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Strategies for teacher professional development on TPACK


Abstract

This symposium reports about research on professional development strategies that
prepare pre-service teacher education students from various countries to become TPACK
competent. All strategies have in common that they use a design approach to teachers’
professional development. Pre-service teachers’ performance on a TPACK outcome
measure is also reported. The symposium particularly aims to identify characteristics of
professional development that contribute to teachers’ integration of technology and will
also include an update on the development of an assessment instrument designed to
measure teachers’ development of TPACK.

Organization of the symposium

Symposium Chair: Joke Voogt, University of Twente, the Netherlands
First hour:
- Introduction to the symposium – Joke Voogt (5 minutes)
- Contribution 1: Technology Integration in the Science Teachers Preparation Program in
Kuwait: Becoming TPACK competent through Design Teams (20 minutes)
- Contribution 2: Developing TPACK by design in a Master’s Program (20 minutes)
- Discussion with audience – 15 minutes
Second hour:
 -Contribution 3: Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge through
Teacher Design Teams: The case of pre-service mathematics teachers in Ghana (20
minutes)
 - Contribution 4: The Development of an Instrument to Assess Teacher Development of
TPACK (20 minutes)
- Discussion with audience – 15 minutes
- Wrapping up – Joke Voogt

Introduction to the symposium

Research reveals that, although we observe an increase in the use of technology,
computers are poorly integrated into teaching and learning processes (Cox et. al., 2004;
Tondeur et. al., 2008). According to Cox et al. (2004), a gap exists between what teachers
are taught in their courses and what they are expected to do with technology in a real
classroom. In this respect, recent calls for effective technology integration stress the need
to help teachers to bridge the gap between knowledge of good pedagogical practice,
technical skills and content knowledge.
Koehler and Mishra (2008) introduced the concept Technological Pedagogical Content
Knowledge (TPCK or TPACK) to emphasize the comprehensive set of competencies
teachers need to successfully integrate technology in their educational practice. TPACK
constitutes an integrative knowledge base of technological knowledge and skills, as well
as knowledge of learners, subject matter content and pedagogy that are necessary for
teachers to become competent to teach with technology in the classroom. From this point
of view, a computer does not embody one single pedagogical orientation; it includes a
spectrum of approaches to teaching and learning. Clearly, no single solution exists to
address technology integration in education because different perspectives of integrating
technology can be chosen. TPACK encompasses that teachers are able to make sensible
choices in their use of technology when they have to teach specific content for a specific
target group.
The need to better align teachers’ preparation in the integration of technology with
pedagogical issues and curriculum integration is well understood (e.g McDougall, 2008;
Voogt, 2003, Law, Pelgrum & Anderson, 2008). As with any educational innovation,
teachers’ active involvement is crucial for a successful implementation of integration of
technology in schools (e.g. Fullan, 2007). Several large scale studies (Garet, Porter,
Desimone, Birman, & Yoon, 2001; Penuel, Fishman, Yamaguchi, & Gallagher, 2007)
investigated the relation between teacher professional development strategies and the
quality of implementation of curriculum innovations. Findings from these studies reveal
specific features of the professional development arrangement that mattered for the
implementation of innovations, such as integration of technology. From the perspective
of curriculum implementation professional development arrangements are effective when
they focus on subject matter content and skills, provide opportunities for active learning
(exposing teachers to actual practice) and are coherent with other learning activities
(embedding teacher learning in the local context). Related to these core features, specific
formats added to the effectiveness of professional development arrangements:
accommodation of follow up support, stretched across longer periods of time and
provision of opportunities for group support and collaboration. These features of effective
professional development provide an empirical basis for so called curriculum-based
professional development arrangements that aim to contribute to the implementation of a
curriculum innovation, such as integration of technology.

Contributions

Technology Integration in the Science Teachers Preparation Program in Kuwait:
Becoming TPACK competent through Design Teams
Ghaida M Alayyar, PAAET, Kuwait, Petra Fisser & Joke Voogt, University of Twente,
The Netherlands

The research studies the integration of technology in the science teacher preparation
program in Kuwait at the Public Authority of Applied Education and Training (PAAET)
aiming at preparing prospective teachers to work in the school of the 21st century.
The TPACK framework is used as a starting point for designing a course where
prospective student-teachers are prepared to integrate technology in elementary science
education. In the course a group of 50 science students had to design and implement a
technology application in small groups (3-4 persons) for elementary science education.
During the design the small groups were coached by subject matter, pedagogical and
technology experts. Data were collected on students’ TPACK competencies (Schmidt et
al. 2009), their attitudes towards technology, their perception on collaborative group
work, their appreciation of the new course and the quality of their products.
Developing TPACK by design in a Master’s Program
Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehler, Tae Seob Shin, Leigh Graves Wolf, & Mike
DeSchryver, Michigan State University

