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Discrete Stochastic
Processes
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Circle the name of your Tutorial Instructor:
Ashish Carole Christos Eric
George Jack Nick Tina
• This quiz is closed book. There is an Appendix giving the definitions of standard
properties of relations.
• There are four (4) problems totaling 100 points. Problems are labeled with their point
values.
• Put your name on the top of every page – these pages may be separated for grading.
• Write your solutions in the space provided. If you need more space, write on the back
of the sheet containing the problem. Please keep your entire answer to a problem on
that problem’s page.
• You may assume any of the results presented in class or in the lecture notes.
• Be neat and write legibly. You will be graded not only on the correctness of your
answer, but also on the clarity with which you express it.
Problems
statisticshomeworkhelper.com
Problem 1 Consider the following system specifications1.
1. The system is in multiuser state if it is operating normally.
2. If the system is operating normally, then the kernel is functioning.
3. The kernel is not functioning or the system is in interrupt mode.
4. If the system is not in multiuser state, then it is in interrupt mode.
5. The system is not in interrupt mode.
(a) To make sense of these confusing conditions, let’s introduce four Boolean variables.
statisticshomeworkhelper.com
M ::= in Multiuser state (1)
N ::= operating Normally (2)
K ::= Kernel is functioning (3)
I ::= in Interrupt mode (4)
Translate the five statements in the specification into propositional
logic notation: ∧,∨,¬, −→
statisticshomeworkhelper.com
(b) Are these system specifications consistent? . Prove it!
Problem 2
For each of the following logical formulas with domain of discourse the natural numbers,
N, indicate whether it is a possible formulation of I:
the Induction Axiom,
S: the Strong Induction Axiom,
L: the Least Number Principle (also known as Wellordering),
or N: None of these.
For example, the ordinary Induction Axiom could be expressed by the following formula, so
it gets labelled “I”.
statisticshomeworkhelper.com
This is a multiple choice problem: do not explain your answer.
(a) (P(b) ∧ [∀k ≥ b P(k) −→ P(k + 1)]) −→ ∀k ≥ b P(k)
(b) (P(b) ∧ [∀k ≤ b P(k) −→ P(k + 1)]) −→ ∀k ≤ b P(k)
(c) [∀b (∀k < b P(k)) −→ P(b)] −→ ∀k P(k) (
(d) (∃n P(n)) −→ ∃n ∀k < n P(k)
(e) ∀n [P(n) −→ (∃n P(n) ∧ ∀k < n P(k))]
Problem 3 Classify each of the following binary relations as
E: An equivalence relation.
T: A Total order,
P: A Partial order that is not total.
S: A Symmetric relation that is not transitive.
N: None of the above..
statisticshomeworkhelper.com
This is a multiple choice problem: do not explain your answer.
(a) The relation xRy between times of day such that x and y are at most twenty minutes
apart.
(b) The relation xRy between times of day such that x is more than twenty minutes later
than y.
(c) The relation xRy over all words in this sentence such that x does not appear after y.
(Consider “x”, “y”, and “xRy” to be words.)
(d) The relation xRy over all words in this sentence such that word x does not appear
after word y.
(e) The relation xRy over all words in this sentence such that the final appearance of y
occurs after x.
Problem 4 To encourage collaborative study, the 6.042 staff is considering assigning
each student to a study group with two or three other students. Prove that as long as the
enrollment is large enough, the class can always be divided into such study groups.
statisticshomeworkhelper.com
Appendix
A binary relation, R, on a set A is
• reflexive iff xRx,
• symmetric iff xRy −→ yRx,
• antisymmetric iff xRy ∧ yRx −→ x = y,
• transitive iff xRy ∧ yRz −→ xRz,
for all x, y, z ∈ A.
• R is an equivalence relation iff it is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
• R is a partial order iff it is transitive and antisymmetric.
• R is a total order iff it is a partial order and for all x = y ∈ A either xRy or yRx.
statisticshomeworkhelper.com
Problem 1 Consider the following system specifications1.
1. The system is in multiuser state iff it is operating normally.
2. If the system is operating normally, then the kernel is functioning.
3. The kernel is not functioning or the system is in interrupt mode.
4. If the system is not in multiuser state, then it is in interrupt mode.
5. The system is not in interrupt mode.
(a) To make sense of these confusing conditions, let’s introduce four Boolean
variables.
