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Should, Would Could (1).pptx
Should -- must; had ought
Would -- intended to; inclined to
Could -- was possible to
SHOULD is used mostly to express suggestions or
advices.
You have a test tomorrow, you should study for it.
In this sentence it's advisable that you study for the test
if you want to pass it.
Or in the negative: You shouldn't smoke so much. (I
am giving an advice once smoking is bad for your
health you should not do it)
Could is the past of CAN and is used to describe
possibility in the past, like: I could watch TV everyday
when I was a kid but now I Can't.
Ability in the past: John could run 5 miles when he was
young.
Requests: Could I talk to you? (can I talk to you).
When used in a request or permission it does not give
an idea of past and has the same idea of can. However,
it sounds a little more formal than can.
Would is used to describe ideas like hypothesis.
Ex: I would like to go to Europe next year.
Mark would like to speak Spanish.
A few basic grammatical rules applying to modal verbs
 Modal verbs are NEVER used with other auxiliary
verbs such as do, does, did etc. The negative is formed
simply by adding "not" after the verb; questions are
formed by inversion of the verb and subject:
You should not do that.
Could you pick me up when I've finished?
 Modal verbs NEVER change form: you can never add
an "-s" or "-ed", for example.
 Modal verbs are NEVER followed by to, with the
exception of ought to.
 The meaning are usually connected with ideas of
DOUBT, CERTAINTY, POSSIBILITY and
PROBABILITY, OBLIGATION and PERMISSION (or
lack of these). You will see that they are not used to
talk about things that definitely exist, or events that
definitely happened. These meanings are sometimes
divided into two groups:
 DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: certainty; probability;
possibility; impossibility
OBLIGATION/FREEDOM TO ACT: permission,lack
of permission; ability; obligation.
WILL
 Making personal predictions
I don't think the Queen will ever abdicate.
I doubt if I'll stay here much longer.
 Talking about the present with certainty (making
deductions)
I'm sure you will understand that there is nothing the
Department can do
There's a letter for you. It'll be from the bank: they said
they'd be writing.
 Talking about the future with certainty
I won't be in the office until 11; I've got a meeting.
Don't bother ringing: they'll have left for their 10 o'clock
lecture.
 Talking about the past with certainty
I'm sure you will have noticed that attendance has
fallen sharply.
 Reassuring someone
Don't worry! You'll settle down quickly, I'm sure.
It'll be all right! You won't have to speak by yourself.
 Making a decision
For the main course I'll have grilled tuna.
I'm very tired. I think I'll stay at home tonight.
 Making a semi-formal request
Will you open the window, please? It's very hot in here.
Sign this, will you?
 Offering to do something
You stay there! I'll fetch the drinks.
 Insistence; habitual behaviour
I'm not surprised you don't know what to do! You will
keep talking in class.
Damn! My car won't start. I'll have to call the garage.
 Making a promise or a threat
You can count on me! I'll be there at 8 o'clock sharp.
If you don't finish your dinner off, you'll go straight to
bed!
SHALL
 Shall is a form of will, used mostly in the first person.
Its use, however, is decreasing, and in any case in
spoken English it would be contracted to "-ll" and be
indistinguishable from will.
Making offers
Shall I fetch you another glass of wine?
 Making suggestions
Shall we go to the cinema tonight?
MAY & MIGHT
 Talking about the present or future with
uncertainty
She may be back in her office: the lecture finished ten
minutes ago.
I may go shopping tonight, I haven't decided yet.
England might win the World Cup, you never know.
 Talking about the past with uncertainty
I'm surprised he failed. I suppose he might have been ill on
the day of the exam.
They can also sometimes be used for talking about
permission, but usually only in formal situations. Instead
of saying May I open a window? we would say Is it all
right/OK if I open a window? or Can I open a window? for
example. You might, however, see:
Students may not borrow equipment without written
permission.
