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PUBLISHING 
REFERENCE 
GEODATA 
ON 
THE 
WEB: 
OPPORTUNITIES 
AND 
CHALLENGES 
FOR 
IGN 
FRANCE 
Ghislain 
A. 
Atemezing, 
Nathalie 
Abadie, 
Raphaël 
Troncy, 
Bénédicte 
Bucher 
Terra 
Cognita 
2014 
6th 
International 
Workshop 
on 
the 
Foundations, 
Technologies 
and 
Applications 
of 
the 
Geospatial 
Web 
October 
19th 
2014 
Riva 
del 
Garda, 
Trentino, 
Italy 
ANR-10-CORD-009
2 
GIS 
DATA 
§ DATA WITH ATTRIBUTES AND GEOMETRIES
3 
GIS 
DATA 
§ METRIC PROPERTIES CAN BE DERIVED FROM THE GEOMETRIES 
Area:100 
Km2 
Perimeter: 
53848 
m
§ TOPOLOGIC PROPERTIES CAN BE DERIVED FROM THE GEOMETRIES 
4 
GIS 
DATA 
AdjaAcreenat 
to
§ DIRECTIONAL PROPERTIES CAN BE DERIVED FROM THE GEOMETRIES 
5 
GIS 
DATA 
WAerseta 
o 
f
6 
LINKED 
GEOREFERENCED 
DATA 
§ RESOURCE IDENTIFIED BY URI, DESCRIBED BY PROPERTIES
7 
LINKED 
GEOREFERENCED 
DATA 
§ DIRECT SPATIAL REFERENCES
8 
LINKED 
GEOREFERENCED 
DATA 
§ SPATIAL PROPERTIES
9 
LINKED 
GEOREFERENCED 
DATA 
§ SPATIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN GEOGRAPHIC RESOURCES
10 
LINKED 
GEOREFERENCED 
DATA 
§ LINKS BETWEEN DATA SOURCES
11 
LINKED 
GEOREFERENCED 
DATA
12 
OUR 
GOAL 
à Taking advantage of existing geographic data 
sources on the Web 
- To geo-reference other resources: provide URIs for 
identifying geographic resources 
- To contribute to better data linking results: provide 
detailed and precise geometries, spatial properties
13 
§ GEOFLA® DATASET ON FRENCH ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS 
Geofla metadata on CRS 
http://professionnels.ign.fr/sites/default/files/DC_GEOFLA_1-1.pdf 
Open Licence 
PUBLISHING 
REFERENCE 
GEODATA 
ON 
THE 
WEB
14 
PUBLISHING 
REFERENCE 
GEODATA 
ON 
THE 
WEB 
§ GEODATA PUBLICATION PROCESS: 
TOOLS AND RESOURCES REQUIRED 
ADAPTED FROM (SCHARFFE, 2013) 
RDFS/OWL 
ontologies 
L(O)D 
RDF 
Data 
linking 
SW 
RDF 
RDF 
2 
RDF 
Raw 
RDF 
Geo 
2 
RDF 
SpaFal 
RDB 
GML 
SHP 
… 
Data 
sources 
Vocabulary 
of 
geometries 
Vocabulary 
selecFon 
ExisFng 
vocabularies 
Mapping 
Vocabulary 
of 
geographic 
feature 
types 
Vocabulary 
search 
CRS 
registry
15 
VOCABULARY 
FOR 
GEOMETRY 
§ REQUIREMENTS FOR DESCRIBING GEOMETRIES 
(ATEMEZING AND TRONCY, 2012) 
- Dissociating features and their geometries 
- Representing structured geometries (à la NeoGeo) 
- Associating geometries to any type of things 
(not only Feature) 
- Associating geometries to any 
Coordinates Reference System
16 
VOCABULARY 
FOR 
GEOMETRY 
§ REUSING EXISTING VOCABULARIES? 
