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Teaching students in a common core world decatur training

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Teaching students in a common core world decatur training

  1. 1. Teaching Studentsin a Common Core World Keith Pruitt, Ed.S Words of Wisdom E Educational Consulting www.woweducationalconsulting.com
  2. 2. Papa, they’regoing to like this!
  3. 3. To be successful all students need the same skill sets regardless of what they bring to the table.Common Core State Standards areabout providing the same level of expertise to every student.
  4. 4. 2 Minute Word Drill Make as many words as possible in 2 minutes from the following word. Use each letter only once in each word. Emancipation
  5. 5. What is theLesson of the video?Turn and Talk
  6. 6. I’m now going to tell you everything I know about life.This won’ttake long.
  7. 7. Different Views of CCSS
  8. 8. Different Views of CCSS
  9. 9. Different Views of CCSS
  10. 10. But I want to suggestthat the real message isit is time to focus onthe real issue ofeducation….
  11. 11. It is time to change school Culture from a culture of Teaching to a culture of Learning. DuFour, Aker, DuFour- On Common Ground (2005)
  12. 12. “the standards define what all studentsare expected to know and be able to do,not how teachers should teach” (2010a, 6)
  13. 13. CCSS• Teach to depth of understanding.• Equal emphasis on reading and writing• Reading complex text• Intellectual growth is a process over time• Learning should be across the curriculum Pathways to the Common Core
  14. 14. It becomes about Teaching children how to learn
  15. 15. What do you knowabout Common Core State Standards? Turn and Talk
  16. 16. True or False?1. Common Core places great emphasis on phonics instruction.2. Common Core is a curriculum teachers are to use.3. Common Core only teaches academic vocabulary.4. Common Core requires using a certain textbook.5. Common Core has science and social studies standards.
  17. 17. Comprehension and CloseReading Looking at Text Differently
  18. 18. What IsComprehension?
  19. 19. “Reading, in the Common Core, is making meaning.” Calkins, et al, Pathways to Common Core, p. 25 …the Common Core deemphasizes reading as a personal act and emphasizes textual analysis. (p.25)…the meaning of texts resides in the interaction of thereader with the text. Louise Rosenblatt (1995) Literature as Exploration as quoted in Pathways to Common Core
  20. 20. Old Structure versus Common CoreHere is the conversation of Here is the Conversation ofComprehension as traditionally taught Comprehension based on Common Core• Who were the main • What descriptions are used characters in Charlotte’s by the author to indicate Web? that Wilbur is growing• Where did they live? lonelier at the Zuckerman• When animals are given farm? human characteristics it is • What is the main point of called _______________. the friendship of Charlotte• Can you think of a time and Wilbur? when animals influenced • How does the author let us how you felt about know that Fern has grown something? disinterested in Wilbur?
  21. 21. Common Core Literature StandardsKey Ideas and Details6th Grade 7th Grade 8th Grade1. Cite textual evidence to 1. Cite several pieces of 1. Cite the textual evidencesupport analysis of what the textual evidence to that most strongly supportstext says explicitly as well as support analysis of what an analysis of what the textinferences drawn from the the text says explicitly as says explicitly as well astext. well as inferences drawn inferences drawn from the from the text. text.2. Determine a theme or 2. Determine a theme or 2. Determine a theme orcentral idea of a text and central idea of a text and central idea of a text andhow it is conveyed through analyze its development analyze its developmentparticular details; provide a over the course of the over the course of the text,summary of the text distinct text; provide an objective including its relationship tofrom personal opinions or summary of the text. the characters, setting,judgments. and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.
  22. 22. Common Core Literature StandardsKey Ideas and Details6th Grade 7th Grade 8th Grade 3. Describe how a particular 3. Analyze how particular 3. Analyze how particularstory’s or drama’s plot elements of a story or lines of dialogue or incidentsunfolds in a series of episodes drama interact (e.g., how in a story or drama propelas well as how the characters setting shapes the the action, reveal aspects ofrespond or change as the plot characters or plot). a character, or provoke amoves toward a resolution. decision.Integration ofknowledge and ideas7. Compare and contrast the 7. Compare and contrast a 7. Analyze the extent to which aexperience of reading a story, written story, drama, or filmed or live production of adrama, or poem to listening to or poem to its audio, filmed, story or drama stays faithful toviewing an audio, video, or live staged, or multimedia version, or departs from the text orversion of the text, including analyzing the effects of script, evaluating the choicescontrasting what they “see” and techniques unique to each made by the director or actors.“hear” when reading the text to medium (e.g., lighting, sound,what they perceive when they color, or camera focus and angleslisten or watch. in a film).
