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Teaching ELL Students
in a Common Core World



      Keith Pruitt, Ed.S
 Words of Wisdom Educational
          Consulting
     www.woweducationalconsulting.com
To be successful, English Language
 Learners need the same skill sets
at native speakers. Common Core
    State Standards are about
    providing the same level of
    expertise to every student.
Different Views of CCSS
Different Views of CCSS
Different Views of CCSS
But I want to suggest
that the real message is
it is time to focus on
the real issue of
education….
It is time to change school
 Culture from a culture of
  Teaching to a culture of
          Learning.
      DuFour, Aker, DuFour- On Common Ground (2005)
“the standards define what all students
are expected to know and be able to do,
not how teachers should teach” (2010a, 6)
CCSS
•   Teach to depth of
    understanding.
•   Equal emphasis on
    reading and writing
•   Reading complex text
•   Intellectual growth is
    a process over time
•   Learning should be
    across the curriculum    Pathways to the Common Core
It becomes about Teaching children how to learn
What do you know about
 Common Core State
      Standards?

     Turn and Talk
Comprehension and Close
Reading




             Looking at Text Differently
“Reading, in the
        Common Core, is
        making meaning.”
                           Calkins, et al, Pathways to Common Core, p. 25




 …the Common Core deemphasizes reading as a
 personal act and emphasizes textual analysis. (p.25)
…the meaning of texts resides in the interaction of the
reader with the text.
    Louise Rosenblatt (1995) Literature as Exploration as quoted in Pathways to Common Core
Old Structure versus Common Core
Here is the conversation of             Here is the Conversation of
Comprehension as traditionally taught   Comprehension based on Common Core
• Who were the main                     • What descriptions are used
  characters in Charlotte’s               by the author to indicate
  Web?                                    that Wilbur is growing
• Where did they live?                    lonelier at the Zuckerman
• When animals are given                  farm?
  human characteristics it is           • What is the main point of
  called _______________.                 the friendship of Charlotte
• Can you think of a time                 and Wilbur?
  when animals influenced               • How does the author let us
  how you felt about                      know that Fern has grown
  something?                              disinterested in Wilbur?
Common Core Literature Standards
    Key Ideas and Details
    Kindergarten                 First Grade                 Second Grade
1. With prompting and            Ask and answer              Ask and answer such
   support, ask and answer       questions about key         questions as who, what,
   questions about key details   details in a                where, when, why, and
   in a text.                    text.                       how to demonstrate
                                                             understanding of key
                                                             details in a text.
2. With prompting and            Retell stories, including   Recount stories, including
   support, retell familiar      key details, and            fables and folktales
   stories, including key        demonstrate                 from diverse cultures, and
   details.                      understanding of their      determine their central
                                 central                     message, lesson, or
                                 message or lesson.          moral.
3. With prompting and            Describe characters,        Describe how characters
   support, identify             settings, and major         in a story respond to
   characters,                   events in                   major events and
   settings, and major events    a story, using key          challenges.
   in a story.                   details
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
   Kindergarten                           First Grade          Second Grade
7. With prompting and support,            Use illustrations    Use information
   describe the relationship between      and details in a     gained from the
   illustrations and the story in which   story to describe    illustrations and
   they appear (e.g., what moment in a    its characters,      words in a print or
   story an illustration depicts).        setting, or events   digital text to
                                                               demonstrate
                                                               understanding of
                                                               its characters,
                                                               setting, or plot.
9. With prompting and support,            Compare and          Compare and
   compare and contrast the adventures    contrast the         contrast two or
   and experiences of characters in       adventures and       more versions
   familiar stories.                      experiences of       of the same story
                                          characters in        (e.g., Cinderella
                                          stories              stories) by
                                                               different authors
                                                               or from different
                                                               cultures.
Common Core Literature Standards
    Key Ideas and Details
    Third Grade                               Fourth Grade                      Fifth Grade
1. Ask and answer questions to                Refer to details and              Quote accurately from a text
    demonstrate Under-standing of a           examples in a text when           when explaining
    text, referring explicitly to the text    explaining what the text          what the text says explicitly
    as the basis for the answers.             says explicitly and when          and when drawing inferences
                                              drawing inferences from           from the text.
                                              the text.
2. Recount stories, including fables,         Determine a theme of a             Determine a theme of a
    folktales, and myths from diverse         story, drama, or poem             story, drama, or poem
    cultures; determine the central           from details in the text;         from details in the text,
    message, lesson, or moral and             summarize the text.               including how characters
    explain how it is conveyed through                                          in a story or drama respond
    key details in the text.                                                    to challenges or how the
                                                                                speaker in a poem reflects
                                                                                upon a topic; summarize the
                                                                                text.
3. Describe characters in a story (e.g.,      Describe in depth a character,    Compare and contrast two or
    their traits, motivations, or feelings)   setting, or event in a story or   more characters, settings, or
    and explain how their actions             drama, drawing on specific        events in a story or drama,
                                              details in the text (a            drawing on specific details in the
    contribute to the sequence of             character’s thoughts, words,      text (e.g., how characters
    events.                                   or actions).                      interact).
What impacts do these have on
instruction in the classroom?

What changes should be made?

How will these impact what we
do with ELL students?

         Turn and Talk
Implications
• Emphasis is now on critical analysis of text and not merely
  foundational skills of decoding.
• Teachers may need to retool to build capacity for drilling
  deeper into text.
• Students will need explicit instruction in deeper, closer reading
  and thinking at higher levels of comprehension.
• Teachers will have to examine closer the text to assure students
  can actually practice on these texts.
• Social Studies and Science teachers need to understand how
  this applies in informational text as well.
• Students will need lots of texts (5-7 books/week)
The Greatest Condition to Guarantee
       Student Success………

Lots and Lots of Practice
             Outliers, study by
         Malcolm Gladwell (2008)
          of conditions to lead to
        extraordinary success the
         unifying factor between
            piano players, NBA
        players, programmers, etc.
                    was
           HOURS OF PRACTICE
         10,000 hours of Practice
How much time will the
     average student
themselves spend reading
 in the classroom in one
           year?
That means the average child in an
 American school will spend less time
 engaged in reading in a year than the
average High School football team will
    spend practicing in one week!
Qualitative Factors

•   Are meanings explicit or implicit?
•   Does the text structure follow conventional or
    unconventional formats?
•   Literal, figurative or domain specific language?
•   Are knowledge demands common or
    specialized?

