eliminating the bad, then theoretically we could cure cancer,
slow the aging process and stop obesity. Epigenetic processes are natural and essential to many
organism functions, but if they occur improperly, there can be major adverse health and behavioural
effects.
How does epigenetics work?
Epigenetic changes alter the physical structure of DNA. Chemical tags known as epigenetic marks
sit atop genes, either on the DNA itself or on the histone proteins around which DNA is wrapped.
Changes in the mix of these marks can alter a gene's behaviour, turning the gene off so that protein
synthesis is inhibited, or turning it on, all without changing the information the gene contains.
Epigenetic tags act as a kind of cellular memory. A cell's epigenetic profile, a collection of tags that
tell genes whether to be on or off, is the sum of the signals it has received during its lifetime. Some
epigenetic marks inhibit genes by inducing tight folding of chromatin, which is DNA mixed with
histones and other proteins, and thus keeping genes from being read. Methyl groups sometimes play
that
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Nature vs. Nurture Shown in Family Addiction
Consider the following scenario: John and his mother are both alcoholics. John has been exposed to
his mother's inappropriate relationship with alcohol since before he was born. In the age–old debate
of nature vs. nurture, some would say it was merely natural for John to follow his mother's path, a la
the apple does not fall far from the tree–his addiction was inherited. Others would argue that John's
childhood experiences and home environment led him on the road to addiction. Many might
question whether John would have fared better if he had been raised elsewhere. While John may
have been a victim of circumstance or fate, a completely different angle can be considered. Perhaps
John's alcoholism is a genetic result–a result that was influenced by his unfortunate environmental
factors. In other words, John inherited his nature via his nurture. The positions surrounding the
explanation of John's outcome have been debated for centuries by ordinary people, philosophers,
geneticists and psychologists. With recent advancements, a second genome has been recognized and
established as the "epigenome," which is directly influenced by the outside environment (Francis).
While extreme positions still exist within the nature vs. nurture debate, most scientists now agree
that a combination of the two determines one's outcome; with the burgeoning field of epigenetics,
however, the ability to overcome one's genes, to some extent, ends the debate and offers hope that
can be viewed as American
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Three Main Pathways Of Epigenetic Modification
Epigenetic Modifications in Cancer Scientists have known for several decades that cancer may be
caused by mutations in the DNA of cells. These mutations may result from exposure to certain
substances (e.g. radiation, benzene) or they may occur spontaneously in the process of cell division,
especially in the context of aging. Recently, researchers have discovered another level of inherited
cellular information separate from the genes themselves. Epigenetics is the study of modifications to
genes that change their patterns of expression. Epigenetic processes can silence a gene or even an
entire chromosome. They can cause normally silent genes to be expressed, and can change the
process of transcription so that the nucleotides are transcribed in a different order. Normally,
epigenetic information is stabilized early in development and is maintained as cells divide.
However, over time, mutations or epigenetic drift may change the inherited pattern. This type of
event often results in disease such as cancer (Jones & Baylin 2002). There are three main pathways
of epigenetic modification. The first pathway involves methylation of the cytosine in CpG
dinucleotides, a process which is catalyzed by DNA methyl transferases (DNMT). Second,
modifications can be made in the histone proteins which give DNA its structure. Third, small,
noncoding micro–RNAs (miRNA) can alter the messenger RNAs so that they degrade and cannot
produce the proteins coded by the corresponding DNA. Although
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Socioeconomic Status and Health Issues
Socioeconomic status (a measurement of income, education, and occupation) measures an
individual's social standing in society. Low socioeconomic status is often linked to a depravity of
essential material resources and heightened psychological stress variables. The importance of
researching the effects is underlined by its association to a number of adverse health effects and the
increasing prevalence of poverty within many countries in the world. Recent studies have
investigated the possible effects on the biological mechanisms by examining the differences in
epigenetic patterns between individuals with variability in socioeconomic status. Although there
have been limited studies conducted on this area, research has determined that the status of
socioeconomic often has a significant impact on methylation, with an increase or decrease in certain
sections of the genome depending on the region in question.
Introduction
Socioeconomic status is the combination of income, education and occupation which typically
measures the social standing of an individual in a society [3]. The potential impact of socioeconomic
status is vital as it affects a significant percent of Canadians. According to the Employment and
Social Development Canada (2006), poverty affects approximately twelve percent of adults and
thirteen percent of children. The gap between the rich and poor has significantly increased within
the past few decades and research suggests that it will
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Analysis Of The Article ' Epigenetics And Human Disease '
Introduction
How is it that two identical twins with the exact same DNA and the same environment can be very
different? (Coutney Griffin 2012) Cortney Griffin elaborated on how her journey of having twins
lead her to a deeper understanding of what epigenetics truly is. This talk, although vastly viewed in
biochemistry classes including at the University of Texas of El Paso, differs from the scholarly
article "Epigenetics and human disease: translating basic biology into clinical applications" by
David Rodenhiser and Mellissa Mann. Their most prominent similarities and differences can be
separated into audience and purpose, rhetorical appeals, and structure and delivery.
Summary of Speech Courtney Griffin begins her speech by saying that nine years ago, she was told
that she was going to have twins. This got her interested in how much of people's mental health and
physical health has to do with nature and nurture. She took the stage to describe her journey at
TEDX OU, is an independently Organized TED event at the University of Oklahoma. She had been
trained as a geneticist. She was not expecting twins so she joked, what would happen if she put one
kid in daycare and one kid in a drawer. This got her interested in epigenetics. Even though twins
could have identical DNA and grow up relatively the same they are radically different people, to the
point that there are health differences between the children. When DNA gets wrapped to fit into the
nucleolus, some parts are able to
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Genetics Of Families With Alzheimer 's Disease
Similarly, another study focusing on several families with EOAD identified a locus on chromosome
14 that is linked with Alzheimer's disease, which was shown to be an autosomal dominant trait
(Schellenberg et al., 1992). Figure 3 illustrates the map of the chromosome 14 markers. D14S43 was
found to be a strongly positive marker in chromosome 14 for EOAD (Schellenberg et al., 1992).
