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OUTLINE
• PrescriptiveProcessModel
-TheWaterfallModel
-IncrementalProcessModel
-EvolutionaryProcessModel
*Prototyping
 Prescriptive process models were originally proposed to
bring order to the chaos (disorder) of software
development. History
 These models have brought a certain amount of useful
structure to software engineering work and have provided a
reasonably effective road map for software teams.
 The edge of chaos is defined as “a natural state between
order and chaos, a grand compromise between structure and
surprise”.
 The edge of chaos can be visualized as an unstable,
partially structured state.
 It is unstable because it is constantly attracted to chaos or to
absolute order.
 The prescriptive process approach in which order and
project consistency are dominant issues.
“Prescriptive” means prescribe a set of process elements
a) Framework Activities,
b) Software Engineering Actions,
c) Tasks,
d) Work Products,
e) Quality Assurance, And
f) Change control mechanisms for each project.
 Each process model also prescribes a process flow (also
called a work flow)—that is, the manner in which the
process elements are interrelated to one another.
 All software process models can accommodate the generic
framework activities, but each applies a different emphasis
to these activities and defines a process flow that invokes
each framework activity in a different manner.
The waterfall model, sometimes called the Classic Life Cycle,
suggests a systematic sequential approach to software development
that begins with customer specification of requirements and
progresses through planning, modeling, construction, and
deployment.
 Context: Used when requirements are reasonably well
understood.
 Advantage: It can serve as a useful process model in situations
where requirements are fixed and work is to proceed to complete
in a linear manner.
The problems that are sometimes encountered when
the waterfall model is applied are:
I. Real projects rarely follow the sequential flow that the
model proposes. Although the linear model can
accommodate iteration, it does so indirectly. As a
result, changes can cause confusion as the project team
proceeds.
II. It is often difficult for the customer to state all
requirements explicitly. The waterfall model requires
this and has difficulty accommodating the natural
uncertainty that exist at the beginning of many
projects.
III. The customer must have patience. A working version
of the programs will not be available until late in the
project time-span. If a major blunder is undetected
V-model:
V-model:
 A variation in the representation of the waterfall model is
called the V-model.
 The V-model depicts the relationship of quality assurance
actions to the actions associated with communication,
modeling, and early construction activities.
 As a software team moves down the left side of the V,
basic problem requirements are refined into progressively
more detailed and technical representations of the problem
and its solution.
 Once code has been generated, the team moves up the
right side of the V, essentially performing a series of tests
(quality assurance actions) that validate each of the
models created as the team moved down the left side.
V-model:
 In reality, there is no fundamental difference between the
classic life cycle and the V-model.
 The V-model provides a way of visualizing how
verification and validation actions are applied to earlier
engineering work.
 There are many situations in which initial software
requirements are reasonably well defined, but the overall
scope of the development effort difficulty to implement
linear process.
 Need to provide a limited set of software functionality to
users quickly and then refine and expand on that
functionality in later software releases.
 In such cases, you can choose a process model that is
designed to produce the software in increments.
 The incremental model combines elements of linear and
parallel process flows. The above Figure shows the
incremental model which applies linear sequences.
 Each linear sequence produces deliverable “increments”
of the software in a manner that is similar to the
increments produced by an evolutionary process flow.
 For example, MS-Word software developed using the
incremental paradigm might deliver
 basic file management, editing, and document
production functions in the first increment;
 more sophisticated editing and document production
capabilities in the second increment;
 spelling and grammar checking in the third increment;
and
 advanced page layout capability in the fourth
increment.
 It should be noted that the process flow for any
increment can incorporate the prototyping paradigm.
 When an incremental model is used, the first increment
is often a core product. That is, basic requirements are
addressed but many supplementary features remain
undelivered. The core product is used by the customer. As
a result of use evaluation, a plan is developed for the next
increment.
 The plan addresses the modification of the core product to
better meet the needs of the customer and the delivery of
additional features and functionality.
 This process is repeated following the delivery of each
increment, until the complete product is produced.
 The incremental process model focuses on the delivery of
an operational product with each increment.
 Early increments are stripped-down versions of the final
product, but they do provide capability that serves the user
and also provide a platform for evaluation by the user.
 Incremental development is particularly useful when
staffing is unavailable for a complete implementation by
the business deadline that has been established for the
project.