M ::= in Multiuser state (1)
N ::= operating Normally (2)
K ::= Kernel is functioning (3)
I ::= in Interrupt mode (4)
statisticshomeworkhelper.com
Translate the five statements in the specification into propositional logic notation: ∧,∨,¬,
−→ ,←→
Solution.
M N ←→ (5)
N −→ K (6)
¬K ∨ I (7)
¬M −→ I (8)
¬I (9)
(b) (0 points) Are these system specifications consistent? . Prove it!
Solution. There are several ways to approach this problem. One is to construct a truth
table with sixteen lines—one for each way of assigning truth values to the four variables
M, N, K, and I.
We can avoid the cumbersome truthtable if we reason by cases. Case 1: I is true. Then
the last formula (9) is false, and the whole specification is false. Case 2: I is false. Now
formula (8) can be true only if ¬M is false, that is, only if M is true. Likewise, formula (7)
can be true only if ¬K is true, that is, K is false.
Since K is false, formula (6) can be true only if N is false. Thus, we have deduced that in
order to be consistent in this case, we must have
statisticshomeworkhelper.com
I = false
M = true
K = false
N = false.
But now formula (5) is false, so it is impossible for all the formulas to be true: the system is
inconsistent.
Problem 2 For each of the following logical formulas with domain of discourse the
natural numbers, N, indicate whether it is a possible formulation of
I: the Induction Axiom,
S: the Strong Induction Axiom,
L: the Least Number Principle (also known as Wellordering), or
N: None of these.
For example, the ordinary Induction Axiom could be expressed by the following formula, so
it gets labelled “I”.
(P(0) ∧ [∀k P(k) −→ P(k + 1)]) −→ ∀k P(k) I
statisticshomeworkhelper.com
This is a multiple choice problem: do not explain your answer.
(a) (P(b) ∧ [∀k ≥ b P(k) −→ P(k + 1)]) −→ ∀k ≥ b P(k)
Solution. I. This is a perfect formulation of the Induction Axiom. b is used for the base
case; P(k) −→ P(k + 1) is the inductive case.
(b) (P(b) ∧ [∀k ≤ b P(k) −→ P(k + 1)]) −→ ∀k ≤ b P(k) Solution. N. The two occurences
of k <= b should have been k >= b
(c) [∀b (∀k < b P(k)) −→ P(b)] −→ ∀k P(k) Solution. S. Since you are assuming P(k)
for all k < b, this is strong induction.
(d) (∃n P(n)) −→ ∃n ∀k < n P(k) Solution. N. This statement is in fact always true;
when n = 0, ∀k < n P(k). It should say P(n) ∧ ∀k < n; P(k)
(e) ∀n [P(n) −→ (∃n P(n) ∧ ∀k < n P(k))] Solution. L. This is a valid formulation; it does
not have that problem in (2d).
Problem 3 . Classify each of the following binary relations as
statisticshomeworkhelper.com
E: An equivalence relation.
T: A Total order,
P: A Partial order that is not total
S: A Symmetric relation that is not transitive.
N: None of the above.
This is a multiple choice problem: do not explain your answer.
(a) The relation xRy between times of day such that x and y are at most twenty
minutes apart.
Solution. S: This relation is reflexive and symmetric. It is not transitive; Consider the
counterexample: 1:00R 1:15, 1:15R 1:22 but ¬1:00R 1:22.
(b) The relation xRy between times of day such that x is more than twenty minutes later
than y.
Solution. P: This relation is antisymmetric and transitive but not reflexive (since a time
isn’t 20 minutes after itself). This is not a total ordering because some times are
incomparable to each other. For example, 1:15 is incomparable to 1:22
statisticshomeworkhelper.com
Note: This answer assumes that the question was referring to the moments in time in
a single day. Otherwise, one could argue that 1:00 precedes 1:22 on tuesday, but
1:22 on tuesday precedes 1:00 on wednesday, and then the relation would not be
antisymmetric.
(c) The relation xRy over all words in this sentence such that x does not appear after y.
(Consider “x”, “y”, and “xRy” to be words.)
Solution. T: Because all the words in the sentence are unique, this relation is transitive,
antisymmetric, and reflexive. This makes the relation a partial order. However, the
relation is also a total order, because any two elements are comparable.