                        From Pathways to Common Core, p 35
Quantitative Measures
•   A measure that takes into account word length,
    frequency, sentence length, cohesion.
•   Several frameworks might be considered including
    Flesch-Kincaid test, Dale-Chall Readability Formula,
    Lexile Framework for Reading

•   The CCSS seems to lean toward Lexile Levels but does
    not exclude other systems.
• Common Core has moved higher the complexity of text that children should be
  in during these grades.
• Common Core makes no specific allotment for utilizing Vygotsky’s Zone of
  Proximal Development.
Reader and Task Considerations

• Reader’s motivation to comprehend the
  text
• Familiarity with language
• Prior knowledge

…the expectation that educators will employ
professional judgment to match texts to particular
students and tasks” (CCSS 2010b, 7)
Strategies for Working with Complex Text

Read aloud the first chapter
   of a book and discuss
                                        Audio
                                       Version
 Introduce the book and
  give clear indication of
what the students should
          observe
                               Partner Reads
TEXT COMPLEXITY
AND THE ELL
STUDENT
A glance at current efforts to map
the CCSS onto curriculum, or at the
design of sample units, suggests that
there is little understanding in our
community of the role played by
language in the process of attaining
literacy.
 Fillmore & Fillmore, What Does Text Complexity Mean for English
    Learners and Language Minority Students? Stanford University
Fundamental Problems

1. Substantial differences between spoken English and written
   English.
2. Vast difference between conversational language and academic
   language.
3. The structural change from primary text designed to teach
   reading to intermediate text design for learning of information.
4. The literacy learning of most Els does not provide them with the
   proper foundation for working with complex text.
WHILE confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement
calling our present activities “unwise and untimely.” Seldom, if ever, do I pause to
answer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all of the criticisms that
cross my desk, my secretaries would be engaged in little else in the course of the day,
and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of
genuine good will and your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I would like to answer your
statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms.

I think I should give the reason for my being in Birmingham, since you have been
influenced by the argument of “outsiders coming in.” I have the honor of serving as
president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in
every Southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty-five
affiliate organizations all across the South, one being the Alabama Christian Movement
for Human Rights. Whenever necessary and possible, we share staff, educational and
financial resources with our affiliates. Several months ago our local affiliate here in
Birmingham invited us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct-action program if
such were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and when the hour came we lived
up to our promises. So I am here, along with several members of my staff, because we
were invited here. I am here because I have basic organizational ties here.
Beyond this, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here…


Letter from a Birmingham Jail, Martin Luther King, Jr.
On page 5 of the CCSS document, the anonymous
 writers state that “a significant body of research links
 …close reading regardless if the student is a struggling
reader or advanced—to significant gains…” yet most of
  the students cited are from college and high school.
   They ignore the body of research in regards to text
        difficulty and instructional leveled text.
Furthermore, PARCC speaks specifically to the
 questions of students who may be unable to
   read within the text complexity bands by
  saying “flexibility is built in for educators to
   build progressions of more complex texts
within grade bands…that overlap to a limited
  degree with earlier bands, but reading texts
 from the appropriate band lies at the core of
  the Model Content Frameworks.” (2011, 6)
In order to be successful,
                Setting a Purpose
this method of using
complex text must be
coupled with a profound
                      Visual Literacy
amount of scaffolding for
students. In order for
teachers to be effective
           Pre-teaching of vocabulary

with students, capacity
must be built allowing for
teacher implementation.

          Contextualization of meaning
What Students Should Do in Making
              Meaning

1. Students should carry meaning across the whole
   story.
2. Operate on the basis of “what does the text tell us.”
3. Understand words based on context.
4. Comparative analysis is a focal point of CCSS.
5. If you are using limited targeted text provided by a
   basal, you will have difficulty with CCSS.
Implications for Implementation

• Determine where students are with needs
  assessment
• Insure practices are moving students forward
  through alignment of methods with content
• Make sure there is plenty of time for student
  reading
• Offer student choice for reading
• Offer explicit reading skill instruction
• Have students take ownership
Let’s Develop An
      Assessment

Each table will receive a
          text.
 Go through and place a
    higher level text
dependent question that
 students must stop and
        answer.
Obstacles for Informational Text

1. Not enough exposure to non-
   fiction
2. Reading is at frustration level
3. Engage with text in wrong
   manner “Just the facts”
4. Little Choice given students
5. Teacher tells what should know
1. More High Interest
      2. Do more in content classes
3. Match text to children’s ZPD
          4. Move students up the
             gradient.
Text Sets
The Teacher’s College of Columbia University
Reading and Writing Project under the
direction of Lucy Calkins has created Text Sets
both in Literature and Informational Texts that
are available at

http://tc.readingandwritingproject.com/
Teaching Vocabulary in a
  Common Core World


 Getting at the heart of Common
  Core Vocabulary Instruction
• Determine or clarify the
                          meaning of unknown and
Various aspects of CCSS
                          multiple-meaning words
• Anchor                  and phrases by using
   Standards K-           context clues, analyzing
   12                     meaningful word parts, and
   demonstrate            consulting references
   the                  • Demonstrate
   importance of          understanding of word
   word                   relationships
   knowledge.           • Acquire and use academic
   A.4-6                  words
Anchor Standards K-5
Reading Show Vocabulary
• Key Ideas and
  Details         • 4. Interpret words and phrases
• Craft and         as they are used in a text,
  Structure         including determining
                    technical, connotative, and
• Integration of
                    figurative meanings, and
  Knowledge and
                    analyze how specific word
  Ideas
                    choices shape meaning or tone.
• Text Complexity
Let’s See How Vocabulary is handled at
grade level
Areas with Emphasis for
            Vocabulary

1. Literature

2. Informational Text

3. Foundational Skills

4. Writing

5. Language
Literature K-5

Craft and Structure


    Kindergarten       First Grade         Second Grade
 Ask and answer    Identify words and   Describe how
 questions about   phrases in stories   words and phrases
 unknown words     or poems             (e.g., regular
 in a text.        that suggest         beats, alliteration,
                   feelings or appeal   rhymes, repeated
                   to the senses.       lines) supply
                                        rhythm and
                                        meaning in a story,
                                        poem, or song.
Literature K-5