 Early increments can be implemented with fewer people.
If the core product is well received, then additional staff
(if required) can be added to implement the next
 Evolutionary process models produce with each iteration
produce an increasingly more complete version of the
software with every iteration.
 Evolutionary models are iterative. They are characterized
in a manner that enables software engineers to develop
increasingly more complete versions of the software.
1) Prototyping:
1) Prototyping:
 Prototyping is more commonly used as a technique that can
be implemented within the context of any one of the process
model.
 The prototyping paradigm begins with communication. The
software engineer and customer meet and define the overall
objectives for the software, identify whatever requirements
are known, and outline areas where further definition is
mandatory.
 Prototyping iteration is planned quickly and modeling
occurs. The quick design leads to the construction of a
prototype. The prototype is deployed and then evaluated by
the customer/user.
 Iteration occurs as the prototype is tuned to satisfy the
needs of the costumer, while at the same time enabling the
developer to better understand what needs to be done.
Example:
 If a customer defines a set of general objectives for
software, but does not identify detailed input, processing, or
output requirements, in such situation prototyping paradigm is
best approach.
 If a developer may be unsure of the efficiency of an
algorithm, the adaptability of an operating system then he can
go for this prototyping method.
Advantages:
 The prototyping paradigm assists the software engineer and
the customer to better understand what is to be built when
requirements are fuzzy.
 The prototype serves as a mechanism for identifying
software requirements. If a working prototype is built, the
developer attempts to make use of existing program fragments
or applies tools.
 Prototyping can be problematic for the following reasons:
 The customer sees what appears to be a working version of the
software, unaware that the prototype is held together “with chewing
gum and baling wire”, unaware that in the rush to get it working we
haven’t considered overall software quality or long-term
maintainability.
 When informed that the product must be rebuilt so that high-
levels of quality can be maintained, the customer cries foul and
demands that “a few fixes” be applied to make the prototype a
working product. Too often, software development relents.
 The developer often makes implementation compromises in
order to get a prototype working quickly. An inappropriate
operating system or programming language maybe used simply
because it is available and known; an inefficient algorithm may be
implemented simply to demonstrate capability. After a time, the
developer may become comfortable with these choices and forget
all the reasons why they were inappropriate. The less-than-ideal
choice has now become an integral part of the system.
Software Engineering

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Software Engineering

  • 1.
  • 3.  Prescriptive process models were originally proposed to bring order to the chaos (disorder) of software development. History  These models have brought a certain amount of useful structure to software engineering work and have provided a reasonably effective road map for software teams.  The edge of chaos is defined as “a natural state between order and chaos, a grand compromise between structure and surprise”.  The edge of chaos can be visualized as an unstable, partially structured state.  It is unstable because it is constantly attracted to chaos or to absolute order.  The prescriptive process approach in which order and project consistency are dominant issues.
  • 4. “Prescriptive” means prescribe a set of process elements a) Framework Activities, b) Software Engineering Actions, c) Tasks, d) Work Products, e) Quality Assurance, And f) Change control mechanisms for each project.  Each process model also prescribes a process flow (also called a work flow)—that is, the manner in which the process elements are interrelated to one another.  All software process models can accommodate the generic framework activities, but each applies a different emphasis to these activities and defines a process flow that invokes each framework activity in a different manner.
  • 5. The waterfall model, sometimes called the Classic Life Cycle, suggests a systematic sequential approach to software development that begins with customer specification of requirements and progresses through planning, modeling, construction, and deployment.  Context: Used when requirements are reasonably well understood.  Advantage: It can serve as a useful process model in situations where requirements are fixed and work is to proceed to complete in a linear manner.
  • 6.
  • 7. The problems that are sometimes encountered when the waterfall model is applied are: I. Real projects rarely follow the sequential flow that the model proposes. Although the linear model can accommodate iteration, it does so indirectly. As a result, changes can cause confusion as the project team proceeds. II. It is often difficult for the customer to state all requirements explicitly. The waterfall model requires this and has difficulty accommodating the natural uncertainty that exist at the beginning of many projects. III. The customer must have patience. A working version of the programs will not be available until late in the project time-span. If a major blunder is undetected
  • 9. V-model:  A variation in the representation of the waterfall model is called the V-model.  The V-model depicts the relationship of quality assurance actions to the actions associated with communication, modeling, and early construction activities.  As a software team moves down the left side of the V, basic problem requirements are refined into progressively more detailed and technical representations of the problem and its solution.  Once code has been generated, the team moves up the right side of the V, essentially performing a series of tests (quality assurance actions) that validate each of the models created as the team moved down the left side.
