KSDE video games in the classroom


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PowerPoint presentation given at a workshop at the KSDE conference in Wichita, KS October 25, 2010

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  • "A guild master must be adept at many skills: attracting, evaluating, and recruiting new members; creating apprenticeship programs; orchestrating group strategy; and adjudicating disputes. Guilds routinely splinter over petty squabbles and other basic failures of management; the master must resolve them without losing valuable members, who can easily quit and join a rival guild." Brown, J.S. & Thomas, D. (2006). "You Play World of Warcraft? You're Hired!"
    Wired 14.04. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.04/learn.html
    Core Subjects and 21st Century Themes
    Math, Language Arts, Science, Social Studies
    Global Awareness and Civic Literacy
    Economic and Business Literacy
    Health Literacy
    Learning and Innovation Skills
    Creativity, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
    Communication and Collaboration
    Information Media and Technology Skills
    Information and Media Literacy - Communication and Technology Literacy
    Life and Career Skills
    Flexibility and Adaptability - Initiative, Productivity, and Self-direction
    Social Skills - Leadership, Accountability and Responsibility
  • http://www.wordspy.com/words/thumbculture.asp
    The "thumb tribe" (親指族) - who primarily input text through the telephone numerical layout - show serious inexperience with using PCs and with typing on a real keyboard. They are "retrogressing" to a point where they have the pathetic PC skills of their out-of-date elders. Over the last six years, almost all age groups have seen their share of total home PC access usage increase - except for 20 year-olds who have dropped from making up 23.6% to now only 11.9%. This current rate means that they make up an almost identical proportion of the total as 50 year-olds.
    Kids are saying that they use e-mail to talk to their teachers, or for their jobs. “E-mail is useful for talking to adults.” Most of their interpersonal contact is via IM, or through postings on social networking sites.
  • 18:02-19:00 - Jenkins
    New media is adopted early by kids. Generation growing up with a technology treat it in a pragmatic manner. Next generation of teachers will have had game experience and it will be part of their culture.
    20:44-21:05 - Gee
    The future is going to belong to people who are tech savvy and comfortable with technology, who don't view tech learning as hard or special but instead as an everyday thing.
    Web 2.0 – students are creators. In his book Joystick Nation, J.C. Herz wrote “TV turned kids of the fifties and sixties into a nation of screen watchers, videogames have created a cadre of screen manipulators”. At the very least, kids expect to be able to comment. Usually they want to construct.
    The brain is linear in its application. Multi-tasking is really quickly switching and frequently between tasks. This comes naturally to a digital native, but makes non-natives uncomfortable.
    Non-linear thinking
    Hypertext and information on demand allows students to explore. Depth of thought is often exchanged for breadth of experience, leaving detailed information for on-demand searching – why memorize the periodic table when you can look it up whenever you need it? Be aware stat student research may lead them away from their initial topic idea.
    Technology is everywhere, and kids expect to be able to connect with anyone, anytime. See “periodic table” above
    Technical Fluency
    Compare to a person who is speaking a foreign language. Even if you speak it well, a native speaker sounds like he is talking faster. A digital native just “knows” how to interact with technology just as a native of a foreign country knows how to interact in a new situation. A native speaker uses nuances, slang, and assumptions of cultural reference. “Invisible bike” or “Leeeroy Jenkins”
    Instant feedback is expected. Students will desire frequent reward opportunities. Very clear goals and requirements are desired. And those goals should be individualized as much as possible (next)
    Digital Natives expect that their technology will be customized for them. Gone are the days of the model-T (“any color you want as long as it is black”) or the princess phone. Web sites, stores, music, and even material things are individual and customized.
    Losing a game or failing a task just means that you need to try again. Learning new technology (which happens all the time) is a matter of just trying something and watching how it responds. Mastery priciples should come into play to give students more opportunities – errors are chances to grow rather than failures to learn.
    Information sifting
    Students can manage vast amounts of information. They can quickly categorize data and find the relevant parts. For example, embedded advertising and popup windows.
  • http://hagar.up.ac.za/cie/med_old/modules/mio880/docs/theory/simulations.html
    1) simulations that teach about something, i.e.:
    a) Physical simulations – tectonic plates
    b) Process simulations – supply and demand
    2) simulations that teach how to do something, i.e.:
    a) Procedural simulations – use a scientific calculator
    b) Situational simulations – deal with classroom management problems
    5:20–5:35 Lemonade Stand
    Try out “Food Force”
  • In “assessment” games, incidental learning of content is minimized. Learning takes place in preparation for the game, but the actual play has few opportunities for incidental learning of the content. Of course students do learn about interpersonal, intrapersonal, problem solving, communication, and life skills (like time management) strategies even in assessment games.