Craft and Structure


    Third Grade            Fourth Grade           Fifth Grade
 Determine the          Determine the         Determine the
 meaning of words       meaning of words      meaning of words
 and phrases as         and phrases           and phrases
 they are used in a     as they are used in   as they are used in
 text, distinguishing   a text, including     a text, including
 literal from           those                 figurative
 nonliteral language.   that allude to        language such as
                        significant           metaphors and
                        characters found in   similes.
                        mythology (e.g.,
                        Herculean).
Informational Text K-5

Craft and Structure


   Kindergarten         First Grade         Second Grade
 With prompting     Ask and answer        Determine the
 and support, ask   questions to help     meaning of words
 and answer         determine or          and phrases in a
 questions about    clarify the meaning   text relevant to a
 unknown words in   of words and          grade 2 topic or
 a text.            phrases in a          subject area
                    text.
Informational Text K-5

Craft and Structure


    Third Grade           Fourth Grade           Fifth Grade
 Determine the         Determine the         Determine the
 meaning of general    meaning of general    meaning of general
 academic              academic              academic
 and domain-           and domain-           and domain-
 specific words and    specific words or     specific words and
 phrases in a text     phrases in a text     phrases in a text
 relevant to a grade   relevant to a grade   relevant to a grade
 3 topic or subject    4 topic or subject    5 topic or subject
 area.                 area.                 area.
Foundational Skills K-5


    Kindergarten           First Grade         Second Grade
 Demonstrate           Demonstrate
 understanding of      understanding of
 spoken words,         spoken words,
 syllables, and        syllables, and
 sounds-               sounds-
 Phonological          Phonological
 Awareness             Awareness
 Know and apply        Know and apply        Know and apply
 grade-level phonics   grade-level phonics   grade-level phonics
 and word              and word              and word
 analysis skills in    analysis skills in    analysis skills in
 decoding words        decoding words        decoding words
Foundational Skills K-5
     Third Grade             Fourth Grade                Fifth Grade
 Know and apply           Know and apply            Know and apply
 grade-level phonics      grade-level phonics       grade-level phonics
 and word                 and word                  and word
 analysis skills in       analysis skills in        analysis skills in
 decoding words           decoding words            decoding words

 a. Identify and know     Use combined              Use combined
 the meaning of the       knowledge of all          knowledge of all
 most                     letter-sound              letter-sound
 common prefixes and      correspondences,          correspondences,
 derivational suffixes.   syllabication patterns,   syllabication patterns,
 b. Decode words with     and                       and
 common Latin             morphology (e.g.,         morphology (e.g.,
 suffixes.                roots and affixes) to     roots and affixes) to
 c. Decode multi-         read                      read
 syllable words.          accurately unfamiliar     accurately unfamiliar
 d. Read grade-           multisyllabic words in    multisyllabic words in
 appropriate              context and out of        context and out of
 irregularly spelled      context.                  context.
 words.
What Happened To
    Writing?
So we have seen WHAT
we are to do… let’s look
at how we do it.
Working with Vocabulary

1.   Explain
2.   Restate
3.   Show
4.   Discuss
5.   Refine and Reflect
6.   Application and Fun
                     Building Background Knowledge, Robert Marzano
                        Bringing Words to Life, Beck, McKeown, Kucan
All of the Read Aloud selections come from
favorite children’s literature, essential
literature selections and big books.

The system accentuates students learning a
context for the words and not definitions.

These are available from CreateSpace, Words
of Wisdom, and Amazon.com exclusively.
At your table are books and
templates of lesson one.
• Select words from a book.
• Following the template,
   each table will be
   responsible for designing a
   set of lessons.
• Report out to groups
Teaching for Academic Success
by Targeting Vocabulary Instruction
               Keith Pruitt, Ed.S.
     Words of Wisdom Educational Consulting
      www.woweducationalconsulting.com
The relationship
between vocabulary
knowledge and
academic achievement
is well established.--
Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge, p 31
Grades 4-12
                            Academic Difference


              50   Gap of 6,000
                   words
              40

              30                                    Academic
              20                                    Difference

              10

              0
                                                  Nagy & Herman, 1984, as
                   Category 1     Category 2      quoted in Marzano, 2004
A word is the term used to describe
the label given to a packet of
information stored in our permanent
memories.
                                                      Marzano, 2004, p32
    Nation insists that there are approximately 570
    academic words from the Coxhead List that
    coupled with the 2,000 most frequently used
    words from the General Service List that
    constitute 90% of the reading students are to do.
            As quoted by Lebedev, 2008, Pearson, Vocabulary Power 1
For the
   teacher, then, the
  supreme task is to
 store as many words
  as possible into the
permanent memory of
       students.
One of the arguments for ____________ in the first place had been
that ________ would increase the wealth of the ______ _______
And lessen her dependence on other nations. According to the
__________ theory, she would prosper and grow strong by
_________ more and more to __________ and _________ less
and less from them. Colonies would aid by providing a ______
for her ___________ goods and a source of supply for ___ _________
she could not produce at home. To get the full benefit, she would have
to exclude ________ (as Spain had done) from her _______
trade.



                     The words in red are great Tier 2 words that
                     can be emphasized for clarity. The blanks
                     represent Tier 3 (Academic Language) that
                     is absolutely necessary to make sense of the
                     text.

                     This is an American History Text.
One of the arguments for colonization in the first place had been
that colonies would increase the wealth of the mother country
and lessen her dependence on other nations. According to the
mercantile theory, she would prosper and grow strong by
exporting more and more to foreigners and importing less
and less from them. Colonies would aid by providing a market
for her manufactured goods and a source of supply for raw materials
she could not produce at home. To get the full benefit, she would have
to exclude foreigners (as Spain had done) from her colonial
trade.


                      One could not access the text without
                      the vocabulary. But unless one has a
                      schema for the words, it is like not having
                      the words printed.
What is the
relationship
between learning
everyday language
and academic
language?
So how would I use the idea
 of thematic instruction to
   teach vocabulary in a
         content?
NOAA              Universe today.com



  The Powerful
Forces of Nature

   ZMEScience.com               Public domain
Step 1- Introduce the Big Idea

                      How Does
                    Nature Change
                   the Earth around
                         Us?
Step 2- Introduce the theme by
introducing the words you will
             study.

