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Software Defined Networking :
Primer
Muhammad Moinur Rahman
moin@1asia-ahl.com
History of Networking
• Blackbox networking equipments
• Big name companies building switching/routing devices
• Includes Proprietary/OEM Silicon Chip
• Wrapped up with a closed source Operating System (e.g. A desktop
PC with MS Windows and MS Office)
Disadvantages of Current Scenario
Technology was not designed keeping today in mind
• Massive Scalability
• Multi Tenant Networks
• Virtualization
• Cloud Computing
• Mobility (Users/Devices/VM)
Disadvantages of Current Scenario(Contd)
Protocols are Box Centric; Not Fabric Centric
• Difficult to configure correctly(consistency)
• Difficult to add new features(upgrades)
• Difficult to debug(look at all devices)
Disadvantages of Current Scenario(Contd)
Closed Systems (Vendor Hardware)
• Stuck with given interfaces (CLI, SNMP, etc.)
• Hard to meaningfully collaborate
• Vendors hesitant to open up
• No way to add new features by yourself
ANSWER: Software Defined Networking
What is SDN?
SDN is a framework to allow network administrators to automatically
and dynamically manage and control a large number of network
devices, services, topology, traffic paths, and packet handling (quality
of service) policies using high-level languages and APIs.
Management includes provisioning, operating, monitoring, optimizing,
and managing FCAPS (fault, configuration, accounting, performance,
and security) in a multi-tenant environment.
Networking Planes
• Data Plane
• Carries Network User Traffic
• Control Panel
• Carried Signalling Traffic
• Management Panel
• Carries Administrative Traffic
SDN Architecture
Need for SDN
Virtualization
• Use network resource
• without worrying about where it is physically located
• how much it is
• how it is organized
Orchestration
• Should be able to control and manage thousands of devices with one command
Programmable
• Should be able to change behavior on the fly
Dynamic Scaling
• Should be able to change size, quantity, capacity
Need for SDN - (Continued)
• Automation
• To lower OpEx
• Minimize manual involvement
• Troubleshooting
• Reduce downtime
• Policy enforcement
• Provisioning/Re-provisioning/Segmentation of resources
• Add new workloads, sites, devices, and resources
• Visibility
• Monitor resources, connectivity
Need for SDN - (Continued)
• Performance
Optimize network device utilization
• Traffic engineering/Bandwidth management
• Capacity optimization/Load balancing
• High utilization
• Fast failure handling
• Multi Tenancy
Tenants need complete control over their
• Addresses/Topology
• Routing/Security
Need for SDN (Continued)
Service Integration
Provisioned on demand and placed appropriately on the traffic path
• Load balancers
• Firewalls
• Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS)
Alternative APIs
• Southbound APIs: XMPP (Juniper), OnePK (Cisco)
• Northbound APIs: I2RS, I2AEX, ALTO
• Overlay: VxLAN, TRILL, LISP, STT, NVO3, PWE3, L2VPN, L3VPN
• Configuration API: NETCONF
• Controller: PCE, ForCES
History
Feb, 2011 - OpenFlow 1.1 Released
Dec, 2011 - OpenFlow 1.2 Released
Feb, 2012 - “Floodlight” Project Announced
Apr, 2012 - Google announces at ONF
Jul, 2012 - Vmware acquires Nicira
Apr, 2013 - “OpenDaylight” Released
Hardware Internals
• Logical View of a Switch • Physical Architecture of a Switch
Switchin
g
Fabric
Processo
r
ASIC AISC
data plane
control plane
Network O.S.
ASIC
ApplicationsApplications
Internals of SDN
• Southbound API: decouples the switch hardware from control function
– Data plane from control plane
• Switch Operating System: exposes switch hardware primitives
Network O.S.
ApplicationsApplications
Applications
Southbound
API
SDN
Switch Operating System
Switch Hardware
Network O.S.
ASIC
ApplicationsApplications
Current Switch
Vertical stack
SDN Switch
Decoupled
stack
How SDN Works
Controller (N. O.S.)
