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Pathogens Of Hpv
As a human being, we are faced with several pathogens that can cause harm to our body. As health
care professional, we are encouraged to obtain knowledge about these different types of diseases; so
that we can educate and as well as treat the patient diagnosis. Due to the action of our sexual
behavior, we open our bodies to a vast amount of sexual transmitted diseases. Even though, sex
plays one of the most important roles in our daily lives. It is essential to be educated on the prompt
ways of performing safe sex; nevertheless, it is necessary to be aware of infections you can acquire.
Frequently, more recently in today's society the disease known as HPV is a genital to genital disease
that can be spread through sexual contact. The following
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Pathogens: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Although many disease–causing pathogens are rare, it cannot be said that pathogens themselves are
rare. In fact, they are rather ubiquitous in nature and include a wide variety of types such as bacteria,
fungi, viruses, protozoa, prion proteins, parasites. Pathogens vary in complexity and those that
remain are a direct result of successfully adapting to their environments and evolving over time to
overcome selective evolutionary pressures. A more specific example of how disease causing
pathogens can vary in virulence involves the mention of antibiotics and their ability throughout
history to temporary lessening the virulence of bacterial strains. The relationship between pathogens
(i.e. bacteria) and hosts (i.e. humans) has been one of coevolution ... Show more content on
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New discovery of antibiotics has slowed down and the select number of pathogenic bacteria in
existence are continuing to increase in virulence due to increased exposure. Although advances have
been made to address the issue of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, remaining exist that may not be
as obvious a threat to fighting especially virulent bacterial
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Biohazards of Sewage Sludge Essay
Wastewater can come from a variety of sources like homes, businesses, industries, runoff from
roads, lawns and fields and is treated by municipal wastewater treatment facilities (Product, cornell).
The solid material that remains after the treatment of wastewater is known as sludge (charac,
cornell). Sludge can be employed in many different ways, it can be used as a soil additive or
growing medium, sent to a composting facility, incinerated or landfilled (Char, cornell).
Biosolids are derived primarily from a combination of primary, secondary, and tertiary sewage
sludges. Biosolids do not contain the coarse grit and screenings removed from raw wastewater
during preliminary treatment steps or ash generated from incineration of sewage ... Show more
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These various routes or pathways of contact can result in either acute or chronic disease if the
exposure is high enough. For pathogens, the primary concern is acute diseases of a short–term
duration (i.e., gastroenteritis or flu–like symptoms), while for the various potential chemical
contaminants, risks are derived from chronic exposure via ingestion.
Pathogens that may be present in biosolids applied to land pose a disease risk only if there are routes
of exposure that deliver an infective dose. The principal means of exposure is through ingestion or
inhalation. Absorption through the skin is considered to be a minor route of exposure unless a field
worker suffers a cut or other puncture to the skin and is exposed. The degree of harm caused by
bacterial toxins varies with the mode of entry into the body.
It seems there is a correlation between the amount of biosolids applied and frequency of
contamination. A 1984 study showed that 22.4mg/ha applied to Sassafras sandy loam soil was the
upper limit to ensure that groundwater was not contaminated (Higgins, 1984). Doses below
22.4mg/ha of land are acceptable for the provision of nutrients to plants, while anything above
diminished the water quality to below American federal standards (Higgens, 1984). Heavy metals
and coliforms remained low
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Fungal Pathogens
Opportunistic and invasive fungal infections have increased dramatically in recent years. Candida
and Aspergillus spp. are the most famous fungal pathogens that account for majority of invasive and
opportunistic fungal infections, respectively, occurring worldwide. 1This scenario is being observed
among individuals with suppressed immune systems brought about by the use of cytotoxic drugs,
immunosuppressive therapy, or human immunodeficiency virus infection.2 These infections have
also been observed in some iatrogenic or nosocomial clinical settings. Autopsy data indicate that
more than half of the patients who die with malignancies are infected with Candida spp.,
approximately one–third with Aspergillus spp., and increasing numbers with Cryptococcus ... Show
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Log P values of designed molecule and Fluconazole were found to be 2.49 and 0.99 respectively.
(Calculated using Chemdraw software). (II) Tertiary amino moiety as bioisoster was selected to
replace tertiary alcohol of Fluconazole. Compared with tertiary alcohol, the tertiary amino group
could not only be liable to form hydrogen bonds, but also accepts proton or form quaternary salts
which results in the increase of water solubility or coordinate with metal ions which probably lead to
enhance affinity, selectivity and potency in biological properties.18 (III) Several studies from the
past have demonstrated that incorporating halobenzyl moiety into organic molecules could greatly
improve the pharmacological properties.19–21 An enhanced pharmacological action results from an
increased rate of absorption, transport of drugs in vivo, and a higher lipid solubility.22 The greater
flexibility of the benzyl moiety as compared to phenyl group may show improved molecular
biological
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Innate Pathogens
Pathogens and parasites are very dangerous and lethal to not only vertebrate species such as animals,
but invertebrate species like insects as well. Insects have to heavily rely on their innate immune
system, which is an immediate response in quickly destroying invaders (Alberts et al 2002).
Melanism is a key response to insects' innate defenses that serves many functions like improving
fitness. Melanin darkens the insects' cuticle, which is facilitated by the enzyme phenoloxidase that
converts dopamine to melanin (True 2003). So when the insect is infected, host hemocytes surround
around an invader and from a melanized capsule, and as the capsule darkens, cytotoxic
intermediates are produced and the invader loses its ability to survive (Cerenius
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Pathogens Of Pneumonia
An infection of one or both the lungs refers to Pneumonia. The major causes of pneumonia are
germs like bacteria, virus, and fungi. The alveoli (air sacs) of an infected person's lungs are inflated
with fluids or pus. Pneumonia spreads in several ways. The viruses and bacteria found in airborne
droplets transmitted due to coughing and sneezing, when inhaled can cause pneumonia. It is also
transmitted through blood, especially during and shortly after birth. Research is still underway on
the other pathogens that possibly cause the disease. Watch out for few of these major symptoms that
can mean you have pneumonia. However, these symptoms can range from mild to severe depending
on the type of germ causing the infection, age, and your overall
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Oryzae Pathogens
Known more commonly as the pathogenic fungus causing rice blast, M. oryzae was formerly known
as Magnaporthe grisae. M. oryzae is the formal name given to isolates associated with rice blast.
(Couch and Kohn 2002). Couch and Kohn discovered a difference of several base pairs in three loci
between M. grisae and M. oryzae. Couch and Kohn also found the two species were incapable of
interbreeding in the laboratory.
M. oryzae is an ascomycete belonging to a relatively new family, the Magnaporthaceae, which also
includes pathogens of other cereals. Only the anamorphic1 state has been found in rice fields, but
the teleomorph2 can be produced in culture with a pair of isolates having opposing mating types.
The fungus most often presents as diamond–shaped lesions on leaves but is also found on stems,
peduncles, panicles, seeds, and has even been detected on roots (TeBeest et al 2007). These
diamond–shaped lesions appear with a white to gray center and brown to reddish brown borders
(2016). Retrieved from http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/r682100611.html. ... Show more content on
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Perithecia are normally globose to subglobose and brown to black with a glabrous surface. Each
unitunicate3 ascus holds eight ascospores with the apical ring present. Ascospores are hyaline and
fusiform, taper at both ends with three septa, and contain haploid nuclei. The mycelium of M.
oryzae is septate with haploid nuclei (Luo and Zhang 2013, TeBeest et al
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When we think of cannibalism, our minds immediately turn...
When we think of cannibalism, our minds immediately turn to gruesome pictures of humans eating
other humans or fictional characters that feast upon the flesh of other living people (especially with
a nice chianti and fava beans). Though cannibalism may not be a common occurrence among
humans, it is a fairly widespread practice upon many other species of the animal kingdom. This
paper will explore the behavior of cannibalism in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) a
major fitness cost of cannibalism in these organisms: pathogen transmission. Cannibalism is
operationally defined as the ingestion of all or part of a conspecific, and is taxonomically
widespread amongst many vertebrate and invertebrate groups; however, it is extremely ... Show
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Most normal morphs feed on invertebrates, whereas cannibal morphs eat a wider range of prey
including conspecific and heterospecific larvae. Since tiger salamanders breed in ephemeral ponds,
it is believed that environmental cues influence the frequency of cannibal morphs in a population.
These cues can include high intraspecific density that leads to resource competition, pathogen and/or
parasite densities in the habitat, etc. (Brunkow and Collins, 1996; Collins et al., 2003; Denoel et al.,
2006; Maret and Collins, 1997; Pfennig, 1991, 1998). Most current research on cannibalism in tiger
salamanders focuses on kin selection and kin recognition strategies. However, within the past twenty
years more research has begun to focus on the cost of pathogen transmission on cannibalism in tiger
salamanders. This seems to be due to the increased amphibian population declines due to pathogens
and because it seems to be the biggest fitness cost to cannibalistic salamanders, when compared to
the other mentioned above (Parris et al., 2005; Pfennig, 1997). Through the current research, the rest
of this paper will explore pathogen transmission and how it affects cannibalism in tiger salamanders.
First we will survey some research done on transmission dynamics and the pathogens that affect
tiger salamanders. It is believed that numerous bacterial pathogens in high enough quantities and
infecting other tissues than they usually do can lead to death in tiger
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Infection Control Nvq 3 Unit 0.20
1.1 and 1.2 Bacteria – are micro–organisms that consist of only one cell. Bacteria multiply by
splitting themselves in two, which is called a binary fission. Because of this they can increase in
number rapidly. The majority are harmless, but some can be pathogenic which results in bacterial
infection occuring. Bacterial infections can be treated by using antibiotics. Bacteria can evolve a
resistance to antibiotic e.g. MRSA. Some diseases caused by bacteria include tuberculosis,
pneumonia, salmonella, tetanus and syphilis.
Viruses – are extremely small particles made from protein and either DNA or RNA. They are not
made up of cells instead they invade the living cells of other organisms and use them to produce
many copies of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
All pathogens need a source of food to provide them with a source of energy and nutrients they need
to multiply. Often they get it from the body of the infected individual. All human pathogens require
moisture to grow, that is why food is preserved by drying, which deprive mico–organisms of
moisture. The pathogens that infect humans grow best at body temperature of 37*C. Higher
temperatures inactivate and kill most of the micro–organisms, while low temperatures slow or stop
their grow. That is why heat is used to steralize objects, while freezing is used to preserve food. It
takes time for the pathogen to multiply to the point where it starts to cause symtomps of infection.
This is called an incubation time.
2.2 There are four main ports of entry: – inhalation into the nose, throat and lungs (pathogens in the
air or droplets, which can cause e.g. TB), – ingestion into the stomach and gut (pathogens ingested
and swallowed, which can cause e.g. salmonella and norovirus), – sexual contact (pathogens
transmitted in any sexual contact, which can cause e.g. HIV, gonorrhoea), – wounds and breaks in
the skin (pathogens enter the body through mucus membranes, nose, mouth, gut, genital urinary
track – catheters, or wounds like surgical incisions which can cause e.g. MRSA).
2.3 The sources of infection can be divided in two main groups. These are exogeneous and
endogeneous sources. A source of the infection is
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A summary analysis of the article “Microarray detection of...
Introduction:
In the field of public health, food–borne illnesses are a major concern because it has been estimated
that each year 76 million cases occur in the United States causing 5,000 deaths (Suo et al., 2010). In
2008, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's FoodNet surveillance program reported over
18 thousand cases of food–borne illnesses occurred in 10 states (Center for Disease Control and
Prevention [CDC], 2008). According to estimates from the CDC (2011), the most common food–
borne pathogens that maybe seen in the United States are Norvovirus (58%), Clostridium
perfringens (10%), Salmonella (11%), Campylobacter spp. (9%), and Staphylococcus aureus (3%).
Among the other 9% (not published) include Escherichia coli ... Show more content on
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The emergence of DNA based technologies such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and
microarray analysis have been utilized in the rapid detection and identification of many pathogenic
bacteria (Mothershed & Whitney, 2006; Versalovic & Lupski, 2002). The expansion of these
technologies has significantly enhanced the sensitivity, specificity and the rapid detection of
microorganisms (Suo et al., 2010). Microarray technologies have the potential to perform high–
throughput detection of multiple pathogens. Recent work with specific oligonucleotide probes
suggests that pathogen detection can be performed on a sample that contains a mixed culture of
bacteria (Kim et al., 2008). This paper will
Purpose of Research:
Previous work with DNA based technologies to accurately detect and identify human pathogens has
been demonstrated. Furthermore, three methods have been utilized: 1) amplification of one or more
universal genes (16S rRNA and 23S rRNA) through PCR, 2) amplification of pathogen–specific
markers (toxins, virulence factors) using multi–plex PCR and 3) amplification of random DNA
fragments (Kim et al., 2008). Kim et al. (2008) state that the first two methods is flawed due to the
limited number of probes utilized and that the amplification of universal genes would not
discriminate below species level due to the fact that these genes are highly conserved within the
genus. On the other hand, Kim et al. (2008) reported that
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Pathogens Of Salmonella
Salmonella is a group of rod–shaped gram–negative bacteria, which causes a foodborne illness
called salmonellosis. Salmonella germs have been known to cause illness for over 100 years. The
Salmonella family includes over 2,500 serotypes of bacteria. Of these, the most common serotypes
associated with human illness are salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S.Typhimurium) and S.
enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). (Kyung–Min Lee, 2015)
Salmonella is widely dispersed in nature. Since it is primarily found in the intestinal tracts of
animals, salmonella causes one million illnesses in the United States every year. In 2013, 1.2 million
patients of salmonella infections occur in United States, resulting 378 deaths. The annual cost ...