As evidenced by Koehler and Mishra’s (2005) study, the “learning technology by design”
is an effective instructional technique to develop deeper understanding of TPACK. In this
study, we introduce an intense educational technology course sequence designed to create
an experience that would expose in-teachers to ideas and skills from educational
technology that can be incorporated into their own teaching. These experiences happen in
cohort based summer study programs with students who are experienced educators.
These programs include a unique face to face context in Europe in and a hybrid format
for in-state educators. During the course, participants worked on a range of assignments
that required them to learn and use technology in multiple pedagogical contexts including
developing digital video, writing a technology based grant proposal, exploring web 2.0
technologies, and designing a personal web portfolio. The analysis of pre and post-test
data showed that in-service teachers’ understanding of TK, TCK, TPK, and TPACK
improved as a result of their course experience.

Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge through Teacher Design
Teams: The case of pre-service mathematics teachers in Ghana
Douglas Agyei, University of Cape Coast, Ghana, & Joke Voogt, University of Twente,
The Netherlands

Although many studies have shown the need to better align teachers’ preparation in the
integration of technology in classroom practice, most teachers in Ghana have not had any
preparation that develops their technology pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK).This
paper presents a case study of four pre-service mathematics teachers at the University of
Cape Coast, Ghana; who worked in two design teams to develop lessons and
subsequently teach in a technology-based environment for the first time. To make them
familiar with technology use in mathematics teaching the pre-service teachers first
discussed and used exemplary lesson materials, which were prepared by the researcher.
Based on this experience the pre-service teachers designed their own technology-based
lessons, which they taught to a group of pre-service teachers. Interview, observation, and
survey data were collected throughout the study. The study revealed key attributes of a
professional development scenario to foster growth of pre-service teachers in TPCK.

The Development of an Instrument to Assess Teacher Development of TPACK
Denise Schmidt, Evrim Baran,& Ann Thompson, Iowa State University

A research group including faculty and students from both Michigan State University and
Iowa State University have been working on the creation and validation of an instrument
designed to assess the development of TPACK in pre-service teachers (Schmidt et al.,
2009). Current work on the instrument will be shared. The instrument is used at the
beginning and end of an introductory pre-service teacher technology course. Results
suggest that with a minor modification of the survey items, the survey is a reliable and
valid instrument that will help educators design longitudinal studies to assess pre-service
teachers’ development of TPACK. Results also indicated statistically significant gains in
all seven TPACK components.

References

Cox, M., Abbott, C., Webb, M., Blakely, B., Beauchamp, T., & Rhodes, V. (2004). ICT
     and Pedagogy – A review of the literature, ICT in Schools Research and Evaluation
     Series, 18. London: DfES/BECTA
Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change (4th ed.). London: Falmer.
Garet, M.S., Porter, A.C., Desimone, L., Birman, B.F., & Yoon, K.S. (2001). What
     makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of
     teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 915-945.
Koehler, M.J., & Mishra, P. (2005). Teachers learning technology by design. Journal of
     Computing in Teacher Education, 21(3), 94-102.
Koehler, M. & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing TPCK. In AACTE Committee on Innovation
     and Technology (Eds.). Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge
     (TPCK) for educators (pp. 3-29). New York: Routledge.
Law,N., Pelgrum, W.J. & Plomp, T. (2008). Pedagogy and ICT use in schools around the
     world. Findings from the IEA SITES 2006 study. CERC Studies in comparative
     education. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of
     Hong Kong, and: Springer.
McDougall, A. (2008). Models and practices in teacher education programs for teaching
     with and about ICT. In J. Voogt & G. Knezek (Eds.), International handbook of
     information technology in primary and secondary education (pp. 461 - 474). New
     York: Springer.
Penuel, W.R, Fishman, B.J., Yamaguchi, R., & Gallagher, L.P. (2007). What makes
     professional development effective? Strategies that foster curriculum
     implementation. American Educational Research Journal, 44(4), 921-958.
Schmidt, D. A., Baran, E., Thompson, A. D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Shin, T. S.
     (2009). Examining Preservice Teachers’ Development of Technological
     Pedagogical Content Knowledge in an Introductory Instructional Technology
     Course. In I. Gibson, R. Weber, K. McFerrin, R. Carlsen & D. A. Willis (Eds.).
     Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International
     Conference Book, 2009, (p. 4145-4151). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the
     Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
Tondeur, J., van Keer, H., van Braak, J., & Valcke, M. (2008). ICT integration in the
     classroom: Challenging the potential of a school policy. Computers & Education,
     51, 212-223.
Voogt, J. (2003). Consequences of ICT for aims, contents, processes and environments of
     Learning. In J. van den Akker, W. Kuiper & U. Hameyer (Eds.). Curriculum
     landscapes and trends (pp217-236). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

