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Probabilistic Systems Analysis
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1. All ships travel at the same speed through a wide canal. Eastbound ship arrivals at the canal are a
Poisson process with an average arrival rate λE ships per day. Westbound ships arrive as an
independent Poisson process with average arrival rate λW per day. An indicator at a point in the
canal is always pointing in the direction of travel of the most recent ship to pass it. Each ship takes
t days to traverse the length of the canal.
(a) Given that the pointer is pointing west:
i. What is the probability that the next ship to pass it will be westbound?
ii. What is the PDF for the remaining time until the pointer changes direction?
(b) What is the probability that an eastbound ship will see no westbound ships during its eastward
journey through the canal?
(c) We begin observing at an arbitrary time. Let V be the time we have to continue observing
until we see the seventh eastbound ship. Determine the PDF for V .
2. (a) Shuttles depart from New York to Boston every hour on the hour. Passengers arrive
according to a Poisson process of rate λ per hour. Find the expected number of passengers on
a shuttle. (Ignore issues of limited seating.)
(b) Now suppose that the shuttles are no longer operating on a deterministic schedule, but
rather their interdeparture times are independent and exponentially distributed with rate µ per
hour. Find the PMF for the number of shuttles arriving in one hour.
Problem
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(c) Let us define an “event” in the airport to be either the arrival of a passenger, or the
departure of a plane. With the same assumptions as in (b) above, find the expected number of
“events” that occur in one hour.
(d) If a passenger arrives at the gate, and sees 2λ people waiting, find his/her expected time to
wait until the next shuttle.
(e) Find the PMF for the number of people on a shuttle.
3. Consider the following Markov chain:
Given that the above process is in state S0 just before the first trial, determine by inspection the
probability that:
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(a) The process enters S2 for the first time as the result of the kth trial.
(b) The process never enters S4.
(c) The process enters S2 and then leaves S2 on the next trial.
(d) The process enters S1 for the first time on the third trial.
(e) The process is in state S3 immediately after the nth trial.
4. (a) Identify the transient, recurrent, and periodic states of the discrete state discretetransition
Markov process described by
(b) How many classes are formed by the recurrent states of this process?
(c) Evaluate limn→∞ p41(n) and limn→∞ p66(n).
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5. Out of the d doors of my house, suppose that in the beginning k > 0 are unlocked and d − k
are locked. Every day, I use exactly one door, and I am equally likely to pick any of the d
doors. At the end of the day, I leave the door I used that day locked.
(a) Show that the number of unlocked doors at the end of day n, Ln, evolves as the state in a
Markov process for n ≥ 1. Write down the transition probabilities pij .
(b) List transient and recurrent states.
(c) Is there an absorbing state? How does rij (n) behave as n → ∞?
(d) Now, suppose that each day, if the door I pick in the morning is locked, I will leave it
unlocked at the end of the day, and if it is initially unlocked, I will leave it locked.
Repeat parts (a)-(c) for this strategy.
(e) My third strategy is to alternate between leaving the door I use locked one day and
unlocked the next day (regardless of the initial condition of the door.) In this case, does the
number of unlocked doors evolve as a Markov chain, why/why not?
G1† . Consider a Markov chain {Xk} on the state space {1, . . . , n}, and suppose that
whenever the state is i, a reward g(i) is obtained. Let Rk be the total reward obtained over the
time interval {0, 1, . . . , k}, that is, Rk = g(X0) + g(X1) + · · · + g(Xk). For every state i, let
excelhomeworkhelp.com
respectively be the conditional mean and conditional variance of Rk, conditioned on the
initial state being i.
(a) Find a recursion that, given the values of mk(1), . . . , mk(n), allows the computation of
mk+1(1), . . . , mk+1(n).
(b) Find a recursion that, given the values of mk(1), . . . , mk(n) and vk(1), . . . , vk(n),
allows the computation of vk+1(1), . . . , vk+1(n). Hint: Use the law of total variance.