  23. 23. Comprehension in Content Instruction Our Nation’s History, by John Napp and Wayne King, published by Media Materials
  24. 24. A Different Type of Questioning 1. How did the successes of the western campaign impact Lincoln’s choices regarding leadership of the Union army?2. What was an advantage that the Confederacy had over the Union in the Civil War?3. What was the legal precedent Lincoln used for Emancipation of the slaves? 4. Why was Lee’s surrender the death nail of the southern cause?
  25. 25. A New Type of Questioning Requires New Types of Resources in the ClassroomIn the old classroom wewould have dependedalmost completely on atextbook.
  26. 26. The NewDynamic
  27. 27. What Level of Comprehension is Active in This? Martin dining room front door over main entrance partook ignited flames sanguine faces rebel Dean. 1. You have understanding of each word. 2. Perhaps background knowledge creates schema connections. 3. But is this comprehensible input at the sentence level? Word level?
  28. 28. What is the level of Understanding Here?“A related observation about the F distributionis that it is positively skewed, not symmetricas are z and t. This is because F is alwayspositive: It is the ratio of variances, both ofwhich are positive, so F itself must bepositive. There is no left-hand tail of Fbecause the F distribution ends abruptly at0.” Russell T. Hurlburt (2003). Comprehending Behavioral Statistics. Thomson: Australia, p. 336.
  29. 29. Can You Read This?fi yuo cna raed tihs, yuo hvae a sgtrane mnid tooCna yuo raed tihs? Olny 55 plepoe out of 100 can.i cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I wasrdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid,aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, itdsenot mtaetr in waht oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are, theolny iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in therghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitllraed it whotuit a pboerlm.. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mniddeos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.Azanmig huh? yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling wasipmorantt!
  30. 30. Jamika’s StoryWhat is Involved In Comprehension? What Does it Mean to Understand?•Making Sense of text based onauthor’s intention and message.•Understanding how the wordsinterplay to relay a message.•To exercise intellectual muscle•To connect with a text in ameaningful way
  31. 31. As students attempt to make sense of whatthey are reading, it may seem rather difficult…kind of like a comedy in fact.
  32. 32. What impacts do these have oninstruction in the classroom?What changes should be made?How will these impact what wedo with special populationstudents? Turn and Talk
  33. 33. Implications• Emphasis is now on critical analysis of text and not merely foundational skills of decoding.• Teachers may need to retool to build capacity for drilling deeper into text.• Students will need explicit instruction in deeper, closer reading and thinking at higher levels of comprehension.• Teachers will have to examine closer the text to assure students can actually practice on these texts.• Social Studies and Science teachers need to understand how this applies in informational text as well.• Students will need lots of texts (5-7 books/week)
  34. 34. The Greatest Condition to Guarantee Student Success………Lots and Lots of Practice Outliers, study by Malcolm Gladwell (2008) of conditions to lead to extraordinary success the unifying factor between piano players, NBA players, programmers, etc. was HOURS OF PRACTICE 10,000 hours of Practice
  35. 35. How much time will the average studentthemselves spend reading in the classroom in one year?
  36. 36. That means the average child in an American school will spend less time engaged in reading in a year than theaverage High School football team will spend practicing in one week!
  37. 37. Qualitative Factors• Are meanings explicit or implicit?• Does the text structure follow conventional or unconventional formats?• Literal, figurative or domain specific language?• Are knowledge demands common or specialized? From Pathways to Common Core, p 35
  38. 38. Quantitative Measures• A measure that takes into account word length, frequency, sentence length, cohesion.• Several frameworks might be considered including Flesch-Kincaid test, Dale-Chall Readability Formula, Lexile Framework for Reading• The CCSS seems to lean toward Lexile Levels but does not exclude other systems.
  39. 39. • Common Core has moved higher the complexity of text that children should be in during these grades.• Common Core makes no specific allotment for utilizing Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development.
  40. 40. Reader and Task Considerations• Reader’s motivation to comprehend the text• Familiarity with language• Prior knowledge…the expectation that educators will employprofessional judgment to match texts to particularstudents and tasks” (CCSS 2010b, 7)
  41. 41. Strategies for Working with Complex TextRead aloud the first chapter of a book and discuss Audio Version Introduce the book and give clear indication ofwhat the students should observe Partner Reads
  42. 42. Magazines, Multilevel text, newspapers, real life Alternative Texts such as graphic novels
  43. 43. Using Leveled Text
  44. 44. A pedigree is a useful tool for a geneticist.Sometimes a geneticist needs to understand whohas had a trait in a family over severalgenerations to determine its pattern ofinheritance. A geneticist determines if a trait isrecessive, dominant, sex-linked, or has someother pattern of inheritance. When geneticistsunderstand how a trait is inherited, they canpredict the probability that a baby will be bornwith a specific trait. (Page 248, Tennessee Science, Grade 7,Glencoe Science, National Geographic, 2010) What problems are posed by this text?