ERUPT    ASH LAVA
TYPHOON HURRICANE PLATE
TREMOR MAGMA EPICENTER
EARTHQUAKE STORM SURGE
Inclusion of vocabulary. Now we
        can contextualize.




      We also now have supporting information that can
           lead to projects: Ring of Fire, Vesuvius



                     We also can now link to career path
                           by pointing students to
                      www.usgs.gov where they can
                      learn how scientists work with
                        volcanoes, earthquakes, etc.
Wow, that’s cool, dude. I
think I might like to study
    about volcanoes.
The volcano Etna has been on Sicily for more than a million years, longer than human beings
have inhabited the Mediterranean. It has been erupting nearly continuously throughout 3500
years of recorded history, since 1500 BCE, and doubtless for long before that.
Etna has had hundreds of recorded major eruptions; another began with the eruptions of spring
2001. And like the hundreds of times before, the local people responded in the ways they
always have. But modern technologies have allowed them to respond a bit more effectively, and
with a bit less resignation, than before.
Etna Then and Now
Etna is such an important volcano that the ancients made it the home of Vulcan, blacksmith to
the gods. Like the personality of Vulcan himself, Etna is always unpredictable, often gloomy and
irritated, sometimes dangerously angry, even on rare occasions playful. All of the seafaring
peoples of the ancient Mediterranean knew Etna as a steady beacon and landmark, looming
near the strategic Strait of Messina at Sicily's eastern tip.
People have always lived near Etna, even upon its sides. The same is true with volcanoes around
the world. After all, volcanic ash weathers into rich soil, and the risk of injury or death from an
eruption is pretty small. On many volcanoes, you can live your whole life without witnessing an
eruption—or if there is one, it won't destroy your part of the mountainside. That's the kind of
risk we all accept about the place we live, whether it's prone to
earthquakes, hurricanes, sinkholes, or landslides.
The 2001 eruption of Etna made news not only because it was a great spectacle, but because
there was human drama as well. The lava engulfed an important skiing and tourism center on
the mountain, the Rifugio Sapienza. Nowadays we don't just send prayers to our current gods, as
the ancients did—although the archbishop of Sicily did just that in 2001. Today the Italian
authorities send bulldozers to throw up barriers to the lava.
Acting Against Volcanoes
We've tried other things against volcanoes, too, such as military bombing to divert lava flows. When a volcano
threatened the Icelandic town of Westmanneyjar in 1983, the main tactic was spraying the lava with seawater to
freeze it solid.
But the first successful defense against a volcano was here in Catania, the city of half a million at Etna's foot. In
1669, the Monti Rossi vent on Etna's southern flank began pouring out a river of lava uphill from Catania. The city's
existing walls held back the flood for a week. But after part of the wall gave way, the authorities built new walls in
the city streets that were effective against the lava's advance.
Another tactic tried in 1669 was to break open the roof and sides of the lava tube feeding the flow. It was hoped
that this would cool and freeze the molten rock, as well as directing part of the flow elsewhere. The nearby town of
Paternò felt so threatened by this measure, it sent out an armed force to stop the work crews.
As a result, laws were enacted to forbid tampering with lava flows. These remained in effect until 1983, when more
modern techniques were allowed. So the bulldozers of today are still an experimental technology when it comes to
fighting eternal Etna.
Another experimental technology was tried at Etna in 2009: gas sampling by remote-controlled helicopter. The
Scots geologist whose brainstorm that was won a Rolex Award for Enterprise in 2008. Remote-observation
techniques like this promise to spare volcanologists from some of the danger inherent in their work while helping in
eruption forecasts.
PS: The Etna eruption, among other things, produced a small quantity of Pele's hair. This fine-fibered volcanic glass
is more familiar from Hawaii, where the liquid basaltic lava is readily blown in the wind.
Step 6- Have students connect to
             media
           Step 7- Have students discuss their
                        learning.
Step 8- Have students create from
                   their learning.




    This is one of the
fundamental elements of
     Common Core.
Why would we have students do an
experiment with earthquakes when
   we are studying volcanoes?
Step 1- Introduce the big idea
Step 2-Introduce words
Step 3- Create Background
Step 4-Explore Text
Step 5-Have students connect to text
Step 6- Have students connect to media
Step 7- Students discuss their learning
Step 8- Students create from their learning
In following this
 methodology, students can learn in
the way the brain directs and learn a
  host of vocabulary along the way.
And most important, learning will be
                  fun.
Writing and the Common Core
         Expectations
…writing is treated as an equal partner to
reading, and more than this, writing is
assumed to be the vehicle through which a
great deal of the reading work and the
reading assessments will occur.

       Calkins, et al Pathways to the Common Core, p 102
Types of Writing in
 Common Core State
      Standards

Response to Literature
   Process Writing
Response to
       Literature
 Students will be expected to write
about their reading experiences on
demand in a meaningful, clear, and
 concise manner pointing to clear
evidence in the text to support their
              writing.
Clear Implications of Process Writing

1. Three different types
   (Narrative, Persuasive/Opinion/Argu
   ment, Informational and
   Functional/Procedural Writing
2. The bar is exceptionally high
3. Writing happens often
4. Based on strong rubrics
Exemplar Rubric Text

Today before we had writing groups Mrs. John read us
a story about frogs. We had to write about frogs. We
had a tadpole in the science center. It has two back
legs and when it has two front legs its tail disappears
and it cannot eat when its mouth is changing. Then
the skin gets too little and the frogs pull off their skin
and they eat it. Some fo the frogs blow bubbles.
Frogs laid eggs that look like jelly and the fish eat
some but some hatch to tadpoles. It grows bigger and
bigger and bigger.
Considerations in Writing
• Write Often, Model Often, Release Often
• Use a learning progression in working with writing (James
   Popham, 2007), building blocks
• Design a continuum of writing for assessment
   (www.readingandwritingproject.com)
       1. Use an on demand benchmark to begin measure
       2. Compare to your continuum
       3. Monitor their progress over time compared to the
continuum
       4. End the year by an on demand piece and show the
progression
• Provide students with clear goals and effective feedback
Feedback
           Repetition
           Mistake
           Retry
           Practice
           Perfection
Writing with ELL
Students requires
 lots of modeling
First, boys and girls, tell me what
you see in the picture.


Cats
Birds
Car
Window


Now, tell me what do you think
the cats may do?