G2† . The parking garage at MIT has installed a card operated gate, which, unfortunately, is
vulnerable to absent-minded faculty and staff. In particular, in each day a car crashes the gate with
probability p, in which case a new gate must be installed. Also a gate that has survived for m days
must be replaced as a matter of periodic maintenance. What is the steady-state expected frequency
of gate replacements?
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Solution
1. (a) We are given that the previous ship to pass the pointer was traveling westward. i. The
direction of the next ship is independent of those of any previous ships. Therefore, we are
simply looking for the probability that a westbound arrival occurs before an eastbound arrival,
or
ii. The pointer will change directions on the next arrival of an east-bound ship. By definition
of the Poisson process, the remaining time until this arrival, denote it by X, is exponential
with parameter λE, or
(b) For this to happen, no westbound ship can enter the channel from the moment the eastbound
ship enters until the moment it exits, which consumes an amount of time t after the eastward ship
enters the channel. In addition, no westbound ships may already be in the channel prior to the
eastward ship entering the channel, which requires that no westbound ships enter for an amount
of time t before the eastbound ship enters. Together, we require no westbound ships to arrive
during an interval of time 2t, which occurs with probability
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(c) Letting X be the first-order interarrival time for eastward ships, we can express the quantity V =
X1 + X2 + . . .+ X7, and thus the PDF for V is equivalent to the 7th order Erlang distribution
2. (a) The mean of a Poisson random variable with paramater λ is λ.
E[number of passengers on a shuttle] = λ
(b) Let A be the number of shuttles arriving in one hour. The Poisson parameter now becomes
µ · 1.
(c) To join Poisson process, the arrival rates are summed. The Poisson parameter now becomes λ +
µ.
E[number of events per hour] = λ + µ
(d) The Poisson process is memoryless, and the expected time until the first arrival for the shuttle
bus is
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E[wait time | 2λ people waiting] =
(e) Let N be the number of people on a shuttle. The number of people that are on the shuttle
are the number of people that arrive before the first shuttle arrives. The PMF is a shifted
geometric starting at 0:
3. (a) Let Ak be the event that the process enters S2 for first time on trial k. The only way to
enter state S2 for the first time on the kth trial is to enter state S3 on the first trial, remain in
S3 for the next k − 2 trials, and finally enter S2 on the last trial. Thus,
(b) Let A be the event that the process never enters S4. There are three possible ways for A to
occur. The first two are if the first transition is either from S0 to S1 or S0 to S5. This occurs
with probability The other is if The
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(c) P({process enters S2 and then leaves S2 on next trial})
(d) This event can only happen if the sequence of state transitions is as follows:
excelhomeworkhelp.com
4. Let i, i = 1, . . . , 7 be the states of the Markov chain. From the graphical representation of
the transition matrix it is easy to see the following:
excelhomeworkhelp.com
(a) {4, 7} are recurrent and the rest are transient.
(b) There is only one class formed by the recurrent states.
(c) Since state 1 is not reachable from state 4, limn→∞ p41(n) = 0. Since 6 is a transient
state limn→∞ p66(n) = 0.
5. (a) Given Ln−1, the history of the process (i.e., Ln−2, Ln−3, . . .) is irrelevant for
determining the probability distribution of Ln, the number of remaining unlocked doors at time
n. Therefore, Ln is Markov. More precisely,
excelhomeworkhelp.com
(b) The state with 0 unlocked doors is the only recurrent state. All other states are then
transient, because from each, there is a positive probability of going to state 0, from which it
is not possible to return.
(c) Note that once all the doors are locked, none will ever be unlocked again. So the state 0 is
an absorbing state: there is a positive probability that the system will enter it, and once it
does, it will remain there forever. Then, clearly, limn→∞ ri0(n) = 1 and limn→∞ rij (n) = 0
for all j = 0 and all - i, .