  45. 45. TEXT COMPLEXITYAND THE ELLSTUDENT
  46. 46. A glance at current efforts to mapthe CCSS onto curriculum, or at thedesign of sample units, suggests thatthere is little understanding in ourcommunity of the role played bylanguage in the process of attainingliteracy. Fillmore & Fillmore, What Does Text Complexity Mean for English Learners and Language Minority Students? Stanford University
  47. 47. Fundamental Problems1. Substantial differences between spoken English and written English.2. Vast difference between conversational language and academic language.3. The structural change from primary text designed to teach reading to intermediate text design for learning of information.4. The literacy learning of most Els does not provide them with the proper foundation for working with complex text.
  48. 48. WHILE confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statementcalling our present activities “unwise and untimely.” Seldom, if ever, do I pause toanswer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all of the criticisms thatcross my desk, my secretaries would be engaged in little else in the course of the day,and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men ofgenuine good will and your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I would like to answer yourstatement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms.I think I should give the reason for my being in Birmingham, since you have beeninfluenced by the argument of “outsiders coming in.” I have the honor of serving aspresident of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating inevery Southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty-fiveaffiliate organizations all across the South, one being the Alabama Christian Movementfor Human Rights. Whenever necessary and possible, we share staff, educational andfinancial resources with our affiliates. Several months ago our local affiliate here inBirmingham invited us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct-action program ifsuch were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and when the hour came we livedup to our promises. So I am here, along with several members of my staff, because wewere invited here. I am here because I have basic organizational ties here.Beyond this, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here…Letter from a Birmingham Jail, Martin Luther King, Jr.
  49. 49. On page 5 of the CCSS document, the anonymous writers state that “a significant body of research links …close reading regardless if the student is a strugglingreader or advanced—to significant gains…” yet most of the students cited are from college and high school. They ignore the body of research in regards to text difficulty and instructional leveled text.
  50. 50. Furthermore, PARCC speaks specifically to the questions of students who may be unable to read within the text complexity bands by saying “flexibility is built in for educators to build progressions of more complex textswithin grade bands…that overlap to a limited degree with earlier bands, but reading texts from the appropriate band lies at the core of the Model Content Frameworks.” (2011, 6)
  51. 51. In order to be successful, Setting a Purposethis method of usingcomplex text must becoupled with a profound Visual Literacyamount of scaffolding forstudents. In order forteachers to be effective Pre-teaching of vocabularywith students, capacitymust be built allowing forteacher implementation. Contextualization of meaning
  52. 52. Dallas Ponyboy JohnnyS.E.Hinton, author Characters Who? Why? What? Gangs How? The Outsiders Where? WhenThis shows how to use a graphic web to discuss a piece of literature visually.
  53. 53. What Students Should Do in Making Meaning1. Students should carry meaning across the whole story.2. Operate on the basis of “what does the text tell us.”3. Understand words based on context.4. Comparative analysis is a focal point of CCSS.5. If you are using limited targeted text provided by a basal, you will have difficulty with CCSS.
  54. 54. Implications for Implementation• Determine where students are with needs assessment• Insure practices are moving students forward through alignment of methods with content• Make sure there is plenty of time for student reading• Offer student choice for reading• Offer explicit reading skill instruction• Have students take ownership
  55. 55. Let’s Develop An AssessmentEach table will receive a text. Go through and place a higher level textdependent question that students must stop and answer.
  56. 56. Obstacles for Informational Text1. Not enough exposure to non- fiction2. Reading is at frustration level3. Engage with text in wrong manner “Just the facts”4. Little Choice given students5. Teacher tells what should know
  57. 57. 1. More High Interest 2. Do more in content classes3. Match text to children’s ZPD 4. Move students up the gradient.