This illustrates that, although chromosome 21 if often the main focus of AD researchers,
chromosome 14 also plays a large role in the development of the disease. In summary, chromosome
21 holds the loci responsible for APP and Aβ, causing it to be a main genetic factor in the
development of EOAD. Nevertheless, chromosome 14 also is responsible for the autosomal
dominant trait in FAD. Several mechanisms are present that lead to the development of AD in the
genetics of families with a history of this disorder. This may lead to more difficult treatments for
FAD. Objective 3: Epigenetic Causes Although genetics do play a large role in EOAD, late onset
Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) seems to be influenced more by epigenetic drifts. Unlike EOAD,
LOAD appears somewhat sporadically and displays many non–Mendelian characteristics. These
include, but are not limited to, low patterns of familial diagnosis, unequal susceptibility in men and
women, and a variance in DNA methylation (which plays a larger role in epigenetic modifications)
between non–AD and AD subjects (Wang et al., 2008). This suggests that
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Genetic And Non Genetic Mechanisms Of Inheritance Essay
Regina Noel
10/19/2016
Epigenetics: Genetic and Non–Genetic Mechanisms of Inheritance When discussing the topic of
genetics, it is typically viewed from the perspective of Mendelian inheritance in which genes are
transmitted from parent to offspring solely through the use of genetic alleles, which are the
alternative form of genes that have varying DNA sequences and chromosomes that affect the
phenotype, visual gene trait (Toth. 2015). If and how a genetic trait is expressed is whether the
alleles for that trait are dominant or recessive. Dominant alleles are genes that have a higher
probability of being expressed in the offspring than a recessive allele. In the case of dominate
alleles; there are two possible combinations that its gene can still be expressed with, homozygous
(which contains two dominant alleles) and heterozygous (which contains a dominant and recessive
allele). On the other hand, recessive alleles can only be expressive if it is homozygous (which
contains two recessive alleles) (Reece et al. 2013). Since Gregor Mendel's discovery of alleles and
genetic inheritance, there has been research shows that there are more mechanisms of inheriting
traits which do not include changing the nucleotide sequence of DNA. This form of non–genetic
inheritance is called epigenetic modification. One example of epigenetic modification is DNA
methylation. DNA methylation is when methyl groups, which are chemical groups that contain one
carbon bound to three hydrogen atoms,
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Essay On Epigenetic Resetting In Plants

  • 1. Essay On Epigenetic Resetting In Plants Embryonic epigenetic reprogramming by a transcription factor in plants Abstract: Epigenetic modifications have important roles in flowering which requires vernalization (cold winder) for many plants. Epigenetic marks that accumulated during vernalization need to be removed to ensure proper development of the offspring. However, the knowledge about the key gene required for such resetting and the underlying mechanism is limited. Here, the author demonstrated that LEAFY COTYLEDONI (LEC1) could de novo activate FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) expression in the pre–embryo by establishment of active chromatin, thus reversing the silenced state at FLC. Besides, the active chromatin state can be transmitted to post–embryonic life. Taken together, these ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... To understand the timing of FLC activation in embryogenesis, the author first examine when FLC is reactivated using an FLC:: GUS reporter line. They found that FLC expression was activated in pro– embryo within 1 day after pollination and onwards from both non–vernalized parental plants and vernalized parental plants, despite that FLC expression is lower from vernalized plants than that from none–vernalized plants. These results were further confirmed by in situ mRNA hybridization. Then the author postulated that LEC1, a master embryo transcription factor and expressed in the pro–embryo and throughout embryogenesis, is a good candidate required for embryonic de novo FLC activation. To support their hypothesis, the author first introduced loss of function null lec1 allele in FRI–Col and found that this FLC–dependent later flowering phenotype was suppressed. Next, they crossed lec1 with FLC:: GUS line and found that FLC expression was suppressed in the pro–embryo stage and onwards. These results suggest that LEC1 reactivate FLC expression in early embryogenesis and onwards in non–vernalized plants. To explore whether LEC1 could reactivate FLC expression after parental vernalization, the FLC expression was traced for two generations in LEC1/lec1 seedlings by FLC–GUS reporter. FLC was fully activated in LEC1/lec1 before cold and silenced after vernalization, and the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. Background Explanation Of Epigenetics By Conrad Waddington DNA than the their less depressed counterparts (Reiche, Vargas Nunes, & Kaminami Morimoto, 2004). Background Explanation of Epigenetics Epigenetics What is epigenetics? Epigenetics is a term that was coined by Conrad Waddington that describes the heritable changes in the cellular phenotypes that are observed independently of alterations that occurs in the DNA sequence (Dawson & Kouzarides, 2012). He proposed that there was a link between development and genetics, which is where the field of epigenetics came from. The word epigenetics itself was derived from a Greek word epigenesist. Epigenesist is the theory of development that proposed the early embryo was undifferentiated. The broad meaning of epigenetics would be defined as the unfolding of the genetic program for development. However, Waddington's definition of epigenetics was not much different than that of embryology (Holliday, 2006). Over time the definition of epigenetics has evolved into the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occurs independently of the changed in the primary DNA sequence (Sharma, Kelly, & Jones, 2010). Ernst Hadorn, another scientist that became important in the study of epigenetics for his research with Drosophila, and the discovery of the imaginal discs. These discs were completely undifferentiated cells that existed during development. Hadorn later went on to determine that each of these imaginal disc developed into symmetrical parts of the adult structure. This led Hadorn and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. Beckwith – Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) (OMIM:130650) is a heterogeneous condition both in its clinical presentation and its molecular etiology. Clinical diagnostic criteria include at least several of the following signs: macrosomia (somatic overgrowth), macroglossia (omphalocele, umbilical hernia, diastasis recti), ear creases and/or pits, hemihyperplasia (asymmetric overgrowth), visceromegaly, renal malformations, neonatal hypoglycemia, cytomegaly of the fetal adrenal cortex, cleft palate (rare), facial nevus flammeus, and cardiomegaly or structural cardiac anomalies (Weksberg et al., 2010). About 5–20% of children with BWS have an increased risk of embryonal tumors (Sunil Sinha, 2014). These tumors most commonly include Wilms tumor and hepatoblastoma ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The epigenetic changes as methylation at H19 seen in patients with BWS who develop Wilms' tumor are also seen in patients who develop Wilms' tumor without BWS. This indicates that the timing of epigenetic change may determine whether one develops a syndrome like BWS or a cancer. For example such a change in an early embryo can present as BWS and cancer predisposition whereas such a change in an embryonic precursor for an organ generates predisposition to cancer in that organ. Common pediatric embryonal tumor types can also be associated with BWS including rhabdomyosarcoma, adrenal cortical carcinoma, gonadoblastoma and neuroblastoma. We have recently shown that BWS cases with these tumors exhibit loss of methylation at DMR2 and not at DMR1. These data indicate that there are likely to be two distinct cancer–predisposing regions on 11p15 (Rosanna Weksberg et al., ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. Epigenetic Modifications INTRODUCTION Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications are widely considered to be important in controlling the differentiation of cells. However some argue that since these mechanisms are not seen or transient in model organisms such as worms and flies that epigenetics cannot be important. However it is also important to mention that there are very different definitions of the word epigenetics formed from independent reasoning which may affect the debate on whether epigenetics is important or not in controlling cell differentiation. (Berger et al., 2009)For example, to Conrad Waddington, it was the study of epigenesist ie. How genotypes give rise to phenotypes during development. On the other hand, Arthur Riggs ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In the first cell division these transcription factors are distributed asymmetrically to the daughter cells. Then, and in subsequent cell generations, new patterns of gene expression arise in two ways: as a matter of course (some transcription factors activating expression of genes encoding other regulatory proteins, etc.), and in response to signals sent by other cells. Signalling used in development affects expression of genes encoding yet more transcription factors–it does so by changing activities of transcription factors, already present, which target those genes. Retinoic acid and growth hormone are examples of such signalling molecules. (Ptashne, 2013) There are two things we need to keep in mind when we talk about cell differentiation. These are specificity and memory. Transcription regulators work specifically. They activate one gene or set of genes and not another. Therefore, for many regulators and genes, any regulator will work on any gene as determined by the locations of its affined cis–regulatory sequence. (Ptashne, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Epigenetics ONE of biology's hottest topics is epigenetics. The term itself covers a multitude of sins. Strictly speaking, it refers to the regulation of gene expression by the chemical modification of DNA, or of the histone proteins in which DNA is usually wrapped. This modification is either the addition of methyl groups (a carbon atom and three hydrogens) to the DNA or of acetyl groups (two carbons, three hydrogens and an oxygen) to the histones. Methylation switches genes off. Acetylation switches them on. Since, in a multicellular organism, different cells need different genes to be active, such regulation is vital. What has got a lot of people excited, though, is the idea that epigenetic switches might be transmitted down the generations. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The term itself covers a multitude of sins. Strictly speaking, it refers to the regulation of gene expression by the chemical modification of DNA, or of the histone proteins in which DNA is usually wrapped. This modification is either the addition of methyl groups (a carbon atom and three hydrogens) to the DNA or of acetyl groups (two carbons, three hydrogens and an oxygen) to the histones. Methylation switches genes off. Acetylation switches them on. Since, in a multicellular organism, different cells need different genes to be active, such regulation is vital. What has got a lot of people excited, though, is the idea that epigenetic switches might be transmitted down the generations. Some see this as contrary to Darwinism, since it would permit characteristics acquired during an organism's lifetime to be passed on to its offspring, as suggested by a rival theory of evolution put forward by Jean–Baptiste Lamarck. This is an exaggeration. The DNA sequence itself is not being permanently altered. Even those epigenetic changes that are inherited seem to be subsequently reversible. But the idea that acquired characteristics can be inherited at all is still an important and novel one, and a worrying example of the phenomenon has been published this week in BioMed Central Medicine. In this section * Lake monsters * A third–world dimension * ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. Diet Mediated And Transgenerational Epigenetic Effects Diet–Mediated and Transgenerational Epigenetic Effects An offspring's microbial composition is initially determined through maternal transmission in utero and during birth, however, after delivery, the microbiota is not fixed and may be changed by a multitude of environmental factors. The mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean section), diet, and many other factors continue to play dynamic roles throughout an individual's lifetime (Marques et al., 2010). Recent studies have indicated that maternal and neonatal nutrition significantly alter the epigenome of offspring, with the food consumed during pregnancy modulating the gut microbiota as well as the metabolites produced (Turnbaugh et al., 2009). Dietary intervention studies indicate that the diet sensitive nature of the gut persists throughout life, and that the gut microbiota often responds rapidly to changes in diet (Hullar & Fu, 2014). More specifically, dietary alterations modulate the exposure of the host to microbial metabolites (such as butyrate) which could have a multiplicity of epigenetic effects in the offspring (Duncan et al., 2007). Not only do the foods consumed during pregnancy alter the epigenetic marks of offspring, significant evidence is showing that those epigenetic marks can have transgenerational effects (Heard & Martienssen, 2014). One recent study showed that children of obese fathers were at a higher risk of developing obesity themselves. The epigenetic marks of lean and obese men showed similar ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. Write An Essay On Epigenetics Epigenetics is the study of change in inherited genes without changing ones DNA as well as modifying genes that are transferred. Various factors such as aging, what we eat, lifestyles, exercising or even smoking can influence the change in epigenetics which is normal but can sometimes enhance diseases, behavior disorders and many other disorders that have been transferred either through pregnancy or carried on from previous generation into our DNA. These disorders can be shown at different stages in life or even carried on to the next generation. Studies have shown that during pregnancy the environment and what was being consumed during the time are the most influential factors that increase the chances of diseases and behavior disorders that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Evidence has shown that epigenetic can be changed to terminate the bad genes. This change can give the hopeful chance to end obesity, cancer, Alzheimer, etc. Epigenetic processes control normal growth and development to fight off abnormal diseases in the body, research on processes such as methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitylation and sumolyation have been discovered to reverse genes. DNA methylation is the process of modifying the genes and is used in reprogramming many diseases including tumor process. Acetylation works to increase the expression of genes through transcription activation plus alters the chromatin. Phosphorylation is necessary for protein function which controls enzymes. Ubiquitylation is also a protein found in tissue that can affect protein deficiency. Sumolyation is very similar to the ubiquitylation cycle that deals with protein and cells, it does not break down the protein like ubiquitylation, instead it plays the role of regulating the cell process. The most common ways of processing with science and technology today is DNA methylation and chromatin ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. Nicotine And Epigenetic Analysis In this article, nicotine is utilized to figure out whether it causes emotional distress, for example, anxiety and depression. These emotional symptoms might be brought about because of epigenetic mechanisms or alterations, for example, histone acetylation. Nicotine is a profoundly addictive part of tobacco. The chronic utilization of nicotine is believed to increment emotional side effects such as anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression is seen in dependent smokers as withdrawal indications. Epigenetics is the study of alteration of gene expression which causes changes in an organism. Mechanisms can be methylation, histone acetylation and alteration in microRNAs. Studies recommend that epigenetic changes, for example, histone acetylation ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The outcomes utilizing histone deacetylase inhibitors demonstrate the inclusion of epigenetic histone acetylation in the weakening of nicotine and additionally immobilization stress induced anxiety and depression like behavioral modifications. The selective CB1 agonist AC, similar to histone deacetylase inhibitors, gave anxiolytic and antidepressant like impacts against these behavioral adjustments, which recommends the association of the endocannabinoid system, and the selective CB1 antagonist SR antagonized the impacts of AC. Some weakening impact of SR was seen on the anxiolytic and antidepressant like impacts of histone deacetylase inhibitor–induced histone acetylation, at the same time connected with both function of the endocannabinoid system, one of the targets for histone deacetylase inhibitors, and stressor induced emotion related behaviors. Be that as it may, against the antidepressant like impacts of histone deacetylase inhibitors, the lessening impact of SR was restricted in the nicotine treatment ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. Autism In Children: A Qualitative Study It is alarming to see how many are diagnosed with autism each year. In order to reduce the number of children affected by this disorder, we need to first understand what causes it. Researchers have been working diligently over the years, but the exact mechanism of what causes autism is still unknown. The extensive research has been able to rule out factors that do not contribute to autism and has made advancements in possible causative factors. As of right now, it appears that the source is possibly multi–factorial, just like the disorder. Theories that are believed to be a part of the cause include genetic, environmental, maternal age, viruses, toxins, and medical conditions. In order to test the theory of maternal age and its' association to autism, the largest–ever multinational study of parental age was performed. This study aimed to see if parental age was an independent factor in the risk of autism. Researchers examined the rates of autism for over five million children born between 1985 and 2004. The age, sex, and birth year of the parents were obtained from birth and/or civil registers. Additionally, they followed up on the child's development between 2004 and 2009 (Large, 2015). The study found that children born with father's over 50 years of age had an autism diagnosis that was 66% higher than children born to fathers in their 20's and there was a 28% higher rate of autism for fathers in their 40's versus 20's. Furthermore, teen mom's had an 18% higher autism ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19. Out-Of-Pocket Medical Treatment Imagine taking the time, making the effort, spending the money to raise a child then see this child murdered in public due to policy of public insurance companies. Proper treatment to rehabilitate individuals developing mental health problems is a significant out–of–pocket medical expense. Shouldn't the public insurance companies be brought up on murder charges for negligence? We see it in the news over and over. Some shooting happened out in public due to mental instability. Tax payers ask what could be done to prevent this problem. No better idea than increasing security has not been thought up. It is very difficult to keep anything 100% secure as one individual took a run across the White House lawn before security caught up to them. Here ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... When this condition is not treated around this age some loss of ability typically occurs that is not congruent with one's potential. The human body is very forgiving at repairing itself. The biggest obstacle for this condition is getting it properly treated as insurance companies refuse to cover the cost of proper treatment. The proper treatment has been available to the public for 27 years. Yet public insurance companies refuse and neglect to cover this treatment. I feel any insurance company should be obligated to pay a good portion of the cost of doctor appointments along with what the doctor prescribes. The cost of the supplements makes up most of the cost of receiving proper treatment. Typically the cost for proper treatment increases the longer an individual goes without proper treatment. The form of the supplement and whether or not the supplement can be bought without a prescription should not matter. From my experience, public insurance companies will refuse to cover any pharmaceutical grade supplements prescribed or suggested by doctors with medical degrees. To make matters worse politics have influenced the rise in cost for treatment. Making it un–affordable without ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20.
  • 21. Epigenetic Modifications to the Human Genome Epigenetic modifications to the human genome have increasingly become the subject of scientific research due to a presumptive role in the pathology and progression of degenerative diseases. Conventionally, methylation of a nucleotide residue is associated with gene repression, whereas acetylation of a nucleotide residue is associated with gene expression. Through a member of the DNA methyltransferase protein family, the formation of 5–methylcytosine (5mC) from a previously unmodified cytosine residue is a classic representation of a widely–occurring, principal epigenetic modification event. This process is subject to dynamic regulation and as such, the regulatory mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. In regards to demethylation of these particular residues, humans lack a corresponding methylcytosine specific DNA glycosylase; however, a potential alternate pathway has been identified. Catalyzed by the human ten eleven translocation 1 (TET1) proteins, oxidation of 5mC results in formation of 5–hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC); when 5hmC is further subject to oxidation, 5–formylcytosine (5fC) is produced. These oxidized derivatives are suspected to be substrates designated for removal by the base excision repair pathway. Scientists at the University of Kentucky resolved to explore an epigenetic change in the progression of a neuro– degenerative disease such as Alzheimer's. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by the appearance of three key features in brain ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22.