I think they go out window and
eat the birds.
I think the birds will fly away
I think the cats will watch the
birds.
Amanda was from India when the monsoon rains caused
                                                         1. What two new things has
great flooding.
                                                            Amanda done in her new
                                                            country that she never
Amanda’s family came to the United States when she
                                                            did in the old according to
was twelve years old.
                                                            the text?
Amanda missed her friends and family very much when
                                                         2. What does the author say
she first came to America. But she soon made new
                                                            that lets us know that
friends.
                                                            Amanda is happy in the
                                                            United States?
In American, Amanda was allowed to attend school
something she had never done before. She really liked
                                                         3. How do we know how old
to learn and is a good student.
                                                            Amanda was when she
                                                            came to the United
Amanda likes sports and likes to play basketball. This
                                                            States?
was something she had never seen in her old country.
In Process Writing:
 1. Target the instruction- don’t try to
   get all the lions out of the jungle the
                   first day
2. Offer constant feedback, but let the
     children do the work (they don’t
    learn from what you do, but what
                   they do)
3. Use a writers workshop model with
               six trait writing
Pedagogy Suggestions

1. Sentence strips, magnetic words, and
   tactile experiences are a great start.
2. Drawing is writing. Have students
   tell you the story in dictation.
3. For beginners, use lots of pictures to
   create the connection with stories
   and print.
4. Target questions in texts for reading
   in order to connect with writings.
   Use sticky notes to place in text.
Thank You

       Keith Pruitt
     Words of Wisdom
www.woweducationalconsulting.com


       Join us on facebook

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Teaching ELL students in a common core world