  58. 58. Text SetsThe Teacher’s College of Columbia UniversityReading and Writing Project under thedirection of Lucy Calkins has created Text Setsboth in Literature and Informational Texts thatare available athttp://tc.readingandwritingproject.com/
  59. 59. Teaching Vocabulary in a Common Core World Getting at the heart of Common Core Vocabulary Instruction
  60. 60. • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown andVarious aspects of CCSS multiple-meaning words• Anchor and phrases by using Standards K- context clues, analyzing 12 meaningful word parts, and demonstrate consulting references the • Demonstrate importance of understanding of word word relationships knowledge. • Acquire and use academic A.4-6 words
  61. 61. Anchor Standards 6-12Reading Show Vocabulary• Key Ideas and Details • 4. Interpret words and phrases• Craft and as they are used in a text, Structure including determining technical, connotative, and• Integration of figurative meanings, and Knowledge and analyze how specific word Ideas choices shape meaning or tone.• Text Complexity
  62. 62. Let’s See How Vocabulary is handled atgrade level
  63. 63. Areas with Emphasis for Vocabulary1. Literature2. Informational Text3. Foundational Skills4. Writing5. Language
  64. 64. Literature 6-8Craft and Structure 6th grade 7th Grade 8th Grade Determine the Determine the meaning Determine the meaning meaning of words and of words and phrases of words and phrases phrases as they are as they are used in a text, as they are used in a text, including figurative including figurative used in a text, and connotative and connotative including figurative meanings; analyze the meanings; analyze the and connotative impact of rhymes and impact of specific word meanings; analyze the other repetitions of choices on meaning and impact of a specific sounds (e.g., alliteration) tone, including analogies word choice on on a specific verse or or allusions to other meaning and tone.. stanza of a poem or texts. section of a story or drama.
  65. 65. Informational Text 6-8Craft and Structure 6th grade 7th grade 8th grade Determine the Determine the Determine the meaning of words meaning of words and meaning of words and and phrases phrases as they are phrases as they used in a text, are used in a text, as they are used in including figurative, including figurative, a text, including connotative, and connotative, and figurative, technical meanings; technical meanings; connotative, and analyze the impact of analyze the impact of technical meanings. a specific word choice specific word choices on meaning and on meaning and tone, tone. including analogies or allusions to other texts.
  66. 66. What Happened To Writing?
  67. 67. So we have seen WHATwe are to do… let’s lookat how we do it.
  68. 68. How Is Schema Created?What Comes to Your Mind When You Think of…• Dog• Bridge• Statue• Man• How about when I spell this word?
  69. 69. The Work of J R Anderson Discards OR Sensory Working Permanent Memory Memory Memory FilesAnderson, J.R. (1995). Learning and memory: An integrated approach. New York: JohnWiley & Sons
  70. 70.  Learn new vocabulary by creating schema that connects with what is already known. (Beck, McKeown, Kucan and Marzano) What words come to your mind as you look at this picture? Turn and Talk
  71. 71. How About Now? What Schema Do You Have For This Picture? Can you transfer your learning? Can you adopt new schemes for this if I give you information?
  72. 72. What comes to mind whenyou hear…hot young stallions
  73. 73. Now Let’s Look At Harder Concepts Find a partner: Discuss how you would go about explaining to students the following concepts: LIBERTY Photosynthesis Cell
  74. 74. Is This Liberty?
  75. 75. Making Learning More Concrete
  76. 76. Do We Need To Teach Vocabulary? Provide explicit vocabulary instruction and strategies to help students become independent vocabulary learners. Teachers should provide explicit vocabulary instruction both as part of reading and language arts classes and as part of content area classes such as science and social studies. Doing What Works, Department of Education http://dww.ed.gov/practice/?T_ID=23&P_ID=59
  77. 77. Beck, McKeown, Kucan Vocabulary must first be orally introduced. Vocabulary is not grade specific. Words must be explained, not defined. Must be contextualized. Multiple usages in a meaningful context (8-10). Create Schema (visual representation) Students reflect with each other Three Tiers of Vocabulary
  78. 78. Working With Vocabulary Explain Restate Show Discuss Refine and Reflect Apply and Learning Games Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge
  79. 79. Explain Putting words in terms students already know.How would you explain to students the word opulent?
  80. 80. Your Turn Consternation Felicity Prodigy Bestial Rankle
  81. 81. Your Turn Consternation-a sense of amazement or confusion Felicity-extreme happiness Prodigy-if someone is exceptionally talented, especially if young Bestial-acting savagely or like an animal Rankle-to cause someone to be irritated
  82. 82. Working With Vocabulary Explain Restate Show Discuss Refine and Reflect Apply and Learning Games Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge
  83. 83. Using Vocabulary Journals Have students create journals Words Schema Explanations Reflections Consultations
  84. 84. Working With Vocabulary Explain Restate Show Discuss Refine and Reflect Apply and Learning Games Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge
  85. 85. By creating the visual representation, they aremaking the learning concreteby making permanent memory files. Why is this important?
  86. 86. Hooking The Learning Have you ever met someone and then five minutes later…you couldn’t remember their name? Have you ever met someone for the first time that you had talked with on the phone for a long time only to think,… they don’t look like what I thought? Do you think in images? Think about your husband or wife. Do you just dream in words, or do you create images?