(d) The relation xRy over all words in this sentence such that word x does not
appear after word y.
Solution. P: This is the same as saying that all appearances of a word x occur
before all appearances of a word y. While apparently very similar to part c, this
relation is not reflexive because the word word appears twice in the sentence. It is
transitive and antisymmetric, but not a total order because all the words between
the two occurrences of word are incomparable to word.
statisticshomeworkhelper.com
(e) The relation xRy over all words in this sentence such that the final appearance of y
occurs after x.
Solution. N: This relation is not reflexive and transitive. It is neither symmetric nor
antisymmetric; the word the occurs twice, all the others once. All words w, between the
two occurrences of the satisfy wR the and theRw. So R is not antisymmetric. But “x” is
maximal, so it’s not symmetric either
Problem 4 (35 points). To encourage collaborative study, the 6.042 staff is
considering assigning each student to a study group with two or three other
students. Prove that as long as the enrollment is large enough, the class can
always be divided into such study groups.
Solution. Proof. The proof is by strong induction. The induction hypothesis is
that a class with n ≥ 6 students can be divided into teams of 3 or 4. More
precisely
P(n) ::= n ≥ 6 −→ ∃x, y ∈ N 3x + 4y = n.
For any n ≥ 0, we may assume P(6), . . . , P(n − 1) to prove P(n).
statisticshomeworkhelper.com
Case 1: (n < 6). P(n) holds because the hypothesis n ≥ 6 is false.
Case 2: (n = 6, 7, or 8) P(6) is true because there could be two teams of 3, P(7) is
true because there could be a team of 3 and a team of 4, and P(8) is true because
there could be two teams of 4.
Case 3: (n ≥ 9). Of course n > n−3 so P(n−3) holds by the strong induction
hypothesis. But n − 3 ≥ 6, so P(n − 3) implies 3x + 4y= n − 3 for some x, y ∈ N,
and therefore 3x + 4y = n where x ::= x + 1 and y ::= y . So P(n) holds, as required.
statisticshomeworkhelper.com

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Stochastic Processes Homework Help

  • 1. Discrete Stochastic Processes statisticshomeworkhelper.com For any help regarding Stochastic Processes Homework Help Visit :- https://www.excelhomeworkhelp.com/, Email :- info@excelhomeworkhelp.com or Call us at :- +1 678 648 4277
  • 2. Circle the name of your Tutorial Instructor: Ashish Carole Christos Eric George Jack Nick Tina • This quiz is closed book. There is an Appendix giving the definitions of standard properties of relations. • There are four (4) problems totaling 100 points. Problems are labeled with their point values. • Put your name on the top of every page – these pages may be separated for grading. • Write your solutions in the space provided. If you need more space, write on the back of the sheet containing the problem. Please keep your entire answer to a problem on that problem’s page. • You may assume any of the results presented in class or in the lecture notes. • Be neat and write legibly. You will be graded not only on the correctness of your answer, but also on the clarity with which you express it. Problems statisticshomeworkhelper.com
  • 3. Problem 1 Consider the following system specifications1. 1. The system is in multiuser state if it is operating normally. 2. If the system is operating normally, then the kernel is functioning. 3. The kernel is not functioning or the system is in interrupt mode. 4. If the system is not in multiuser state, then it is in interrupt mode. 5. The system is not in interrupt mode. (a) To make sense of these confusing conditions, let’s introduce four Boolean variables. statisticshomeworkhelper.com
  • 4. M ::= in Multiuser state (1) N ::= operating Normally (2) K ::= Kernel is functioning (3) I ::= in Interrupt mode (4) Translate the five statements in the specification into propositional logic notation: ∧,∨,¬, −→ statisticshomeworkhelper.com
  • 5. (b) Are these system specifications consistent? . Prove it! Problem 2 For each of the following logical formulas with domain of discourse the natural numbers, N, indicate whether it is a possible formulation of I: the Induction Axiom, S: the Strong Induction Axiom, L: the Least Number Principle (also known as Wellordering), or N: None of these. For example, the ordinary Induction Axiom could be expressed by the following formula, so it gets labelled “I”. statisticshomeworkhelper.com