(d) Now, if I choose a locked door, the number of unlocked doors will increase by one the
next day. Similarly, the number of unlocked doors will decrease by 1 if and only if I choose
an unlocked door. Hence,
excelhomeworkhelp.com
Clearly, from each state one can go to any other state and return with positive probability,
hence all the states in this Markov chain communicate and thus form one recurrent class.
There are no transient states or absorbing states. Note however, that from an even-numbered
state (states 0, 2, 4, etc) one can only go to an odd-numbered state in one step, and similarly
all one-step transitions from odd-numbered states lead to even-numbered states. Since the
states can be grouped into two groups such that all transitions from one lead to the other and
vice versa, the chain is periodic with period 2. This will lead to rij (n) oscillating and not
converging as n → ∞. For example, r11(n) = 0 for all odd n, but positive for even n.
(e) In this case Ln is not a Markov process. To see this, note that P(Ln = i + 1|Ln−1 = i,
Ln−2 = i − 1) = 0 since according to my strategy I do not unlock doors two days in a row.
But clearly, P(Ln = i + 1|Ln−1 = i) > 0 for i < d since it is possible to go from a state of i
unlocked doors to a state of i + 1 unlocked doors in general. Thus P(Ln = i + 1|Ln−1 = i,
Ln−2 = i − 1) - = P(Ln = i + 1|Ln−1 = i), which shows that Ln does not have the Markov
property.
G1† . a) First let the pij ’s be the transition probabilities of the Markov chain. Then
excelhomeworkhelp.com
Note that the third equality simply uses the total expectation theorem.
b)
excelhomeworkhelp.com
G2† . We introduce the states 0, 1, . . . , m and identify them as the number of days the gate
survives a crash. The state transition diagram is shown in the figure below.
excelhomeworkhelp.com
The balance equations take the form,
These equations together with the normalization equation have a unique solution which
gives us the steady-state probabilities of all states. The steady-state expected frequency of
gate
excelhomeworkhelp.com
replacements is the expected frequency of visits to state 0, which by frequency
interpretation is given by π0. Solving the above equations with the normalization equation
we get,
excelhomeworkhelp.com

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Probabilistic Systems Analysis Homework Help

  • 1. Probabilistic Systems Analysis Homework Help For any Assignment related queries, Please Contact Us : – +1 678 648 4277 Visit : – https://www.excelhomeworkhelp.com/ E-Mail : – info@excelhomeworkhelp.com Contact Us : – +1 678 648 4277
  • 2. 1. All ships travel at the same speed through a wide canal. Eastbound ship arrivals at the canal are a Poisson process with an average arrival rate λE ships per day. Westbound ships arrive as an independent Poisson process with average arrival rate λW per day. An indicator at a point in the canal is always pointing in the direction of travel of the most recent ship to pass it. Each ship takes t days to traverse the length of the canal. (a) Given that the pointer is pointing west: i. What is the probability that the next ship to pass it will be westbound? ii. What is the PDF for the remaining time until the pointer changes direction? (b) What is the probability that an eastbound ship will see no westbound ships during its eastward journey through the canal? (c) We begin observing at an arbitrary time. Let V be the time we have to continue observing until we see the seventh eastbound ship. Determine the PDF for V . 2. (a) Shuttles depart from New York to Boston every hour on the hour. Passengers arrive according to a Poisson process of rate λ per hour. Find the expected number of passengers on a shuttle. (Ignore issues of limited seating.) (b) Now suppose that the shuttles are no longer operating on a deterministic schedule, but rather their interdeparture times are independent and exponentially distributed with rate µ per hour. Find the PMF for the number of shuttles arriving in one hour. Problem excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 3. (c) Let us define an “event” in the airport to be either the arrival of a passenger, or the departure of a plane. With the same assumptions as in (b) above, find the expected number of “events” that occur in one hour. (d) If a passenger arrives at the gate, and sees 2λ people waiting, find his/her expected time to wait until the next shuttle. (e) Find the PMF for the number of people on a shuttle. 