ApplicationsApplicationsApplications
Southbound
API
Switch H.W
Switch O.S
Switch H.W
Switch O.S
Implications of SDN
Current Networking SDN Enabled Environment
Controller (N. O.S.)
ApplicationsApplicationsApplications
Southbound
API
Switch O.S
Switch HW
Switch O.S
Switch HW
Switch O.S
Switch HW
• Distributed protocols
• Each switch has a brain
• Hard to achieve optimal
solution
• Network configured indirectly
• Configure protocols
• Hope protocols converge
• Global view of the network
• Applications can achieve optimal
• Southbound API gives fine grained control
over switch
• Network configured directly
• Allows automation
• Allows definition of new interfaces
Network O.S.
ASIC
ApplicationsApplications
Network O.S.
ASIC
ApplicationsApplications
Network O.S.
ASIC
ApplicationsApplications
19
The SDN Stack
ControllerNOX
Slicing
SoftwareFlowVisor
FlowVisor
Console
19
ApplicationsLAVIENVI (GUI) …n-Casting
NetFPGA
Software
Ref. Switch
Broadcom
Ref. Switch
OpenWRT
PCEngine
WiFi AP
Commercial Switches
OpenFlow
Switches
RyU
Monitoring/
debugging toolsoflopsoftrace openseer
Open vSwitch
HP, IBM, NEC,
Pronto, Juniper..
and many more
Beacon Trema FloodLight
Source: SDN Tutorial by B. Heller
Open Networking Summit, April 2012
Dimensions of SDN Environments:
Vendor Devices
Vertical Stacks
• Vendor bundles switch and
switch OS
• Restricted to vendor OS and
vendor interface
• Low operational overhead
• One stop shop
Whitebox Networking
• Vendor provides hardware with
no switch OS
• Switch OS provided by third
party
• Flexibility in picking OS
• High operational overhead
• Must deal with multiple vendors
Dimensions of SDN Environments:
Switch Hardware
Virtual: Overlay
• Pure software implementation
• Assumes programmable virtual switches
• Run in Hypervisor or in the OS
• Larger Flow Table entries (more memory and CPU)
• Backward compatible
• Physical switches run traditional protocols
• Traffic sent in tunnels
• Lack of visibility into physical network
Physical: Underlay
• Fine grained control and visibility into network
• Assumes specialized hardware
• Limited Flow Table entries
Dimensions of SDN Environments:
Southbound Interface
OpenFlow
• Flexible matching
• L2, L3, VLAN, MPLS
• Flexible actions
• Encapsulation: IP-in-IP
• Address rewriting:
• IP address
• Mac address
BGP/XMPP/IS-IS/NetConf
• Limited matching
• IS-IS: L3
• BGP+MPLS: L3+MPLS
• Limited actions
• L3/l2 forwarding
• Encapsulation
Dimensions of SDN Environments:
Controller Types
Modular Controllers
• Application code manipulates forwarding
rules
• E.g. OpenDaylight, Floodlight
• Written in imperative languages
• Java, C++, Python
• Dominant controller style
High Level Controllers
• Application code specifies declarative policies
• E.g. Frenetic, McNettle
• Application code is verifiable
• Amendable to formal verification
• Written in functional languages
• Nettle, OCamal
Ecosystem
Name Controller Type Southbound API SDN Device SDN Flavor
Bigswitch Modular/Floodlight Openflow 1.3 Whitebox(indigo) Underlay+Overlay
Juniper OpenContrail XMPP/NetCONF/BGP+MPL
S
Vertical Stack(Proprietary JunOS) Overlay
Cisco Openflow+Proprietary Openflow 1.3 Vertical Stack(Proprietary IOS/NxOS/IOS-XR) Underlay+Overlay
Arista Openflow+Proprietary Openflow 1.3 Vertical Stack Underlay
Broadcom Openflow+Proprietary Openflow 1.3 Vertical Stack Underlay
HP Openflow Openflow 1.3-1.4 Vertical Stack Underlay
Dell Openflow Openflow 1.3 Vertical Stack Underlay
FloodLight Openflow Openflow 1.0-1.4 Whitebox Underlay+Overlay
Alcatel Modular BGP+MPLS Vertical Stack Overlay
OpenFlow
• Developed in Stanford
• Standardized by Open Networking Foundation (ONF)
• Current Version 1.4
• Version implemented by switch vendors: 1.3
• Allows control of underlay + overlay
• Overlay switches: OpenVSwitch/Indigo-light
PC
SDN vs OpenFlow
• Leading SDN protocol
• Decouples control and data plane by giving a controller the ability to
install flow rules on switches(Bare Metal)
• Hardware or software switches can use OpenFlow
• Spec driven by ONF
How SDN Works: OpenFlow
Controller (N. O.S.)