  • 6. This is a multiple choice problem: do not explain your answer. (a) (P(b) ∧ [∀k ≥ b P(k) −→ P(k + 1)]) −→ ∀k ≥ b P(k) (b) (P(b) ∧ [∀k ≤ b P(k) −→ P(k + 1)]) −→ ∀k ≤ b P(k) (c) [∀b (∀k < b P(k)) −→ P(b)] −→ ∀k P(k) ( (d) (∃n P(n)) −→ ∃n ∀k < n P(k) (e) ∀n [P(n) −→ (∃n P(n) ∧ ∀k < n P(k))] Problem 3 Classify each of the following binary relations as E: An equivalence relation. T: A Total order, P: A Partial order that is not total. S: A Symmetric relation that is not transitive. N: None of the above.. statisticshomeworkhelper.com
  • 7. This is a multiple choice problem: do not explain your answer. (a) The relation xRy between times of day such that x and y are at most twenty minutes apart. (b) The relation xRy between times of day such that x is more than twenty minutes later than y. (c) The relation xRy over all words in this sentence such that x does not appear after y. (Consider “x”, “y”, and “xRy” to be words.) (d) The relation xRy over all words in this sentence such that word x does not appear after word y. (e) The relation xRy over all words in this sentence such that the final appearance of y occurs after x. Problem 4 To encourage collaborative study, the 6.042 staff is considering assigning each student to a study group with two or three other students. Prove that as long as the enrollment is large enough, the class can always be divided into such study groups. statisticshomeworkhelper.com
  • 8. Appendix A binary relation, R, on a set A is • reflexive iff xRx, • symmetric iff xRy −→ yRx, • antisymmetric iff xRy ∧ yRx −→ x = y, • transitive iff xRy ∧ yRz −→ xRz, for all x, y, z ∈ A. • R is an equivalence relation iff it is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. • R is a partial order iff it is transitive and antisymmetric. • R is a total order iff it is a partial order and for all x = y ∈ A either xRy or yRx. statisticshomeworkhelper.com
  • 9. Problem 1 Consider the following system specifications1. 1. The system is in multiuser state iff it is operating normally. 2. If the system is operating normally, then the kernel is functioning. 3. The kernel is not functioning or the system is in interrupt mode. 4. If the system is not in multiuser state, then it is in interrupt mode. 5. The system is not in interrupt mode. (a) To make sense of these confusing conditions, let’s introduce four Boolean variables. M ::= in Multiuser state (1) N ::= operating Normally (2) K ::= Kernel is functioning (3) I ::= in Interrupt mode (4) statisticshomeworkhelper.com
  • 10. Translate the five statements in the specification into propositional logic notation: ∧,∨,¬, −→ ,←→ Solution. M N ←→ (5) N −→ K (6) ¬K ∨ I (7) ¬M −→ I (8) ¬I (9) (b) (0 points) Are these system specifications consistent? . Prove it! Solution. There are several ways to approach this problem. One is to construct a truth table with sixteen lines—one for each way of assigning truth values to the four variables M, N, K, and I. We can avoid the cumbersome truthtable if we reason by cases. Case 1: I is true. Then the last formula (9) is false, and the whole specification is false. Case 2: I is false. Now formula (8) can be true only if ¬M is false, that is, only if M is true. Likewise, formula (7) can be true only if ¬K is true, that is, K is false. Since K is false, formula (6) can be true only if N is false. Thus, we have deduced that in order to be consistent in this case, we must have statisticshomeworkhelper.com
  • 11. I = false M = true K = false N = false. But now formula (5) is false, so it is impossible for all the formulas to be true: the system is inconsistent. Problem 2 For each of the following logical formulas with domain of discourse the natural numbers, N, indicate whether it is a possible formulation of I: the Induction Axiom, S: the Strong Induction Axiom, L: the Least Number Principle (also known as Wellordering), or N: None of these. For example, the ordinary Induction Axiom could be expressed by the following formula, so it gets labelled “I”. (P(0) ∧ [∀k P(k) −→ P(k + 1)]) −→ ∀k P(k) I statisticshomeworkhelper.com