  • 23. Dna And The Human Body Each cell in the human body has the same exact genetic material, with a few exceptions, and yet each cell does something different than all the other cells. Contained within the nucleus, the entire genome can be found, and within the genome, there is all the information needed to construct a specific organism. The genome is composed of deoxyribose nucleic acids, also called DNA, which breaks down into smaller units called genes. A gene has a specific sequence of adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine molecules that will code for a specific polypeptide. Polypeptides can then go on to become proteins for the cell to use. The genome is the same in every cell, but with about 200 different cell types, there must be something telling the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Such things (include?)like the histone modification or methylation of DNA. Some sources debate that 'epigenetics' refers to all environmental factors which cause the alterations to occur. Things like the smoke from cigarettes, the food that you eat, the environment inside the placenta, you amount of sleep you get, and your exercising habits[3]. As epigenetics becomes more prominent in science, the debate evolves and the definition changes. Scientists are considering the effects of these epigenetic modifications as well as what creates the modifications. Several mechanisms cause these alterations to gene expression. The most commonly considered factors are DNA methylation, histone modification, and the effects of non–coding RNA. With DNA methylation, methyl groups (CH3) are added directly to the DNA. These methyl groups attach to the fifth carbon of the cytosine nitrogenous base by a protein called DNA–methyltransferase. The most common location for these methylations is at CpG sites, which are locations with a high amount of cytosine–guanine base pairs. The methylated cytosine is called a 5–methylcytosine (5–mc)[4]. The bound methyl group protrudes into the major grove of the DNA double helix and does not allow for any proteins to bind. DNA can either be hypermethylated, with a high number of methyl groups attached, or hypomethylated, with a low number of methyl groups attached. Hypermethylation typically causes genes to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24.
  • 25. The Pros And Cons Of Epigenetics What makes one individual different from the other? Many have attempted to answer this question– from ancient philosophers and theologists to modern day scientists. Regardless of whether the individual concerned is a cell or a whole organism, the answer is said to lie in the nature vs. nurture debate. Thus arose another, related question– How do individuals with extremely similar blueprints develop an astounding amount of differences? Biological research attempting to settle the debate for once and for all has found that differences amongst a cohort of individuals is established by an interplay of both– genetics (nature) and various environmental influences (nurture). Epigenetics, a term coined by Conrad Waddington (from Greek epi–, 'over', 'outside of', 'around') initially to mean "the branch of biology which studies the causal interactions ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... A related phrase described by Waddington to help elaborate the phenomenon of epigenetics, the 'epigenetic landscape' attempts to explain how identical genotypes could result in a wide variety of phenotypic variation through the process of development. This epigenetic landscape can be dynamic – capturing genetic, environmental, and cell lineage effects – and has been shown to be at least partly heritable. (Szyf, M. (2015) Nongenetic inheritance and transgenerational epigenetics. Trends Mol. Med. 21, 134–144). The epigenetic code is hypothesized to be a defining code in every eukaryotic cell consisting of the specific epigenetic modifications in each cell. While in one individual the genetic code in each cell is the same, the epigenetic code is tissue & cell ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26.
  • 27. Cct Is A Highly Heritable And One Of The Most Correlated... CCT is a highly heritable and one of the most correlated quntitive ocular trait (Ref). It is a hallmark of diseases such as keratoconus and a rsik facor for POAG in individuals with high IOP. In table 1B, we compile information on following fifteen genes and sequence variants identified through GWAS using CCT as a quantitative trait; 1. A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 13 (AKAP13), 2. fibroblast growth factor 9 related (AVGR8/FGF9–SGCG); 3. Chondroitin sulfate synthase 1 (CHSY1); 4. Collagen type 8 alpha 2 (COL8A2); 5. CWC27 spliceosome–associated protein homolog (CWC27– ADAMTS6); 6. fibronectin type III domain containing 3B (FNDC3B); 7. forkhead box O1 (FOXO1); 8. G protein–coupled receptor 15 (GPR15); 9. heparan sulfate (glucosamine) ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Caveolin1/2 (CAV1/CAV2); 4. cyclin–dependent kinase inhibitor 2B family (CDKN2B and CDKN2B–AS1); 5. family with sequence similarity 125, member B (FAM125B); 6. FND3B; 7. growth arrest–specific 7 (GAS7); 8. glucocorticoid induced transcript 1 (GLCCI1/ICA1) [36]; 9. RAB9B, member RAS oncogene family pseudogene 1 (RAB9BP1); 10. SIX homeobox 1/6 (SIX1/SIX6); 11. solute carrier family 2 (SLC2A14/SLC2A3) and 12. transmembrane and coiled– coil domains 1 (TMCO1) 3e. Genes identified in GWAS with optic nerve/disc paramters as the quantitative trait: As mentioned before, glaucomatous optic neuropathies are recognized by changes in the characteristics of the optic nerve head, or optic disc, caused by loss of retinal ganglion cells and thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer. GWAS utilizing quantitative optic nerve parameters have so far yeilded 28 genes and genomic regions as listed in Table 1D. 3f. POAG/NTG genes identified from POAG/NTG based GWAS : The GWAS approach has been used very successfully in the past five years to identify genes associated with various endophenotypes of POAG. [Add discussion of GWAS findings] Recently genome–wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ten genomic loci statistically associated with POAG or NTG, including atonal homolog 7 (ATOH 7), caveolin1/2 (CAV1/CAV2), phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2), SIX homeobox 1/6 (SIX1/SIX6), transmembrane and coiled–coil domains 1 (TMCO1), variants near ATP–binding cassette, sub–family A (ABC1), ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28.
  • 29. In September 1944, World War II was close to an end, and... In September 1944, World War II was close to an end, and the German troops were retiring from their conquered countries throughout Europe. The Netherlands was the last country retained by the Nazis which around this time was stricken by the Allied Forces, to which the exiled Dutch government responded with a railway strike. The intents of the Allied Forces with the help of the strike were futile, which gave the German government the opportunity to order a food embargo to the Netherlands as a lesson for their disobedience. The embargo coincided with a cruel winter which rendered poor crops starting a season of famine in the region. The daily calorie intake went from 2,300–2,900 to 1,000 initially, 580 calories for the crude winter months. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... By the time these people reached their 50's researchers focused on cardiovascular and physiological functions, they found high levels of obesity, cholesterol and type II diabetes. The study continues until present day. Epigenetics is the study of reactions that switch part of the genome at specific locations and time, and what factors influence them. A cell has a sum of signals that help on stabilizing the gene expression; these are epigenetics tags that are accumulated through cell development. While for decades scientists thought the new embryo's epigenome was made from scratch it is now know that parents' epigenetic tags play an important role in the life of the new creature. Most of the epigenetic tags are erased during the process of development in a process called "reprogramming" leaving the majority of the cell in a blank state though a few genes make it through the process without successful removal of the tags. The study greatly helped in understanding the mechanism of nutrition and epigenetic inheritance to the child while in the womb. It has been shown through animal studies that a methyl rich diet of the mother gives a progeny with a highly methylated DNA. Specifically, studies in mice have shown that diet affects the Agouti gene (present in all mammals) when the gene is not methylated the mice shows a yellow coat, a fatter complexion and is likely to develop diabetes and cancer. Unlike the healthy mice ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30.