ApplicationsApplicationsApplications
Southbound
API
Switch H.W
Switch O.S
Switch H.W
Switch O.S
OpenFlow
OpenFlow
OpenFlow: Anatomy of a Flow Table Entry
Switc
h
Port
MAC
src
MAC
dst
Eth
type
VLAN
ID
IP
Sr
c
IP
Dst
IP
Prot
L4
sport
L4
dport
Match Action Counter
1. Forward packet to zero or more ports
2. Encapsulate and forward to controller
3. Send to normal processing pipeline
4. Modify Fields
When to delete the entry
VLAN
pcp
IP
To
S
Priority Time-out
What order to process the rule
# of Packet/Bytes processed by the rule
Examples
Switching
*
Switch
Port
MAC
src
MAC
dst
Eth
type
VLAN
ID
IP
Src
IP
Dst
IP
Prot
TCP
sport
TCP
dport
Action
* 00:1f:.. * * * * * * * port6
Flow Switching
port3
Switch
Port
MAC
src
MAC
dst
Eth
type
VLAN
ID
IP
Src
IP
Dst
IP
Prot
TCP
sport
TCP
dport
Action
00:20.. 00:1f.. 0800 vlan1 1.2.3.4 5.6.7.8 4 17264 80 port6
Firewal
l
*
Switch
Port
MAC
src
MAC
dst
Eth
type
VLAN
ID
IP
Src
IP
Dst
IP
Prot
TCP
sport
TCP
dport
Action
* * * * * * * * 22 drop
29
Data Path (Hardware)
Control Path OpenFlow
OpenFlow Controller
OpenFlow Protocol (SSL/TCP)
30
OpenFlow: How it works
SDN Components : Hardwares
OpenFlow Compliant (1.0-1.4) Switch
• HP 8200 ZL, 6600, 6200ZL
• Brocade 5400ZL, 3500
• IBM NetIron
• Juniper OCX1100
• Baremetal Switch
• OpenVSwitch
SDN Components : Controllers
OpenFlow Compliant (1.0-1.4) Controller
• POX: (Python) Pox as a general SDN controller that supports OpenFlow. It has a high-level SDN API including a queriable topology graph and
support for virtualization.
• IRIS: (Java) a Resursive SDN Openflow Controller created by IRIS Research Team of ETRI.
• MUL: (C) MūL, is an openflow (SDN) controller.
• NOX: (C++/Python) NOX was the first OpenFlow controller.
• Jaxon: (Java) Jaxon is a NOX-dependent Java-based OpenFlow Controller.
• Trema: (C/Ruby) Trema is a full-stack framework for developing OpenFlow controllers in Ruby and C.
• Beacon: (Java) Beacon is a Java-based controller that supports both event-based and threaded operation.
• Floodlight: (Java) The Floodlight controller is Java-based OpenFlow Controller. It was forked from the Beacon controller, originally developed by
David Erickson at Stanford.
• Maestro: (Java) Maestro is an OpenFlow "operating system" for orchestrating network control applications.
• NDDI - OESS: OESS is an application to configure and control OpenFlow Enabled switches through a very simple and user friendly User Interface.
• Ryu: (Python) Ryu is an open-sourced Network Operating System (NOS) that supports OpenFlow.