  87. 87. Do Not Under- estimate the power of a picture.The Heart of the TulipBy Keith Pruitt
  88. 88. © Art by Keithantenna
  89. 89. Exaggerate Beck and McKeown, Elements of Reading Vocabulary, Steck Vaughn, 2004
  90. 90. The bear was very fatigued from walking so far.Fatigue
  91. 91. Working With Vocabulary Explain Restate Show Discuss Refine and Reflect Apply and Learning Games Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge
  92. 92. Float the learning on a sea of talk. Linda Hoyt James Britton
  93. 93. The Beauty of Peer Collaboration
  94. 94. Working With Vocabulary• Explain• Restate• Show• Discuss• Refine and Reflect• Apply and Learning Games Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge
  95. 95. Reflection allows arefinement ofunderstanding. Itpermits the memoryfile to be adjusted toincorporate newunderstandings.
  96. 96. Working With Vocabulary• Explain• Restate• Show• Discuss• Refine and Reflect• Apply and Learning Games Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge
  97. 97. http://www.manythings.org/lulu/http://eslbears.homestead.com/Contact_Info.html
  98. 98. Games on Facebookhttp://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/
  99. 99. http://www.discoveryeducation.com/free-puzzlemaker/?CFID=168810&CFTOKEN=14255240
  100. 100. Working with Vocabulary1. Explain2. Restate3. Show4. Discuss5. Refine and Reflect6. Application and Fun Building Background Knowledge, Robert Marzano Bringing Words to Life, Beck, McKeown, Kucan
  101. 101. Teaching Prefixes Suffixes And Roots Keith PruittWords of Wisdom Educational Consulting www.woweducationalconsulting.com
  102. 102. One way to greatly enlarge the vocabulary of students in very short order is through teaching prefixes, suffixes and root words.Knowledge of these areas will help to greatly expand student vocabulary. Let’s first explore the nature of compound words.
  103. 103. Compound Words• When we add two • Apple + sauce words together, we • Earth + quake form compound words. • Draw + bridge These may be easily taught to students. • Brain + storm• Patricia Cunningham • Basket + ball suggests doing word • Pan + cakes sort activities by • Ear + rings categorizing • Finger + prints compounds.
  104. 104. Prefixes• Un-, re-, in-, dis- are the • Start instruction with most common prefixes un- and when students • Read a selection… have learned their • Explain that un carries meanings, they can the opposite meaning learn more than 1500 of the word to which it words easily. is added.
  105. 105. Prefixes • Unemployed• UN- • • Uncle UnstableWhich of these are • Unbroken prefixes and which • Unicorn are not? • Unhealthy • Unlucky • United
  106. 106. Prefixes • Rearrange• Re- • • Refund Reply• Can mean back or again • Review• Which are these? And • Refrigerator which are not a prefix? • Relocate • Reporter • Rewrite
  107. 107. Prefixes • Do sorting exercises•In- Dis- with prefixes, not prefixes including the• Opposite or not, but irregular spellings. words with in are • Inspire irregular • Irrational • Immigrant • Improve • Dislike
  108. 108. Prefixes• Less common prefixes • misinform include in, mis, non, • Inside pre, en, over, under. • Preview • Overdone • Preteen • Nonliving • Nonrenewable • Underhand • Understand
  109. 109. Suffixes• Often just called • Fighter endings the most • Folder common are s (plural • Helpful forms), er (relating to a person or thing that • Visitor does something), ful, • Doubtful less, able, ible, ist. • Powerless• What do these words • Suitable mean when the suffix is • Gullible added? • Persist
  110. 110. Suffixes• Here are words using • Here are words using ful less meaning without meaning full or having Do the same exercise with -ment, -ance, -ness, -tion. Write riddles of what word am in with several. I end in –tion. We need to do this in math. What am I?
  111. 111. Roots• Here are some common • Micro=small • Phon=sound roots and their • Photo=light meanings. What words • Port=carry, take could be taught? Give • Press=press two examples of each. • Scrib=write• Dict= say • Sens=feel• Duct=lead • Spec=look• Fac/fec=do, make • Struct=build• Ject=throw • Tele=far• Loc=place • Tract=drag, pull• Meter=measure • Vis/vid=see • Voc=voice, call
  112. 112. If we will spend just a fewmoments a day working with thesewords, we can seriously impact the knowledge base of each student. Keith Pruitt Words of Wisdom Educational Consulting www.woweducationalconsulting.com
  113. 113. Teaching for Academic Successby Targeting Vocabulary Instruction Keith Pruitt, Ed.S. Words of Wisdom Educational Consulting www.woweducationalconsulting.com
  114. 114. The relationship betweenvocabulary knowledgeand academicachievement is wellestablished.-- Robert Marzano, BuildingBackground Knowledge, p 31
  115. 115. Grades 4-12 Academic Difference 50 Gap of 6,000 words 40 30 Academic 20 Difference 10 0 Nagy & Herman, 1984, as Category 1 Category 2 quoted in Marzano, 2004
  116. 116. A word is the term used to describethe label given to a packet ofinformation stored in our permanentmemories. Marzano, 2004, p32 Nation insists that there are approximately 570 academic words from the Coxhead List that coupled with the 2,000 most frequently used words from the General Service List that constitute 90% of the reading students are to do. As quoted by Lebedev, 2008, Pearson, Vocabulary Power 1
  117. 117. For the teacher, then, the supreme task is to store as many words as possible into thepermanent memory of students.