  • 31. A Study Of Dynamic Regulation Of Gene Expression Essay The majority of cells in the human body are not human at all. The 100 trillion prokaryotic cells that make up our microbiota, constitute 90% of the cells in our bodies, and are derived from more than 40,000 bacterial strains (Forsythe & Kunze, 2012). Bacterial cells reside in animal hosts as commensals, symbionts, or as pathogenic parasites, forming a veneer over almost all body surfaces (Dave et al., 2012). Increasingly, research is showing the importance of host microbiota composition and the bidirectional signaling pathways between the brain and the gut, some of which are epigenetic. These studies elucidate the profound impacts that signaling pathways, such as short– chain fatty acid mediated effects, nucleomodulins, and other bacterial metabolites, can have on health, behavior and cognition (Sommer & Backhed, 2013). 'Epigenetics,' derived from the Greek root 'epi ' meaning on top of, is the study of dynamic regulation of gene expression due to factors that act on chromatin structure, nuclear architecture and other molecular events that do not change the DNA sequence (Stilling et al., 2014). In addition, epigenetics has sometimes been defined as sequence– independent heritable changes in gene expression (Holliday, 1987). Epigenetic processes include post–translational histone modification, as well as cytosine methylation and interactions of non–coding RNAs (Jaenisch & Bird, 2003; Landry et al., 2013). Post–translational histone acetylation results in a decreased ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32.
  • 33. Behavioral Epigenetics : Biological Heredity And Nurture Do the experiences or events that your parents, grandparents or even great grandparents had in the past affect your genes? Why do some humans have mental health issues and others do not? Behavioral epigenetics examines how nurture shapes nature, where nature refers to biological heredity and nurture refers to everything that occurs during the animal 's lifespan. Epigenetics is the study of alterations in an organism caused by modifications of gene expressions instead of alterations of the genetic code itself. Behavioral epigenetics is the field of study, which analyzes the role epigenetics have in shaping human or animal behavior. Epigenetics works by wrapping DNA around histone octamers to form nucleosomes. Genes will be transcribed or silenced depending on the spacing of nucleosomes, which is determined by complex processes, including post–translational modification of DNA and histones as well as the large numbers of chromatin regulatory proteins recruited to interact with these modifications (Nestler). Behavioral epigenetics explains why humans and animals behave the way they do, not by changing the DNA, but by modification of gene expression rather than alteration of the genetic code, which in turn changes behavior in multiple generations. To study behavioral epigenetics, scientists first used rats because it was easy to observe and collect data over many generations. One experiment, scientists observed behavioral epigenetics with rats is maternal care. Rat pups that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34.
  • 35. Addiction, Addiction, Depression, Poverty And Mental Illness? Addiction, Depression, Poverty and Mental Illness; Doomed by Epigenetics Similar to other causality dilemmas, the question of which comes first: poverty, low SES, or mental instability, is discussed when modeling the development of psychological problems in human beings. Low socioeconomic status (SES), a marker dependent on income level, education and occupation, is often used interchangeably to title poor individuals as well as those with psychological health issues. Factors such as stress, negative environment, low quality of living, exposure to noise pollution and violence can all lead to bad health problems and play a role in the development of mental illnesses. Often, it is assumed that a positive family history for mental illness is one of the strongest predictors of the future development of depression and other psychological issues. Yet, we have an understanding that not all individuals with this risk factor later suffer from depression. From a biological stand point, one's biological brain functions can also be another considerable co–factor for mental development. The highlighted biological mechanism researchers focus on is epigenetic modification, specifically methylation of gene regulatory regions, in parts of the brain. The amygdala, the portion of the brain that deals with one's emotion behavior, and motivation, undergoes various biological mechanisms that later in turn shape that brain and other processes in this region. Serotonin, a hormonal product ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36.
  • 37. Epigenetics Essay Epigenetics, involves the expression of phenotypical characteristics in an individual without directly altering the genetic code. Instead the phenotypes manifest through the use of external factors, such as, trauma, stressors, environment and chemical exposure that result in the silencing and alteration of gene expression without altering or mutating the genetic code. This essay will look into the importance of the study of epigenetics through the effects of epigenetics on genes, as well as the effects of experience and inheritance on the development of epigenetic based phenotypical characteristics. The first major effects of epigenetics on genes can be seen in the role of DNA methylation in mammalian epigenetics. DNA methylation provides a method of gene control in an organism, where it assures proper gene expression, as well as silencing of genes within cells, it does this through the manipulation of chromosome architecture, where it affects the packaging of the DNA by the binding of a methyl group to cytosine (Kullis & Esteller, 2010). The effects of this can ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The expression of these phenotypes and their acquisition can then clearly be seen in the effects of chemical compounds such as arsenic, nickel and BPA on the development of cancer as well as the effects of life experiences, such as childhood abuse, on the manifestation of depression. While, lastly it can be seen how the possible acquisition of epigenetic phenotypes by an individual can behave similarly to genetic code and be passed through the germ–line to subsequent individuals. Therefore, this epic influence on survival through epigenetic expression, emphasizes the importance of the study of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38.
  • 39. Determining the Underlying Causes of Asthma Essay Asthma is the most common worldwide chronic condition that affects both young and old. It is a condition in which the air way passages are narrowed leading to symptoms of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and cough (Bijanzadeh, Mahesh, Nallur 1). Asthma is caused by increased infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airway, constriction, airway smooth–muscle hypertrophy, and mucous hypersecretion in the bronchiolar walls of the lung (Bijanzadeh, Mahesh, Nallur 1). Most asthma attacks are short, a few minutes to a few hours, and the person recovers completely this is called episodic asthma disease. However, those who have acute severe asthma is much more serious because the asthma attacks lasts for days or weeks, and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... As the people involved in this study observed the degree of expression of asthma within genetically similar populations they discovered that asthma between children of similar genetic ancestry that live in different environments have significant differences in prevalence rates (Subbarao, Mandhane, and Sears 182). The results included Chinese children who lived in China had a lower prevalence rate, Chinese who were born in China but migrated to Canada had an intermediate rate, and Chinese students who were born and lived in Canada had the greatest prevalence rate (Subbarao, Mandhane, and Sears 182). In addition, the non Chinese children living in Canada still had a greater prevalence rate compared to the Chinese children living there (Subbarao, Mandhane, and Sears 182). This result from this study strongly supports their hypothesis of gene–by–environment interactions in which people with similar genetic makeup inherit sensitivity to the effects of various environmental risk factors. However on the other hand whether genetics plays an important role in the development of asthma has been strongly accepted as numerous family and twin studies have been made. "Genome–wide linkage studies and case–control studies have identified 18 genomic regions and more than 100 genes associated with allergy and asthma in 11 different populations" (Subbarao, Mandhane, and Sears ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40.
  • 41. Difference Between Absolute And Relative Continuity 1. Describe the difference between absolute and relative continuity. Explain why it is important to differentiate the two. Provide two of YOUR OWN real–world examples of the difference between the two types of continuity. The concept of continuity is difficult and includes several different meanings that are distinguished mostly by different ways of measuring continuity. There are two that need to be specifically differentiated: relative and absolute continuity. Relative continuity is the degree to which individuals hold their rank order in a specific sample from one assessment time point to another specific time point. Relative continuity is measured by the correlation coefficient for the scores taken at the two different time points or ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... An example of maturation would be acquiring a language, because language acquisition is something that happens to an individual innately during a certain time in development, it is not something an individual can do or learn. Environmental learning refers to developmental change that is brought about mainly by influences in the external environment and that can be described by mechanisms of learning. An example of environmental learning would be a child who see's their older sibling get into trouble for having dessert before completing dinner, will first finish their dinner and then eat their dessert. Constructivism can be defined as the belief that the mind actively participates in gathering knowledge of the world while interacting with the environment, rather than passively gaining such knowledge through direct perception. Constructivism states that children act as active participants in their own development and help establish their own fate by virtue of the meanings they impose on the world. An example of constructivism would be a person attending zumba classes at the gym. While attending zumba classes at the gym, the person is actively participating in and learning how to do zumba, while also interacting with other people in the environment. The person would By watching ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42.