• NodeFlow (JavaScript) NodeFlow is an OpenFlow controller written in pure JavaScript for Node.JS.
• ovs-controller (C) Trivial reference controller packaged with Open vSwitch.
Refereces
1. SDN – The Next Wave of Networking – Siva Valiappan
Questions

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Software Defined Networking: Primer

  • 1. Software Defined Networking : Primer Muhammad Moinur Rahman moin@1asia-ahl.com
  • 2. History of Networking • Blackbox networking equipments • Big name companies building switching/routing devices • Includes Proprietary/OEM Silicon Chip • Wrapped up with a closed source Operating System (e.g. A desktop PC with MS Windows and MS Office)
  • 3. Disadvantages of Current Scenario Technology was not designed keeping today in mind • Massive Scalability • Multi Tenant Networks • Virtualization • Cloud Computing • Mobility (Users/Devices/VM)
  • 4. Disadvantages of Current Scenario(Contd) Protocols are Box Centric; Not Fabric Centric • Difficult to configure correctly(consistency) • Difficult to add new features(upgrades) • Difficult to debug(look at all devices)
  • 5. Disadvantages of Current Scenario(Contd) Closed Systems (Vendor Hardware) • Stuck with given interfaces (CLI, SNMP, etc.) • Hard to meaningfully collaborate • Vendors hesitant to open up • No way to add new features by yourself ANSWER: Software Defined Networking
  • 6. What is SDN? SDN is a framework to allow network administrators to automatically and dynamically manage and control a large number of network devices, services, topology, traffic paths, and packet handling (quality of service) policies using high-level languages and APIs. Management includes provisioning, operating, monitoring, optimizing, and managing FCAPS (fault, configuration, accounting, performance, and security) in a multi-tenant environment.
  • 7. Networking Planes • Data Plane • Carries Network User Traffic • Control Panel • Carried Signalling Traffic • Management Panel • Carries Administrative Traffic
  • 9. Need for SDN Virtualization • Use network resource • without worrying about where it is physically located • how much it is • how it is organized Orchestration • Should be able to control and manage thousands of devices with one command Programmable • Should be able to change behavior on the fly Dynamic Scaling • Should be able to change size, quantity, capacity
  • 10. Need for SDN - (Continued) • Automation • To lower OpEx • Minimize manual involvement • Troubleshooting • Reduce downtime • Policy enforcement • Provisioning/Re-provisioning/Segmentation of resources • Add new workloads, sites, devices, and resources • Visibility • Monitor resources, connectivity
  • 11. Need for SDN - (Continued) • Performance Optimize network device utilization • Traffic engineering/Bandwidth management • Capacity optimization/Load balancing • High utilization • Fast failure handling • Multi Tenancy Tenants need complete control over their • Addresses/Topology • Routing/Security
  • 12. Need for SDN (Continued) Service Integration Provisioned on demand and placed appropriately on the traffic path • Load balancers • Firewalls • Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS)
  • 13. Alternative APIs • Southbound APIs: XMPP (Juniper), OnePK (Cisco) • Northbound APIs: I2RS, I2AEX, ALTO • Overlay: VxLAN, TRILL, LISP, STT, NVO3, PWE3, L2VPN, L3VPN • Configuration API: NETCONF • Controller: PCE, ForCES
  • 14. History Feb, 2011 - OpenFlow 1.1 Released Dec, 2011 - OpenFlow 1.2 Released Feb, 2012 - “Floodlight” Project Announced Apr, 2012 - Google announces at ONF Jul, 2012 - Vmware acquires Nicira Apr, 2013 - “OpenDaylight” Released