  118. 118. One of the arguments for ________ in the first place had beenthat ________ would increase the wealth of the _____________And lessen her dependence on other nations. According to the__________ theory, she would prosper and grow strong by_________ more and more to __________ and _________ lessand less from them. Colonies would aid by providing a ______for her ___________ goods and a source of supply for ____________she could not produce at home. To get the full benefit, shewould haveto exclude ________ (as Spain had done) from her _______trade. The words in red are great Tier 2 words that can be emphasized for clarity. The blanks represent Tier 3 (Academic Language) that is absolutely necessary to make sense of the text. This is an American History Text.
  119. 119. One of the arguments for colonization in the first place had beenthat colonies would increase the wealth of the mother countryand lessen her dependence on other nations. According to themercantile theory, she would prosper and grow strong byexporting more and more to foreigners and importing lessand less from them. Colonies would aid by providing a marketfor her manufactured goods and a source of supply for raw materialsshe could not produce at home. To get the full benefit, she would haveto exclude foreigners (as Spain had done) from her colonialtrade. One could not access the text without the vocabulary. But unless one has a schema for the words, it is like not having the words printed.
  120. 120. What is therelationshipbetween learningeveryday languageand academiclanguage?
  121. 121. So how would I use the idea of thematic instruction to teach vocabulary in a content?
  122. 122. NOAA Universe today.com The PowerfulForces of Nature ZMEScience.com Public domain
  123. 123. Step 1- Introduce the Big Idea How Does Nature Change the Earth around Us?
  124. 124. Step 2- Introduce the theme byintroducing the words you will study.ERUPT ASH LAVATYPHOON HURRICANE PLATETREMOR MAGMA EPICENTEREARTHQUAKE STORM SURGE
  125. 125. Inclusion of vocabulary. Now we can contextualize. We also now have supporting information that can lead to projects: Ring of Fire, Vesuvius We also can now link to career path by pointing students to www.usgs.gov where they can learn how scientists work with volcanoes, earthquakes, etc.
  126. 126. Wow, that’s cool, dude. Ithink I might like to study about volcanoes.
  127. 127. The volcano Etna has been on Sicily for more than a million years, longer than human beingshave inhabited the Mediterranean. It has been erupting nearly continuously throughout 3500years of recorded history, since 1500 BCE, and doubtless for long before that.Etna has had hundreds of recorded major eruptions; another began with the eruptions of spring2001. And like the hundreds of times before, the local people responded in the ways theyalways have. But modern technologies have allowed them to respond a bit more effectively, andwith a bit less resignation, than before.Etna Then and NowEtna is such an important volcano that the ancients made it the home of Vulcan, blacksmith tothe gods. Like the personality of Vulcan himself, Etna is always unpredictable, often gloomy andirritated, sometimes dangerously angry, even on rare occasions playful. All of the seafaringpeoples of the ancient Mediterranean knew Etna as a steady beacon and landmark, loomingnear the strategic Strait of Messina at Sicilys eastern tip.People have always lived near Etna, even upon its sides. The same is true with volcanoes aroundthe world. After all, volcanic ash weathers into rich soil, and the risk of injury or death from aneruption is pretty small. On many volcanoes, you can live your whole life without witnessing aneruption—or if there is one, it wont destroy your part of the mountainside. Thats the kind ofrisk we all accept about the place we live, whether its prone toearthquakes, hurricanes, sinkholes, or landslides.The 2001 eruption of Etna made news not only because it was a great spectacle, but becausethere was human drama as well. The lava engulfed an important skiing and tourism center onthe mountain, the Rifugio Sapienza. Nowadays we dont just send prayers to our current gods, asthe ancients did—although the archbishop of Sicily did just that in 2001. Today the Italianauthorities send bulldozers to throw up barriers to the lava.