  • Beginning
    Video 2:30-3:30 (Jenkins and Gee)
    6:50-7:25 - Jenkins
    teachers complain that making education "fun" devalues the process of hard work. instead we should talk about "engagement"
    Non-linear thinking
    Technical Fluency
    Information sifting
  • Active
    Non-linear thinking
    Technical Fluency
    Information sifting
  • Active
    Non-linear thinking
    Technical Fluency
    Information sifting
  • Active
    Non-linear thinking
    Technical Fluency
    Information sifting
  • Active
    Non-linear thinking
    Technical Fluency
    Information sifting
    5:35 -6:00 - Jenkins
    Kids will go to bed early to avoid difficult homework, but will stay up late to beat a difficult game
    The worst thing a kid will say about homework is that it is too hard. The worst thing they'll say about a game is that it is too easy
    6:00-6:55 - Clark Aldritch
    Teachers need to take advantage of frustration
  • 4:00-4:30 - Clark Aldrich
    It is really hard to use a simulation or computer game in a classroom. It is not the same skill set that we use when lecturing or giving tests or even in a lab. It is one of the great next generation teaching skills is to take something like Civilization and use it in the classroom.
    4:30-5:20 - James Gee
    SWAT team, following the rules
    need similar games to teach kids about other systems, like doing good science
  • Why? Assessments, basic skill attainment
  • Why? Assessments, basic skill attainment
  • On certain kinds of knowledge, like parts of speech, site words (reading recognition) and arithmetic, a student needs to become very fluent (accurate and fast). To build that speed and fluency we need to first build up the response rate to which they perform these skills, disregarding the errors. Once we get a response rate high, we need to focus on the accuracy rate. See an immediate drop in response rate but will build up quickly. Need to be sensible…not use subjects that kids know nothing about, this won’t work. If kids are using fingers to add, this would work for them. Disregard errors until rate is up, then knock out errors. It’s easier to knock out errors than it is to build up speed.
  • http://www.gamespy.com/gdc2003/korean/
    26 million online in Korea. 54% play online games. Lineage has 150,000 simultaneous users, country the size of Indiana. Corporate sponsorship for gamers
  • www.e-therapy.info
    Human Interface Technology Lab (www.hitl.washington.edu)
  • http://wwww.projectnml.org/revolution
    8:40-10:35 - Revolution
  • This is a good example of incidental learning. In many games where a market is significant, players who want to participate meaningfully in the market need to understand real world economic characteristics. Most players do just fine playing the game as if they were selling their treasure at garage sales – they try to sell what they have quickly and not to get cheated while making a small amount of money. However a significant number of players treat the online markets as serious business.
    Castranova article
    Kaufman grant re: Junior Achievement
    (Segue into COH)
  • KSDE video games in the classroom

    1. 1. Games in Education Doug Adams ALTEC/4Teachers.org
    2. 2. Resources http://www.slideshare.net/dadams.altec
    3. 3. Food Force http://www.food-force.com
    4. 4. Why Games? 21st Century Skills
    5. 5. The Millennial Generation “Millennials” “Generation Y” “N-Gen”, “Generation Next” Oyayubizoku ( 親指族 ) = “Thumb Tribe” “Digital Natives”
    6. 6. The Millennial Generation “Today’s students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach” Mark Prensky
    7. 7. Characteristics of Digital Natives Active Multi-tasking Non-linear thinking Ubiquity Technical Fluency Feedback Individualization Risk-taking Collaborative
    8. 8. Tapping into 21st Century Learners! Henry Jenkins James Gee 2:30-3:30
    9. 9. What is a Game? A competitive activity in which players follow a set of rules Competitive: Single player (player versus self), multi-player, computer controlled player Active: player actions affect outcomes Rules: Define victory conditions Describe legal play Differentiate games from one another
    10. 10. Simulations Simulation: a reproduction or representation of reality Some simulations are games Sim City Zoo Tycoon “serious games” Some simulations may not be games Economic models Cinematic re-enactments Anatomical or geographical exploration Incidental Learning – Food Force (if ready)
    11. 11. Gaming in Education Do not, my friend, keep children to their studies by compulsion, but by play -- Plato, Republic. Games have been widely used in education throughout history Athletics Debates Spelling bees Classroom Jeopardy Most common uses are assessment and practice Incidental learning minimized
    12. 12. Gaming in Education The 1970s saw a dramatic increase in the use of games for educational purposes “As the true character of gaming as a unique communication form becomes clear, its use… will become pervasive” Richard Duke (1974), The Future’s Language In the 1980s there was a focus on basic skill development – Reader Rabbit & Math Blaster