Limites: 
W3C Basic Geo Vocabulary 
GeoRSS 
GeoSPARQL (Simple Features) 
NeoGeo (geovocab) 
Not enough geometry types Geometry represented only by literals 
Restricted to WGS84 CRS 
Domain of « hasGeometry » = Feature
-­‐ Structured 
geometries 
-­‐ Keep 
compaFbility 
with 
GeoSparql 
(wktLiteral) 
-­‐ A 
property 
for 
associaFng 
anything 
to 
a 
geometry 
-­‐ A 
property 
for 
associaFng 
geometries 
to 
one 
given 
CRS 
17 
VOCABULARY 
FOR 
GEOMETRY 
§ REUSING EXISTING VOCABULARIES 
Limites: 
W3C Basic Geo Vocabulary 
GeoRSS 
GeoSPARQL (Simple Features) 
NeoGeo (geovocab) 
To 
be 
extended 
with: 
Not enough geometry types Geometry represented only by literals 
Restricted to WGS84 CRS 
Domain of « hasGeometry » = Feature
18 
VOCABULARY 
FOR 
GEOMETRY 
§ EXTENDING GEOSPARQL VOCABULARY 
à Creating subclasses of GeoSparql classes when needed 
@prefix 
ngeo: 
<h^p://geovocab.org/geometry#>. 
@prefix 
sf: 
<h^p://www.opengis.net/ont/sf#>. 
[…] 
geom:Geometry 
a 
owl:Class; 
rdfs:comment 
"PrimiFve 
géométrique 
non 
instanciable, 
racine 
de 
l'ontologie 
des 
primiFves 
géométriques. 
Une 
géométrie 
est 
associée 
à 
un 
système 
de 
coordonnées 
et 
un 
seul."@fr; 
rdfs:label 
"Géométrie"@fr, 
"Geometry"@en; 
owl:equivalentClass 
[ 
a 
owl:Restric8on; 
owl:onClass 
ignf:CoordinatesSystem; 
owl:onProperty 
geom:crs; 
owl:qualifiedCardinality 
"1"^^xsd:nonNega8veInteger]; 
rdfs:subClassOf 
ngeo:Geometry; 
rdfs:subClassOf 
sf:Geometry.
19 
ASSOCIATING 
CRS 
TO 
GEOMETRIES 
§ REQUIREMENTS FOR CRS 
Identified by dereferenceable URI 
Identified by intuitive names 
All French CRS (even deprecated CRS like “Lambert 1”, defined by IGNF 
authority) 
§ IDENTIFYING AND DESCRIBING CRS ON THE WEB 
à Existing solutions 
OGC 
http://www.epsg-registry.org 
http://www.crs-geo.eu 
http://spatialrefence.org 
IGNF registry
20 
ASSOCIATING 
CRS 
TO 
GEOMETRIES 
§ A VOCABULARY FOR DESCRIBING CRS 
à Subset of ISO 19111 model 
à Available at http://data.ign.fr/def/ignf 
§ A DATASET OF FRENCH CRS 
à Converted from XML data published by IGN France to RDF with Datalift 
à Eg: “Lambert 2 étendu” http://data.ign.fr/id/ignf/crs/NTFLAMB2E
21 
VOCABULARY 
FOR 
GEOMETRY 
! Adding properties and restrictions for structured geometries 
geom:Point 
a 
owl:Class; 
rdfs:label 
"Point"@en, 
"Point"@fr; 
rdfs:subClassOf 
geom:Geometry; 
rdfs:subClassOf 
sf:Point; 
owl:equivalentClass 
[ 
a 
owl:Class 
; 
owl:intersecFonOf 
( 
[ 
a 
owl:RestricFon; 
owl:onDataRange 
xsd:double; 
owl:onProperty 
geom:coordY; 
owl:qualifiedCardinality 
1"^^xsd:nonNegaFveInteger 
] 
[ 
a 
owl:RestricFon; 
owl:onDataRange 
xsd:double; 
owl:onProperty 
geom:coordX; 
owl:qualifiedCardinality 
"1"^^xsd:nonNegaFveInteger] 
[ 
a 
owl:RestricFon; 
owl:onDataRange 
xsd:double; 
owl:onProperty 
geom:coordZ; 
owl:maxQualifiedCardinality 
"1"^^xsd:nonNegaFveInteger] 
[…] 
)].