  • 43. What´s Epigenetic Landscape? For 70+ years now we have been working on our Epigenome but not really understood what it is or what it can do for us but, thanks to the works of Dr. Conrad H. Waddington "Epigenetic Landscape" 1939, which was followed up and expanded on by Dr. Adrian Bird and Danny Reinberg (1975~) we know that it does exist and it has far reaching implications for future development in medical research and biological development fields.  Risk assessment  Prevention  Progression analysis  Prognosis and biomarker development Epigenetics ~ is the term coined to explain a variety of "bizarre" phenotypic phenomena in different organisms that can't be elucidated by Mendelian Genetics. It is like a bridge between geno and phenotypes ~ giving explanation to how cells carrying identical DNA differentiate into different cell types and how this differentiated state remains stable; o More recently it has evolved to mean "modifications" to DNA that affect gene expression but do not involve base changes  These changes are regular and naturally occurring but can be heavily influenced by several factors such as; Age Environment & life style Or disease state. "According to Dr. Lipton, the true secret to life does not lie within your DNA, but rather within the mechanisms of your cell membrane." "If Genetics was the recipe then Epigenetics would be the Chef who would create his own idea of how to present the dish", ~ Eliza Hazlerigg There are 4 main mechanisms of modification and regulation ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44.
  • 45. A Study Of Changes Throughout Gene Expression Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression which may be inherited with no changes to the DNA sequence itself– it may account for non–Mendelian population inheritance patterns. Transgenerational inheritance requires a chromosomal or epigenetic change in the germline allowing the information to be passed on from one generation to another (Anway et al 2005a). In order for epigenetic marks to be passed down, the gametes need to conserve their epigenomes by avoiding two reprogramming events; in the gamete and zygote. DNA demethylation is avoided in some genes called imprinting genes which retain their sex–specific patterns. The environment and external factors may cause additional information to be added on top of the genome. It has generally been accepted that epigenetic marks are removed and re–established in the preceding generation, thus not inherited. Nevertheless, many studies carried out on model organisms are challenging this concept and suggesting that this may not be entirely correct. There may be an incomplete clearing of epigenetic marks resulting in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. The present generations where being synthesised in the womb of their grandmother. Therefore, does the food my grandmother ate affect my development? Could the air we breathe affect our grandchildren? Many questions are still unknown in the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance field (Youngson and Whitelaw 2008). Phenotypic variation and disease caused by ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46.
  • 47. An Interesting And Informative Video This was an interesting and informative video, which talks about epigenetic. I would define epigenetic as a change in the observable physical traits of an organism without a change in the inherited genetic of a cell. In the video, there were people (twins) and rats as an example just to show and explain how epigenetic works, which is amazing. The twins' participants in the video, look alike. Even though, their spotting image are incredible, they also have their differences. Like one of the twin asked an important question, which was if one of them has a disease, will it be possible for the other one to have the same disease and actually, there might be a chance for the other twin to develop the same disease, which shows me how mysterious epigenetic is. There are two articles that I found, which gave a lot of informations about epigenetic and explained how the process of epigenetic works and how weird it can be. The process of epigenetic works by chemical tags, which is known as epigenetic marks that are tied to the deoxyribonucleic acid and which permit to either use or ignore specific gene. The most important epigenetic mark is a methyl group and it was said that in the midst of each generation there is a cell called primordial gene cell, where the epigenetic marks are removed from. The deoxyribonucleic acid methylation is also removed in primordial gene cell, which are changed to hydroxymethylation and it also restarts the gene of each generation. From the second article ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48.
  • 49. A Research On Schizophrenia And Anorexia Nervosa Epigenetic's is a term that describes everything that happens in the gene expression process that is above the genome. The epigenetic process is typically due to histone modification, CpG island methylation, RNA associated silencing, and some other factors. The process is triggered via cell–to– cell signaling, neighborhood cells sending signals, physiology, and environment. The epigenetic change can be transient, permanent, or heritable. In my chosen paper, the researchers are looking into how the social environment can 'get into the mind' in a way that results in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), post–dramatic stress disorder (PTSD), anorexia nervosa, and substance dependence. Even though the review article covers five types of mental disorders, I'm going to focus on schizophrenia and anorexia nervosa. Overtime, research has shown a robust relation between the social environment and the prevalence of mental illness. In large western cities, like NYC, there is a higher frequency in those that have schizophrenia, increased labor stress helps facilitate MDD development, natural disasters have been associated with PTSD, and social and relationship problems help induce the onset of eating disorders. It is also important to note that heritable factors also play a part, and that the resulting mental disorder is thought to occur due to an interaction between the social environment and heritable factors. In a schizophrenia twin study, even ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50.
  • 51. Introduction:. Epigenetics Studies The Biological Information Introduction: Epigenetics studies the biological information that can be inherited in addition to the DNA, through biochemical changes such as methylation and histone modifications that can affect gene expression and lead to a particular phenotype [9]. Epigenetic plasticity can be influenced by internal and external factors, such as the in utero environment of early development [9]. The intrauterine environment can have short and long term effects on the health and future disease state of offspring. To look into the effects of the intrauterine environment, several factors need to be taken into account. This discussion will include the effects of maternal environmental conditions on the health of offspring, including type 1 and 2 diabetes, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The outcomes of gestational diabetes can be studied by looking at the health of offspring of these mothers over time. In one study, intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus was related to metabolic syndrome in children of mothers with and without GDM and with conditions such as large–for–gestational–age (LGA) and appropriate–for–gestational age (AGA) [2]. Through biochemical testing of the experimental groups of children, components of metabolic syndrome could be detected, such as obesity by BMI, blood pressure, and glucose levels [2]. It was found that, in a controlled study, the LGA/GDM group correlated to maternal obesity environments by having higher occurrence of insulin resistance, which would be expected with weight gain and exposure to diabetes [2]. This suggests that metabolic factors due to the intrauterine environment contribute to disease in later life through epigenetic changes. Many research studies have looked into the mechanisms that lead offspring exposed to GDM to be at higher risk for diseases, metabolic and chronic [13]. It was found through research that the mechanism with GDM exposure evaluated the methylome of the offspring using epigenetics [13]. In this study, 30 out of 44 newborns were exposed to GDM and their DNA methylation was measured at more than 485,000 CpG sites with over 3000 genes from placenta and cord blood samples [13]. Though the results were not ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52.
  • 53. Essay about What is Epigenetics and How Can It Effect Me? Before conducting research and watching numerous informational videos on epigenetics, I would have never believed that when my grandmother was my age, she made dietary decisions that have affected me. Technically speaking, epigenetics simply means above genetics. In other words, epigenetics is the traits that you and I inherit, but do not necessarily necessitate the sequence of genes. I took me a while to actually grasp the concept until I thought of it from a musical perspective. Imagine our DNA helix strands as a musical score. There are different music notes as there are genes. If someone were to play Beethoven's Symphony Number 5 correctly, it would sound the same every time. Basically, if one note is changed, the whole musical piece ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Instead they go through a process of change overtime, or sometimes they're hereditary. While watching the video, the host Neil deGrasse Tyson stated that our epigenomes tend to change during crucial times in our lives such as puberty and pregnancy. While our mothers were carrying us in their wombs for 9 months, they were passing on these epigenomes that we may pass on to our children. "Just as the genome is passed along from parents to their offspring, the epigenome can also be inherited. The chemical tags found on the DNA and histones of eggs and sperm can be conveyed to the next generation" ("Epigenomics," 2012). I also learned that these epigenomes change because of environmental factors which include what we do, what we eat, what we drink, or what we smoke. This has been said to be one of the pivotal contraries amongst epigenetics and genetics. I found the groundbreaking study identical twins very interesting. The point of this experiment was to discover if twins were epigenetically identical or not. After obtaining DNA from 40 sets of twins, researchers were able to conclude that as twins age, the chance of epigenetic differences increases. I conducted an intriguing research on the relationship between epigenetics and psychiatric disorders. It is known that epigenomes are affected by environmental surroundings which can cause life changing results as we age. Also, a mother's maternal behavior inspires the stress ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 54.