  • 1. Teaching ELL Students in a Common Core World Keith Pruitt, Ed.S Words of Wisdom Educational Consulting www.woweducationalconsulting.com
  • 2. To be successful, English Language Learners need the same skill sets at native speakers. Common Core State Standards are about providing the same level of expertise to every student.
  • 3.
  • 7. But I want to suggest that the real message is it is time to focus on the real issue of education….
  • 8. It is time to change school Culture from a culture of Teaching to a culture of Learning. DuFour, Aker, DuFour- On Common Ground (2005)
  • 9. “the standards define what all students are expected to know and be able to do, not how teachers should teach” (2010a, 6)
  • 10. CCSS • Teach to depth of understanding. • Equal emphasis on reading and writing • Reading complex text • Intellectual growth is a process over time • Learning should be across the curriculum Pathways to the Common Core
  • 11. It becomes about Teaching children how to learn
  • 12. What do you know about Common Core State Standards? Turn and Talk
  • 13. Comprehension and Close Reading Looking at Text Differently
  • 14. “Reading, in the Common Core, is making meaning.” Calkins, et al, Pathways to Common Core, p. 25 …the Common Core deemphasizes reading as a personal act and emphasizes textual analysis. (p.25) …the meaning of texts resides in the interaction of the reader with the text. Louise Rosenblatt (1995) Literature as Exploration as quoted in Pathways to Common Core
  • 15. Old Structure versus Common Core Here is the conversation of Here is the Conversation of Comprehension as traditionally taught Comprehension based on Common Core • Who were the main • What descriptions are used characters in Charlotte’s by the author to indicate Web? that Wilbur is growing • Where did they live? lonelier at the Zuckerman • When animals are given farm? human characteristics it is • What is the main point of called _______________. the friendship of Charlotte • Can you think of a time and Wilbur? when animals influenced • How does the author let us how you felt about know that Fern has grown something? disinterested in Wilbur?
  • 16. Common Core Literature Standards Key Ideas and Details Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade 1. With prompting and Ask and answer Ask and answer such support, ask and answer questions about key questions as who, what, questions about key details details in a where, when, why, and in a text. text. how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. 2. With prompting and Retell stories, including Recount stories, including support, retell familiar key details, and fables and folktales stories, including key demonstrate from diverse cultures, and details. understanding of their determine their central central message, lesson, or message or lesson. moral. 3. With prompting and Describe characters, Describe how characters support, identify settings, and major in a story respond to characters, events in major events and settings, and major events a story, using key challenges. in a story. details
  • 17. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade 7. With prompting and support, Use illustrations Use information describe the relationship between and details in a gained from the illustrations and the story in which story to describe illustrations and they appear (e.g., what moment in a its characters, words in a print or story an illustration depicts). setting, or events digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot. 9. With prompting and support, Compare and Compare and compare and contrast the adventures contrast the contrast two or and experiences of characters in adventures and more versions familiar stories. experiences of of the same story characters in (e.g., Cinderella stories stories) by different authors or from different cultures.
  • 18. Common Core Literature Standards Key Ideas and Details Third Grade Fourth Grade Fifth Grade 1. Ask and answer questions to Refer to details and Quote accurately from a text demonstrate Under-standing of a examples in a text when when explaining text, referring explicitly to the text explaining what the text what the text says explicitly as the basis for the answers. says explicitly and when and when drawing inferences drawing inferences from from the text. the text. 2. Recount stories, including fables, Determine a theme of a Determine a theme of a folktales, and myths from diverse story, drama, or poem story, drama, or poem cultures; determine the central from details in the text; from details in the text, message, lesson, or moral and summarize the text. including how characters explain how it is conveyed through in a story or drama respond key details in the text. to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text. 3. Describe characters in a story (e.g., Describe in depth a character, Compare and contrast two or their traits, motivations, or feelings) setting, or event in a story or more characters, settings, or and explain how their actions drama, drawing on specific events in a story or drama, details in the text (a drawing on specific details in the contribute to the sequence of character’s thoughts, words, text (e.g., how characters events. or actions). interact).
  • 19. What impacts do these have on instruction in the classroom? What changes should be made? How will these impact what we do with ELL students? Turn and Talk
  • 20. Implications • Emphasis is now on critical analysis of text and not merely foundational skills of decoding. • Teachers may need to retool to build capacity for drilling deeper into text. • Students will need explicit instruction in deeper, closer reading and thinking at higher levels of comprehension. • Teachers will have to examine closer the text to assure students can actually practice on these texts. • Social Studies and Science teachers need to understand how this applies in informational text as well. • Students will need lots of texts (5-7 books/week)
  • 21. The Greatest Condition to Guarantee Student Success……… Lots and Lots of Practice Outliers, study by Malcolm Gladwell (2008) of conditions to lead to extraordinary success the unifying factor between piano players, NBA players, programmers, etc. was HOURS OF PRACTICE 10,000 hours of Practice
  • 22. How much time will the average student themselves spend reading in the classroom in one year?
  • 23. That means the average child in an American school will spend less time engaged in reading in a year than the average High School football team will spend practicing in one week!
  • 24.
  • 25. Qualitative Factors • Are meanings explicit or implicit? • Does the text structure follow conventional or unconventional formats? • Literal, figurative or domain specific language? • Are knowledge demands common or specialized? From Pathways to Common Core, p 35
  • 26. Quantitative Measures • A measure that takes into account word length, frequency, sentence length, cohesion. • Several frameworks might be considered including Flesch-Kincaid test, Dale-Chall Readability Formula, Lexile Framework for Reading • The CCSS seems to lean toward Lexile Levels but does not exclude other systems.
  • 27. • Common Core has moved higher the complexity of text that children should be in during these grades. • Common Core makes no specific allotment for utilizing Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development.
  • 28. Reader and Task Considerations • Reader’s motivation to comprehend the text • Familiarity with language • Prior knowledge …the expectation that educators will employ professional judgment to match texts to particular students and tasks” (CCSS 2010b, 7)
  • 29. Strategies for Working with Complex Text Read aloud the first chapter of a book and discuss Audio Version Introduce the book and give clear indication of what the students should observe Partner Reads
  • 30.
  • 31. TEXT COMPLEXITY AND THE ELL STUDENT
  • 32. A glance at current efforts to map the CCSS onto curriculum, or at the design of sample units, suggests that there is little understanding in our community of the role played by language in the process of attaining literacy. Fillmore & Fillmore, What Does Text Complexity Mean for English Learners and Language Minority Students? Stanford University
  • 33. Fundamental Problems 1. Substantial differences between spoken English and written English. 2. Vast difference between conversational language and academic language. 3. The structural change from primary text designed to teach reading to intermediate text design for learning of information. 4. The literacy learning of most Els does not provide them with the proper foundation for working with complex text.
  • 34. WHILE confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling our present activities “unwise and untimely.” Seldom, if ever, do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all of the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would be engaged in little else in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I would like to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms. I think I should give the reason for my being in Birmingham, since you have been influenced by the argument of “outsiders coming in.” I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every Southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty-five affiliate organizations all across the South, one being the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights. Whenever necessary and possible, we share staff, educational and financial resources with our affiliates. Several months ago our local affiliate here in Birmingham invited us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct-action program if such were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and when the hour came we lived up to our promises. So I am here, along with several members of my staff, because we were invited here. I am here because I have basic organizational ties here. Beyond this, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here… Letter from a Birmingham Jail, Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • 35. On page 5 of the CCSS document, the anonymous writers state that “a significant body of research links …close reading regardless if the student is a struggling reader or advanced—to significant gains…” yet most of the students cited are from college and high school. They ignore the body of research in regards to text difficulty and instructional leveled text.