  • 15. Hardware Internals • Logical View of a Switch • Physical Architecture of a Switch Switchin g Fabric Processo r ASIC AISC data plane control plane Network O.S. ASIC ApplicationsApplications
  • 16. Internals of SDN • Southbound API: decouples the switch hardware from control function – Data plane from control plane • Switch Operating System: exposes switch hardware primitives Network O.S. ApplicationsApplications Applications Southbound API SDN Switch Operating System Switch Hardware Network O.S. ASIC ApplicationsApplications Current Switch Vertical stack SDN Switch Decoupled stack
  • 17. How SDN Works Controller (N. O.S.) ApplicationsApplicationsApplications Southbound API Switch H.W Switch O.S Switch H.W Switch O.S
  • 18. Implications of SDN Current Networking SDN Enabled Environment Controller (N. O.S.) ApplicationsApplicationsApplications Southbound API Switch O.S Switch HW Switch O.S Switch HW Switch O.S Switch HW • Distributed protocols • Each switch has a brain • Hard to achieve optimal solution • Network configured indirectly • Configure protocols • Hope protocols converge • Global view of the network • Applications can achieve optimal • Southbound API gives fine grained control over switch • Network configured directly • Allows automation • Allows definition of new interfaces Network O.S. ASIC ApplicationsApplications Network O.S. ASIC ApplicationsApplications Network O.S. ASIC ApplicationsApplications
  • 19. 19 The SDN Stack ControllerNOX Slicing SoftwareFlowVisor FlowVisor Console 19 ApplicationsLAVIENVI (GUI) …n-Casting NetFPGA Software Ref. Switch Broadcom Ref. Switch OpenWRT PCEngine WiFi AP Commercial Switches OpenFlow Switches RyU Monitoring/ debugging toolsoflopsoftrace openseer Open vSwitch HP, IBM, NEC, Pronto, Juniper.. and many more Beacon Trema FloodLight Source: SDN Tutorial by B. Heller Open Networking Summit, April 2012
  • 20. Dimensions of SDN Environments: Vendor Devices Vertical Stacks • Vendor bundles switch and switch OS • Restricted to vendor OS and vendor interface • Low operational overhead • One stop shop Whitebox Networking • Vendor provides hardware with no switch OS • Switch OS provided by third party • Flexibility in picking OS • High operational overhead • Must deal with multiple vendors
  • 21. Dimensions of SDN Environments: Switch Hardware Virtual: Overlay • Pure software implementation • Assumes programmable virtual switches • Run in Hypervisor or in the OS • Larger Flow Table entries (more memory and CPU) • Backward compatible • Physical switches run traditional protocols • Traffic sent in tunnels • Lack of visibility into physical network Physical: Underlay • Fine grained control and visibility into network • Assumes specialized hardware • Limited Flow Table entries
  • 22. Dimensions of SDN Environments: Southbound Interface OpenFlow • Flexible matching • L2, L3, VLAN, MPLS • Flexible actions • Encapsulation: IP-in-IP • Address rewriting: • IP address • Mac address BGP/XMPP/IS-IS/NetConf • Limited matching • IS-IS: L3 • BGP+MPLS: L3+MPLS • Limited actions • L3/l2 forwarding • Encapsulation
  • 23. Dimensions of SDN Environments: Controller Types Modular Controllers • Application code manipulates forwarding rules • E.g. OpenDaylight, Floodlight • Written in imperative languages • Java, C++, Python • Dominant controller style High Level Controllers • Application code specifies declarative policies • E.g. Frenetic, McNettle • Application code is verifiable • Amendable to formal verification • Written in functional languages • Nettle, OCamal