22 
VOCABULARY 
FOR 
GEOMETRY 
! Defining linestrings as ordered lists of points 
! Defining linear rings as ordered and circular lists of points 
geom:LineString a owl:Class; 
rdfs:label "Line string"@en, "Polyligne"@fr; 
rdfs:subClassOf geom:Curve; 
rdfs:subClassOf [ 
a owl:Restriction; 
owl:onClass geom:PointsList; 
owl:onProperty geom:points; 
owl:qualifiedCardinality "1"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger ]; 
rdfs:subClassOf sf:LineString. 
geom:PointsList a owl:Class; 
rdfs:comment "Ordered list of points."@en; 
rdfs:label "List of points"@en,"Liste de points"@fr; 
rdfs:subClassOf rdf:List; 
rdfs:subClassOf [ 
a owl:Restriction; 
owl:allValuesFrom geom:Point; 
owl:onProperty rdf:first]. 
1 
2 
3 
4 
8 
7 
6 
5 
9 
Different interpretations 
of the same list of points 
may lead to different 
linestrings
23 
PUBLISHING 
GEOFLA 
DATASET 
L(O)D 
RDF 
Data 
linking 
SW 
RDF 
RDF 
2 
RDF 
Raw 
RDF 
xxx 
2 
RDF 
h^p://data.ign.fr/def/geofla 
Mapping 
h^p://data.ign.fr/def/geometrie 
CRS 
Dataset 
Geofla® 
shapefiles 
h^p://rdf.insee.fr
24 
PUBLISHING 
GEOFLA 
DATASET 
L(O)D 
RDF 
Data 
linking 
SW 
RDF 
RDF 
2 
RDF 
Raw 
RDF 
xxx 
2 
RDF 
NUTS 
h^p://data.ign.fr/def/geofla 
Mapping 
h^p://data.ign.fr/def/geometrie 
CRS 
Dataset 
Geofla® 
shapefiles 
INSEE 
GADM 
LIMES 
: 
labels 
105 
correct 
matches 
14 
communes, 
75 
departments 
and 
16 
regions 
LIMES: 
labels 
of 
communes 
23252 
links 
created 
13435 
missing 
communes 
SILK: 
INSEE 
code 
and 
labels 
of 
departments 
93 
correct 
matches 
3 
missing 
departments 
LIMES: 
labels 
70 
correct 
matches 
10 
communes, 
51 
departments, 
9 
regions 
DBpedia 
FR
25 
PUBLISHING 
GEOFLA 
DATASET 
rgeofla:commune/65032 a geofla:Commune 
rdfs:label “ ARRENS-MARSOUS ” @fr 
geom:geometry rgeofla:commune/Multipolygon _6182 
geofa:siegeDuChefLieu rgeofla:commune/PointChf_65032 
owl:sameAs <http://id/insee.fr/geo/commune/65032>. 