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Salmonella spp. are commonly referred to by their serotype names.
In 2007, there were approximately 2600 different serotypes of S. enterica have been identified and
about 50 serotypes in them are common causes of infections in humans and warm blooded animals.
Serotyping determines a Salmonella serotype by the unique combination of reactions of cell surface
antigens. And it has been useful during source–attribution investigations, but it's expensive and can
take up to 5 days to complete. (Kristyn Franklin, 2011)It also needs specialized expertise and a set
of more than two hundreds quality–assured reagents to characterize these thousands different
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Marcergens are those bacteria responsible for plant tissue...
Marcergens are those bacteria responsible for plant tissue maceration resulting in total tissue
collapse (Gwyn 2007). Soft rot diseases of vegetable is the most characteristic symptom of tissue
maceration in plant which begins as small water soaked lesion, expands and intensifies until the
tissue turns soft and watery. Apparently, the outer surface of the diseased plant might stay unbroken,
while tanned and depressed, or enclosed in an exuding bacterial mucus layer. Foul smells are
common owing to the discharge of explosive complexes through tissue degradation. Best bacterial
growth follows after plant cell lysis in these diseases. Soft–rotting bacteria are distinguished for the
speed at which they stimulate soft rot: warehoused crop may ... Show more content on
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These macergens infect and destroy plant tissues both pre– and postharvest and this species causes
the greatest damage to harvested vegetables (Amy 2007). There is need to ensure a continuous cold
chain from immediately postharvest to retail to successfully manage this ubiquitous spoilage
bacterium that only thrive well at temperatures of 20°C and above. The fluorescent Pseudomonads
(i.e. P. fluorescens and P. viridiflava) can macerate plant parenchymatous tissues at a temperature
below 4°C, this cause for high occurrence of these bacteria on decayed vegetables both at wholesale
and retail markets. These soft–rotting fluorescent Pseudomonads and Erwinia, therefore become the
major threat to commercial fresh product operations and fresh vegetables precisely, from the farm to
retail and wholesale outlets. However, there are currently no commercial agents available
specifically for controlling soft rot (Dong et al. 2004; Latour et al. 2008). Despite advances in
vegetable production and diseases management, many challenges face growers of vegetables, out of
which the major one is the damage caused by macergens (Pérombelon 2002). Macergens damage
the tissues of vegetable thereby reducing the quality, yields and shelf–life and consumer satisfaction
of these plants. They usually cause great economic losses due to
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The Negative Effects Of Pollution On The Environment
America's increasingly prominent contamination of water and air from nitrates, lead, plastic and
other pathogenic organisms is critical to our environment and the health of our population. Pollution
has existed since the dawn of man. However, the transition from a nomadic lifestyle to a settled
society escalated pollution. The Roman empire had been the first to introduce lead pollution into the
atmosphere. As the population grows exponentially so does pollution rates, primarily in developed
countries. It hadn't been until the second world war that industry's begun producing synthetic plastic
materials. These materials are hardly biodegradable and therefore accumulate in the environment
faster than they can be broken down. It was also in this 1950's era that scientist first began
developing agriculture fertilizers as well as inorganic pesticides. It has been discovered that these
particular compounds have a negative effect on ecosystems and humans. Pesticides are used to
protect crops from being eaten by insects, the pesticide work as a repellent. Scientist now know that
pesticides can cripple a species over time. Certain pesticides are designed to kill the insects that eat
the plant, this is creating a lack of biological diversity in ecosystems. For example, Bee population
has been declining for some time now. Without Bees, there would be no pollination of plants,
potentially crippling entire ecosystems. Fertilizers contain nitrogen, runoff carries this element to
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Spread Of Pathogens
Explain two ways you help in preventing the spread of pathogens on a daily basis. (4 Points) Two
ways that I could help prevent pathogens from spreading on a daily basis include avoiding close
contact with people who are infected with a communicable disease and also by keeping my
environment clean, by emptying trash cans frequently and keeping them clean. Describe how
pathogens can be spread at school through both direct and indirect contact. (4 Points) Pathogens are
most easily spread in the school environment since there are so many people inclosed in one place,
using many of the same learning tools. When people are messing around and "wrestling" one
another in the hallways, hugging each other, or even giving someone a high–five, these
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Antigenic Pathogens
Question 1. I remember hearing in your video something about our body natural immunity and it
eradicates the virus. The immune system includes physical barriers, such as the skin and mucous
membranes that prevent pathogens from entering the body, and cellular responses, such as
circulating macrophages that respond to foreign invaders. Our acquired immune system mounts a
specific antibody response when the body is exposed to a foreign invader, and our immune cells
attack the invader Question 2. The advantage for a fever can mean that you have an active immune
system, revved up and helping an array of immunological processes work more effectively.
Replication of most viruses is reduced by even a modest rise in temperature.
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/11/health/11klass.html (Links to an external site.) ... Show more
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One way in which an infectious agent can evade immune surveillance is by altering its antigens; this
is particularly important for extracellular pathogens, against which the principal defense is the
production of antibody against their surface structures. There are three ways in which antigenic
variation can occur. First, many infectious agents exist in a wide variety of antigenic types. There
are, for example, 84 known types of Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important cause of bacterial
pneumonia. Each type differs from the others in the structure of its polysaccharide capsule. The
different types are distinguished by serological tests and so are often known as serotypes. Infection
with one serotype of such an organism can lead to type–specific immunity, which protects against
reinfection with that type but not with a different serotype. Thus, from the point of view of the
adaptive immune system, each serotype of S. pneumoniae represents a distinct organism. The result
is that essentially the same pathogen can cause disease many times in the same
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Essay on Water Treatment Process
Clean water supply is essential in establishing and maintaining a healthy community. There are two
sources of water supply which are the surface water and ground water. Most natural waters are not
suitable for consumption as it is contaminated by pathogens and also natural chemicals and
minerals. In addition, as a city grew, wastes from human activities contaminate most of the water
supplies. Water treatment plays an important role to properly treat a contaminated source of water
supply in order to protect the health of consumers. Water treatment process is defined as a process of
eliminating pollutants from untreated water to produce a biologically and chemically risk–free
water, which is both potable and palatable for human consumption ... Show more content on
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The second step of water treatment process is aeration. At the aerator, raw water is mixed with air.
The aeration process helps to provide oxygen to the raw water which is needed for the oxidation
process of dissolved iron and manganese in order for it to precipitate and therefore enables its
removal through filtration (SAJ Holdings Sdn Bhd., n.d.). Wormleaton and Tsang (2000) stated that
for water treatment process and also natural streams, it is essential to maintain a high amount of
dissolved oxygen. Aeration also provides the escape of dissolved gases, such as carbon dioxide and
hydrogen sulphide to reduce the corrosiveness of water, thus controls the tastes and odors of the
water (Shun, 2007). Groundwater with high dissolved carbon dioxide levels or high concentrations
of iron and manganese commonly require aeration as well as water drawn from reservoirs that is low
in dissolved oxygen.
Thirdly, the proceeding water treatment step involves coagulation and flocculation. The objective of
this step is to produce particles of a size that can be easily removed by settlement and filtration.
Coagulation destabilizes the colloidal particles followed by flocculation whereby larger particles are
formed from small particles through collisions. Conley and Evers (as cited in Hendricks, 2006, p.
277) described coagulation as a process that reduces the surface charge
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Campylobacter Jejuni Essay
Campylobacter Jejuni is the most common type of food poisoning in the world that is widely
distributed among domestic animals. Most Campylobacter cells are curved, S–shaped, or spiral rods
that are 0.2 to 0.8 µm wide and 0.5 to 5 µm long. They are non–spore forming and gram negative.
They are typically motile with a characteristic corkscrew–like motion by means of "a single polar
unsheathed flagellum at one or both ends of the cell" [2]. Cells grow well under microaerophil
condition and "have a respiratory and chemoorganotropic type of metabolism" [4]. The optimum
atmosphere for C. Jejuni is 85% N2, 10% CO2, and 5% O2 with temperature 30ºC to 37ºC. The
natural habitat for Campylobacter is the intestine of birds and warm–blooded animals ... Show more
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At least 80 cases of Campylobacter Jejuni infection were linked to raw milk from Your Family Cow
Farm. About 9 people who drank its dairy product were hospitalized. Lab tests by the Maryland
Department of Health and Mental Hygiene found the outbreak strain of Campylobacter in raw milk
collected from customers' homes. The main cause of the contamination was not clearly defined as
sources can possibly come from every aspect of the farm. Illness onset dates for the outbreak range
from January 17 to February 1. Therefore, consumers were continuously advised by the health
department to discard any milk from the Family Cow dairy purchased since January 1 [6].
The Your Family Cow dairy, in conjugation with Pennsylvania Department of Health, sent some
samples of raw milk that were produced during the week of outbreak be pathogen tested. However,
there was no any single pathogen found in the samples, including Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella,
Listeria monocytogenes, and Ecoli 0157:H7. Even though their pathogen test didn't show any sign
of contamination, the farm had decided to voluntarily stop their raw milk sale for a moment. After
passing a health inspection, on February 6 the farm was allowed to continue production [10]. The
Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture will continue to monitor Family Cow's raw milk. They also
keep suggesting people to avoid raw milk even it's legal to drink
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How Do Utensils Lead To Cross-Contamination?
In a recent study funded by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, University of Georgia
researchers found that produce that contained bacteria would contaminate other produce items
through the continued use of knives or grates––the bacteria would latch on to the utensils commonly
found in consumers' homes and spread to the next item.
Unfortunately, many consumers are unaware that utensils and other surfaces at home can give to the
spread of bacteria, said the study's lead author Marilyn Erickson, an associate professor in the
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences' department of food science and technology.
"Just knowing that utensils may lead to cross–contamination is important," Erickson said. "With that
knowledge, consumers are then more likely to make sure they ... Show more content on
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They found that both knives and grates can cause extra cross–contamination in the kitchen and that
the pathogens were spread from produce to produce if they hadn't washed the utensils.
"A lot of the broken up material and particles from the contaminated produce remained on the
grates," said Erickson, who conducts her research at the UGA Center for Food Safety in Griffin.
"Then if you were to shred another carrot or something else immediately after that, it gets
contaminated, too."
The study also found that certain fruits and vegetables spread pathogens to knives to different
degrees.
"For items like tomatoes, we tended to have a higher contamination of the knives than when we cut
strawberries," Erickson said. "We don't have a specific answer about why there are differences
between the different produce groups. But we do know that once a pathogen gets on the food, it's
difficult to remove."
Knives and grates aren't the only utensils in the kitchen consumers should be worried about.
Erickson has also helped study the role brushes and pedlers have on the transfer of dangerous
kitchen
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Swine Pathogens
North Carolina is the country's second largest hog producer housing over 10 million swine (Edwards
and Ladd, 2000). Due to the density of swine in such a small region, 15.5 million tons of manure is
produced on a yearly basis. This manure is stored in lagoon pits that are man–made for this purpose.
1 Once stored in these lagoons, the manure is then sprayed onto fields for disposal; these fields
contain agricultural crops or turf (USGAO, 2008). Since the ground is permeable, runoff and
percolation occur in these fields and in the lagoons, as they are only lined with clay. The waste in
these lagoon pits contain insecticides, antimicrobial agents, pathogens, pharmaceuticals, and other
nutrients which result in extensive pollution and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The odor invades homes and some days mist will hit cars and homes (Wing S, 2002). As previously
noted, the waste contains pathogens and antibiotic–resistant bacteria. As this spray is impacting
residents' homes it is reaching public water sources. The mist contains hydrogen sulfide and
ammonia which cause irritation of the eyes and respiratory system (Wilson SM, Serre ML, 2007).
Research indicates these spray fields cause mental stress, decreased quality of life, and raised blood
pressure on nearby residents. NC's swine CAFOs are densely bunched in low income communities
with predominantly black residents. This region experiences poor quality of life, high
unemployment rates, subpar healthcare, and a minimal level of education (Calhoun SD, et al, 2000).
The residents in this region do not obtain the political power to oppose the impact of swine CAFOs.
Therefore, employment and schools or any educational institution thereof are not present within
vicinity. Regardless of any reason, this is environmental injustice impacting minority populations.
This population lacks the political power to push back, therefore; they have to bear the health,
socio–economic, and environmental impacts of the CAFOs without any allocation of the economic
benefits from the industry (Edwards B, Ladd AE, 2001). It seems that this industry chooses to build
CAFOs in areas with minimal zoning codes or least
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Non Pathogens
Pathogen research
After the introduction of the pathogen, it was clear that various non–pathogens could cause harm to
people. The concept of the pathogen was initially was referred to microbe causing the disease.
Scientists have involved themselves in research to critical understand the properties of fungi,
bacteria, parasites and viruses that were able to make people become ill. During the research, there
were seminal discoveries that were able to be got (Casadevall and Pirofski). These included various
roles of fungal and bacterial toxins available in diseases. Microbe, however, causes diseases only
with the host. In 1950, the microbes that caused infections were common opening channel of skin
and blood relating to the treatments suppressing ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Researchers studying microorganisms' community use genomics recognize myriad factors and
interactions help shape the composition of the microorganism. However, in different people, the
microbe varies in development at various times with relation to the disease. Infectious research on
the diseases is dominated continuously by reducing the approaches (Casadevall and Pirofski). The
microbiologists view the microbes of any disease as the major factors that vary with the disease.