  • 24. Ecosystem Name Controller Type Southbound API SDN Device SDN Flavor Bigswitch Modular/Floodlight Openflow 1.3 Whitebox(indigo) Underlay+Overlay Juniper OpenContrail XMPP/NetCONF/BGP+MPL S Vertical Stack(Proprietary JunOS) Overlay Cisco Openflow+Proprietary Openflow 1.3 Vertical Stack(Proprietary IOS/NxOS/IOS-XR) Underlay+Overlay Arista Openflow+Proprietary Openflow 1.3 Vertical Stack Underlay Broadcom Openflow+Proprietary Openflow 1.3 Vertical Stack Underlay HP Openflow Openflow 1.3-1.4 Vertical Stack Underlay Dell Openflow Openflow 1.3 Vertical Stack Underlay FloodLight Openflow Openflow 1.0-1.4 Whitebox Underlay+Overlay Alcatel Modular BGP+MPLS Vertical Stack Overlay
  • 25. OpenFlow • Developed in Stanford • Standardized by Open Networking Foundation (ONF) • Current Version 1.4 • Version implemented by switch vendors: 1.3 • Allows control of underlay + overlay • Overlay switches: OpenVSwitch/Indigo-light PC
  • 26. SDN vs OpenFlow • Leading SDN protocol • Decouples control and data plane by giving a controller the ability to install flow rules on switches(Bare Metal) • Hardware or software switches can use OpenFlow • Spec driven by ONF
  • 27. How SDN Works: OpenFlow Controller (N. O.S.) ApplicationsApplicationsApplications Southbound API Switch H.W Switch O.S Switch H.W Switch O.S OpenFlow OpenFlow
  • 28. OpenFlow: Anatomy of a Flow Table Entry Switc h Port MAC src MAC dst Eth type VLAN ID IP Sr c IP Dst IP Prot L4 sport L4 dport Match Action Counter 1. Forward packet to zero or more ports 2. Encapsulate and forward to controller 3. Send to normal processing pipeline 4. Modify Fields When to delete the entry VLAN pcp IP To S Priority Time-out What order to process the rule # of Packet/Bytes processed by the rule
  • 29. Examples Switching * Switch Port MAC src MAC dst Eth type VLAN ID IP Src IP Dst IP Prot TCP sport TCP dport Action * 00:1f:.. * * * * * * * port6 Flow Switching port3 Switch Port MAC src MAC dst Eth type VLAN ID IP Src IP Dst IP Prot TCP sport TCP dport Action 00:20.. 00:1f.. 0800 vlan1 1.2.3.4 5.6.7.8 4 17264 80 port6 Firewal l * Switch Port MAC src MAC dst Eth type VLAN ID IP Src IP Dst IP Prot TCP sport TCP dport Action * * * * * * * * 22 drop 29
  • 30. Data Path (Hardware) Control Path OpenFlow OpenFlow Controller OpenFlow Protocol (SSL/TCP) 30 OpenFlow: How it works
  • 31. SDN Components : Hardwares OpenFlow Compliant (1.0-1.4) Switch • HP 8200 ZL, 6600, 6200ZL • Brocade 5400ZL, 3500 • IBM NetIron • Juniper OCX1100 • Baremetal Switch • OpenVSwitch
  • 32. SDN Components : Controllers OpenFlow Compliant (1.0-1.4) Controller • POX: (Python) Pox as a general SDN controller that supports OpenFlow. It has a high-level SDN API including a queriable topology graph and support for virtualization. • IRIS: (Java) a Resursive SDN Openflow Controller created by IRIS Research Team of ETRI. • MUL: (C) MūL, is an openflow (SDN) controller. • NOX: (C++/Python) NOX was the first OpenFlow controller. • Jaxon: (Java) Jaxon is a NOX-dependent Java-based OpenFlow Controller. • Trema: (C/Ruby) Trema is a full-stack framework for developing OpenFlow controllers in Ruby and C. • Beacon: (Java) Beacon is a Java-based controller that supports both event-based and threaded operation. • Floodlight: (Java) The Floodlight controller is Java-based OpenFlow Controller. It was forked from the Beacon controller, originally developed by David Erickson at Stanford. • Maestro: (Java) Maestro is an OpenFlow "operating system" for orchestrating network control applications. • NDDI - OESS: OESS is an application to configure and control OpenFlow Enabled switches through a very simple and user friendly User Interface. • Ryu: (Python) Ryu is an open-sourced Network Operating System (NOS) that supports OpenFlow. • NodeFlow (JavaScript) NodeFlow is an OpenFlow controller written in pure JavaScript for Node.JS. • ovs-controller (C) Trivial reference controller packaged with Open vSwitch.
  • 33. Refereces 1. SDN – The Next Wave of Networking – Siva Valiappan