rgeofla:commune/Multipolygon _6182 a geom:MultiPolygon 
gsp:asWKT “ <http://data.ign.fr/id/crs/WGS84GDD> 
MULTIPOLYGON (((-0.24335582250116848 
42.82314107702203 …..))) ” gsp:wktLiteral 
geom:crs <http://data.ign.fr/id/crs/WGS84GDD> 
… 
rgeofla:commune/PointChf_65032 a geom:Point 
gsp:asWKT “ <http://data.ign.fr/id/crs/RGF93LAMB93> 
POINT(433500 6206700) ” gsp:wktLiteral 
geom:crs <http:// data.ign.fr/id/crs/RGF93LAMB93 > 
geom:coordX “ 433500 ” xsd:double 
geom:coordY “ 6206700 ”xsd:double 
…
26 
L(O)D 
RDF 
103 
413 
features 
Data 
linking 
SW 
RDF 
RDF 
2 
RDF 
Raw 
RDF 
xxx 
2 
RDF 
h^p://data.ign.fr/def/topo 
Mapping 
h^p://data.ign.fr/def/geometrie 
CRS 
Dataset 
Geofla® 
shapefiles 
LIMES: 
geometries, 
threshold 
0,9 
654 
links 
created 
LinkedGeoData: 
lgdo:Amenity 
5 
543 
000 
triples 
CONVERTING 
AND 
LINKING 
FRENCH 
GAZETTEER
27 
OPPORTUNITIES 
AND 
CHALLENGES 
§ RESOURCES FOR DIRECT AND INDIRECT GEOREFERENCING OF 
DATA 
§ NEED FOR INTEROPERABLE GEOGRAPHIC REFERENCE DATA 
à For data users 
à For data producers 
§ MANAGING DATA UPDATES 
à Versioning 
à Spatio-temporal evolutions 
§ MULTIPLE REPRESENTATION: NEED FOR METADATA? 
à Level of detail 
à Geometry modeling rules
28 
THANK 
YOU 
FOR 
YOUR 
ATTENTION

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publishing-ign-data

  • 1. PUBLISHING REFERENCE GEODATA ON THE WEB: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR IGN FRANCE Ghislain A. Atemezing, Nathalie Abadie, Raphaël Troncy, Bénédicte Bucher Terra Cognita 2014 6th International Workshop on the Foundations, Technologies and Applications of the Geospatial Web October 19th 2014 Riva del Garda, Trentino, Italy ANR-10-CORD-009
  • 2. 2 GIS DATA § DATA WITH ATTRIBUTES AND GEOMETRIES
  • 3. 3 GIS DATA § METRIC PROPERTIES CAN BE DERIVED FROM THE GEOMETRIES Area:100 Km2 Perimeter: 53848 m
  • 4. § TOPOLOGIC PROPERTIES CAN BE DERIVED FROM THE GEOMETRIES 4 GIS DATA AdjaAcreenat to
  • 5. § DIRECTIONAL PROPERTIES CAN BE DERIVED FROM THE GEOMETRIES 5 GIS DATA WAerseta o f
  • 6. 6 LINKED GEOREFERENCED DATA § RESOURCE IDENTIFIED BY URI, DESCRIBED BY PROPERTIES
  • 7. 7 LINKED GEOREFERENCED DATA § DIRECT SPATIAL REFERENCES
  • 8. 8 LINKED GEOREFERENCED DATA § SPATIAL PROPERTIES
  • 9. 9 LINKED GEOREFERENCED DATA § SPATIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN GEOGRAPHIC RESOURCES
  • 10. 10 LINKED GEOREFERENCED DATA § LINKS BETWEEN DATA SOURCES
  • 12. 12 OUR GOAL à Taking advantage of existing geographic data sources on the Web - To geo-reference other resources: provide URIs for identifying geographic resources - To contribute to better data linking results: provide detailed and precise geometries, spatial properties
  • 13. 13 § GEOFLA® DATASET ON FRENCH ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS Geofla metadata on CRS http://professionnels.ign.fr/sites/default/files/DC_GEOFLA_1-1.pdf Open Licence PUBLISHING REFERENCE GEODATA ON THE WEB
  • 14. 14 PUBLISHING REFERENCE GEODATA ON THE WEB § GEODATA PUBLICATION PROCESS: TOOLS AND RESOURCES REQUIRED ADAPTED FROM (SCHARFFE, 2013) RDFS/OWL ontologies L(O)D RDF Data linking SW RDF RDF 2 RDF Raw RDF Geo 2 RDF SpaFal RDB GML SHP … Data sources Vocabulary of geometries Vocabulary selecFon ExisFng vocabularies Mapping Vocabulary of geographic feature types Vocabulary search CRS registry
