Presentation Outline Introduction of MarxismNeo- MarxismMarxism Vs. Neo- MarxismCriticismConclusion
Introduction of MarxismPresented By Usman Wajeeh
IntroductionFounders of Marxism:Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels(1818-1883) (1820-1895)
Introduction of MarxismEssentially an economic interpretation ofhistory based on the works of Karl Marx andFrederich EngelsPosits a materialist model of societal changeMarxism is the most intellectually ambitious,systematic and influential political philosophy inthe contemporary world.
Definition – MarxismDefinition of Marxism: “The political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in which the concept of class struggle plays a central role in understanding societys allegedly inevitable development from bourgeois oppression under capitalism to a socialist and ultimately classless society.”Three major factors Industrial Revolution Defeat of Napoleon Science with solution of all human problemCapitalism Should be Abandoned for equitable system.
Marxism Bourgeoisie: Owns the means of production Proletariat: Owns only labor power The Sociological Theory Economic Determinism What we value and what we do politically is determined by our economic circumstances Society: Foundation Super Structure Economics Means of Production Relation of Production Owner of means of production is most influential
Marxism Marxism Historical Theory MaterialismProgress is achieved through creative tensionengendered by competing phenomenonMaterialism is substituted for spiritualismVictory of the proletariat.
MarxismMarxist Economic TheoryTheory of Work: People want to work, “self-creation”Theory of Self–Alienation: Workers became alienated from workbecause of three factors;1.Working conditions intolerable,2.Exploited for profit,3.Mechanizing productionMarxist Theory of Revolution:Vacillated over whether violence was necessary to achievesocialist goals .Competition would force to buy more machineryHuman labor can provides surplus valueUnemployment will increaseWealth could be control by fewer peopleThe principle of class consciousness
Neo- MarxismNeo-Marxism:Neo-Marxism is a loose term for various twentieth-century approaches that;Amend or extend MarxismMarxist theoryusually by incorporating elements from otherintellectual traditions, such as: critical theory, psychoanalysis Existentialism(in the case of Sartre).
Neo-Marxism Frankfurt School has become one of the mostly widely adopted forms of neo-Marxism Marxism had become too close to communism Neo-Marxists view class divisions under capitalism as more important than gender/sex divisions or issues of race and ethnicity The current of Neo-Marxist thought that is probably the most important and influential historically and today is dependency theory.
Neo-MarxismNEO-MARXISTS:After seeing the failure of working-classrevolutions in Western Europe after World War I,chose the parts of Marxs thought that mightclarify social conditions that were not presentwhen Marx was alive.Neo-Marxism is based on the total political-economic-cultural system.
Marxism Vs.Neo Marxism Presented by Kashif Raza
Marxism Vs. Neo MarxismMarxism Vs. Neo- Marxism:Fundamental difference between Marxism and Neo- MarxismMarxism is based on economic determinism.Marxist philosophy explains that the driving force of history is neither “Great Men” nor thesuper-natural, but the development of the productive forces (industry, science, technique,etc.)Neo-Marxism is established on broader considerationof social and intellectual influences that perpetuateoppression of the working-class.
Marxism Vs. Neo Marxism Marxist believed that society is structured around contradictions that could only be resolved only through; Actual social change, Form of revolution. Marxist theory noted was between human nature and the conditions for labor in capitalism. The contradiction in the capitalist process would produce an economic crisis where the capitalist system would fail.
Marxism Vs. Neo MarxismNeo- Marxist theorized that under capitalism, our labor is sold as acommodity through;Theory of value (Use-Value Vs. Exchange Value), value in use is the utilityof consuming a good, while exchange value refers to one of four major attributesof a commodity i.e., an item or service produced for, and sold on the market.Theory of accumulation, is money or a financial assetinvested for the purpose of making more money (whether in theform of profit, rent, interest, royalties, capital gain or some otherkind of return).Theory of surplus value, Although Marx did not himselfinvent the term, he developed the concept. It refers roughly to thenew value created by workers
Marxism Vs. Neo MarxismMajor Relationship between Marxism Vs. NeoMarxism:The contradictory relationship between;elite class (those who profit)the working class (those who provide the labor thatproduces profit)class-consciousness and ultimately revolutionThis consciousness is activated in people when they are deprived. Due to this consciousness theystarted to think rationally about their present to make planning for future. For their rights they canchallenge the oppressive status quo violently or non-violently. In result revolutions become start.
Criticism on Marxism1) Materialistic Approach Equality in terms of Wealth Health, Education, Religion, Distribution of resources and etc. Against the Nature of Man2) Critics like Sir Karl Popper: Marxism is not a theory that can not be tested and possibly falsified Popper classifies Marxism as a “Faith”.
Criticism on Marxism3) Ignore the role and position of women insociety Women tend to be marginalized Focus upon work relationships4) Over-Concentration:Marxists over-exaggerate the importance of economicrelationships5) Neo-Marxism have been criticised "left-wing" variety of Functionalism6) Economic, Social condition, intellectual andliterary production is based on ideological andimagination.
Criticism on MarxismMarxist ideas on how to change society are alsostrongly criticised by the Anarchists;Violent RevolutionMarx’s theory of history is contradicted;Industrialised countries have not moved closer to revolution.No laws of historyMarx was mistaken in thinking he had discovered the laws ofhistory, and in thinking that his theory was scientific.Sociologist critique on Marxism is that;Class ConflictClassless Society
Criticism on MarxismMarxism has mainly been rejected for tworeasons:1)It failed to allow people to express themselves in theways they wanted to, Few Freedoms2) More importantly, I believe, it failed to provide peoplewith the standard of living that capitalism was able toprovide people living under that system.
ConclusionTheory of Marxism is aimed that to bringabout;classless societybased on the common ownership of the means ofproduction,distribution and exchange all the things equally in oursociety .Struggle For Power; Economic Social and Political