They, therefore, treat the body of the host as just a
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Bloodborne Pathogens In Hospitals
Bloodborne pathogens are a threat to patients in the hospital. If a patient is not taken well care of
with precaution, then they could be affected by this. A pathogen, in general, is something that can
cause disease. A bloodborne pathogen, specifically, is an infectious germ that can flow through the
human body's blood, causing disease. This pathogen has multiple ways of getting spread into the
blood and is not only a threat to hospital patients, but to people outside those walls as well.
There a few common bloodborne pathogens that can be spread throughout hospitals. They are
hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency (HIV). HIV itself can cause
AIDS. A person can be infected with any of these viruses if a needle of ... Show more content on
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HIV is a life changing virus that cannot be reversed. It can be spread by "semen, vagina fluids,
breast milk, or amniotic fluid". This virus is a vicious virus that harms and fights the body immune
system. The immune system is the body's healing system that fights off diseases. With a weak
immune system, one is more likely to become infected with diseases and illnesses. There is
treatment to help aid the symptoms of HIV, but unfortunately there is no prevention vaccine for HIV.
As for Hepatitis B and C, there can sometimes be no symptoms. However, when there are
symptoms, people often encounter jaundice, stomach pain, loss of appetite, nausea, and fatigue.
HBV is the less dangerous hepatitis. It often gets better on it's own and needs no treatment.
However, HBV can also be a long–term infection and eventually end up developing into liver
damage. Hepatitis C can also cause liver damage. Blood pathogens can be specifically dangerous for
those who received an organ donor or a blood transfusion before July 1992. Children are at risk for
having hepatitis C if their mother had it. Those who received a blood clotting treatment before 1987
are at risk as well for having hepatitis
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ESKAPE Pathogens
The aim of this experiment was to find bacteria within the soil that produce antibiotics that are
effective against the ESKAPE pathogens. We found that the CFU/g of the bacteria cultured were
largest when they were found close to or directly within the soil of plants likely due to the nutrients
they provide. Of the thirty–three bacteria found to produce antibiotics, sixteen were found to be
effective against gram positive bacteria, fifteen were found to be effective against gram negative
bacteria and one was found to be effective against both. Using gel electrophoresis, we identified that
the 16s rRNA gene that was enhanced through PCR was about 1400 base pairs long. Furthermore,
through gram staining, we identified that sixteen of the antibiotic ... Show more content on
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Of the thirty–three antibiotic producers found, only twenty–four were tested in the gram staining.
There were nine bacteria that were somehow lost during the course of the experiment. In addition,
only eight of the thirty three antibiotic producers were able to be sequenced. This result can be
explained due to the 16s rRNA gene not being successfully enhanced through the PCR. Another
inconsistency shown in the data was the prevalence of gram negative bacteria among the bacteria
sequenced, which contradicts O.Connell and indicates that there were possibly significant
experimental errors. Finally, the antibiotics tested against the ESKAPE pathogens indicated that
none were effective, contradicting the data found when we initially tested all of the bacteria. This
could result from there not being enough antibiotics plated in the test, meaning that the antibiotic
would need to be present in significant quantities to function properly. Overall these results indicate
that our hypothesis was not correct and that the experiment would need to be run again with
different bacteria or the experiment would need to be revised to possibly find better
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Foodborne Pathogens
Foodborne diseases are an important public health problems in United States causing numerous
illnesses, hospitalizations and deaths of people. Along with this, these diseases can cause substantial
amount of burden through long term complications and sequelae. Understanding the overall human
health impact of these diseases is a prime key to prioritize food safety policies and interventions.
Hoffmann et al. (2012) and Scallan et al. (2015), both explores the overall impact of foodborne
disease caused by major leading foodborne pathogens in United States measuring the annual cost of
illnesses and loss of Quality Life Years. Hoffmann et al. (2012) emphasize 14 of the major
foodborne pathogens whereas Scallan et al. (2015) emphasize only seven of ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
(2012) reported the annual loss of $14 billion in cost of illness and 61,000 QALYs in United States.
Whereas, Scallan et al. (2015) estimate the loss of 112, 000 DALYs annually in United States. From
the viewpoint of Hoffmann et al. (2012) nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of
food borne pathogens followed by Campylobacter, Listeria monocyotgenes, Toxoplasma gondii and
norovirus. However, Scallan et al. (2015) report the little bit contrasting result showing
nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica as the major cause followed by Toxoplasma, Camplyobacter,
norovirus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli O157.They define
health states for each pathogen (acute illness and sequelae) and estimate the average annual
incidence of each health state using data from public health surveillance and previously published
estimates from United States. In addition, they create disease outcome tress for each pathogen that
characterize the symptoms, severities, durations, outcomes and likelihoods of health states
associated with that pathogen. Then, they estimate the cost of illness (medical costs, productivity
loss, and valuation of premature mortality) for each pathogen. They also estimate QALY loss for
each health state associated with a given pathogen, using EuroQol 5D scale. They recommend to
address important data gaps and to develop and validate US– specific disability weights for
foodborne diseases to improve the future estimates of the burden of foodborne diseases in
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Spirited Pathogens
One of the core tenets of the B.H.Sc program is giving back to the community and for me, being a
pathogen represents an opportunity to do just that. Each year during Welcome Week, new people
from diverse backgrounds join our community and it is crucial that we make a positive impression
in their minds about what B.H.Sc is and what it stands for. A positive impression can be made by
setting the right tone from the beginning that, as new members of the community, we should trust
each other, be welcoming and inclusive, and being spirited about the four years to come. These are
the values that I have learned during my time in B.H.Sc and I want to pass them down as soon as the
first years set foot on campus on the first day of the Welcome Week. ... Show more content on
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It should be a person who is lively, animated, full of energy and who enthusiastically embodies the
values that B.H.Sc stands for. I believe that such a characteristic is important because Welcome
Week is a once–in–a–lifetime opportunity and experience for the first years and our goal is to make
that week a memorable and a cherished time of their university life. This can be made possible with
a team of spirited pathogens. In my view, a spirited pathogen is one who pushes the new students to
come out of their comfort zones and interact with their new peers and explore their new
environment. Of course, the pathogen must respect the students' needs and must make sure student
is not feeling overwhelmed in that process. A spirited pathogen is able to recount their university
experiences and narrate their bad experiences into good lessons through humour and frank
conversation. This characteristic is important because it would reassure the students that despite any
uncertainties, everything will be turn out to be okay and that university has its ups and downs which
is all part of the fun and of the learning experience. So in summary, the characteristic of spiritedness,
in my opinion, is all about optimism and spreading it far and wide to
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Healthcare Pathogens
Recognition of healthcare systems globally in both high and low income areas is a key component to
understanding the health of each country overall. Each country can only function and be as strong as
the weakest country due to communicable diseases that spread worldwide. As technology advances
so do the pathogens that enter each individual's body. In the past pathogens were contained to their
country of origin and were not easily spread but in today's society they can travel within in a matter
of hours or minutes. Understanding each healthcare system allows world leaders and healthcare
workers to determine changes that need to be made in order to eliminate health disparities and the
spread of various communicable diseases. Analyzing and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
Intensive care units (ICUs) have been shut down due to this shortage of healthcare personnel; there
are around 650 ICUs in Greece when 1500–2000 are needed for the population needs. Of the 650
ICUs, 150–200 have been shut down due to the lack of staffing abilities.
Greece has a total of 132 public hospitals under national health service. This total consists of
general, university, and specialized hospitals as well as health centres. There are 23 more hospitals
not under operating under the national health service that attend to different populations such as
military and prisoners. Private hospitals make of 26% of the total bed capacity in Greece with 218
designated hospitals. These hospitals benefit the individuals enrolled in private health insurance.
Medical equipment in readily available within Greece. The biomedical technology supply is
expensive and uncontrolled. Among 28 other countries, Greece ranks within the top 10 for number
of CT and MRI scanners. Doctors promote the use of this expensive technology and have a tendency
to overprescribe tests and procedures. The internet is not utilized often within the Greece healthcare
system. Only 25% of doctors keep records electronically and only 57% actually use the internet.
When the internet is used, it is mainly for consulting research or current best practices.
Ethiopia
Ethiopia has a population of over 104 million people and life expectancy is on the lower side at
approximately 65 years. The fertility rate is
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Macrophage Pathogen
The success of a pathogen is not to kill its host but to infect the host in a way that it helps to transfer
and hence propel the pathogen further. The host has its own mechanisms to contain the infection,
like low pH (acidic pH in the phagolysosomes is crucial for the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes),
temperature (fever is a common symptom due to a lot of infections), and inflammation. All this is
well mediated by the host immune system.
As Mtb is inhaled by a healthy individual, it is phagocytosed by the macrophages and dendritic cells
in the lung alveoli. Macrophages, a part of the innate immunity, play a major role in killing and
containing Mtb. Of the many bacteria inhaled, macrophages are able to kill some, while the others
replicate ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
A pro–inflammatory response triggered by infected macrophages causes recruitment of the
mononuclear cells at the site of infection. The T–cells interact with the macrophages and activate
them by releasing the cytokine, IFN–. Activated macrophages are more efficient at killing Mtb. At
this stage of infection, antigen presentation also activates B–cells which produce antibodies against
Mtb. A consolidated mass of infected host cells and immune cells forms a granuloma. The
granuloma consists of infected macrophages, foamy macrophages that contain stored oil droplets
which serve as the bacterial nutrition, T–cells, B–cells in the earlier stages. When the bacillary load
becomes static, the infection is said to be "latent". Early stages of granuloma formation also
witnesses vascularisation and supply of blood through newly developed blood capillaries. The
granuloma is lined by epithelial cells and fibrous tissue in the later stages. The core of the
granuloma is hypoxic (Vandiviere et al., 1956; Via et al., 2008). Granulomas can be resolved due to
the action of immune system. With suppression of the immune system due to ageing, HIV infection
or malnutrition, the containment of the bacteria
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Pathogens Essay
Pathogens are everywhere. They are in people, animals, and the environment. Pathogens come in a
wide variety. The types are fungal, bacterial, viral, and other parasites. All pathogens can be
dangerous, but two of them are more dangerous. These two types that more dangerous are fungal
and bacterial. While both fungal and bacterial pathogens cause illness, they differ in the way they
are transmitted, the way they are treated, and the diseases they cause. First, the way fungal and
bacterial pathogens are transmitted is different. Most fungal pathogens are not transmitted person to
person but instead by inhaling fungal spores. On the other hand bacterial pathogens are transmitted
in many ways like through touch and air. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Antifungal creams are used to treat things like athlete's foot, ringworm of the groin and body, skin
infection because of Candida yeast. A serious systemic infections like crypotococcal meningitis.
Antifungal injections are used to treat infections like Candidiasis, Coccidiomycosis, and
Crypotococcal Meningitis. Antifungals work by exploiting differences in mammalian and fungal
cells to kill the fungal organisms with no dangerous effects on the host. Fungal and human cells are
alike at the molecular level. Antifungal drugs can cause side effects; some could be fatal if the drug
is not used properly (Antifungal medication, n.d.). Finally, the diseases that fungal and bacterial
pathogens cause are completely different. Fungal diseases are rarer and more likely to be fatal. One
of the most fatal fungal pathogens is Candida. Candidiasis infections have many types the most
common non–fatal type is oral also known as thrush. Invasive Candidiasis infections occur if
Candida yeast gets in your bloodstream and you have a weakened immune system and a yeast
infection goes untreated. Candidiasis infections have a forty to fifty percent mortality rate for
systemic infections (Hidalgo, 1994–2013). Bacterial diseases are more common and there are so
many different types. Some bacterial infections are Botulism, Lyme disease, and gonorrhea.
Botulism is a disease that causes neuroparalysis because of a
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Using Homemade Solar Cookers And Solar Energy
Using Homemade Solar Cookers and Solar Energy to Pasteurize Non–Potable Water by Killing
Harmful Bacteria, Parasites, and Diseases
Maia J. Graudick
Brown School
Abstract
In less developed countries, there is a lack of availability in potable water for safe consumption.
Using a device known as a solar cooker may allow for cheap and easy access to water without worry
of contracting diseases. Solar cookers utilize solar energy by focusing the sun's rays into water,
heating the water to a temperature hot enough to kill harmful pathogens. A homemade solar cooker
was filled 100ml of non–potable water and set out in the sun for 50 minutes. The experiment
resulted in a success with 95.9% of all organisms in the water being killed, effectively pasteurizing
the water for safe drinking. The experiment provided evidence to support that solar cookers are
reliable option for pasteurizing non–potable water in less developed countries.
Using Homemade Solar Cookers and Solar Energy to Pasteurize Non–Potable Water by Killing
Harmful Bacteria, Parasites, and Diseases Water is highly important in sustaining human life.
Untreated water however, can have very harmful effects on the body. Water that is not of drinking
standards, or non–potable water, can contain harmful and possibly fatal pathogens. The consumption
of this water by humans is extremely dangerous. In less developed countries (LDCs) effective
methods of pasteurizing non–potable water are not always readily
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Controlling The Spread Of Pathogens
Controlling the spread of pathogens
Often times, when one thinks of the civil war and the men who fought and died, he often will only
consider the deaths in terms of battle. However many do not consider that a large number of these
deaths were linked to germs. In the Civil War, many soldiers died from diseases and lack of
cleanliness because they did not know about hygiene or how to stay clean. Most soldiers touched
many germ infested things without even knowing that those surfaces contained thousands of germs
that could eventually cause disease. Although the Civil war is ancient history, germs, unfortunately
are not. In today's society, people have access to lifesaving vaccinations. In fact, vaccinations are the
best way to prevent the spread of pathogens, because they help fight off diseases.