  • 15. 15 VOCABULARY FOR GEOMETRY § REQUIREMENTS FOR DESCRIBING GEOMETRIES (ATEMEZING AND TRONCY, 2012) - Dissociating features and their geometries - Representing structured geometries (à la NeoGeo) - Associating geometries to any type of things (not only Feature) - Associating geometries to any Coordinates Reference System
  • 16. 16 VOCABULARY FOR GEOMETRY § REUSING EXISTING VOCABULARIES? Limites: W3C Basic Geo Vocabulary GeoRSS GeoSPARQL (Simple Features) NeoGeo (geovocab) Not enough geometry types Geometry represented only by literals Restricted to WGS84 CRS Domain of « hasGeometry » = Feature
  • 17. -­‐ Structured geometries -­‐ Keep compaFbility with GeoSparql (wktLiteral) -­‐ A property for associaFng anything to a geometry -­‐ A property for associaFng geometries to one given CRS 17 VOCABULARY FOR GEOMETRY § REUSING EXISTING VOCABULARIES Limites: W3C Basic Geo Vocabulary GeoRSS GeoSPARQL (Simple Features) NeoGeo (geovocab) To be extended with: Not enough geometry types Geometry represented only by literals Restricted to WGS84 CRS Domain of « hasGeometry » = Feature
  • 18. 18 VOCABULARY FOR GEOMETRY § EXTENDING GEOSPARQL VOCABULARY à Creating subclasses of GeoSparql classes when needed @prefix ngeo: <h^p://geovocab.org/geometry#>. @prefix sf: <h^p://www.opengis.net/ont/sf#>. […] geom:Geometry a owl:Class; rdfs:comment "PrimiFve géométrique non instanciable, racine de l'ontologie des primiFves géométriques. Une géométrie est associée à un système de coordonnées et un seul."@fr; rdfs:label "Géométrie"@fr, "Geometry"@en; owl:equivalentClass [ a owl:Restric8on; owl:onClass ignf:CoordinatesSystem; owl:onProperty geom:crs; owl:qualifiedCardinality "1"^^xsd:nonNega8veInteger]; rdfs:subClassOf ngeo:Geometry; rdfs:subClassOf sf:Geometry.
  • 19. 19 ASSOCIATING CRS TO GEOMETRIES § REQUIREMENTS FOR CRS Identified by dereferenceable URI Identified by intuitive names All French CRS (even deprecated CRS like “Lambert 1”, defined by IGNF authority) § IDENTIFYING AND DESCRIBING CRS ON THE WEB à Existing solutions OGC http://www.epsg-registry.org http://www.crs-geo.eu http://spatialrefence.org IGNF registry
  • 20. 20 ASSOCIATING CRS TO GEOMETRIES § A VOCABULARY FOR DESCRIBING CRS à Subset of ISO 19111 model à Available at http://data.ign.fr/def/ignf § A DATASET OF FRENCH CRS à Converted from XML data published by IGN France to RDF with Datalift à Eg: “Lambert 2 étendu” http://data.ign.fr/id/ignf/crs/NTFLAMB2E
  • 21. 21 VOCABULARY FOR GEOMETRY ! Adding properties and restrictions for structured geometries geom:Point a owl:Class; rdfs:label "Point"@en, "Point"@fr; rdfs:subClassOf geom:Geometry; rdfs:subClassOf sf:Point; owl:equivalentClass [ a owl:Class ; owl:intersecFonOf ( [ a owl:RestricFon; owl:onDataRange xsd:double; owl:onProperty geom:coordY; owl:qualifiedCardinality 1"^^xsd:nonNegaFveInteger ] [ a owl:RestricFon; owl:onDataRange xsd:double; owl:onProperty geom:coordX; owl:qualifiedCardinality "1"^^xsd:nonNegaFveInteger] [ a owl:RestricFon; owl:onDataRange xsd:double; owl:onProperty geom:coordZ; owl:maxQualifiedCardinality "1"^^xsd:nonNegaFveInteger] […] )].