    13. 13. Why Games? Brain Research The brain developed to solve problems related to surviving in an unstable outdoor environment that occur in near constant motion. John Medina, Brain Rules
    14. 14. If you wanted to create an educational environment that is directly opposed to what the brain is good at doing, you would probably design something like the modern classroom. John Medina, Brain Rules Why Games? Brain Research
    15. 15. Patterns The human brain loves patterns. We see patterns all around, in everyday life, in nature, in man-made objects. We see patterns even when they don’t exist
    16. 16. Emotion Our brains work best when there are emotions involved Excitement Engagement Enthusiasm Exploration Frustration
    17. 17. Collaboration Our brains want to work with others
    18. 18. Games… …provide structured patterns …create emotional connections …encourage collaboration
    19. 19. “Better theories of learning are embedded in the video games many children play than in the schools they attend.” James Paul Gee What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy
    20. 20. What kinds of theories? Student-centered learning Peer teaching Scaffolding Feedback Problem-solving Empathy, role-play Collaboration Practice Development of expertise Simple machines
    21. 21. Umm, what?
    22. 22. Flow and Frustration 5:35-7:25 Flow: the mental state of operation in which the person is fully immersed in what he or she is doing by a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the process of the activity. (Mihály Csíkszentmihályi) It's good for a player when they learn that their failure will never depend on luck, it's all because they strived, learned and finally succeeded. And at the end, all the fun from this type of game comes down to the joy of learning
    23. 23. How Games Teach 1. Activity – a game depends on learner not being passive 2. Engagement – longer time on task, greater involvement, rewards 3. X2: Exploration and Experimentation – support creativity, scientific thinking, opportunity for (relatively consequence free) failure
    24. 24. How Games Teach 4. Frequent achievement – smaller tasks with individual rewards, motivating 5. Expanding competence – scaffolding and breadcrumbs 6. No right answer 7. Working within a set of rules 8. Language – signs, symbols, slang all promote language skills. Game literacy = world literacy
    25. 25. How Games Teach 9. Social nature 10. Identity and empathy – students identify with characters and situations 11. Simulation – students can explore situations that are otherwise impossible 12. Practice – drill and repetition
    26. 26. How Games Teach 13. Application – learn and apply new knowledge 14. Context – relationship between objectives and game content 15. Feedback cycle – analysis > decision > feedback > analysis
    27. 27. How Games Teach 16. Multimodal – text, images, sounds, symbols, actions 17. Reflection – emphasis on thinking, problem solving rather than “twitch” 18. Mastery – Experienced players teach new players, experts become mentors 19. Challenge – game players seek out difficult or challenging tasks
    28. 28. Limitations of Games Content Alignment with standards Inaccurate information (most games aren’t designed to be “educational” at all!) Fidelity of simulation Transfer of skills Content skills Thinking skills Pedagogical skills 3:30-5:30
    29. 29. Challenges for Teachers Time Alignment with Standards Cost Software Hardware Assessment Rubrics, participation, presentations
    30. 30. Management Strategies Set Expectations & Parameters Internet Safety & Guidelines Parent Note Home Student Contract Rotate for Freshness Keep Links Organized Class blog, Delicious, Diigo Kids suggestion box
    31. 31. Concerns about Games They cause violence They are just for boys They are just for kids “Reality Bytes: Eight Myths About Video Games Debunked” by Henry Jenkins
    32. 32. Scientific American A pernicious excitement to learn and play _____ has spread all over the country, and numerous clubs for playing this game have been formed in cities and villages. Why should we regret this? It may be asked. We answer, _____ is a mere amusement of very inferior character, which robs the mind of valuable time that might be devoted to nobler acquirements, while it affords no benefit whatever to the body. _____ has acquired a high reputation as being a means to discipline the mind, but persons engaged in sedentary occupations should never practice this cheerless game; they require out-door exercises—not this sort of mental gladiatorship.
    33. 33. Scientific American, July, 1859 A pernicious excitement to learn and play chess has spread all over the country, and numerous clubs for playing this game have been formed in cities and villages. Why should we regret this? It may be asked. We answer, chess is a mere amusement of very inferior character, which robs the mind of valuable time that might be devoted to nobler acquirements, while it affords no benefit whatever to the body. Chess has acquired a high reputation as being a means to discipline the mind, but persons engaged in sedentary occupations should never practice this cheerless game; they require out-door exercises—not this sort of mental gladiatorship.
    34. 34. Targeted Games Focused goals Ease of learning Rapid and frequent responding Multiplayer competitive play Various achievement levels for individuals and teams Choice and autonomy Increasingly challenging tasks
    35. 35. (aka) “Skill & Drill” Mr. Nussbaum http://www.mrnussbaum.com/ Explore for a while Compare “true games” to “simulations” or “activities” Why are most games “drill and practice”? Is this sort of activity outdated? Is there a place for it? Can it still be standards based? 1X1=1 2X2=4 3X3=9 4X4=16
    36. 36. ALTEC Games http://arcademics.com/ Math and Language Arts http://www.4kids.org/ Angles and Coordinates
    37. 37. Jerry Chaffin Theory Rate vs. Percent Correct Certain Types of Knowledge Build Fluency (accuracy and speed) Build speed, disregard accuracy Once response rate is high, focus on accuracy Immediate drop in speed, but quick to recover Sensible use Kids need foundation
    38. 38. Arcademic Skill Builders are research-based and standards-aligned multi player and single player educational video games that engage students in drill and practice school subjects. The user response has been overwhelmingly positive, we have quickly grown in popularity and now have 400,000 games played a day on our site www.arcademics.com We Help Make Learning Fun! Arcademics.com
    39. 39. Of the 53 million K–12 students in the U.S., 51 million of them (or 93%) play video games. Arcademic Skill Builders tap into the excitement of video games to engage today’s students and help develop their 21st Century Skills. Our games help improve student performance through: • Increased time on task • Increased student motivation and engagement • Increased corrective feedback The Arcademic games incorporate principles of practice, cooperative learning, corrective feedback, and reinforcement to improve student fluency in school subjects. Play Grand Prix Multiplication Student Engagement Arcademics.com
    40. 40. Arcademics is the forefront of educational gaming for elementary students. We now have: • 500,000 games played a day • 1,200,000 visitors a month, increasing 10-15% every month for the last 2 years • Users from 159 countries play the games Site Stats Feedback from teachers and students has been overwhelmingly positive. Teachers and students send us success stories of how they’re using the games in class. Check out these success stories at http://www.arcademicskillbuilders.co m/ Feedback Arcademics.com
    41. 41. Pilot Study Olathe KS School District - 2 schools, 4 classrooms - School computer labs - Pre-test, play games for 1 week, post-test - Control group: Pre-test, flashcards, post-test Results 26%: improvement in rate (how quickly a student correctly answers the problem) compared to flash cards 1.8%: increase in percent correct compared to flashcards 80%: of students improved their rate scores 9%: improvement of percent correct in students who scored below 80% in the pre-test http://www.arcademicskillbuilders.com/nsf/pilot_study.shtml
    42. 42. Backend Development Status Our backend product currently in development will feature: - Student Score Tracking - Customized Game Content - Differentiated Assignments Arcademic Backend Demo lms.arcademicskillbuilders.com - Adaptive questioning - Item calibration - Predictive Items - Algorithm integration into games IRT Algorithm Arcademics.com http://www.arcademicskillbuilders.com/ideas/reports_student.htm
    43. 43. Goal: Use emerging technology games and digital tools in after-school programs to improve middle school mathematics achievement of students in urban and rural schools not making AYP. Ratio & Proportion Linear Equations Data & Statistics http://matrixgames.altec.org
    44. 44. http://matrixgames.altec.org Plotter PenguinPlotter Penguin Linear equations •Coordinates •Adding to X and Y •Rise and run •Slope •Enemy boss
    45. 45. Laser Sonic Spy Using a protractor Reading a protractor Estimation Angle of reflection/ angle of approach http://matrixgames.altec.org/
    46. 46. Vocabulary RankerVocabulary Ranker Multiplayer Understanding vocabulary Finding examples Peer review
    47. 47. What makes a game… Standards-Based? Worthy? Valid? “Big Al” Biology http://www.bbc.co.uk/dinosaurs/bigalgame/index.html “Design a Planet” Planet Characteristics http://astroventure.arc.nasa.gov/ “Bedtime Bandits” Time http://www.mrnussbaumgames.com/bedtime_bandits/index.html “Banana Hut” Angles http://www.oswego.org/ocsd-web/games/bananahunt/bhunt.html
    48. 48. More Game Examples Food Force Stop Disasters Magic Pen You Are the Historian Team Treks Third World Farmer Minyanland ElectroCity Nanoquest Real Lives Traveler IQ The Forbidden City Discover Babylon Dimension Math Lunar Quest Web Rangers Peacemaker Budget Hero Redistricting Game