There are many ways to cope with infection control standard precautions in health care. Ways that
can help you with your respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette. Persons with respiratory symptoms
should apply control measures. Vaccinations is a treatment to prevent a person from getting sick.
Pathogens are a infectious agent that causes or illness to it's host. Many soldiers who did end up
having diseases were because he did not know the harm that it can cause him. '' Pathogens are
usually spread by bodily fluids such as blood and semen through fresh, bleeding cuts and
scratches(''Hand Hygiene'').''Soldiers should be aware of their surroundings and make sure not to get
any blood or
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The Effects Of Dairy Farms On The Dairy Industry
The dairy industry, which includes dairy farms and dairy processing plants, is a major contributor to
the economy. Dairy farms are involved in the production of raw milk, whereas dairy processing
plants produce a variety of dairy products (such as processed milk, cheese, butter, yogurt and ice
cream). The dairy industry ranks third (based on farm cash receipts) in the Canadian agriculture
sector and Newfoundland has the fewest number (n=33) of dairy farms of all the provinces (CDIC
2014). Although Quebec and Ontario are the major dairy producing provinces in Canada,
Newfoundland has the highest number of dairy cows and milk production levels per farm (CDIC
2014). The close contact between animals within a dairy farm can make them prone to ... Show
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2014). Furthermore, some diseases that infect dairy animals can also be transmitted to humans
(Bannantine et al. 2014). Therefore, epidemiological studies are important for successful prevention
and control programs. The work described in this thesis will focus on two bacterial pathogens
affecting dairy animals: (i) Klebsiella species, one of the causative agent of clinical mastitis (CM,
cases where the cow displays definitive symptoms of inflammation of the mammary glands and
udder tissue) and (ii) MAP, which causes Johne's disease, which is a contagious bacterial disease of
the intestinal tract. The molecular diversity of the pathogens associated with these two diseases has
not been examined in Newfoundland previously and was therefore selected to be the topic of the
research project.
1.3 Mastitis and Klebsiella species
Mastitis in dairy animals is caused by a number of bacteria that include the major pathogens such as
Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. Other mastitis causing pathogens are
Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Corynebacterium bovis, Mycoplasma spp.,
Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Citrobactor spp., Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Pasteurella spp. and Bacillus spp. Sometimes fungi, yeasts and moulds are
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Clean Water Pollution
The lack of clean drinking water around the world is a highly discussed global issue. Many people
are affected by this problem and it has a large negative effect on a large percentage of the world.
31.25% of people do not have access to properly treated, clean, safe water. This issue continues to
grow everyday and many people continue to suffer. The reason this topic needs to be addressed is
that the people in the world affected by their lack of clean water are suffering, contracting diseases,
and dying, because of the conditions they live in. Moreover it is a large issue and affects millions, if
not billions of people. The clean water shortage that plagues our world is important to discuss and
be aware of, because it is a huge global problem and needs a solution right away. The problem is
important, because people suffer everyday and don't live good lives in the condition and state their
world is in. Water is necessary to survival and having no access to safe water can lead to death,
which then affects the entire population of the country. A single death may not seem impactful,
however one death may lead to ten more, and more after that. The people dying most likely had a
job and if people keep dying soon the population will be too small to hold up the economy. If an
economy in a country collapses the entire world could be affected. As an effect of this, the goods
that the country produces would no longer be able to be shipped and from there things could get
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Bacteria Pathogens
Introduction Bacteria pathogens have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics. (Vuotto et al.
2014) The purpose of this experiment is to understand how bacteria are genetically modified in
order to better understand the changes going on naturally in such bacteria. Genetic transformation is
used in many sectors of everyday life. From agriculture to medical treatments, this biotechnology is
allowing for new findings through science. Three methods of genetic transformation are projectile
bombardment, electroporation, and heat shock. (Weedman 2014) In 2008, Osamu Shimomura,
Martin Chalfie, and Roger Y. Tsien were co–awarded the Nobel Prize as they first discovered, used,
and altered Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). GFP was extracted from jellyfish ... Show more
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The lids were then placed on the tubes, and both tubes were placed in ice. E. coli bacteria cells that
had been grown on a media plate overnight, were then added to each tube and completely circulated
throughout the solution using a sterile loop. Both tubes were then returned to the ice. The pGLO
plasmid was then added to one tube and the other acted as the control, and had no pGLO plasmid
added to the solution. Both tubes were then placed on ice for ten minutes, then both tubes were
submerged in 42°C water for 50 seconds in order to shock the bacteria and allow the membrane to
become more permeable. The tubes were then immediately removed from the bath and replaced in
ice for another two minutes. Luria Broth (LB) was then added to both tubes and left at room
temperature for ten minutes. The pGLO– solution was added to a LB nutrient agar plate and to a LB
nutrient agar plate that had ampicillin present in it. The pGLO+ solution was added to a LB nutrient
agar plate that had ampicillin added to it and to a LB nutrient agar plate that had ampicillin, as well
as arabinose. All four petri dishes were stored inverted at 37°C for 24 hours. (Weedman
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Mycelial Pathogen
Step 1: Written observation of the symptoms of the fruit and signs of the pathogen.
Symptoms and signs
The fruit that is examined in this study is a strawberry. The infected strawberry in displayed in
figure 1, appears to be fully covered in mycelial growth. Mycelial consists of white filaments also
known as hyphae (mould), which seems to be growing on the strawberry. Within the branched
hyphae there are multiple black spores that surround the fruit. Although the fruit appears to be
shriveled, there appears to be an access amount of liquid which remains on the parafilm and the
inner components of the fruit are moist and soft. The multiple stages of mycelial that are growing on
the fruit in figure 1, demonstrates signs of the pathogen. The ... Show more content on
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The slide appears to attain dark hyphae fruiting bodies at the tips. The appearance of spores,
sporangiospore and sporangium are visible. Rhizopus is identified in the microscopic analysis of the
fruit. The rhizopus is seen as the branching hypha ends in figure 4. The microscope slide
demonstrates density of hyphae around the mid region.
Do the Pure Culture Symptoms Observations Match? At the beginning of the experiment, the
samples had visible hyphae and black fruiting bodies, which appear to be visible in the re–infected
fruit samples. Both the samples have distinct zones of mycelial growth and colonization. In the
fruiting and productive zones both samples appear to have increased hyphae density. When samples
are analyzed in the microscope they both have evident clusters of sporangia and conidia. When
comparing the infect fruit samples it is clear that both the original and re–infected samples are quite
similar results including signs and symptoms.
Step 5: Re–isolation of the pathogen in a pure culture and compare to original
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Pathogen Analysis
The Evader – Narrated by the Pathogen Humans are lucky because they have an amazing system for
fighting and clearing infectious agents from their bodies. There are many ways in which the immune
system, my nemesis, fights off infections to return the human back to his original healthy state.
While the immune system may be smart, I am smarter. Infectious agents, like myself, are
continuously developing new ways to evade the human's immune system. Today, I will give you a
glimpse into my life and walk you through how I enter the body and evade the ever–present
surveillance of the immune system. First, I should explain how I get into the body to begin carrying
out my diabolical plans of infecting the human host. I spend most of my time floating ... Show more
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I do this by not allowing C3 convertase to act properly via the alternative pathway. In normal cells
where C3 convertase activity is not impaired, C3 will be cleaved. C3 and it's cleavage is the process
by which C3 convertase is normally made. C3 convertase can then produce C3b, which has the
ability to bind to pathogen surfaces. When C3b binds to the pathogen surface further cleavage can
occur and molecules, such as C5b, will be generated. Molecules like C5b are responsible for
forming the Major Attack Complex (MAC). Normally, MAC formation on cell surfaces would
essentially cause a hole to be punched through the cell membrane. The hole causes the cell contents
to be released and ultimately the cell will die, due to the lysis. However, in my case I do not want
MAC to be formed to lyse the cells I have worked so hard to make. So I decided that I would not
allow C3 convertase to function properly in the first place. This means that the downstream
products, such as C5b, are not made which ultimately prevents the MAC from forming on cells.
This means the cells that I have infected, will not be killed. So my viral DNA will continue to be
replicated in these infected cells
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Air Pathogens
Microbes have been considered responsible for substantial amounts of infections and fatalities
within all living organisms .This escalates into a pandemic when it starts dissemination from person
to person through variety of ways, making it a communicable disease. According to the World
Health Organisation (2017) the biggest such pandemic on record being the Spanish influenza, which
killed around 100 million people which was at least 5% of the world's population in 1918.
Mayoclinic (2017) describes pathogen as an infectious biological agent that causes disease or illness
to its host, infecting unicellular organisms from of diverse biological species .A lot of medical
advances have been made to safeguard human life against the threat from the Pathogens. However
there are some fungi and bacteria which are useful to human life for food and medicinal purposes
respectively.
Identify a range of organisms responsible for infectious disease Bacteria are single–celled ... Show
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These air pathogens can be accessed through anybody orifice such as the nose or eyes.
Contaminated food and drink, or dirty hands can also contribute greatly to how diseases can enter
the body through the digestive. The pathogens are spread through contact of an infected surface and
then introduced into the digestive tract through oral transmission. Another route for pathogens is
through the circulatory system and blood transfusions where hyper–dermic needles and other
injuries to the skin which consequently allows the infectious disease to spread more easily causing
major effects to the immune system (Gillespie & Bamford 2012).Harmful pathogens do not enter
through the blood only but, many other infectious diseases such as AIDS can also be spread through
sexual contact. Their routes or an avenue of attack is usually the lymph system through the
circulatory
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Leprosy Pathogens
The earliest record of leprosy existing is back in 1550 B.C. There, it was discovered that the
Egyptians had described the indicators of this pathogenic bacterial disease. From then on, Indians,
Greeks, and Romans had dealt with the disfigurement, muscle weakness, and neuralgia. As the
disease multiplied inside of its hosts, so did humanity's struggle to accept and cure the disabled
whom were affected. In 1873, a Norwegian doctor named Dr. Gerhard Hansen uncovered
Mycobacterium leprae, the leprosy pathogen. Afterwards, doctors start using an oil extracted from a
Chaulmoogra nut plant as a treatment. They injected the oil into the person affected. Although it
seemed to work, the injections near affected areas were painful for the treated persons,
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Water Is Convenient Environment For Microorganisms Growth
Water is convenient environment for microorganisms growth, some are pathogenic and other non–
pathogenic.
Bioindicators are living organisms such as plants, planktons, animals, and microbes, which are
utilized, to screen the health of the natural ecosystem in the environment (Trishala K. Parmar,
Deepak Rawtani and Y. K. Agrawal, 2016). Bio indicator organisms are algae, fungi, bacteria, larval
invertebrates,
Cyanobacteria, macro invertebrates, and fish play a vital role in water quality evaluation. [Natalia
Szczerbiñska and Ma³gorzata Ga³czyñska, 2015.]
(Bacteria play a vital role as Bio indicator organisms)
Previous studies indicate that water have many types of indicators; General (Process) indicator a
group of organisms that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Current research on water pathogens is focused on some pathogenic bacteria (bacterial pathogens).
Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by
the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and
treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental (7, 2015) Proper assessment of
pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision–making regarding
water distribution systems' infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention
waterborne outbreaks.
The World Health Organization [World Health Organization (WHO). Water Sanitation and Health.
2015. Available online: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases (assessed on 17
February 2015)., Pandey, P.K.; Kass, P.H.; Soupir, M.L.; Biswas, S.; Singh, V.P. Contamination of
water resources by pathogenic bacteria. AMB Express 2014, 4, 51.] has reported that improving
water quality can reduce the global disease burden by approximately 4%. Thus, there is an urgent
need to undertake all possible efforts to reach this goal. if infection to the host is produced, depends
on factors such as minimal infectious dose (MID), pathogenicity, host susceptibility and
environmental
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Pathogens
The term disease can be defined as a disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant,
especially one that produces specific symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a
direct result of physical injury.With this being said, it can be seen that there are numbers of diseases.