  • 10. V-model:  In reality, there is no fundamental difference between the classic life cycle and the V-model.  The V-model provides a way of visualizing how verification and validation actions are applied to earlier engineering work.
  • 11.
  • 12.  There are many situations in which initial software requirements are reasonably well defined, but the overall scope of the development effort difficulty to implement linear process.  Need to provide a limited set of software functionality to users quickly and then refine and expand on that functionality in later software releases.  In such cases, you can choose a process model that is designed to produce the software in increments.  The incremental model combines elements of linear and parallel process flows. The above Figure shows the incremental model which applies linear sequences.
  • 13.  Each linear sequence produces deliverable “increments” of the software in a manner that is similar to the increments produced by an evolutionary process flow.  For example, MS-Word software developed using the incremental paradigm might deliver  basic file management, editing, and document production functions in the first increment;  more sophisticated editing and document production capabilities in the second increment;  spelling and grammar checking in the third increment; and  advanced page layout capability in the fourth increment.  It should be noted that the process flow for any increment can incorporate the prototyping paradigm.
  • 14.  When an incremental model is used, the first increment is often a core product. That is, basic requirements are addressed but many supplementary features remain undelivered. The core product is used by the customer. As a result of use evaluation, a plan is developed for the next increment.  The plan addresses the modification of the core product to better meet the needs of the customer and the delivery of additional features and functionality.  This process is repeated following the delivery of each increment, until the complete product is produced.  The incremental process model focuses on the delivery of an operational product with each increment.
  • 15.  Early increments are stripped-down versions of the final product, but they do provide capability that serves the user and also provide a platform for evaluation by the user.  Incremental development is particularly useful when staffing is unavailable for a complete implementation by the business deadline that has been established for the project.  Early increments can be implemented with fewer people. If the core product is well received, then additional staff (if required) can be added to implement the next
  • 16.  Evolutionary process models produce with each iteration produce an increasingly more complete version of the software with every iteration.  Evolutionary models are iterative. They are characterized in a manner that enables software engineers to develop increasingly more complete versions of the software.
  • 18. 1) Prototyping:  Prototyping is more commonly used as a technique that can be implemented within the context of any one of the process model.  The prototyping paradigm begins with communication. The software engineer and customer meet and define the overall objectives for the software, identify whatever requirements are known, and outline areas where further definition is mandatory.  Prototyping iteration is planned quickly and modeling occurs. The quick design leads to the construction of a prototype. The prototype is deployed and then evaluated by the customer/user.  Iteration occurs as the prototype is tuned to satisfy the needs of the costumer, while at the same time enabling the developer to better understand what needs to be done.
  • 19. Example:  If a customer defines a set of general objectives for software, but does not identify detailed input, processing, or output requirements, in such situation prototyping paradigm is best approach.  If a developer may be unsure of the efficiency of an algorithm, the adaptability of an operating system then he can go for this prototyping method. Advantages:  The prototyping paradigm assists the software engineer and the customer to better understand what is to be built when requirements are fuzzy.  The prototype serves as a mechanism for identifying software requirements. If a working prototype is built, the developer attempts to make use of existing program fragments or applies tools.
  • 20.  Prototyping can be problematic for the following reasons:  The customer sees what appears to be a working version of the software, unaware that the prototype is held together “with chewing gum and baling wire”, unaware that in the rush to get it working we haven’t considered overall software quality or long-term maintainability.  When informed that the product must be rebuilt so that high- levels of quality can be maintained, the customer cries foul and demands that “a few fixes” be applied to make the prototype a working product. Too often, software development relents.  The developer often makes implementation compromises in order to get a prototype working quickly. An inappropriate operating system or programming language maybe used simply because it is available and known; an inefficient algorithm may be implemented simply to demonstrate capability. After a time, the developer may become comfortable with these choices and forget all the reasons why they were inappropriate. The less-than-ideal choice has now become an integral part of the system.