  • 22. 22 VOCABULARY FOR GEOMETRY ! Defining linestrings as ordered lists of points ! Defining linear rings as ordered and circular lists of points geom:LineString a owl:Class; rdfs:label "Line string"@en, "Polyligne"@fr; rdfs:subClassOf geom:Curve; rdfs:subClassOf [ a owl:Restriction; owl:onClass geom:PointsList; owl:onProperty geom:points; owl:qualifiedCardinality "1"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger ]; rdfs:subClassOf sf:LineString. geom:PointsList a owl:Class; rdfs:comment "Ordered list of points."@en; rdfs:label "List of points"@en,"Liste de points"@fr; rdfs:subClassOf rdf:List; rdfs:subClassOf [ a owl:Restriction; owl:allValuesFrom geom:Point; owl:onProperty rdf:first]. 1 2 3 4 8 7 6 5 9 Different interpretations of the same list of points may lead to different linestrings
  • 23. 23 PUBLISHING GEOFLA DATASET L(O)D RDF Data linking SW RDF RDF 2 RDF Raw RDF xxx 2 RDF h^p://data.ign.fr/def/geofla Mapping h^p://data.ign.fr/def/geometrie CRS Dataset Geofla® shapefiles h^p://rdf.insee.fr
  • 24. 24 PUBLISHING GEOFLA DATASET L(O)D RDF Data linking SW RDF RDF 2 RDF Raw RDF xxx 2 RDF NUTS h^p://data.ign.fr/def/geofla Mapping h^p://data.ign.fr/def/geometrie CRS Dataset Geofla® shapefiles INSEE GADM LIMES : labels 105 correct matches 14 communes, 75 departments and 16 regions LIMES: labels of communes 23252 links created 13435 missing communes SILK: INSEE code and labels of departments 93 correct matches 3 missing departments LIMES: labels 70 correct matches 10 communes, 51 departments, 9 regions DBpedia FR
  • 25. 25 PUBLISHING GEOFLA DATASET rgeofla:commune/65032 a geofla:Commune rdfs:label “ ARRENS-MARSOUS ” @fr geom:geometry rgeofla:commune/Multipolygon _6182 geofa:siegeDuChefLieu rgeofla:commune/PointChf_65032 owl:sameAs <http://id/insee.fr/geo/commune/65032>. rgeofla:commune/Multipolygon _6182 a geom:MultiPolygon gsp:asWKT “ <http://data.ign.fr/id/crs/WGS84GDD> MULTIPOLYGON (((-0.24335582250116848 42.82314107702203 …..))) ” gsp:wktLiteral geom:crs <http://data.ign.fr/id/crs/WGS84GDD> … rgeofla:commune/PointChf_65032 a geom:Point gsp:asWKT “ <http://data.ign.fr/id/crs/RGF93LAMB93> POINT(433500 6206700) ” gsp:wktLiteral geom:crs <http:// data.ign.fr/id/crs/RGF93LAMB93 > geom:coordX “ 433500 ” xsd:double geom:coordY “ 6206700 ”xsd:double …
  • 26. 26 L(O)D RDF 103 413 features Data linking SW RDF RDF 2 RDF Raw RDF xxx 2 RDF h^p://data.ign.fr/def/topo Mapping h^p://data.ign.fr/def/geometrie CRS Dataset Geofla® shapefiles LIMES: geometries, threshold 0,9 654 links created LinkedGeoData: lgdo:Amenity 5 543 000 triples CONVERTING AND LINKING FRENCH GAZETTEER
  • 27. 27 OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES § RESOURCES FOR DIRECT AND INDIRECT GEOREFERENCING OF DATA § NEED FOR INTEROPERABLE GEOGRAPHIC REFERENCE DATA à For data users à For data producers § MANAGING DATA UPDATES à Versioning à Spatio-temporal evolutions § MULTIPLE REPRESENTATION: NEED FOR METADATA? à Level of detail à Geometry modeling rules
  • 28. 28 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION