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Enjoyment of Video Games
Dipl. Psych. Christian Roth
Department of
Communication Science
Motivations and Mechanics
Pong 1972
GTA: San
Andreas 2006
Crysis 2008
Minecraft 2011
Creations in minecraft
Motivations to Play
What is Play?
Play is freely chosen, intrinsically motivated and
normally associated with pleasure and enjoyment
Play is a make-believe activity without serious consequences
Johan Huizinga, Homo Ludens (1935)
Play as preparation
Theory inspired by the observation that play often
mimics adult themes of survival
play trains e.g. concentration, problem
solving, social skills
Play to gain skills
and mood management
Curiosity
…is an emotion related to natural inquisitive behavior
such as exploration, investigation, and learning
Exploration in
Video Games
Players seek for
ressources,
treasure,
items,
adventures,
challenges,
surprises,
story twists,
etc.
The brain rewards
successful learning
(“aha-moments“)
by releasing
endomorphin, an
opiate that we
experience as
pleasurable.
Neurochemical
reward
Game designer Raph Koster:
„Fun is just another word for learning“
“Fun from games arises
out of mastery. It arises
out of comprehension.
With games, learning is
the drug.“
What is Play?
Play is freely chosen,
intrinsically motivated
and normally associated with pleasure and
enjoyment
Intrinsic Motivation
motivation comes more from intrinsic drivers
than from extrinsic
Self Determination Theory
Intrinsic
Motivation
Perceived Autonomy and Competence
Open World / Sandbox Games
Social Relatedness
MMORPGs like
World of Warcraft
Shooter games like
Counter Strike
Browser games
like Seafight
Social network
games like
Mafia Wars
Maslow‘s Pyramid of Needs
All needs motivate us all the time, some
stronger than others.
Games can fulfill these needs
Power, growth and survival are popular settings
Research Example
Motivations of Online Games
Nick Yee, 2007
Motivations of Online Games
Nick Yee, 2007
Identity
Escapism
World of Warcraft
Play theorist Brian Sutton-Smith:
"the opposite of play is not work, it is
depression.”
Reality is broken
“Games make us happier,
more creative, more
resilient and better able us
to lead others in world-
changing efforts.”
Behavioral Game Mechanics
Gold
medal
mechanics that engage people and make games entertaining
Structured Experience
clear goals, clear rules, clear feedback
motivating
challenge
motivating
evaluation
fun
Feedback accelerates Mastery
points are an easy way to measure skill
Combination of mechanics in the popular social network game Farmville
clear goal
clear rule
clear
feedback
clear actions
pleasure/pain
hope/fear
social accept./
rejection
Simplicity Factors: time, money, physical effort,
social deviance
facilitator,
spark, signal,
affordance,
call to action
Games engage us in Flow
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, 1960s, positive psychology
Scaffolded Challenges
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Easy learning:
simple challenges
and fast milestone
rewards
More and harder
challenges, more
and different
kinds of rewards,
milestone rewards
harder to achieve
matched to the users‘ growing skills
Epic ending /
endless game (new
milestones added
permanently)
Intermittent Reinforcement
Games tap into our primal response patterns
Collecting a set
is a powerful
mechanic
Competition and Status
social comparison is a strong mechanic
The 4 Fun Keys
Hard Fun
Fiero
People Fun
Amusement
Easy Fun
Curiosity
Serious
Fun
Relaxation
emotion < choice < mechanic > choice > emotion
Thank you very much
for your attention!
Department of
Communication Science
Contact
Christian Roth
roth@spieleforschung.de

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The Enjoyment of Videogames