  128. 128. Acting Against VolcanoesWeve tried other things against volcanoes, too, such as military bombing to divert lava flows. When a volcanothreatened the Icelandic town of Westmanneyjar in 1983, the main tactic was spraying the lava with seawater tofreeze it solid.But the first successful defense against a volcano was here in Catania, the city of half a million at Etnas foot. In1669, the Monti Rossi vent on Etnas southern flank began pouring out a river of lava uphill from Catania. The citysexisting walls held back the flood for a week. But after part of the wall gave way, the authorities built new walls inthe city streets that were effective against the lavas advance.Another tactic tried in 1669 was to break open the roof and sides of the lava tube feeding the flow. It was hopedthat this would cool and freeze the molten rock, as well as directing part of the flow elsewhere. The nearby town ofPaternò felt so threatened by this measure, it sent out an armed force to stop the work crews.As a result, laws were enacted to forbid tampering with lava flows. These remained in effect until 1983, when moremodern techniques were allowed. So the bulldozers of today are still an experimental technology when it comes tofighting eternal Etna.Another experimental technology was tried at Etna in 2009: gas sampling by remote-controlled helicopter. TheScots geologist whose brainstorm that was won a Rolex Award for Enterprise in 2008. Remote-observationtechniques like this promise to spare volcanologists from some of the danger inherent in their work while helping ineruption forecasts.PS: The Etna eruption, among other things, produced a small quantity of Peles hair. This fine-fibered volcanic glassis more familiar from Hawaii, where the liquid basaltic lava is readily blown in the wind.
  129. 129. Step 6- Have students connect to media Step 7- Have students discuss their learning.
  130. 130. Step 8- Have students create from their learning. This is one of thefundamental elements of Common Core.
  131. 131. Why would we have students do anexperiment with earthquakes when we are studying volcanoes?
  132. 132. Step 1- Introduce the big ideaStep 2-Introduce wordsStep 3- Create BackgroundStep 4-Explore TextStep 5-Have students connect to textStep 6- Have students connect to mediaStep 7- Students discuss their learningStep 8- Students create from their learning
  133. 133. In following this methodology, students can learn inthe way the brain directs and learn a host of vocabulary along the way.And most important, learning will be fun.
  134. 134. Writing and the Common Core Expectations
  135. 135. …writing is treated as an equal partner toreading, and more than this, writing isassumed to be the vehicle through which agreat deal of the reading work and thereading assessments will occur. Calkins, et al Pathways to the Common Core, p 102
  136. 136. Types of Writing in Common Core State StandardsResponse to Literature Process Writing
  137. 137. Response to Literature Students will be expected to writeabout their reading experiences ondemand in a meaningful, clear, and concise manner pointing to clearevidence in the text to support their writing.
  138. 138. Clear Implications of Process Writing1. Three different types (Narrative, Persuasive/Opinion/Argu ment, Informational and Functional/Procedural Writing2. The bar is exceptionally high3. Writing happens often4. Based on strong rubrics
  139. 139. Miss Sadie no longer sits in her rocking chair on her porch on summer days. But I still can see her. The old chair squeaking with every sway of her big, brown body. Her summer dresses stained from cooking in her sweet smelling kitchen. I see her gray hair pulled back in that awful, yellow banana clip. Most of all, I hear that voice. So full of character and wisdom. (52)This is just a portion of anexemplar text. Can you guesswhat grade?
  140. 140. The Importance of Mentor Text
  141. 141. A “mentor piece” is a shorttext or portion of a text usedas a support for the work weare trying to accomplish in theworkshop. Judy Davis and Sharon Hill, The No- Nonsense Guide to Teaching Writing, p10 Pearson’s From Reading to Writing capitalizes on connecting reading and writing and using mentor text.
  142. 142. Have students reflect on what they have read. Important to look at the vocabulary inthe reading. These become key writing transfers. Let’s Write!!! Here’s the model.
  143. 143. Harriet Tubman By Eloise GreenfieldHarriet Tubman didn‟t take no stuffWasn‟t scared of nothing neitherDidn‟t come in this world to be no slaveAnd wasn‟t going to stay one either“Farewell!” she sang to her friends one nightShe was mighty sad to leave „emBut she ran away that dark, hot nightRan looking for her freedomShe ran to the woods and she ran through the woodsWith the slave catchers right behind herAnd she kept on going till she got to the NorthWhere those mean men couldn‟t find herNineteen times she went back SouthTo get three hundred othersShe ran for her freedom nineteen timesTo save Black sisters and brothers(repeat first stanza)
  144. 144. Harriet Tubman By Eloise GreenfieldHarriet Tubman didn‟t take no stuffWasn‟t scared of nothing neitherDidn‟t come in this world to be no slaveAnd wasn‟t going to stay one either“Farewell!” she sang to her friends one nightShe was mighty sad to leave „emBut she ran away that dark, hot nightRan looking for her freedomShe ran to the woods and she ran through the woodsWith the slave catchers right behind herAnd she kept on going till she got to the NorthWhere those mean men couldn‟t find herNineteen times she went back SouthTo get three hundred othersShe ran for her freedom nineteen timesTo save Black sisters and brothers(repeat first stanza)
  145. 145. This exercise just showed anexample of how to use amentor text.Let’s look at some other waysof using mentor text anddiscuss why mentor text areimportant.