A pathogen is a biological agent, or germ, that causes disease to its host by interrupting normal body
processes. Bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are all common types of pathogens that can cause
pathogenic, or infectious, diseases. These pathogens can be found in the air, soil and water, and
infection can occur as a result of touching, eating or drinking something that is infected with a
germ.A vector is an organism that does ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Hereditary diseases are disorders or diseases that are inherited genetically. They are also known as
genetic disorders or inherited diseases and may be passed on within the family if there is a mutant
gene present. For example, Down syndrome. This disease is also known as Trisomy 21 and it is
caused by inheritance of an extra chromosome 21. This condition causes delay in mental and
physical development of a child. This genetic disorder is rare and may be detected before a child is
born. Another example is Hereditary Fructose Intolerance. This hereditary disease causes absence of
enzyme aldolase B in a person, which is required for metabolizing fructose. Symptoms of hereditary
fructose intolerance include severe abdominal pain, vomiting and aversion to sweet foods. Along
with Hereditary hemochromatosis which is a genetic disease that causes the body to absorb too
much iron. Absorbed iron doesn't leave the body but instead it is stored in the body organs, which
can cause many health
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Resistance Against Pathogens
One of the greatest problems our world faces today is rising antibiotic resistance in viruses, bacteria
and pathogens in general. This is a human–driven problem; the more we use antibiotics to save lives
today, the stronger the pathogens infecting and harming us tomorrow will be. The entire problem is
based in natural selection because antibiotics kill all of a pathogen except for a special few who
were themselves deformed in a way that enabled them to survive. These then become the pathogens
that infect everyone, so the previous solution is no longer able to solve the problem the next time
around. There can be no single concrete solution, but rather endless research and discovery to stop
these pathogens from causing death and destruction ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In this specific scenario, only research can tell us whether a cocktail of antibiotics will potentially
kill every form of the pathogen, eliminating the ones that with the use of only one drug may have
survived, or if this cocktail will accelerate antibiotic resistance creating new superiorly adapted
pathogens. Maybe the only choice is to just stop using really powerful drugs, potentially losing lives
in the process to end up saving the lives of millions down the road. But the solutions to the problem
start with education because the more we know about the absolute basic workings of anything, the
easier it is to find and exploit a weakness, whatever that may be. A great passion of mine is to learn
and learn and learn so that I am in a position in which the answer to whatever problem I need
solved, is right in front of me, all I have to do or anybody else for that matter, is put the pieces
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Pathogens Of Hpv

  • 1. Pathogens Of Hpv As a human being, we are faced with several pathogens that can cause harm to our body. As health care professional, we are encouraged to obtain knowledge about these different types of diseases; so that we can educate and as well as treat the patient diagnosis. Due to the action of our sexual behavior, we open our bodies to a vast amount of sexual transmitted diseases. Even though, sex plays one of the most important roles in our daily lives. It is essential to be educated on the prompt ways of performing safe sex; nevertheless, it is necessary to be aware of infections you can acquire. Frequently, more recently in today's society the disease known as HPV is a genital to genital disease that can be spread through sexual contact. The following ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. Pathogens: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Although many disease–causing pathogens are rare, it cannot be said that pathogens themselves are rare. In fact, they are rather ubiquitous in nature and include a wide variety of types such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, prion proteins, parasites. Pathogens vary in complexity and those that remain are a direct result of successfully adapting to their environments and evolving over time to overcome selective evolutionary pressures. A more specific example of how disease causing pathogens can vary in virulence involves the mention of antibiotics and their ability throughout history to temporary lessening the virulence of bacterial strains. The relationship between pathogens (i.e. bacteria) and hosts (i.e. humans) has been one of coevolution ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... New discovery of antibiotics has slowed down and the select number of pathogenic bacteria in existence are continuing to increase in virulence due to increased exposure. Although advances have been made to address the issue of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, remaining exist that may not be as obvious a threat to fighting especially virulent bacterial ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. Biohazards of Sewage Sludge Essay Wastewater can come from a variety of sources like homes, businesses, industries, runoff from roads, lawns and fields and is treated by municipal wastewater treatment facilities (Product, cornell). The solid material that remains after the treatment of wastewater is known as sludge (charac, cornell). Sludge can be employed in many different ways, it can be used as a soil additive or growing medium, sent to a composting facility, incinerated or landfilled (Char, cornell). Biosolids are derived primarily from a combination of primary, secondary, and tertiary sewage sludges. Biosolids do not contain the coarse grit and screenings removed from raw wastewater during preliminary treatment steps or ash generated from incineration of sewage ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... These various routes or pathways of contact can result in either acute or chronic disease if the exposure is high enough. For pathogens, the primary concern is acute diseases of a short–term duration (i.e., gastroenteritis or flu–like symptoms), while for the various potential chemical contaminants, risks are derived from chronic exposure via ingestion. Pathogens that may be present in biosolids applied to land pose a disease risk only if there are routes of exposure that deliver an infective dose. The principal means of exposure is through ingestion or inhalation. Absorption through the skin is considered to be a minor route of exposure unless a field worker suffers a cut or other puncture to the skin and is exposed. The degree of harm caused by bacterial toxins varies with the mode of entry into the body. It seems there is a correlation between the amount of biosolids applied and frequency of contamination. A 1984 study showed that 22.4mg/ha applied to Sassafras sandy loam soil was the upper limit to ensure that groundwater was not contaminated (Higgins, 1984). Doses below 22.4mg/ha of land are acceptable for the provision of nutrients to plants, while anything above diminished the water quality to below American federal standards (Higgens, 1984). Heavy metals and coliforms remained low ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. Fungal Pathogens Opportunistic and invasive fungal infections have increased dramatically in recent years. Candida and Aspergillus spp. are the most famous fungal pathogens that account for majority of invasive and opportunistic fungal infections, respectively, occurring worldwide. 1This scenario is being observed among individuals with suppressed immune systems brought about by the use of cytotoxic drugs, immunosuppressive therapy, or human immunodeficiency virus infection.2 These infections have also been observed in some iatrogenic or nosocomial clinical settings. Autopsy data indicate that more than half of the patients who die with malignancies are infected with Candida spp., approximately one–third with Aspergillus spp., and increasing numbers with Cryptococcus ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Log P values of designed molecule and Fluconazole were found to be 2.49 and 0.99 respectively. (Calculated using Chemdraw software). (II) Tertiary amino moiety as bioisoster was selected to replace tertiary alcohol of Fluconazole. Compared with tertiary alcohol, the tertiary amino group could not only be liable to form hydrogen bonds, but also accepts proton or form quaternary salts which results in the increase of water solubility or coordinate with metal ions which probably lead to enhance affinity, selectivity and potency in biological properties.18 (III) Several studies from the past have demonstrated that incorporating halobenzyl moiety into organic molecules could greatly improve the pharmacological properties.19–21 An enhanced pharmacological action results from an increased rate of absorption, transport of drugs in vivo, and a higher lipid solubility.22 The greater flexibility of the benzyl moiety as compared to phenyl group may show improved molecular biological ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Innate Pathogens Pathogens and parasites are very dangerous and lethal to not only vertebrate species such as animals, but invertebrate species like insects as well. Insects have to heavily rely on their innate immune system, which is an immediate response in quickly destroying invaders (Alberts et al 2002). Melanism is a key response to insects' innate defenses that serves many functions like improving fitness. Melanin darkens the insects' cuticle, which is facilitated by the enzyme phenoloxidase that converts dopamine to melanin (True 2003). So when the insect is infected, host hemocytes surround around an invader and from a melanized capsule, and as the capsule darkens, cytotoxic intermediates are produced and the invader loses its ability to survive (Cerenius ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. Pathogens Of Pneumonia An infection of one or both the lungs refers to Pneumonia. The major causes of pneumonia are germs like bacteria, virus, and fungi. The alveoli (air sacs) of an infected person's lungs are inflated with fluids or pus. Pneumonia spreads in several ways. The viruses and bacteria found in airborne droplets transmitted due to coughing and sneezing, when inhaled can cause pneumonia. It is also transmitted through blood, especially during and shortly after birth. Research is still underway on the other pathogens that possibly cause the disease. Watch out for few of these major symptoms that can mean you have pneumonia. However, these symptoms can range from mild to severe depending on the type of germ causing the infection, age, and your overall ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. Oryzae Pathogens Known more commonly as the pathogenic fungus causing rice blast, M. oryzae was formerly known as Magnaporthe grisae. M. oryzae is the formal name given to isolates associated with rice blast. (Couch and Kohn 2002). Couch and Kohn discovered a difference of several base pairs in three loci between M. grisae and M. oryzae. Couch and Kohn also found the two species were incapable of interbreeding in the laboratory. M. oryzae is an ascomycete belonging to a relatively new family, the Magnaporthaceae, which also includes pathogens of other cereals. Only the anamorphic1 state has been found in rice fields, but the teleomorph2 can be produced in culture with a pair of isolates having opposing mating types. The fungus most often presents as diamond–shaped lesions on leaves but is also found on stems, peduncles, panicles, seeds, and has even been detected on roots (TeBeest et al 2007). These diamond–shaped lesions appear with a white to gray center and brown to reddish brown borders (2016). Retrieved from http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/r682100611.html. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Perithecia are normally globose to subglobose and brown to black with a glabrous surface. Each unitunicate3 ascus holds eight ascospores with the apical ring present. Ascospores are hyaline and fusiform, taper at both ends with three septa, and contain haploid nuclei. The mycelium of M. oryzae is septate with haploid nuclei (Luo and Zhang 2013, TeBeest et al ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. When we think of cannibalism, our minds immediately turn... When we think of cannibalism, our minds immediately turn to gruesome pictures of humans eating other humans or fictional characters that feast upon the flesh of other living people (especially with a nice chianti and fava beans). Though cannibalism may not be a common occurrence among humans, it is a fairly widespread practice upon many other species of the animal kingdom. This paper will explore the behavior of cannibalism in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) a major fitness cost of cannibalism in these organisms: pathogen transmission. Cannibalism is operationally defined as the ingestion of all or part of a conspecific, and is taxonomically widespread amongst many vertebrate and invertebrate groups; however, it is extremely ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Most normal morphs feed on invertebrates, whereas cannibal morphs eat a wider range of prey including conspecific and heterospecific larvae. Since tiger salamanders breed in ephemeral ponds, it is believed that environmental cues influence the frequency of cannibal morphs in a population. These cues can include high intraspecific density that leads to resource competition, pathogen and/or parasite densities in the habitat, etc. (Brunkow and Collins, 1996; Collins et al., 2003; Denoel et al., 2006; Maret and Collins, 1997; Pfennig, 1991, 1998). Most current research on cannibalism in tiger salamanders focuses on kin selection and kin recognition strategies. However, within the past twenty years more research has begun to focus on the cost of pathogen transmission on cannibalism in tiger salamanders. This seems to be due to the increased amphibian population declines due to pathogens and because it seems to be the biggest fitness cost to cannibalistic salamanders, when compared to the other mentioned above (Parris et al., 2005; Pfennig, 1997). Through the current research, the rest of this paper will explore pathogen transmission and how it affects cannibalism in tiger salamanders. First we will survey some research done on transmission dynamics and the pathogens that affect tiger salamanders. It is believed that numerous bacterial pathogens in high enough quantities and infecting other tissues than they usually do can lead to death in tiger ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. Infection Control Nvq 3 Unit 0.20 1.1 and 1.2 Bacteria – are micro–organisms that consist of only one cell. Bacteria multiply by splitting themselves in two, which is called a binary fission. Because of this they can increase in number rapidly. The majority are harmless, but some can be pathogenic which results in bacterial infection occuring. Bacterial infections can be treated by using antibiotics. Bacteria can evolve a resistance to antibiotic e.g. MRSA. Some diseases caused by bacteria include tuberculosis, pneumonia, salmonella, tetanus and syphilis. Viruses – are extremely small particles made from protein and either DNA or RNA. They are not made up of cells instead they invade the living cells of other organisms and use them to produce many copies of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... All pathogens need a source of food to provide them with a source of energy and nutrients they need to multiply. Often they get it from the body of the infected individual. All human pathogens require moisture to grow, that is why food is preserved by drying, which deprive mico–organisms of moisture. The pathogens that infect humans grow best at body temperature of 37*C. Higher temperatures inactivate and kill most of the micro–organisms, while low temperatures slow or stop their grow. That is why heat is used to steralize objects, while freezing is used to preserve food. It takes time for the pathogen to multiply to the point where it starts to cause symtomps of infection. This is called an incubation time. 2.2 There are four main ports of entry: – inhalation into the nose, throat and lungs (pathogens in the air or droplets, which can cause e.g. TB), – ingestion into the stomach and gut (pathogens ingested and swallowed, which can cause e.g. salmonella and norovirus), – sexual contact (pathogens transmitted in any sexual contact, which can cause e.g. HIV, gonorrhoea), – wounds and breaks in the skin (pathogens enter the body through mucus membranes, nose, mouth, gut, genital urinary track – catheters, or wounds like surgical incisions which can cause e.g. MRSA). 2.3 The sources of infection can be divided in two main groups. These are exogeneous and endogeneous sources. A source of the infection is ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19. A summary analysis of the article “Microarray detection of... Introduction: In the field of public health, food–borne illnesses are a major concern because it has been estimated that each year 76 million cases occur in the United States causing 5,000 deaths (Suo et al., 2010). In 2008, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's FoodNet surveillance program reported over 18 thousand cases of food–borne illnesses occurred in 10 states (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2008). According to estimates from the CDC (2011), the most common food– borne pathogens that maybe seen in the United States are Norvovirus (58%), Clostridium perfringens (10%), Salmonella (11%), Campylobacter spp. (9%), and Staphylococcus aureus (3%). Among the other 9% (not published) include Escherichia coli ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The emergence of DNA based technologies such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microarray analysis have been utilized in the rapid detection and identification of many pathogenic bacteria (Mothershed & Whitney, 2006; Versalovic & Lupski, 2002). The expansion of these technologies has significantly enhanced the sensitivity, specificity and the rapid detection of microorganisms (Suo et al., 2010). Microarray technologies have the potential to perform high– throughput detection of multiple pathogens. Recent work with specific oligonucleotide probes suggests that pathogen detection can be performed on a sample that contains a mixed culture of bacteria (Kim et al., 2008). This paper will Purpose of Research: Previous work with DNA based technologies to accurately detect and identify human pathogens has been demonstrated. Furthermore, three methods have been utilized: 1) amplification of one or more universal genes (16S rRNA and 23S rRNA) through PCR, 2) amplification of pathogen–specific markers (toxins, virulence factors) using multi–plex PCR and 3) amplification of random DNA fragments (Kim et al., 2008). Kim et al. (2008) state that the first two methods is flawed due to the limited number of probes utilized and that the amplification of universal genes would not discriminate below species level due to the fact that these genes are highly conserved within the genus. On the other hand, Kim et al. (2008) reported that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20.