  • 36. Furthermore, PARCC speaks specifically to the questions of students who may be unable to read within the text complexity bands by saying “flexibility is built in for educators to build progressions of more complex texts within grade bands…that overlap to a limited degree with earlier bands, but reading texts from the appropriate band lies at the core of the Model Content Frameworks.” (2011, 6)
  • 37. In order to be successful, Setting a Purpose this method of using complex text must be coupled with a profound Visual Literacy amount of scaffolding for students. In order for teachers to be effective Pre-teaching of vocabulary with students, capacity must be built allowing for teacher implementation. Contextualization of meaning
  • 38. What Students Should Do in Making Meaning 1. Students should carry meaning across the whole story. 2. Operate on the basis of “what does the text tell us.” 3. Understand words based on context. 4. Comparative analysis is a focal point of CCSS. 5. If you are using limited targeted text provided by a basal, you will have difficulty with CCSS.
  • 39. Implications for Implementation • Determine where students are with needs assessment • Insure practices are moving students forward through alignment of methods with content • Make sure there is plenty of time for student reading • Offer student choice for reading • Offer explicit reading skill instruction • Have students take ownership
  • 40. Let’s Develop An Assessment Each table will receive a text. Go through and place a higher level text dependent question that students must stop and answer.
  • 41. Obstacles for Informational Text 1. Not enough exposure to non- fiction 2. Reading is at frustration level 3. Engage with text in wrong manner “Just the facts” 4. Little Choice given students 5. Teacher tells what should know
  • 42. 1. More High Interest 2. Do more in content classes 3. Match text to children’s ZPD 4. Move students up the gradient.
  • 43. Text Sets The Teacher’s College of Columbia University Reading and Writing Project under the direction of Lucy Calkins has created Text Sets both in Literature and Informational Texts that are available at http://tc.readingandwritingproject.com/
  • 44. Teaching Vocabulary in a Common Core World Getting at the heart of Common Core Vocabulary Instruction
  • 45. • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and Various aspects of CCSS multiple-meaning words • Anchor and phrases by using Standards K- context clues, analyzing 12 meaningful word parts, and demonstrate consulting references the • Demonstrate importance of understanding of word word relationships knowledge. • Acquire and use academic A.4-6 words
  • 46. Anchor Standards K-5 Reading Show Vocabulary • Key Ideas and Details • 4. Interpret words and phrases • Craft and as they are used in a text, Structure including determining technical, connotative, and • Integration of figurative meanings, and Knowledge and analyze how specific word Ideas choices shape meaning or tone. • Text Complexity
  • 47. Let’s See How Vocabulary is handled at grade level
  • 48. Areas with Emphasis for Vocabulary 1. Literature 2. Informational Text 3. Foundational Skills 4. Writing 5. Language
  • 49. Literature K-5 Craft and Structure Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade Ask and answer Identify words and Describe how questions about phrases in stories words and phrases unknown words or poems (e.g., regular in a text. that suggest beats, alliteration, feelings or appeal rhymes, repeated to the senses. lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
  • 50. Literature K-5 Craft and Structure Third Grade Fourth Grade Fifth Grade Determine the Determine the Determine the meaning of words meaning of words meaning of words and phrases as and phrases and phrases they are used in a as they are used in as they are used in text, distinguishing a text, including a text, including literal from those figurative nonliteral language. that allude to language such as significant metaphors and characters found in similes. mythology (e.g., Herculean).
  • 51. Informational Text K-5 Craft and Structure Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade With prompting Ask and answer Determine the and support, ask questions to help meaning of words and answer determine or and phrases in a questions about clarify the meaning text relevant to a unknown words in of words and grade 2 topic or a text. phrases in a subject area text.
  • 52. Informational Text K-5 Craft and Structure Third Grade Fourth Grade Fifth Grade Determine the Determine the Determine the meaning of general meaning of general meaning of general academic academic academic and domain- and domain- and domain- specific words and specific words or specific words and phrases in a text phrases in a text phrases in a text relevant to a grade relevant to a grade relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject 4 topic or subject 5 topic or subject area. area. area.
  • 53. Foundational Skills K-5 Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade Demonstrate Demonstrate understanding of understanding of spoken words, spoken words, syllables, and syllables, and sounds- sounds- Phonological Phonological Awareness Awareness Know and apply Know and apply Know and apply grade-level phonics grade-level phonics grade-level phonics and word and word and word analysis skills in analysis skills in analysis skills in decoding words decoding words decoding words
  • 54. Foundational Skills K-5 Third Grade Fourth Grade Fifth Grade Know and apply Know and apply Know and apply grade-level phonics grade-level phonics grade-level phonics and word and word and word analysis skills in analysis skills in analysis skills in decoding words decoding words decoding words a. Identify and know Use combined Use combined the meaning of the knowledge of all knowledge of all most letter-sound letter-sound common prefixes and correspondences, correspondences, derivational suffixes. syllabication patterns, syllabication patterns, b. Decode words with and and common Latin morphology (e.g., morphology (e.g., suffixes. roots and affixes) to roots and affixes) to c. Decode multi- read read syllable words. accurately unfamiliar accurately unfamiliar d. Read grade- multisyllabic words in multisyllabic words in appropriate context and out of context and out of irregularly spelled context. context. words.
  • 55. What Happened To Writing?
  • 56.
  • 57. So we have seen WHAT we are to do… let’s look at how we do it.
  • 58. Working with Vocabulary 1. Explain 2. Restate 3. Show 4. Discuss 5. Refine and Reflect 6. Application and Fun Building Background Knowledge, Robert Marzano Bringing Words to Life, Beck, McKeown, Kucan
  • 59.
  • 60.
  • 61.
  • 62.
  • 63.
  • 64.
  • 65.
  • 66.
  • 67. All of the Read Aloud selections come from favorite children’s literature, essential literature selections and big books. The system accentuates students learning a context for the words and not definitions. These are available from CreateSpace, Words of Wisdom, and Amazon.com exclusively.
  • 68. At your table are books and templates of lesson one. • Select words from a book. • Following the template, each table will be responsible for designing a set of lessons. • Report out to groups
  • 69. Teaching for Academic Success by Targeting Vocabulary Instruction Keith Pruitt, Ed.S. Words of Wisdom Educational Consulting www.woweducationalconsulting.com
  • 70. The relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic achievement is well established.-- Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge, p 31
  • 71. Grades 4-12 Academic Difference 50 Gap of 6,000 words 40 30 Academic 20 Difference 10 0 Nagy & Herman, 1984, as Category 1 Category 2 quoted in Marzano, 2004
  • 72. A word is the term used to describe the label given to a packet of information stored in our permanent memories. Marzano, 2004, p32 Nation insists that there are approximately 570 academic words from the Coxhead List that coupled with the 2,000 most frequently used words from the General Service List that constitute 90% of the reading students are to do. As quoted by Lebedev, 2008, Pearson, Vocabulary Power 1
  • 73. For the teacher, then, the supreme task is to store as many words as possible into the permanent memory of students.
  • 74. One of the arguments for ____________ in the first place had been that ________ would increase the wealth of the ______ _______ And lessen her dependence on other nations. According to the __________ theory, she would prosper and grow strong by _________ more and more to __________ and _________ less and less from them. Colonies would aid by providing a ______ for her ___________ goods and a source of supply for ___ _________ she could not produce at home. To get the full benefit, she would have to exclude ________ (as Spain had done) from her _______ trade. The words in red are great Tier 2 words that can be emphasized for clarity. The blanks represent Tier 3 (Academic Language) that is absolutely necessary to make sense of the text. This is an American History Text.