    49. 49. •Massively multiplayer online games are the fastest growing segment of the industry •Most popular are modeled after heroic fantasy, but other themes are prevalent •80% of players are over 19 years old, 60% are male •Many worlds will support 500,00-1,000,000 players from around the world online at any time Virtual worlds
    50. 50. Therapeutic Applications of Virtual Environments Psychological Phobias (Spider World, flying, speaking) Sports psychology Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Physiological Distraction (exercise, games, ChocolateWorld) Pain relief (Snow World)
    51. 51. Club Penguin
    52. 52. Historical visits Explore Colonial Williamsburg and see what life was like at the time of the American Revolution 8:30-10:30
    53. 53. Economics in Virtual Worlds Planning and goal setting (Club Penguin) Auctioning and bidding systems Virtual stock exchanges MarketWatch Hollywood Stock Exchange
    54. 54. Economics in Virtual Worlds Thousands of buy and sell transactions occur daily, as players trade items within the game Economic transactions impact on real world Real economic and social models can be explored
    55. 55. City of Heroes Survey of Discussion Topics 7/15/10 Speculative markets Variants on auction strategies Market functions and mechanics Arbitrage “Trading transparency”
    56. 56. Guide to Market Participation “The instant resolution nature of the consignment house has an interesting effect on steady-state properties of the market. Let’s suppose for a moment that the system is seeded with a large number of random entries for both bids and postings: (b1 b2 … bN) and (p1 p2 … pN) The subscripts here denote increasing denominations of currency, i.e. both the bids and postings are sorted within their own pools. As long as any bids are higher than any postings, the system will resolve transactions and remove those bids and postings from play. If there are any bids and postings left, which we would expect in many instances, there are by definition two domains in the market afterwards: (b1 b2 … bM) ... (pM+1 pM+2 … pN) That is, the highest remaining bid is lower than the lowest remaining posting. In other words, these two domains – known as the bid pool and the sell pool - are disjoint. They have in a very tangible sense become two separate markets.”
    57. 57. Sources Don't Bother Me Mom--I'm Learning! by Marc Prensky – Paragon House Publishers (2006) What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy by James Paul Gee – Palgrave Macmillan; 2nd edition (2007) How Computer Games Help Children Learn by David Williamson Shaffer – Palgrave Macmillan (2008) Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives by John Palfrey – Basic Books (2008) Grand Theft Childhood: The Surprising Truth About Violent Video Games and What Parents Can Do by Lawrence Kutner – Simon & Schuster (2008) Brain Rules by John Medina – Pear Press (2008) http://www.brainrules.net/ “Reality Bytes: Eight Myths About Video Games Debunked” by Henry Jenkins http://www.pbs.org/kcts/videogamerevolution/impact/myths.html Federation of American Scientists - Summit on Educational Games (2006) http://www.fas.org/gamesummit/ “Games, Motivation, and Learning” - White Paper (PDF) http://caspianlearning.co.uk/Whtp_Games_Motivation_Learning.pdf “You Play World of Warcraft? You're Hired! Why multiplayer games may be the best kind of job training” by John Seely Brown and Douglas Thomas (Wired Magazine, April, 2006) http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.04/learn.html Games in Education video by Mark Wagner and Michael Guerena of the Orange County (CA) Department of Education's Educational Technology group -- http://video.google.com/videoplay? docid=6117726917684965691
    58. 58. Web Sites This Presentation – http://www.slideshare.net/dadams.altec 4Kids – http://4kids.org Arcademic Skill Builders – http://www.arcademicskillbuilders.com Matrix Games -- http://matrixgames.altec.org/ Dimension Math (fee-based, demos online) -- http://www.dimensionm.com/ Mr. Nussbaum -- http://www.mrnussbaum.com/mathcode.htm Oswego County School District -- http://resources.oswego.org/games/ National Library of Virtual Manipulatives – http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/vlibrary.html Club Penguin – http://clubpenguin.com Virtual Stock Exchange – http://vse.marketwatch.com/Game/Homepage.aspx Hollywood Stock Exchange – http://hsx.com/ Marc Prensky’s Web site – http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/ Henry Jenkins’ blog – http://henryjenkins.org
    59. 59. Doug Adams dadams@altec.org http://altec.org