  • 21. Pathogens Of Salmonella Salmonella is a group of rod–shaped gram–negative bacteria, which causes a foodborne illness called salmonellosis. Salmonella germs have been known to cause illness for over 100 years. The Salmonella family includes over 2,500 serotypes of bacteria. Of these, the most common serotypes associated with human illness are salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S.Typhimurium) and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). (Kyung–Min Lee, 2015) Salmonella is widely dispersed in nature. Since it is primarily found in the intestinal tracts of animals, salmonella causes one million illnesses in the United States every year. In 2013, 1.2 million patients of salmonella infections occur in United States, resulting 378 deaths. The annual cost ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Salmonella spp. are commonly referred to by their serotype names. In 2007, there were approximately 2600 different serotypes of S. enterica have been identified and about 50 serotypes in them are common causes of infections in humans and warm blooded animals. Serotyping determines a Salmonella serotype by the unique combination of reactions of cell surface antigens. And it has been useful during source–attribution investigations, but it's expensive and can take up to 5 days to complete. (Kristyn Franklin, 2011)It also needs specialized expertise and a set of more than two hundreds quality–assured reagents to characterize these thousands different ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22.
  • 23. Marcergens are those bacteria responsible for plant tissue... Marcergens are those bacteria responsible for plant tissue maceration resulting in total tissue collapse (Gwyn 2007). Soft rot diseases of vegetable is the most characteristic symptom of tissue maceration in plant which begins as small water soaked lesion, expands and intensifies until the tissue turns soft and watery. Apparently, the outer surface of the diseased plant might stay unbroken, while tanned and depressed, or enclosed in an exuding bacterial mucus layer. Foul smells are common owing to the discharge of explosive complexes through tissue degradation. Best bacterial growth follows after plant cell lysis in these diseases. Soft–rotting bacteria are distinguished for the speed at which they stimulate soft rot: warehoused crop may ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... These macergens infect and destroy plant tissues both pre– and postharvest and this species causes the greatest damage to harvested vegetables (Amy 2007). There is need to ensure a continuous cold chain from immediately postharvest to retail to successfully manage this ubiquitous spoilage bacterium that only thrive well at temperatures of 20°C and above. The fluorescent Pseudomonads (i.e. P. fluorescens and P. viridiflava) can macerate plant parenchymatous tissues at a temperature below 4°C, this cause for high occurrence of these bacteria on decayed vegetables both at wholesale and retail markets. These soft–rotting fluorescent Pseudomonads and Erwinia, therefore become the major threat to commercial fresh product operations and fresh vegetables precisely, from the farm to retail and wholesale outlets. However, there are currently no commercial agents available specifically for controlling soft rot (Dong et al. 2004; Latour et al. 2008). Despite advances in vegetable production and diseases management, many challenges face growers of vegetables, out of which the major one is the damage caused by macergens (Pérombelon 2002). Macergens damage the tissues of vegetable thereby reducing the quality, yields and shelf–life and consumer satisfaction of these plants. They usually cause great economic losses due to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24.
  • 25. The Negative Effects Of Pollution On The Environment America's increasingly prominent contamination of water and air from nitrates, lead, plastic and other pathogenic organisms is critical to our environment and the health of our population. Pollution has existed since the dawn of man. However, the transition from a nomadic lifestyle to a settled society escalated pollution. The Roman empire had been the first to introduce lead pollution into the atmosphere. As the population grows exponentially so does pollution rates, primarily in developed countries. It hadn't been until the second world war that industry's begun producing synthetic plastic materials. These materials are hardly biodegradable and therefore accumulate in the environment faster than they can be broken down. It was also in this 1950's era that scientist first began developing agriculture fertilizers as well as inorganic pesticides. It has been discovered that these particular compounds have a negative effect on ecosystems and humans. Pesticides are used to protect crops from being eaten by insects, the pesticide work as a repellent. Scientist now know that pesticides can cripple a species over time. Certain pesticides are designed to kill the insects that eat the plant, this is creating a lack of biological diversity in ecosystems. For example, Bee population has been declining for some time now. Without Bees, there would be no pollination of plants, potentially crippling entire ecosystems. Fertilizers contain nitrogen, runoff carries this element to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26.
  • 27. Spread Of Pathogens Explain two ways you help in preventing the spread of pathogens on a daily basis. (4 Points) Two ways that I could help prevent pathogens from spreading on a daily basis include avoiding close contact with people who are infected with a communicable disease and also by keeping my environment clean, by emptying trash cans frequently and keeping them clean. Describe how pathogens can be spread at school through both direct and indirect contact. (4 Points) Pathogens are most easily spread in the school environment since there are so many people inclosed in one place, using many of the same learning tools. When people are messing around and "wrestling" one another in the hallways, hugging each other, or even giving someone a high–five, these ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28.
  • 29. Antigenic Pathogens Question 1. I remember hearing in your video something about our body natural immunity and it eradicates the virus. The immune system includes physical barriers, such as the skin and mucous membranes that prevent pathogens from entering the body, and cellular responses, such as circulating macrophages that respond to foreign invaders. Our acquired immune system mounts a specific antibody response when the body is exposed to a foreign invader, and our immune cells attack the invader Question 2. The advantage for a fever can mean that you have an active immune system, revved up and helping an array of immunological processes work more effectively. Replication of most viruses is reduced by even a modest rise in temperature. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/11/health/11klass.html (Links to an external site.) ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... One way in which an infectious agent can evade immune surveillance is by altering its antigens; this is particularly important for extracellular pathogens, against which the principal defense is the production of antibody against their surface structures. There are three ways in which antigenic variation can occur. First, many infectious agents exist in a wide variety of antigenic types. There are, for example, 84 known types of Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important cause of bacterial pneumonia. Each type differs from the others in the structure of its polysaccharide capsule. The different types are distinguished by serological tests and so are often known as serotypes. Infection with one serotype of such an organism can lead to type–specific immunity, which protects against reinfection with that type but not with a different serotype. Thus, from the point of view of the adaptive immune system, each serotype of S. pneumoniae represents a distinct organism. The result is that essentially the same pathogen can cause disease many times in the same ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30.
  • 31. Essay on Water Treatment Process Clean water supply is essential in establishing and maintaining a healthy community. There are two sources of water supply which are the surface water and ground water. Most natural waters are not suitable for consumption as it is contaminated by pathogens and also natural chemicals and minerals. In addition, as a city grew, wastes from human activities contaminate most of the water supplies. Water treatment plays an important role to properly treat a contaminated source of water supply in order to protect the health of consumers. Water treatment process is defined as a process of eliminating pollutants from untreated water to produce a biologically and chemically risk–free water, which is both potable and palatable for human consumption ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The second step of water treatment process is aeration. At the aerator, raw water is mixed with air. The aeration process helps to provide oxygen to the raw water which is needed for the oxidation process of dissolved iron and manganese in order for it to precipitate and therefore enables its removal through filtration (SAJ Holdings Sdn Bhd., n.d.). Wormleaton and Tsang (2000) stated that for water treatment process and also natural streams, it is essential to maintain a high amount of dissolved oxygen. Aeration also provides the escape of dissolved gases, such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide to reduce the corrosiveness of water, thus controls the tastes and odors of the water (Shun, 2007). Groundwater with high dissolved carbon dioxide levels or high concentrations of iron and manganese commonly require aeration as well as water drawn from reservoirs that is low in dissolved oxygen. Thirdly, the proceeding water treatment step involves coagulation and flocculation. The objective of this step is to produce particles of a size that can be easily removed by settlement and filtration. Coagulation destabilizes the colloidal particles followed by flocculation whereby larger particles are formed from small particles through collisions. Conley and Evers (as cited in Hendricks, 2006, p. 277) described coagulation as a process that reduces the surface charge ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 33. Campylobacter Jejuni Essay Campylobacter Jejuni is the most common type of food poisoning in the world that is widely distributed among domestic animals. Most Campylobacter cells are curved, S–shaped, or spiral rods that are 0.2 to 0.8 µm wide and 0.5 to 5 µm long. They are non–spore forming and gram negative. They are typically motile with a characteristic corkscrew–like motion by means of "a single polar unsheathed flagellum at one or both ends of the cell" [2]. Cells grow well under microaerophil condition and "have a respiratory and chemoorganotropic type of metabolism" [4]. The optimum atmosphere for C. Jejuni is 85% N2, 10% CO2, and 5% O2 with temperature 30ºC to 37ºC. The natural habitat for Campylobacter is the intestine of birds and warm–blooded animals ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... At least 80 cases of Campylobacter Jejuni infection were linked to raw milk from Your Family Cow Farm. About 9 people who drank its dairy product were hospitalized. Lab tests by the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene found the outbreak strain of Campylobacter in raw milk collected from customers' homes. The main cause of the contamination was not clearly defined as sources can possibly come from every aspect of the farm. Illness onset dates for the outbreak range from January 17 to February 1. Therefore, consumers were continuously advised by the health department to discard any milk from the Family Cow dairy purchased since January 1 [6]. The Your Family Cow dairy, in conjugation with Pennsylvania Department of Health, sent some samples of raw milk that were produced during the week of outbreak be pathogen tested. However, there was no any single pathogen found in the samples, including Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Ecoli 0157:H7. Even though their pathogen test didn't show any sign of contamination, the farm had decided to voluntarily stop their raw milk sale for a moment. After passing a health inspection, on February 6 the farm was allowed to continue production [10]. The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture will continue to monitor Family Cow's raw milk. They also keep suggesting people to avoid raw milk even it's legal to drink ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34.
  • 35. How Do Utensils Lead To Cross-Contamination? In a recent study funded by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, University of Georgia researchers found that produce that contained bacteria would contaminate other produce items through the continued use of knives or grates––the bacteria would latch on to the utensils commonly found in consumers' homes and spread to the next item. Unfortunately, many consumers are unaware that utensils and other surfaces at home can give to the spread of bacteria, said the study's lead author Marilyn Erickson, an associate professor in the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences' department of food science and technology. "Just knowing that utensils may lead to cross–contamination is important," Erickson said. "With that knowledge, consumers are then more likely to make sure they ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... They found that both knives and grates can cause extra cross–contamination in the kitchen and that the pathogens were spread from produce to produce if they hadn't washed the utensils. "A lot of the broken up material and particles from the contaminated produce remained on the grates," said Erickson, who conducts her research at the UGA Center for Food Safety in Griffin. "Then if you were to shred another carrot or something else immediately after that, it gets contaminated, too." The study also found that certain fruits and vegetables spread pathogens to knives to different degrees. "For items like tomatoes, we tended to have a higher contamination of the knives than when we cut strawberries," Erickson said. "We don't have a specific answer about why there are differences between the different produce groups. But we do know that once a pathogen gets on the food, it's difficult to remove." Knives and grates aren't the only utensils in the kitchen consumers should be worried about. Erickson has also helped study the role brushes and pedlers have on the transfer of dangerous kitchen ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36.
  • 37. Swine Pathogens North Carolina is the country's second largest hog producer housing over 10 million swine (Edwards and Ladd, 2000). Due to the density of swine in such a small region, 15.5 million tons of manure is produced on a yearly basis. This manure is stored in lagoon pits that are man–made for this purpose. 1 Once stored in these lagoons, the manure is then sprayed onto fields for disposal; these fields contain agricultural crops or turf (USGAO, 2008). Since the ground is permeable, runoff and percolation occur in these fields and in the lagoons, as they are only lined with clay. The waste in these lagoon pits contain insecticides, antimicrobial agents, pathogens, pharmaceuticals, and other nutrients which result in extensive pollution and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The odor invades homes and some days mist will hit cars and homes (Wing S, 2002). As previously noted, the waste contains pathogens and antibiotic–resistant bacteria. As this spray is impacting residents' homes it is reaching public water sources. The mist contains hydrogen sulfide and ammonia which cause irritation of the eyes and respiratory system (Wilson SM, Serre ML, 2007). Research indicates these spray fields cause mental stress, decreased quality of life, and raised blood pressure on nearby residents. NC's swine CAFOs are densely bunched in low income communities with predominantly black residents. This region experiences poor quality of life, high unemployment rates, subpar healthcare, and a minimal level of education (Calhoun SD, et al, 2000). The residents in this region do not obtain the political power to oppose the impact of swine CAFOs. Therefore, employment and schools or any educational institution thereof are not present within vicinity. Regardless of any reason, this is environmental injustice impacting minority populations. This population lacks the political power to push back, therefore; they have to bear the health, socio–economic, and environmental impacts of the CAFOs without any allocation of the economic benefits from the industry (Edwards B, Ladd AE, 2001). It seems that this industry chooses to build CAFOs in areas with minimal zoning codes or least ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38.
  • 39. Non Pathogens Pathogen research After the introduction of the pathogen, it was clear that various non–pathogens could cause harm to people. The concept of the pathogen was initially was referred to microbe causing the disease. Scientists have involved themselves in research to critical understand the properties of fungi, bacteria, parasites and viruses that were able to make people become ill. During the research, there were seminal discoveries that were able to be got (Casadevall and Pirofski). These included various roles of fungal and bacterial toxins available in diseases. Microbe, however, causes diseases only with the host. In 1950, the microbes that caused infections were common opening channel of skin and blood relating to the treatments suppressing ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Researchers studying microorganisms' community use genomics recognize myriad factors and interactions help shape the composition of the microorganism. However, in different people, the microbe varies in development at various times with relation to the disease. Infectious research on the diseases is dominated continuously by reducing the approaches (Casadevall and Pirofski). The microbiologists view the microbes of any disease as the major factors that vary with the disease. They, therefore, treat the body of the host as just a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40.