  • 75. One of the arguments for colonization in the first place had been that colonies would increase the wealth of the mother country and lessen her dependence on other nations. According to the mercantile theory, she would prosper and grow strong by exporting more and more to foreigners and importing less and less from them. Colonies would aid by providing a market for her manufactured goods and a source of supply for raw materials she could not produce at home. To get the full benefit, she would have to exclude foreigners (as Spain had done) from her colonial trade. One could not access the text without the vocabulary. But unless one has a schema for the words, it is like not having the words printed.
  • 76. What is the relationship between learning everyday language and academic language?
  • 77.
  • 78. So how would I use the idea of thematic instruction to teach vocabulary in a content?
  • 79. NOAA Universe today.com The Powerful Forces of Nature ZMEScience.com Public domain
  • 80. Step 1- Introduce the Big Idea How Does Nature Change the Earth around Us?
  • 81. Step 2- Introduce the theme by introducing the words you will study. ERUPT ASH LAVA TYPHOON HURRICANE PLATE TREMOR MAGMA EPICENTER EARTHQUAKE STORM SURGE
  • 82.
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  • 85. Inclusion of vocabulary. Now we can contextualize. We also now have supporting information that can lead to projects: Ring of Fire, Vesuvius We also can now link to career path by pointing students to www.usgs.gov where they can learn how scientists work with volcanoes, earthquakes, etc.
  • 86. Wow, that’s cool, dude. I think I might like to study about volcanoes.
  • 87. The volcano Etna has been on Sicily for more than a million years, longer than human beings have inhabited the Mediterranean. It has been erupting nearly continuously throughout 3500 years of recorded history, since 1500 BCE, and doubtless for long before that. Etna has had hundreds of recorded major eruptions; another began with the eruptions of spring 2001. And like the hundreds of times before, the local people responded in the ways they always have. But modern technologies have allowed them to respond a bit more effectively, and with a bit less resignation, than before. Etna Then and Now Etna is such an important volcano that the ancients made it the home of Vulcan, blacksmith to the gods. Like the personality of Vulcan himself, Etna is always unpredictable, often gloomy and irritated, sometimes dangerously angry, even on rare occasions playful. All of the seafaring peoples of the ancient Mediterranean knew Etna as a steady beacon and landmark, looming near the strategic Strait of Messina at Sicily's eastern tip. People have always lived near Etna, even upon its sides. The same is true with volcanoes around the world. After all, volcanic ash weathers into rich soil, and the risk of injury or death from an eruption is pretty small. On many volcanoes, you can live your whole life without witnessing an eruption—or if there is one, it won't destroy your part of the mountainside. That's the kind of risk we all accept about the place we live, whether it's prone to earthquakes, hurricanes, sinkholes, or landslides. The 2001 eruption of Etna made news not only because it was a great spectacle, but because there was human drama as well. The lava engulfed an important skiing and tourism center on the mountain, the Rifugio Sapienza. Nowadays we don't just send prayers to our current gods, as the ancients did—although the archbishop of Sicily did just that in 2001. Today the Italian authorities send bulldozers to throw up barriers to the lava.
  • 88. Acting Against Volcanoes We've tried other things against volcanoes, too, such as military bombing to divert lava flows. When a volcano threatened the Icelandic town of Westmanneyjar in 1983, the main tactic was spraying the lava with seawater to freeze it solid. But the first successful defense against a volcano was here in Catania, the city of half a million at Etna's foot. In 1669, the Monti Rossi vent on Etna's southern flank began pouring out a river of lava uphill from Catania. The city's existing walls held back the flood for a week. But after part of the wall gave way, the authorities built new walls in the city streets that were effective against the lava's advance. Another tactic tried in 1669 was to break open the roof and sides of the lava tube feeding the flow. It was hoped that this would cool and freeze the molten rock, as well as directing part of the flow elsewhere. The nearby town of Paternò felt so threatened by this measure, it sent out an armed force to stop the work crews. As a result, laws were enacted to forbid tampering with lava flows. These remained in effect until 1983, when more modern techniques were allowed. So the bulldozers of today are still an experimental technology when it comes to fighting eternal Etna. Another experimental technology was tried at Etna in 2009: gas sampling by remote-controlled helicopter. The Scots geologist whose brainstorm that was won a Rolex Award for Enterprise in 2008. Remote-observation techniques like this promise to spare volcanologists from some of the danger inherent in their work while helping in eruption forecasts. PS: The Etna eruption, among other things, produced a small quantity of Pele's hair. This fine-fibered volcanic glass is more familiar from Hawaii, where the liquid basaltic lava is readily blown in the wind.
  • 89.
  • 90. Step 6- Have students connect to media Step 7- Have students discuss their learning.
  • 91. Step 8- Have students create from their learning. This is one of the fundamental elements of Common Core.
  • 92.
  • 93. Why would we have students do an experiment with earthquakes when we are studying volcanoes?
  • 94. Step 1- Introduce the big idea Step 2-Introduce words Step 3- Create Background Step 4-Explore Text Step 5-Have students connect to text Step 6- Have students connect to media Step 7- Students discuss their learning Step 8- Students create from their learning
  • 95. In following this methodology, students can learn in the way the brain directs and learn a host of vocabulary along the way. And most important, learning will be fun.
  • 96. Writing and the Common Core Expectations
  • 97. …writing is treated as an equal partner to reading, and more than this, writing is assumed to be the vehicle through which a great deal of the reading work and the reading assessments will occur. Calkins, et al Pathways to the Common Core, p 102
  • 98. Types of Writing in Common Core State Standards Response to Literature Process Writing
  • 99. Response to Literature Students will be expected to write about their reading experiences on demand in a meaningful, clear, and concise manner pointing to clear evidence in the text to support their writing.
  • 100. Clear Implications of Process Writing 1. Three different types (Narrative, Persuasive/Opinion/Argu ment, Informational and Functional/Procedural Writing 2. The bar is exceptionally high 3. Writing happens often 4. Based on strong rubrics
  • 101. Exemplar Rubric Text Today before we had writing groups Mrs. John read us a story about frogs. We had to write about frogs. We had a tadpole in the science center. It has two back legs and when it has two front legs its tail disappears and it cannot eat when its mouth is changing. Then the skin gets too little and the frogs pull off their skin and they eat it. Some fo the frogs blow bubbles. Frogs laid eggs that look like jelly and the fish eat some but some hatch to tadpoles. It grows bigger and bigger and bigger.
  • 102. Considerations in Writing • Write Often, Model Often, Release Often • Use a learning progression in working with writing (James Popham, 2007), building blocks • Design a continuum of writing for assessment (www.readingandwritingproject.com) 1. Use an on demand benchmark to begin measure 2. Compare to your continuum 3. Monitor their progress over time compared to the continuum 4. End the year by an on demand piece and show the progression • Provide students with clear goals and effective feedback
  • 103. Feedback Repetition Mistake Retry Practice Perfection
  • 104. Writing with ELL Students requires lots of modeling
  • 105. First, boys and girls, tell me what you see in the picture. Cats Birds Car Window Now, tell me what do you think the cats may do? I think they go out window and eat the birds. I think the birds will fly away I think the cats will watch the birds.
  • 106. Amanda was from India when the monsoon rains caused 1. What two new things has great flooding. Amanda done in her new country that she never Amanda’s family came to the United States when she did in the old according to was twelve years old. the text? Amanda missed her friends and family very much when 2. What does the author say she first came to America. But she soon made new that lets us know that friends. Amanda is happy in the United States? In American, Amanda was allowed to attend school something she had never done before. She really liked 3. How do we know how old to learn and is a good student. Amanda was when she came to the United Amanda likes sports and likes to play basketball. This States? was something she had never seen in her old country.
  • 107. In Process Writing: 1. Target the instruction- don’t try to get all the lions out of the jungle the first day 2. Offer constant feedback, but let the children do the work (they don’t learn from what you do, but what they do) 3. Use a writers workshop model with six trait writing
  • 108. Pedagogy Suggestions 1. Sentence strips, magnetic words, and tactile experiences are a great start. 2. Drawing is writing. Have students tell you the story in dictation. 3. For beginners, use lots of pictures to create the connection with stories and print. 4. Target questions in texts for reading in order to connect with writings. Use sticky notes to place in text.
  • 109. Thank You Keith Pruitt Words of Wisdom www.woweducationalconsulting.com Join us on facebook