3. Consider the following Markov chain: Given that the above process is in state S0 just before the first trial, determine by inspection the probability that: excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 4. (a) The process enters S2 for the first time as the result of the kth trial. (b) The process never enters S4. (c) The process enters S2 and then leaves S2 on the next trial. (d) The process enters S1 for the first time on the third trial. (e) The process is in state S3 immediately after the nth trial. 4. (a) Identify the transient, recurrent, and periodic states of the discrete state discretetransition Markov process described by (b) How many classes are formed by the recurrent states of this process? (c) Evaluate limn→∞ p41(n) and limn→∞ p66(n). excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 5. 5. Out of the d doors of my house, suppose that in the beginning k > 0 are unlocked and d − k are locked. Every day, I use exactly one door, and I am equally likely to pick any of the d doors. At the end of the day, I leave the door I used that day locked. (a) Show that the number of unlocked doors at the end of day n, Ln, evolves as the state in a Markov process for n ≥ 1. Write down the transition probabilities pij . (b) List transient and recurrent states. (c) Is there an absorbing state? How does rij (n) behave as n → ∞? (d) Now, suppose that each day, if the door I pick in the morning is locked, I will leave it unlocked at the end of the day, and if it is initially unlocked, I will leave it locked. Repeat parts (a)-(c) for this strategy. (e) My third strategy is to alternate between leaving the door I use locked one day and unlocked the next day (regardless of the initial condition of the door.) In this case, does the number of unlocked doors evolve as a Markov chain, why/why not? G1† . Consider a Markov chain {Xk} on the state space {1, . . . , n}, and suppose that whenever the state is i, a reward g(i) is obtained. Let Rk be the total reward obtained over the time interval {0, 1, . . . , k}, that is, Rk = g(X0) + g(X1) + · · · + g(Xk). For every state i, let excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 6. respectively be the conditional mean and conditional variance of Rk, conditioned on the initial state being i. (a) Find a recursion that, given the values of mk(1), . . . , mk(n), allows the computation of mk+1(1), . . . , mk+1(n). (b) Find a recursion that, given the values of mk(1), . . . , mk(n) and vk(1), . . . , vk(n), allows the computation of vk+1(1), . . . , vk+1(n). Hint: Use the law of total variance. G2† . The parking garage at MIT has installed a card operated gate, which, unfortunately, is vulnerable to absent-minded faculty and staff. In particular, in each day a car crashes the gate with probability p, in which case a new gate must be installed. Also a gate that has survived for m days must be replaced as a matter of periodic maintenance. What is the steady-state expected frequency of gate replacements? excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 7. Solution 1. (a) We are given that the previous ship to pass the pointer was traveling westward. i. The direction of the next ship is independent of those of any previous ships. Therefore, we are simply looking for the probability that a westbound arrival occurs before an eastbound arrival, or ii. The pointer will change directions on the next arrival of an east-bound ship. By definition of the Poisson process, the remaining time until this arrival, denote it by X, is exponential with parameter λE, or (b) For this to happen, no westbound ship can enter the channel from the moment the eastbound ship enters until the moment it exits, which consumes an amount of time t after the eastward ship enters the channel. In addition, no westbound ships may already be in the channel prior to the eastward ship entering the channel, which requires that no westbound ships enter for an amount of time t before the eastbound ship enters. Together, we require no westbound ships to arrive during an interval of time 2t, which occurs with probability excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 8. (c) Letting X be the first-order interarrival time for eastward ships, we can express the quantity V = X1 + X2 + . . .