  • 41. Bloodborne Pathogens In Hospitals Bloodborne pathogens are a threat to patients in the hospital. If a patient is not taken well care of with precaution, then they could be affected by this. A pathogen, in general, is something that can cause disease. A bloodborne pathogen, specifically, is an infectious germ that can flow through the human body's blood, causing disease. This pathogen has multiple ways of getting spread into the blood and is not only a threat to hospital patients, but to people outside those walls as well. There a few common bloodborne pathogens that can be spread throughout hospitals. They are hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency (HIV). HIV itself can cause AIDS. A person can be infected with any of these viruses if a needle of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... HIV is a life changing virus that cannot be reversed. It can be spread by "semen, vagina fluids, breast milk, or amniotic fluid". This virus is a vicious virus that harms and fights the body immune system. The immune system is the body's healing system that fights off diseases. With a weak immune system, one is more likely to become infected with diseases and illnesses. There is treatment to help aid the symptoms of HIV, but unfortunately there is no prevention vaccine for HIV. As for Hepatitis B and C, there can sometimes be no symptoms. However, when there are symptoms, people often encounter jaundice, stomach pain, loss of appetite, nausea, and fatigue. HBV is the less dangerous hepatitis. It often gets better on it's own and needs no treatment. However, HBV can also be a long–term infection and eventually end up developing into liver damage. Hepatitis C can also cause liver damage. Blood pathogens can be specifically dangerous for those who received an organ donor or a blood transfusion before July 1992. Children are at risk for having hepatitis C if their mother had it. Those who received a blood clotting treatment before 1987 are at risk as well for having hepatitis ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42.
  • 43. ESKAPE Pathogens The aim of this experiment was to find bacteria within the soil that produce antibiotics that are effective against the ESKAPE pathogens. We found that the CFU/g of the bacteria cultured were largest when they were found close to or directly within the soil of plants likely due to the nutrients they provide. Of the thirty–three bacteria found to produce antibiotics, sixteen were found to be effective against gram positive bacteria, fifteen were found to be effective against gram negative bacteria and one was found to be effective against both. Using gel electrophoresis, we identified that the 16s rRNA gene that was enhanced through PCR was about 1400 base pairs long. Furthermore, through gram staining, we identified that sixteen of the antibiotic ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Of the thirty–three antibiotic producers found, only twenty–four were tested in the gram staining. There were nine bacteria that were somehow lost during the course of the experiment. In addition, only eight of the thirty three antibiotic producers were able to be sequenced. This result can be explained due to the 16s rRNA gene not being successfully enhanced through the PCR. Another inconsistency shown in the data was the prevalence of gram negative bacteria among the bacteria sequenced, which contradicts O.Connell and indicates that there were possibly significant experimental errors. Finally, the antibiotics tested against the ESKAPE pathogens indicated that none were effective, contradicting the data found when we initially tested all of the bacteria. This could result from there not being enough antibiotics plated in the test, meaning that the antibiotic would need to be present in significant quantities to function properly. Overall these results indicate that our hypothesis was not correct and that the experiment would need to be run again with different bacteria or the experiment would need to be revised to possibly find better ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44.
  • 45. Foodborne Pathogens Foodborne diseases are an important public health problems in United States causing numerous illnesses, hospitalizations and deaths of people. Along with this, these diseases can cause substantial amount of burden through long term complications and sequelae. Understanding the overall human health impact of these diseases is a prime key to prioritize food safety policies and interventions. Hoffmann et al. (2012) and Scallan et al. (2015), both explores the overall impact of foodborne disease caused by major leading foodborne pathogens in United States measuring the annual cost of illnesses and loss of Quality Life Years. Hoffmann et al. (2012) emphasize 14 of the major foodborne pathogens whereas Scallan et al. (2015) emphasize only seven of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... (2012) reported the annual loss of $14 billion in cost of illness and 61,000 QALYs in United States. Whereas, Scallan et al. (2015) estimate the loss of 112, 000 DALYs annually in United States. From the viewpoint of Hoffmann et al. (2012) nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of food borne pathogens followed by Campylobacter, Listeria monocyotgenes, Toxoplasma gondii and norovirus. However, Scallan et al. (2015) report the little bit contrasting result showing nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica as the major cause followed by Toxoplasma, Camplyobacter, norovirus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli O157.They define health states for each pathogen (acute illness and sequelae) and estimate the average annual incidence of each health state using data from public health surveillance and previously published estimates from United States. In addition, they create disease outcome tress for each pathogen that characterize the symptoms, severities, durations, outcomes and likelihoods of health states associated with that pathogen. Then, they estimate the cost of illness (medical costs, productivity loss, and valuation of premature mortality) for each pathogen. They also estimate QALY loss for each health state associated with a given pathogen, using EuroQol 5D scale. They recommend to address important data gaps and to develop and validate US– specific disability weights for foodborne diseases to improve the future estimates of the burden of foodborne diseases in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46.
  • 47. Spirited Pathogens One of the core tenets of the B.H.Sc program is giving back to the community and for me, being a pathogen represents an opportunity to do just that. Each year during Welcome Week, new people from diverse backgrounds join our community and it is crucial that we make a positive impression in their minds about what B.H.Sc is and what it stands for. A positive impression can be made by setting the right tone from the beginning that, as new members of the community, we should trust each other, be welcoming and inclusive, and being spirited about the four years to come. These are the values that I have learned during my time in B.H.Sc and I want to pass them down as soon as the first years set foot on campus on the first day of the Welcome Week. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It should be a person who is lively, animated, full of energy and who enthusiastically embodies the values that B.H.Sc stands for. I believe that such a characteristic is important because Welcome Week is a once–in–a–lifetime opportunity and experience for the first years and our goal is to make that week a memorable and a cherished time of their university life. This can be made possible with a team of spirited pathogens. In my view, a spirited pathogen is one who pushes the new students to come out of their comfort zones and interact with their new peers and explore their new environment. Of course, the pathogen must respect the students' needs and must make sure student is not feeling overwhelmed in that process. A spirited pathogen is able to recount their university experiences and narrate their bad experiences into good lessons through humour and frank conversation. This characteristic is important because it would reassure the students that despite any uncertainties, everything will be turn out to be okay and that university has its ups and downs which is all part of the fun and of the learning experience. So in summary, the characteristic of spiritedness, in my opinion, is all about optimism and spreading it far and wide to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48.
  • 49. Healthcare Pathogens Recognition of healthcare systems globally in both high and low income areas is a key component to understanding the health of each country overall. Each country can only function and be as strong as the weakest country due to communicable diseases that spread worldwide. As technology advances so do the pathogens that enter each individual's body. In the past pathogens were contained to their country of origin and were not easily spread but in today's society they can travel within in a matter of hours or minutes. Understanding each healthcare system allows world leaders and healthcare workers to determine changes that need to be made in order to eliminate health disparities and the spread of various communicable diseases. Analyzing and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Intensive care units (ICUs) have been shut down due to this shortage of healthcare personnel; there are around 650 ICUs in Greece when 1500–2000 are needed for the population needs. Of the 650 ICUs, 150–200 have been shut down due to the lack of staffing abilities. Greece has a total of 132 public hospitals under national health service. This total consists of general, university, and specialized hospitals as well as health centres. There are 23 more hospitals not under operating under the national health service that attend to different populations such as military and prisoners. Private hospitals make of 26% of the total bed capacity in Greece with 218 designated hospitals. These hospitals benefit the individuals enrolled in private health insurance. Medical equipment in readily available within Greece. The biomedical technology supply is expensive and uncontrolled. Among 28 other countries, Greece ranks within the top 10 for number of CT and MRI scanners. Doctors promote the use of this expensive technology and have a tendency to overprescribe tests and procedures. The internet is not utilized often within the Greece healthcare system. Only 25% of doctors keep records electronically and only 57% actually use the internet. When the internet is used, it is mainly for consulting research or current best practices. Ethiopia Ethiopia has a population of over 104 million people and life expectancy is on the lower side at approximately 65 years. The fertility rate is ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50.
  • 51. Macrophage Pathogen The success of a pathogen is not to kill its host but to infect the host in a way that it helps to transfer and hence propel the pathogen further. The host has its own mechanisms to contain the infection, like low pH (acidic pH in the phagolysosomes is crucial for the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes), temperature (fever is a common symptom due to a lot of infections), and inflammation. All this is well mediated by the host immune system. As Mtb is inhaled by a healthy individual, it is phagocytosed by the macrophages and dendritic cells in the lung alveoli. Macrophages, a part of the innate immunity, play a major role in killing and containing Mtb. Of the many bacteria inhaled, macrophages are able to kill some, while the others replicate ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... A pro–inflammatory response triggered by infected macrophages causes recruitment of the mononuclear cells at the site of infection. The T–cells interact with the macrophages and activate them by releasing the cytokine, IFN–. Activated macrophages are more efficient at killing Mtb. At this stage of infection, antigen presentation also activates B–cells which produce antibodies against Mtb. A consolidated mass of infected host cells and immune cells forms a granuloma. The granuloma consists of infected macrophages, foamy macrophages that contain stored oil droplets which serve as the bacterial nutrition, T–cells, B–cells in the earlier stages. When the bacillary load becomes static, the infection is said to be "latent". Early stages of granuloma formation also witnesses vascularisation and supply of blood through newly developed blood capillaries. The granuloma is lined by epithelial cells and fibrous tissue in the later stages. The core of the granuloma is hypoxic (Vandiviere et al., 1956; Via et al., 2008). Granulomas can be resolved due to the action of immune system. With suppression of the immune system due to ageing, HIV infection or malnutrition, the containment of the bacteria ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52.
  • 53. Pathogens Essay Pathogens are everywhere. They are in people, animals, and the environment. Pathogens come in a wide variety. The types are fungal, bacterial, viral, and other parasites. All pathogens can be dangerous, but two of them are more dangerous. These two types that more dangerous are fungal and bacterial. While both fungal and bacterial pathogens cause illness, they differ in the way they are transmitted, the way they are treated, and the diseases they cause. First, the way fungal and bacterial pathogens are transmitted is different. Most fungal pathogens are not transmitted person to person but instead by inhaling fungal spores. On the other hand bacterial pathogens are transmitted in many ways like through touch and air. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Antifungal creams are used to treat things like athlete's foot, ringworm of the groin and body, skin infection because of Candida yeast. A serious systemic infections like crypotococcal meningitis. Antifungal injections are used to treat infections like Candidiasis, Coccidiomycosis, and Crypotococcal Meningitis. Antifungals work by exploiting differences in mammalian and fungal cells to kill the fungal organisms with no dangerous effects on the host. Fungal and human cells are alike at the molecular level. Antifungal drugs can cause side effects; some could be fatal if the drug is not used properly (Antifungal medication, n.d.). Finally, the diseases that fungal and bacterial pathogens cause are completely different. Fungal diseases are rarer and more likely to be fatal. One of the most fatal fungal pathogens is Candida. Candidiasis infections have many types the most common non–fatal type is oral also known as thrush. Invasive Candidiasis infections occur if Candida yeast gets in your bloodstream and you have a weakened immune system and a yeast infection goes untreated. Candidiasis infections have a forty to fifty percent mortality rate for systemic infections (Hidalgo, 1994–2013). Bacterial diseases are more common and there are so many different types. Some bacterial infections are Botulism, Lyme disease, and gonorrhea. Botulism is a disease that causes neuroparalysis because of a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 54.
  • 55. Using Homemade Solar Cookers And Solar Energy Using Homemade Solar Cookers and Solar Energy to Pasteurize Non–Potable Water by Killing Harmful Bacteria, Parasites, and Diseases Maia J. Graudick Brown School Abstract In less developed countries, there is a lack of availability in potable water for safe consumption. Using a device known as a solar cooker may allow for cheap and easy access to water without worry of contracting diseases. Solar cookers utilize solar energy by focusing the sun's rays into water, heating the water to a temperature hot enough to kill harmful pathogens. A homemade solar cooker was filled 100ml of non–potable water and set out in the sun for 50 minutes. The experiment resulted in a success with 95.9% of all organisms in the water being killed, effectively pasteurizing the water for safe drinking. The experiment provided evidence to support that solar cookers are reliable option for pasteurizing non–potable water in less developed countries. Using Homemade Solar Cookers and Solar Energy to Pasteurize Non–Potable Water by Killing Harmful Bacteria, Parasites, and Diseases Water is highly important in sustaining human life. Untreated water however, can have very harmful effects on the body. Water that is not of drinking standards, or non–potable water, can contain harmful and possibly fatal pathogens. The consumption of this water by humans is extremely dangerous. In less developed countries (LDCs) effective methods of pasteurizing non–potable water are not always readily ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56.
  • 57. Controlling The Spread Of Pathogens Controlling the spread of pathogens Often times, when one thinks of the civil war and the men who fought and died, he often will only consider the deaths in terms of battle. However many do not consider that a large number of these deaths were linked to germs. In the Civil War, many soldiers died from diseases and lack of cleanliness because they did not know about hygiene or how to stay clean. Most soldiers touched many germ infested things without even knowing that those surfaces contained thousands of germs that could eventually cause disease. Although the Civil war is ancient history, germs, unfortunately are not. In today's society, people have access to lifesaving vaccinations. In fact, vaccinations are the best way to prevent the spread of pathogens, because they help fight off diseases. There are many ways to cope with infection control standard precautions in health care. Ways that can help you with your respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette. Persons with respiratory symptoms should apply control measures. Vaccinations is a treatment to prevent a person from getting sick. Pathogens are a infectious agent that causes or illness to it's host. Many soldiers who did end up having diseases were because he did not know the harm that it can cause him. '' Pathogens are usually spread by bodily fluids such as blood and semen through fresh, bleeding cuts and scratches(''Hand Hygiene'').''Soldiers should be aware of their surroundings and make sure not to get any blood or ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58.