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Site2010 tpack-symposium-proposal

  • 1. Strategies for teacher professional development on TPACK Abstract This symposium reports about research on professional development strategies that prepare pre-service teacher education students from various countries to become TPACK competent. All strategies have in common that they use a design approach to teachers’ professional development. Pre-service teachers’ performance on a TPACK outcome measure is also reported. The symposium particularly aims to identify characteristics of professional development that contribute to teachers’ integration of technology and will also include an update on the development of an assessment instrument designed to measure teachers’ development of TPACK. Organization of the symposium Symposium Chair: Joke Voogt, University of Twente, the Netherlands First hour: - Introduction to the symposium – Joke Voogt (5 minutes) - Contribution 1: Technology Integration in the Science Teachers Preparation Program in Kuwait: Becoming TPACK competent through Design Teams (20 minutes) - Contribution 2: Developing TPACK by design in a Master’s Program (20 minutes) - Discussion with audience – 15 minutes Second hour: -Contribution 3: Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge through Teacher Design Teams: The case of pre-service mathematics teachers in Ghana (20 minutes) - Contribution 4: The Development of an Instrument to Assess Teacher Development of TPACK (20 minutes) - Discussion with audience – 15 minutes - Wrapping up – Joke Voogt Introduction to the symposium Research reveals that, although we observe an increase in the use of technology, computers are poorly integrated into teaching and learning processes (Cox et. al., 2004; Tondeur et. al., 2008). According to Cox et al. (2004), a gap exists between what teachers are taught in their courses and what they are expected to do with technology in a real classroom. In this respect, recent calls for effective technology integration stress the need to help teachers to bridge the gap between knowledge of good pedagogical practice, technical skills and content knowledge. Koehler and Mishra (2008) introduced the concept Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK or TPACK) to emphasize the comprehensive set of competencies teachers need to successfully integrate technology in their educational practice. TPACK constitutes an integrative knowledge base of technological knowledge and skills, as well as knowledge of learners, subject matter content and pedagogy that are necessary for
  • 2. teachers to become competent to teach with technology in the classroom. From this point of view, a computer does not embody one single pedagogical orientation; it includes a spectrum of approaches to teaching and learning. Clearly, no single solution exists to address technology integration in education because different perspectives of integrating technology can be chosen. TPACK encompasses that teachers are able to make sensible choices in their use of technology when they have to teach specific content for a specific target group. The need to better align teachers’ preparation in the integration of technology with pedagogical issues and curriculum integration is well understood (e.g McDougall, 2008; Voogt, 2003, Law, Pelgrum & Anderson, 2008). As with any educational innovation, teachers’ active involvement is crucial for a successful implementation of integration of technology in schools (e.g. Fullan, 2007). Several large scale studies (Garet, Porter, Desimone, Birman, & Yoon, 2001; Penuel, Fishman, Yamaguchi, & Gallagher, 2007) investigated the relation between teacher professional development strategies and the quality of implementation of curriculum innovations. Findings from these studies reveal specific features of the professional development arrangement that mattered for the implementation of innovations, such as integration of technology. From the perspective of curriculum implementation professional development arrangements are effective when they focus on subject matter content and skills, provide opportunities for active learning (exposing teachers to actual practice) and are coherent with other learning activities (embedding teacher learning in the local context). Related to these core features, specific formats added to the effectiveness of professional development arrangements: accommodation of follow up support, stretched across longer periods of time and provision of opportunities for group support and collaboration. These features of effective professional development provide an empirical basis for so called curriculum-based professional development arrangements that aim to contribute to the implementation of a curriculum innovation, such as integration of technology. Contributions Technology Integration in the Science Teachers Preparation Program in Kuwait: Becoming TPACK competent through Design Teams Ghaida M Alayyar, PAAET, Kuwait, Petra Fisser & Joke Voogt, University of Twente, The Netherlands The research studies the integration of technology in the science teacher preparation program in Kuwait at the Public Authority of Applied Education and Training (PAAET) aiming at preparing prospective teachers to work in the school of the 21st century. The TPACK framework is used as a starting point for designing a course where prospective student-teachers are prepared to integrate technology in elementary science education. In the course a group of 50 science students had to design and implement a technology application in small groups (3-4 persons) for elementary science education. During the design the small groups were coached by subject matter, pedagogical and technology experts. Data were collected on students’ TPACK competencies (Schmidt et al. 2009), their attitudes towards technology, their perception on collaborative group work, their appreciation of the new course and the quality of their products.