  • 12. This is a multiple choice problem: do not explain your answer. (a) (P(b) ∧ [∀k ≥ b P(k) −→ P(k + 1)]) −→ ∀k ≥ b P(k) Solution. I. This is a perfect formulation of the Induction Axiom. b is used for the base case; P(k) −→ P(k + 1) is the inductive case. (b) (P(b) ∧ [∀k ≤ b P(k) −→ P(k + 1)]) −→ ∀k ≤ b P(k) Solution. N. The two occurences of k <= b should have been k >= b (c) [∀b (∀k < b P(k)) −→ P(b)] −→ ∀k P(k) Solution. S. Since you are assuming P(k) for all k < b, this is strong induction. (d) (∃n P(n)) −→ ∃n ∀k < n P(k) Solution. N. This statement is in fact always true; when n = 0, ∀k < n P(k). It should say P(n) ∧ ∀k < n; P(k) (e) ∀n [P(n) −→ (∃n P(n) ∧ ∀k < n P(k))] Solution. L. This is a valid formulation; it does not have that problem in (2d). Problem 3 . Classify each of the following binary relations as statisticshomeworkhelper.com
  • 13. E: An equivalence relation. T: A Total order, P: A Partial order that is not total S: A Symmetric relation that is not transitive. N: None of the above. This is a multiple choice problem: do not explain your answer. (a) The relation xRy between times of day such that x and y are at most twenty minutes apart. Solution. S: This relation is reflexive and symmetric. It is not transitive; Consider the counterexample: 1:00R 1:15, 1:15R 1:22 but ¬1:00R 1:22. (b) The relation xRy between times of day such that x is more than twenty minutes later than y. Solution. P: This relation is antisymmetric and transitive but not reflexive (since a time isn’t 20 minutes after itself). This is not a total ordering because some times are incomparable to each other. For example, 1:15 is incomparable to 1:22 statisticshomeworkhelper.com
  • 14. Note: This answer assumes that the question was referring to the moments in time in a single day. Otherwise, one could argue that 1:00 precedes 1:22 on tuesday, but 1:22 on tuesday precedes 1:00 on wednesday, and then the relation would not be antisymmetric. (c) The relation xRy over all words in this sentence such that x does not appear after y. (Consider “x”, “y”, and “xRy” to be words.) Solution. T: Because all the words in the sentence are unique, this relation is transitive, antisymmetric, and reflexive. This makes the relation a partial order. However, the relation is also a total order, because any two elements are comparable. (d) The relation xRy over all words in this sentence such that word x does not appear after word y. Solution. P: This is the same as saying that all appearances of a word x occur before all appearances of a word y. While apparently very similar to part c, this relation is not reflexive because the word word appears twice in the sentence. It is transitive and antisymmetric, but not a total order because all the words between the two occurrences of word are incomparable to word. statisticshomeworkhelper.com
  • 15. (e) The relation xRy over all words in this sentence such that the final appearance of y occurs after x. Solution. N: This relation is not reflexive and transitive. It is neither symmetric nor antisymmetric; the word the occurs twice, all the others once. All words w, between the two occurrences of the satisfy wR the and theRw. So R is not antisymmetric. But “x” is maximal, so it’s not symmetric either Problem 4 (35 points). To encourage collaborative study, the 6.042 staff is considering assigning each student to a study group with two or three other students. Prove that as long as the enrollment is large enough, the class can always be divided into such study groups. Solution. Proof. The proof is by strong induction. The induction hypothesis is that a class with n ≥ 6 students can be divided into teams of 3 or 4. More precisely P(n) ::= n ≥ 6 −→ ∃x, y ∈ N 3x + 4y = n. For any n ≥ 0, we may assume P(6), . . . , P(n − 1) to prove P(n). statisticshomeworkhelper.com
  • 16. Case 1: (n < 6). P(n) holds because the hypothesis n ≥ 6 is false. Case 2: (n = 6, 7, or 8) P(6) is true because there could be two teams of 3, P(7) is true because there could be a team of 3 and a team of 4, and P(8) is true because there could be two teams of 4. Case 3: (n ≥ 9). Of course n > n−3 so P(n−3) holds by the strong induction hypothesis. But n − 3 ≥ 6, so P(n − 3) implies 3x + 4y= n − 3 for some x, y ∈ N, and therefore 3x + 4y = n where x ::= x + 1 and y ::= y . So P(n) holds, as required. statisticshomeworkhelper.com