  • 59. The Effects Of Dairy Farms On The Dairy Industry The dairy industry, which includes dairy farms and dairy processing plants, is a major contributor to the economy. Dairy farms are involved in the production of raw milk, whereas dairy processing plants produce a variety of dairy products (such as processed milk, cheese, butter, yogurt and ice cream). The dairy industry ranks third (based on farm cash receipts) in the Canadian agriculture sector and Newfoundland has the fewest number (n=33) of dairy farms of all the provinces (CDIC 2014). Although Quebec and Ontario are the major dairy producing provinces in Canada, Newfoundland has the highest number of dairy cows and milk production levels per farm (CDIC 2014). The close contact between animals within a dairy farm can make them prone to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 2014). Furthermore, some diseases that infect dairy animals can also be transmitted to humans (Bannantine et al. 2014). Therefore, epidemiological studies are important for successful prevention and control programs. The work described in this thesis will focus on two bacterial pathogens affecting dairy animals: (i) Klebsiella species, one of the causative agent of clinical mastitis (CM, cases where the cow displays definitive symptoms of inflammation of the mammary glands and udder tissue) and (ii) MAP, which causes Johne's disease, which is a contagious bacterial disease of the intestinal tract. The molecular diversity of the pathogens associated with these two diseases has not been examined in Newfoundland previously and was therefore selected to be the topic of the research project. 1.3 Mastitis and Klebsiella species Mastitis in dairy animals is caused by a number of bacteria that include the major pathogens such as Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. Other mastitis causing pathogens are Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Corynebacterium bovis, Mycoplasma spp., Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Citrobactor spp., Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pasteurella spp. and Bacillus spp. Sometimes fungi, yeasts and moulds are ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 60.
  • 61. Clean Water Pollution The lack of clean drinking water around the world is a highly discussed global issue. Many people are affected by this problem and it has a large negative effect on a large percentage of the world. 31.25% of people do not have access to properly treated, clean, safe water. This issue continues to grow everyday and many people continue to suffer. The reason this topic needs to be addressed is that the people in the world affected by their lack of clean water are suffering, contracting diseases, and dying, because of the conditions they live in. Moreover it is a large issue and affects millions, if not billions of people. The clean water shortage that plagues our world is important to discuss and be aware of, because it is a huge global problem and needs a solution right away. The problem is important, because people suffer everyday and don't live good lives in the condition and state their world is in. Water is necessary to survival and having no access to safe water can lead to death, which then affects the entire population of the country. A single death may not seem impactful, however one death may lead to ten more, and more after that. The people dying most likely had a job and if people keep dying soon the population will be too small to hold up the economy. If an economy in a country collapses the entire world could be affected. As an effect of this, the goods that the country produces would no longer be able to be shipped and from there things could get ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 62.
  • 63. Bacteria Pathogens Introduction Bacteria pathogens have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics. (Vuotto et al. 2014) The purpose of this experiment is to understand how bacteria are genetically modified in order to better understand the changes going on naturally in such bacteria. Genetic transformation is used in many sectors of everyday life. From agriculture to medical treatments, this biotechnology is allowing for new findings through science. Three methods of genetic transformation are projectile bombardment, electroporation, and heat shock. (Weedman 2014) In 2008, Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, and Roger Y. Tsien were co–awarded the Nobel Prize as they first discovered, used, and altered Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). GFP was extracted from jellyfish ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The lids were then placed on the tubes, and both tubes were placed in ice. E. coli bacteria cells that had been grown on a media plate overnight, were then added to each tube and completely circulated throughout the solution using a sterile loop. Both tubes were then returned to the ice. The pGLO plasmid was then added to one tube and the other acted as the control, and had no pGLO plasmid added to the solution. Both tubes were then placed on ice for ten minutes, then both tubes were submerged in 42°C water for 50 seconds in order to shock the bacteria and allow the membrane to become more permeable. The tubes were then immediately removed from the bath and replaced in ice for another two minutes. Luria Broth (LB) was then added to both tubes and left at room temperature for ten minutes. The pGLO– solution was added to a LB nutrient agar plate and to a LB nutrient agar plate that had ampicillin present in it. The pGLO+ solution was added to a LB nutrient agar plate that had ampicillin added to it and to a LB nutrient agar plate that had ampicillin, as well as arabinose. All four petri dishes were stored inverted at 37°C for 24 hours. (Weedman ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 64.
  • 65. Mycelial Pathogen Step 1: Written observation of the symptoms of the fruit and signs of the pathogen. Symptoms and signs The fruit that is examined in this study is a strawberry. The infected strawberry in displayed in figure 1, appears to be fully covered in mycelial growth. Mycelial consists of white filaments also known as hyphae (mould), which seems to be growing on the strawberry. Within the branched hyphae there are multiple black spores that surround the fruit. Although the fruit appears to be shriveled, there appears to be an access amount of liquid which remains on the parafilm and the inner components of the fruit are moist and soft. The multiple stages of mycelial that are growing on the fruit in figure 1, demonstrates signs of the pathogen. The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The slide appears to attain dark hyphae fruiting bodies at the tips. The appearance of spores, sporangiospore and sporangium are visible. Rhizopus is identified in the microscopic analysis of the fruit. The rhizopus is seen as the branching hypha ends in figure 4. The microscope slide demonstrates density of hyphae around the mid region. Do the Pure Culture Symptoms Observations Match? At the beginning of the experiment, the samples had visible hyphae and black fruiting bodies, which appear to be visible in the re–infected fruit samples. Both the samples have distinct zones of mycelial growth and colonization. In the fruiting and productive zones both samples appear to have increased hyphae density. When samples are analyzed in the microscope they both have evident clusters of sporangia and conidia. When comparing the infect fruit samples it is clear that both the original and re–infected samples are quite similar results including signs and symptoms. Step 5: Re–isolation of the pathogen in a pure culture and compare to original ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 66.
  • 67. Pathogen Analysis The Evader – Narrated by the Pathogen Humans are lucky because they have an amazing system for fighting and clearing infectious agents from their bodies. There are many ways in which the immune system, my nemesis, fights off infections to return the human back to his original healthy state. While the immune system may be smart, I am smarter. Infectious agents, like myself, are continuously developing new ways to evade the human's immune system. Today, I will give you a glimpse into my life and walk you through how I enter the body and evade the ever–present surveillance of the immune system. First, I should explain how I get into the body to begin carrying out my diabolical plans of infecting the human host. I spend most of my time floating ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... I do this by not allowing C3 convertase to act properly via the alternative pathway. In normal cells where C3 convertase activity is not impaired, C3 will be cleaved. C3 and it's cleavage is the process by which C3 convertase is normally made. C3 convertase can then produce C3b, which has the ability to bind to pathogen surfaces. When C3b binds to the pathogen surface further cleavage can occur and molecules, such as C5b, will be generated. Molecules like C5b are responsible for forming the Major Attack Complex (MAC). Normally, MAC formation on cell surfaces would essentially cause a hole to be punched through the cell membrane. The hole causes the cell contents to be released and ultimately the cell will die, due to the lysis. However, in my case I do not want MAC to be formed to lyse the cells I have worked so hard to make. So I decided that I would not allow C3 convertase to function properly in the first place. This means that the downstream products, such as C5b, are not made which ultimately prevents the MAC from forming on cells. This means the cells that I have infected, will not be killed. So my viral DNA will continue to be replicated in these infected cells ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 68.
  • 69. Air Pathogens Microbes have been considered responsible for substantial amounts of infections and fatalities within all living organisms .This escalates into a pandemic when it starts dissemination from person to person through variety of ways, making it a communicable disease. According to the World Health Organisation (2017) the biggest such pandemic on record being the Spanish influenza, which killed around 100 million people which was at least 5% of the world's population in 1918. Mayoclinic (2017) describes pathogen as an infectious biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host, infecting unicellular organisms from of diverse biological species .A lot of medical advances have been made to safeguard human life against the threat from the Pathogens. However there are some fungi and bacteria which are useful to human life for food and medicinal purposes respectively. Identify a range of organisms responsible for infectious disease Bacteria are single–celled ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... These air pathogens can be accessed through anybody orifice such as the nose or eyes. Contaminated food and drink, or dirty hands can also contribute greatly to how diseases can enter the body through the digestive. The pathogens are spread through contact of an infected surface and then introduced into the digestive tract through oral transmission. Another route for pathogens is through the circulatory system and blood transfusions where hyper–dermic needles and other injuries to the skin which consequently allows the infectious disease to spread more easily causing major effects to the immune system (Gillespie & Bamford 2012).Harmful pathogens do not enter through the blood only but, many other infectious diseases such as AIDS can also be spread through sexual contact. Their routes or an avenue of attack is usually the lymph system through the circulatory ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 70.
  • 71. Leprosy Pathogens The earliest record of leprosy existing is back in 1550 B.C. There, it was discovered that the Egyptians had described the indicators of this pathogenic bacterial disease. From then on, Indians, Greeks, and Romans had dealt with the disfigurement, muscle weakness, and neuralgia. As the disease multiplied inside of its hosts, so did humanity's struggle to accept and cure the disabled whom were affected. In 1873, a Norwegian doctor named Dr. Gerhard Hansen uncovered Mycobacterium leprae, the leprosy pathogen. Afterwards, doctors start using an oil extracted from a Chaulmoogra nut plant as a treatment. They injected the oil into the person affected. Although it seemed to work, the injections near affected areas were painful for the treated persons, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 72.
  • 73. Water Is Convenient Environment For Microorganisms Growth Water is convenient environment for microorganisms growth, some are pathogenic and other non– pathogenic. Bioindicators are living organisms such as plants, planktons, animals, and microbes, which are utilized, to screen the health of the natural ecosystem in the environment (Trishala K. Parmar, Deepak Rawtani and Y. K. Agrawal, 2016). Bio indicator organisms are algae, fungi, bacteria, larval invertebrates, Cyanobacteria, macro invertebrates, and fish play a vital role in water quality evaluation. [Natalia Szczerbiñska and Ma³gorzata Ga³czyñska, 2015.] (Bacteria play a vital role as Bio indicator organisms) Previous studies indicate that water have many types of indicators; General (Process) indicator a group of organisms that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Current research on water pathogens is focused on some pathogenic bacteria (bacterial pathogens). Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental (7, 2015) Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision–making regarding water distribution systems' infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. The World Health Organization [World Health Organization (WHO). Water Sanitation and Health. 2015. Available online: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases (assessed on 17 February 2015)., Pandey, P.K.; Kass, P.H.; Soupir, M.L.; Biswas, S.; Singh, V.P. Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria. AMB Express 2014, 4, 51.] has reported that improving water quality can reduce the global disease burden by approximately 4%. Thus, there is an urgent need to undertake all possible efforts to reach this goal. if infection to the host is produced, depends on factors such as minimal infectious dose (MID), pathogenicity, host susceptibility and environmental ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74.
  • 75. Pathogens The term disease can be defined as a disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury.With this being said, it can be seen that there are numbers of diseases. A pathogen is a biological agent, or germ, that causes disease to its host by interrupting normal body processes. Bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are all common types of pathogens that can cause pathogenic, or infectious, diseases. These pathogens can be found in the air, soil and water, and infection can occur as a result of touching, eating or drinking something that is infected with a germ.A vector is an organism that does ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Hereditary diseases are disorders or diseases that are inherited genetically. They are also known as genetic disorders or inherited diseases and may be passed on within the family if there is a mutant gene present. For example, Down syndrome. This disease is also known as Trisomy 21 and it is caused by inheritance of an extra chromosome 21. This condition causes delay in mental and physical development of a child. This genetic disorder is rare and may be detected before a child is born. Another example is Hereditary Fructose Intolerance. This hereditary disease causes absence of enzyme aldolase B in a person, which is required for metabolizing fructose. Symptoms of hereditary fructose intolerance include severe abdominal pain, vomiting and aversion to sweet foods. Along with Hereditary hemochromatosis which is a genetic disease that causes the body to absorb too much iron. Absorbed iron doesn't leave the body but instead it is stored in the body organs, which can cause many health ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 76.
  • 77. Resistance Against Pathogens One of the greatest problems our world faces today is rising antibiotic resistance in viruses, bacteria and pathogens in general. This is a human–driven problem; the more we use antibiotics to save lives today, the stronger the pathogens infecting and harming us tomorrow will be. The entire problem is based in natural selection because antibiotics kill all of a pathogen except for a special few who were themselves deformed in a way that enabled them to survive. These then become the pathogens that infect everyone, so the previous solution is no longer able to solve the problem the next time around. There can be no single concrete solution, but rather endless research and discovery to stop these pathogens from causing death and destruction ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In this specific scenario, only research can tell us whether a cocktail of antibiotics will potentially kill every form of the pathogen, eliminating the ones that with the use of only one drug may have survived, or if this cocktail will accelerate antibiotic resistance creating new superiorly adapted pathogens. Maybe the only choice is to just stop using really powerful drugs, potentially losing lives in the process to end up saving the lives of millions down the road. But the solutions to the problem start with education because the more we know about the absolute basic workings of anything, the easier it is to find and exploit a weakness, whatever that may be. A great passion of mine is to learn and learn and learn so that I am in a position in which the answer to whatever problem I need solved, is right in front of me, all I have to do or anybody else for that matter, is put the pieces ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...