  146. 146. The Importance of Mentor Text1. Serves as a starting gate for writing.2. Mirrors the expectation for the writing to be done.3. Serves as a point for mini- lessons, ie. Using adjectives effectively4. Gives students guidance for different genres and text types.
  147. 147. Next you will see apicture.With a partner, I wantyou to just list thethings you see in thispicture.You will only see thepicture for 5 seconds.
  148. 148. Take one of the detailsfrom the picture and witha partner tell each otherthe beginnings of a story.Now I want you to justmake some notes aboutwhat your partner toldyou.
  149. 149. My Mind’s EyeProjection Screen Image The Author’s Words
  150. 150. My Mind’s EyeProjection Screen Image The Author’s Words He sat close to the fire, his chin in his hand. It was dusk, and the dogs lay beside him on the warm hearthstones. --Sarah Plain and Tall, p.1
  151. 151. Every Sense Counts
  152. 152. Good writers are goodreaders…. Notice howauthors craft theirwriting because I findgreat writingfascinating andbecause I am alwayslooking to become abetter writer. --Regie Routman, Writing Essentials p. 43
  153. 153. And the more experiencechildren have in readingand writing, the moremeaningful their writingbecomes. Growth inreading positively impactswriting, and growth inwriting positively impactsreading. --Regie Routman, Writing Essentials, P 120
  154. 154. The concept of a mentortext is important. A mentoris one whomodels, coaches, and liftsanother to higher levels.With that in mind, a mentortext must be chosencarefully to ensure that itcan establish a model ofquality writing that is worthyof guiding our learners. --Linda Hoyt, Interactive Read- Alouds Teacher’s Guide,
  155. 155. What Makes a Piece of Literature a Good Mentor Text?Engages students imaginations.The text is well written and provides manyopportunities to teach good writingpractices (Davis & Hill, p. 10)The text can obviously serve to helpstudents understand what is expected intheir writing.
  156. 156. Jayne Fisher
  157. 157. What major obstacles do youface as a teacher in engagingstudents in writing?Turn and Talk
  158. 158. Considerations in Writing• Write Often, Model Often, Release Often• Use a learning progression in working with writing (James Popham, 2007), building blocks• Design a continuum of writing for assessment (www.readingandwritingproject.com) 1. Use an on demand benchmark to begin measure 2. Compare to your continuum 3. Monitor their progress over time compared to thecontinuum 4. End the year by an on demand piece and show theprogression• Provide students with clear goals and effective feedback
  159. 159. Feedback Repetition Mistake Retry Practice Perfection
  160. 160. Writing withspecial populationstudents requires lots of modeling
  161. 161. First, students, tell me what yousee in the picture.CatsBirdsCarWindowNow, tell me what do you thinkthe cats may do?I think they go out window andeat the birds.I think the birds will fly awayI think the cats will watch thebirds.
  162. 162. Amanda was from India when the monsoon rains caused 1. What two new things hasgreat flooding. Amanda done in her new country that she neverAmanda’s family came to the United States when she did in the old according towas twelve years old. the text?Amanda missed her friends and family very much when 2. What does the author sayshe first came to America. But she soon made new that lets us know thatfriends. Amanda is happy in the United States?In American, Amanda was allowed to attend schoolsomething she had never done before. She really liked 3. How do we know how oldto learn and is a good student. Amanda was when she came to the UnitedAmanda likes sports and likes to play basketball. This States?was something she had never seen in her old country.
  163. 163. In Process Writing: 1. Target the instruction- don’t try to get all the lions out of the jungle the first day2. Offer constant feedback, but let the children do the work (they don’t learn from what you do, but what they do)3. Use a writers workshop model with six trait writing
  164. 164. Pedagogy Suggestions1. Sentence strips, magnetic words, and tactile experiences are a great start.2. Drawing is writing. Have students tell you the story in dictation.3. For beginners, use lots of pictures to create the connection with stories and print.4. Target questions in texts for reading in order to connect with writings. Use sticky notes to place in text.
  165. 165. Thank You Keith Pruitt Words of Wisdomwww.woweducationalconsulting.com Join us on facebook

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