  • 3. Developing TPACK by design in a Master’s Program Punya Mishra, Matthew J. Koehler, Tae Seob Shin, Leigh Graves Wolf, & Mike DeSchryver, Michigan State University As evidenced by Koehler and Mishra’s (2005) study, the “learning technology by design” is an effective instructional technique to develop deeper understanding of TPACK. In this study, we introduce an intense educational technology course sequence designed to create an experience that would expose in-teachers to ideas and skills from educational technology that can be incorporated into their own teaching. These experiences happen in cohort based summer study programs with students who are experienced educators. These programs include a unique face to face context in Europe in and a hybrid format for in-state educators. During the course, participants worked on a range of assignments that required them to learn and use technology in multiple pedagogical contexts including developing digital video, writing a technology based grant proposal, exploring web 2.0 technologies, and designing a personal web portfolio. The analysis of pre and post-test data showed that in-service teachers’ understanding of TK, TCK, TPK, and TPACK improved as a result of their course experience. Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge through Teacher Design Teams: The case of pre-service mathematics teachers in Ghana Douglas Agyei, University of Cape Coast, Ghana, & Joke Voogt, University of Twente, The Netherlands Although many studies have shown the need to better align teachers’ preparation in the integration of technology in classroom practice, most teachers in Ghana have not had any preparation that develops their technology pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK).This paper presents a case study of four pre-service mathematics teachers at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana; who worked in two design teams to develop lessons and subsequently teach in a technology-based environment for the first time. To make them familiar with technology use in mathematics teaching the pre-service teachers first discussed and used exemplary lesson materials, which were prepared by the researcher. Based on this experience the pre-service teachers designed their own technology-based lessons, which they taught to a group of pre-service teachers. Interview, observation, and survey data were collected throughout the study. The study revealed key attributes of a professional development scenario to foster growth of pre-service teachers in TPCK. The Development of an Instrument to Assess Teacher Development of TPACK Denise Schmidt, Evrim Baran,& Ann Thompson, Iowa State University A research group including faculty and students from both Michigan State University and Iowa State University have been working on the creation and validation of an instrument designed to assess the development of TPACK in pre-service teachers (Schmidt et al., 2009). Current work on the instrument will be shared. The instrument is used at the beginning and end of an introductory pre-service teacher technology course. Results suggest that with a minor modification of the survey items, the survey is a reliable and
  • 4. valid instrument that will help educators design longitudinal studies to assess pre-service teachers’ development of TPACK. Results also indicated statistically significant gains in all seven TPACK components. References Cox, M., Abbott, C., Webb, M., Blakely, B., Beauchamp, T., & Rhodes, V. (2004). ICT and Pedagogy – A review of the literature, ICT in Schools Research and Evaluation Series, 18. London: DfES/BECTA Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change (4th ed.). London: Falmer. Garet, M.S., Porter, A.C., Desimone, L., Birman, B.F., & Yoon, K.S. (2001). What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 915-945. Koehler, M.J., & Mishra, P. (2005). Teachers learning technology by design. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 21(3), 94-102. Koehler, M. & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing TPCK. In AACTE Committee on Innovation and Technology (Eds.). Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) for educators (pp. 3-29). New York: Routledge. Law,N., Pelgrum, W.J. & Plomp, T. (2008). Pedagogy and ICT use in schools around the world. Findings from the IEA SITES 2006 study. CERC Studies in comparative education. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, and: Springer. McDougall, A. (2008). Models and practices in teacher education programs for teaching with and about ICT. In J. Voogt & G. Knezek (Eds.), International handbook of information technology in primary and secondary education (pp. 461 - 474). New York: Springer. Penuel, W.R, Fishman, B.J., Yamaguchi, R., & Gallagher, L.P. (2007). What makes professional development effective? Strategies that foster curriculum implementation. American Educational Research Journal, 44(4), 921-958. Schmidt, D. A., Baran, E., Thompson, A. D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Shin, T. S. (2009). Examining Preservice Teachers’ Development of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge in an Introductory Instructional Technology Course. In I. Gibson, R. Weber, K. McFerrin, R. Carlsen & D. A. Willis (Eds.). Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference Book, 2009, (p. 4145-4151). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Tondeur, J., van Keer, H., van Braak, J., & Valcke, M. (2008). ICT integration in the classroom: Challenging the potential of a school policy. Computers & Education, 51, 212-223. Voogt, J. (2003). Consequences of ICT for aims, contents, processes and environments of Learning. In J. van den Akker, W. Kuiper & U. Hameyer (Eds.). Curriculum landscapes and trends (pp217-236). Dordrecht: Kluwer.