+ X7, and thus the PDF for V is equivalent to the 7th order Erlang distribution 2. (a) The mean of a Poisson random variable with paramater λ is λ. E[number of passengers on a shuttle] = λ (b) Let A be the number of shuttles arriving in one hour. The Poisson parameter now becomes µ · 1. (c) To join Poisson process, the arrival rates are summed. The Poisson parameter now becomes λ + µ. E[number of events per hour] = λ + µ (d) The Poisson process is memoryless, and the expected time until the first arrival for the shuttle bus is excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 9. E[wait time | 2λ people waiting] = (e) Let N be the number of people on a shuttle. The number of people that are on the shuttle are the number of people that arrive before the first shuttle arrives. The PMF is a shifted geometric starting at 0: 3. (a) Let Ak be the event that the process enters S2 for first time on trial k. The only way to enter state S2 for the first time on the kth trial is to enter state S3 on the first trial, remain in S3 for the next k − 2 trials, and finally enter S2 on the last trial. Thus, (b) Let A be the event that the process never enters S4. There are three possible ways for A to occur. The first two are if the first transition is either from S0 to S1 or S0 to S5. This occurs with probability The other is if The excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 10. (c) P({process enters S2 and then leaves S2 on next trial}) (d) This event can only happen if the sequence of state transitions is as follows: excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 11. 4. Let i, i = 1, . . . , 7 be the states of the Markov chain. From the graphical representation of the transition matrix it is easy to see the following: excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 12. (a) {4, 7} are recurrent and the rest are transient. (b) There is only one class formed by the recurrent states. (c) Since state 1 is not reachable from state 4, limn→∞ p41(n) = 0. Since 6 is a transient state limn→∞ p66(n) = 0. 5. (a) Given Ln−1, the history of the process (i.e., Ln−2, Ln−3, . . .) is irrelevant for determining the probability distribution of Ln, the number of remaining unlocked doors at time n. Therefore, Ln is Markov. More precisely, excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 13. (b) The state with 0 unlocked doors is the only recurrent state. All other states are then transient, because from each, there is a positive probability of going to state 0, from which it is not possible to return. (c) Note that once all the doors are locked, none will ever be unlocked again. So the state 0 is an absorbing state: there is a positive probability that the system will enter it, and once it does, it will remain there forever. Then, clearly, limn→∞ ri0(n) = 1 and limn→∞ rij (n) = 0 for all j = 0 and all - i, . (d) Now, if I choose a locked door, the number of unlocked doors will increase by one the next day. Similarly, the number of unlocked doors will decrease by 1 if and only if I choose an unlocked door. Hence, excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 14. Clearly, from each state one can go to any other state and return with positive probability, hence all the states in this Markov chain communicate and thus form one recurrent class. There are no transient states or absorbing states. Note however, that from an even-numbered state (states 0, 2, 4, etc) one can only go to an odd-numbered state in one step, and similarly all one-step transitions from odd-numbered states lead to even-numbered states. Since the states can be grouped into two groups such that all transitions from one lead to the other and vice versa, the chain is periodic with period 2. This will lead to rij (n) oscillating and not converging as n → ∞. For example, r11(n) = 0 for all odd n, but positive for even n. (e) In this case Ln is not a Markov process. To see this, note that P(Ln = i + 1|Ln−1 = i, Ln−2 = i − 1) = 0 since according to my strategy I do not unlock doors two days in a row. But clearly, P(Ln = i + 1|Ln−1 = i) > 0 for i < d since it is possible to go from a state of i unlocked doors to a state of i + 1 unlocked doors in general. Thus P(Ln = i + 1|Ln−1 = i, Ln−2 = i − 1) - = P(Ln = i + 1|Ln−1 = i), which shows that Ln does not have the Markov property. G1† . a) First let the pij ’s be the transition probabilities of the Markov chain. Then excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 15. Note that the third equality simply uses the total expectation theorem. b) excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 16. G2† . We introduce the states 0, 1, . . . , m and identify them as the number of days the gate survives a crash. The state transition diagram is shown in the figure below. excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 17. The balance equations take the form, These equations together with the normalization equation have a unique solution which gives us the steady-state probabilities of all states. The steady-state expected frequency of gate excelhomeworkhelp.com
  • 18. replacements is the expected frequency of visits to state 0, which by frequency interpretation is given by π0. Solving the above equations with the normalization equation we get, excelhomeworkhelp.com