  • 55. Biochemical Approaches On The Import Of Genetics Essay Sociogenomics: Biochemical Approaches to Study the Import of Genetics in Social Behaviours Literature Review Sociogenomics is a relatively new research area that isn 't very well understood. Scholarly articles (e.g., Roberts & Jackson, 2008) describe it as a field that explores the following: the identification of genes that influence social behavior, the understanding of the influence of these genes on underlying neural and endocrine mechanisms, and understanding the effects of the environment, particularly the social environment, on gene action. Technological advances paired with impressive progress in molecular biology and genomics make this an appropriate time to attempt to understand the molecular basis of social life. In Psychology 241, we were introduced to the OPRM1 gene, which is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). This gene can vary, in people, by a single nucleotide (A ↔ G). Ways et al. (2009) discovered that people with the G allele showed more pain activation after social rejection. In addition, these subjects show reduced opiate potency and, therefore, need more morphine to counteract both physical and social pain. Ultimately, from this study, scientists made the novel discovery that specific genetic mutations (i.e. OPRMI allele) can affect our social and psychological behaviors (i.e. tolerance to social rejection). Furthermore, scientists have recently claimed that the actual expression level of genes, at any given time, also affects our social ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56.
  • 57. The, Genetic And Epigenetic Mutations Cancer, one of the most common diseases in the world, is a result of genetic and epigenetic mutations. Where genetics was at first used to explain phenotypes and disease, genetics alone could not explain the sheer amount of phenotypic diversity in a population–nor could it explain phenomenon such as how, "monozygotic twins or cloned animals [could] have different phenotypes and different susceptibilities to a disease." Thus entered the field of epigenetics. Epigenetics is, "the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur independent of changes in the primary DNA sequence." Therefore, epigenetics has its own, independent mechanisms to affect the genotypes and phenotypes of individuals. Although technically independent of one another, like genetics, epigenetics can be greatly influenced and altered by external factors such as ones environment. For example, one study looked at the importance of nutrition in early life and its effects on the epigenome. Using families involved in the Dutch Hunger Winter and the Great Leap Forward in China, the study found that children exposed to famine in utero had DNA methylation changes in genes associated with birth weight and low–density lipoprotein. When followed up, years later, with a study of nutritional deprivation in mice, data showed that epigenetic changes not only affected the babies in utero, but also affected the next generation of mice. A Brief History of Epigenetics In 1930, Hermann J. Muller did one of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58.
  • 59. The Effects Of Epigenetics Studies Genetic Effects On... Epigenetics studies genetic effects not encoded in the DNA sequence of an organism, hence the prefix epi– . Such effects on cellular and physiological phenotypic traits may result from external or environmental factors that switch genes on and off and affect how cells express genes. These alterations may or may not be heritable, although the use of the term epigenetic to describe processes that are heritable is controversial. instead, non–genetic factors cause the organism 's genes to behave differently. One example of an epigenetic change in eukaryotic biology is the process of cellular differentiation. During morphogenesis, totipotent stem cells become the various pluripotent cell lines of the embryo, which in turn become fully differentiated cells. In other words, as a single fertilized egg cell – the zygote – continues to divide, the resulting daughter cells change into all the different cell types in an organism, including neurons, muscle cells, epithelium, endothelium of blood vessels, etc., by activating some genes while inhibiting the expression of others. Definitions The term epigenetics in its contemporary usage emerged in the 1990s, but for some years has been used in somewhat variable meanings. From this, and the associated adjective epigenetic, the term epigenetics was coined by C. H. Waddington in 1942 as pertaining to epigenesis in parallel to Valentin Haecker 's 'phenogenetics ' . Epigenesis in the context of biology refers to the differentiation of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 61. How Does The Change Affect Our Grandchildren? By studying Epigenetics, we learn about the changes in heritable genome function without changes in the DNA sequence itself. Transgenerational inheritance requires a chromosomal or epigenetic change in the germline allowing the information to be passed on from one generation to another (Anway et al 2005a). In order for epigenetic marks to be passed down, the gametes need to conserve their epigenomes by avoiding two reprogramming events; in the gamete and zygote. It has generally been accepted that epigenetic marks are removed and re–established in the preceding generation, thus not inherited. However, studies being carried out on model organisms are challenging this concept and suggesting that this may not be entirely correct. There may be an incomplete erasure of epigenetic marks resulting in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance (Youngson and Whitelaw 2008). The present generations were being synthesised in the womb of their grandmother. Therefore, did the food my grandmother ate affect my development? Could the air we breathe affect our grandchildren? Many questions are still unknown in this field. The environment and external factors may cause additional information to be added on top of the genome resulting in phenotypic variation and disease leading to transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Epigenetic modifications of the germline are not only important to evolutionary biologists and disease aetiology but also ecologists, as incomplete epigenetic changes can ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 63. Zebrafish Synthesis Abstract Oxygen is essential for human life, but an excess of oxygen could easily become toxic and have an adverse effects on the mammalian brain due to excessive formation of reactive oxygen species, commonly known as ROS. In previous studies, changes in hippocampal DNA material have been observed in validated animal models of PTSD (Chertkow–Deutsher, Cohen, Klein, & Ben–Shachar, 2010). These changes in the genome may very well be the underlying cause of long–term traumatic memories. Previous studies conducted at Texas A&M University – Commerce used zebrafish as a model for post–traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), however, the results not only proved that zebrafish show symptoms of PTSD, but in fact we observed modification in the neural progenitor cells around the hippocampal area of the zebrafish brain. High concentrations of ROS can be the reason behind the modification of the neural cells. Therefore, the importance of this study is to investigate the molecular pathways of ROS in the zebrafish brain. We hypothesize that using an antioxidant, N– acetyl–L–cysteine (NAC) could reduce the concentrations of trauma induced ROS, which would ultimately prevent the modifications in the neural progenitor cells in zebrafish. Introduction Zebrafish: ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 2013;90:118–126). Zebrafish are not only cost–efficient, but also easy to house. Therefore, they are considered ideal species for studying genetic mutations and molecular pathways (Ali S, et al.2012;228:272–283). Zebrafish are known to be social animals, which is an effective representation of human nature. Zebrafish also make very good research models to test for long– term stress disorders since they have the ability to show a wide variety of behavioral changes that can be observed in human ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 65. What Is Epigenetics? What is Epigenetics? The word "epigenetic" means "in addition to changes in genetic sequence." The term has changed to include any process that alters gene activity without changing the DNA sequence, and leads to modifications that can be transmitted to daughter cells. The term epigenetics was first used in the early 1940s, when embryologist Conrad Waddington used it to describe the interactions between genes and their products, which give rise to an organism's observable characteristics or phenotype. Epigenetics involves genetic control by factors other than an individual's DNA sequence. Certain circumstances in life can cause genes to be silenced or expressed over time. They can be turned off, becoming dormant, or turned on, becoming active. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... If we could map every single cause and effect of the different combinations, and if we could reverse the gene's state to keep the good while eliminating the bad, then theoretically we could cure cancer, slow the aging process and stop obesity. Epigenetic processes are natural and essential to many organism functions, but if they occur improperly, there can be major adverse health and behavioural effects. How does epigenetics work? Epigenetic changes alter the physical structure of DNA. Chemical tags known as epigenetic marks sit atop genes, either on the DNA itself or on the histone proteins around which DNA is wrapped. Changes in the mix of these marks can alter a gene's behaviour, turning the gene off so that protein synthesis is inhibited, or turning it on, all without changing the information the gene contains. Epigenetic tags act as a kind of cellular memory. A cell's epigenetic profile, a collection of tags that tell genes whether to be on or off, is the sum of the signals it has received during its lifetime. Some epigenetic marks inhibit genes by inducing tight folding of chromatin, which is DNA mixed with histones and other proteins, and thus keeping genes from being read. Methyl groups sometimes play that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 67. Nature vs. Nurture Shown in Family Addiction Consider the following scenario: John and his mother are both alcoholics. John has been exposed to his mother's inappropriate relationship with alcohol since before he was born. In the age–old debate of nature vs. nurture, some would say it was merely natural for John to follow his mother's path, a la the apple does not fall far from the tree–his addiction was inherited. Others would argue that John's childhood experiences and home environment led him on the road to addiction. Many might question whether John would have fared better if he had been raised elsewhere. While John may have been a victim of circumstance or fate, a completely different angle can be considered. Perhaps John's alcoholism is a genetic result–a result that was influenced by his unfortunate environmental factors. In other words, John inherited his nature via his nurture. The positions surrounding the explanation of John's outcome have been debated for centuries by ordinary people, philosophers, geneticists and psychologists. With recent advancements, a second genome has been recognized and established as the "epigenome," which is directly influenced by the outside environment (Francis). While extreme positions still exist within the nature vs. nurture debate, most scientists now agree that a combination of the two determines one's outcome; with the burgeoning field of epigenetics, however, the ability to overcome one's genes, to some extent, ends the debate and offers hope that can be viewed as American ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 69. Three Main Pathways Of Epigenetic Modification Epigenetic Modifications in Cancer Scientists have known for several decades that cancer may be caused by mutations in the DNA of cells. These mutations may result from exposure to certain substances (e.g. radiation, benzene) or they may occur spontaneously in the process of cell division, especially in the context of aging. Recently, researchers have discovered another level of inherited cellular information separate from the genes themselves. Epigenetics is the study of modifications to genes that change their patterns of expression. Epigenetic processes can silence a gene or even an entire chromosome. They can cause normally silent genes to be expressed, and can change the process of transcription so that the nucleotides are transcribed in a different order. Normally, epigenetic information is stabilized early in development and is maintained as cells divide. However, over time, mutations or epigenetic drift may change the inherited pattern. This type of event often results in disease such as cancer (Jones & Baylin 2002). There are three main pathways of epigenetic modification. The first pathway involves methylation of the cytosine in CpG dinucleotides, a process which is catalyzed by DNA methyl transferases (DNMT). Second, modifications can be made in the histone proteins which give DNA its structure. Third, small, noncoding micro–RNAs (miRNA) can alter the messenger RNAs so that they degrade and cannot produce the proteins coded by the corresponding DNA. Although ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 71. Socioeconomic Status and Health Issues Socioeconomic status (a measurement of income, education, and occupation) measures an individual's social standing in society. Low socioeconomic status is often linked to a depravity of essential material resources and heightened psychological stress variables. The importance of researching the effects is underlined by its association to a number of adverse health effects and the increasing prevalence of poverty within many countries in the world. Recent studies have investigated the possible effects on the biological mechanisms by examining the differences in epigenetic patterns between individuals with variability in socioeconomic status. Although there have been limited studies conducted on this area, research has determined that the status of socioeconomic often has a significant impact on methylation, with an increase or decrease in certain sections of the genome depending on the region in question. Introduction Socioeconomic status is the combination of income, education and occupation which typically measures the social standing of an individual in a society [3]. The potential impact of socioeconomic status is vital as it affects a significant percent of Canadians. According to the Employment and Social Development Canada (2006), poverty affects approximately twelve percent of adults and thirteen percent of children. The gap between the rich and poor has significantly increased within the past few decades and research suggests that it will ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 73. Analysis Of The Article ' Epigenetics And Human Disease ' Introduction How is it that two identical twins with the exact same DNA and the same environment can be very different? (Coutney Griffin 2012) Cortney Griffin elaborated on how her journey of having twins lead her to a deeper understanding of what epigenetics truly is. This talk, although vastly viewed in biochemistry classes including at the University of Texas of El Paso, differs from the scholarly article "Epigenetics and human disease: translating basic biology into clinical applications" by David Rodenhiser and Mellissa Mann. Their most prominent similarities and differences can be separated into audience and purpose, rhetorical appeals, and structure and delivery. Summary of Speech Courtney Griffin begins her speech by saying that nine years ago, she was told that she was going to have twins. This got her interested in how much of people's mental health and physical health has to do with nature and nurture. She took the stage to describe her journey at TEDX OU, is an independently Organized TED event at the University of Oklahoma. She had been trained as a geneticist. She was not expecting twins so she joked, what would happen if she put one kid in daycare and one kid in a drawer. This got her interested in epigenetics. Even though twins could have identical DNA and grow up relatively the same they are radically different people, to the point that there are health differences between the children. When DNA gets wrapped to fit into the nucleolus, some parts are able to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 75. Genetics Of Families With Alzheimer 's Disease Similarly, another study focusing on several families with EOAD identified a locus on chromosome 14 that is linked with Alzheimer's disease, which was shown to be an autosomal dominant trait (Schellenberg et al., 1992). Figure 3 illustrates the map of the chromosome 14 markers. D14S43 was found to be a strongly positive marker in chromosome 14 for EOAD (Schellenberg et al., 1992). This illustrates that, although chromosome 21 if often the main focus of AD researchers, chromosome 14 also plays a large role in the development of the disease. In summary, chromosome 21 holds the loci responsible for APP and Aβ, causing it to be a main genetic factor in the development of EOAD. Nevertheless, chromosome 14 also is responsible for the autosomal dominant trait in FAD. Several mechanisms are present that lead to the development of AD in the genetics of families with a history of this disorder. This may lead to more difficult treatments for FAD. Objective 3: Epigenetic Causes Although genetics do play a large role in EOAD, late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) seems to be influenced more by epigenetic drifts. Unlike EOAD, LOAD appears somewhat sporadically and displays many non–Mendelian characteristics. These include, but are not limited to, low patterns of familial diagnosis, unequal susceptibility in men and women, and a variance in DNA methylation (which plays a larger role in epigenetic modifications) between non–AD and AD subjects (Wang et al., 2008). This suggests that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 77. Genetic And Non Genetic Mechanisms Of Inheritance Essay Regina Noel 10/19/2016 Epigenetics: Genetic and Non–Genetic Mechanisms of Inheritance When discussing the topic of genetics, it is typically viewed from the perspective of Mendelian inheritance in which genes are transmitted from parent to offspring solely through the use of genetic alleles, which are the alternative form of genes that have varying DNA sequences and chromosomes that affect the phenotype, visual gene trait (Toth. 2015). If and how a genetic trait is expressed is whether the alleles for that trait are dominant or recessive. Dominant alleles are genes that have a higher probability of being expressed in the offspring than a recessive allele. In the case of dominate alleles; there are two possible combinations that its gene can still be expressed with, homozygous (which contains two dominant alleles) and heterozygous (which contains a dominant and recessive allele). On the other hand, recessive alleles can only be expressive if it is homozygous (which contains two recessive alleles) (Reece et al. 2013). Since Gregor Mendel's discovery of alleles and genetic inheritance, there has been research shows that there are more mechanisms of inheriting traits which do not include changing the nucleotide sequence of DNA. This form of non–genetic inheritance is called epigenetic modification. One example of epigenetic modification is DNA methylation. DNA methylation is when methyl groups, which are chemical groups that contain one carbon bound to three hydrogen atoms, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...