MAY
 Talking about things that can happen in certain
situations
If the monitors are used in poorly lit places, some users may
experience headaches.
Each nurse may be responsible for up to twenty patients.
 With a similar meaning to although
The experiment may have been a success, but there is still a
lot of work to be done. (= Although it was a success, there is
still ...)
 MIGHT
 Saying that something was possible, but did not
actually happen
You saw me standing at the bus stop! You might have
stopped and given me a lift!
WOULD
 As the past of will, for example in indirect speech
"The next meeting will be in a month's time" becomes
He said the next meeting would be in a month's time.
 Polite requests and offers (a 'softer' form of will)
Would you like another cup of tea?
Would you give me a ring after lunch?
I'd like the roast duck, please.
 In conditionals, to indicate 'distance from reality':
imagined, unreal, impossible situations
If I ruled the world, every day would be the first day of
Spring.
It would have been better if you'd word processed your
assignment.
 Talking about past habits (similiar meaning to
used to)
When I was small, we would always visit relatives on
Christmas Day.
 Future in the past
The assassination would become one of the key events
of the century.
CAN & COULD
 Talking about ability
Can you speak Mandarin? (present)
She could play the piano when she was five. (past)
 Making requests
Can you give me a ring at about 10?
Could you speak up a bit please? (slightly more formal,
polite or 'softer')
 Asking permission
Can I ask you a question?
Could I ask you a personal question? (more formal,
polite or indirect)
 Reported speech
Could is used as the past of can.
He asked me if I could pick him up after work.
 General possibility
You can drive when you're 17. (present)
Women couldn't vote until just after the First World
War.
 Choice and opportunities
If you want some help with your writing, you can come
to classes, or you can get some 1:1 help.
We could go to Stratford tomorrow, but the forecast's
not brilliant. (less definite)
Future probability
Could (NOT can) is sometimes used in the same way
as might or may, often indicating something less
definite.
When I leave university I might travel around a bit, I
might do an MA or I suppose I could even get a job.
 Present possibility
I think you could be right you know. (NOT can)
That can't be the right answer, it just doesn't make
sense.
 Past possibility
If I'd known the lecture had been cancelled, I could have
stayed in bed longer.

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Should, Would Could (1).pptx

  • 2. Should -- must; had ought Would -- intended to; inclined to Could -- was possible to
  • 3. SHOULD is used mostly to express suggestions or advices. You have a test tomorrow, you should study for it. In this sentence it's advisable that you study for the test if you want to pass it.
  • 4. Or in the negative: You shouldn't smoke so much. (I am giving an advice once smoking is bad for your health you should not do it)
  • 5. Could is the past of CAN and is used to describe possibility in the past, like: I could watch TV everyday when I was a kid but now I Can't. Ability in the past: John could run 5 miles when he was young.
  • 6. Requests: Could I talk to you? (can I talk to you). When used in a request or permission it does not give an idea of past and has the same idea of can. However, it sounds a little more formal than can.
  • 7. Would is used to describe ideas like hypothesis. Ex: I would like to go to Europe next year. Mark would like to speak Spanish.
  • 8. A few basic grammatical rules applying to modal verbs  Modal verbs are NEVER used with other auxiliary verbs such as do, does, did etc. The negative is formed simply by adding "not" after the verb; questions are formed by inversion of the verb and subject: You should not do that. Could you pick me up when I've finished?
  • 9.  Modal verbs NEVER change form: you can never add an "-s" or "-ed", for example.  Modal verbs are NEVER followed by to, with the exception of ought to.
  • 10.  The meaning are usually connected with ideas of DOUBT, CERTAINTY, POSSIBILITY and PROBABILITY, OBLIGATION and PERMISSION (or lack of these). You will see that they are not used to talk about things that definitely exist, or events that definitely happened. These meanings are sometimes divided into two groups:
  • 11.  DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: certainty; probability; possibility; impossibility OBLIGATION/FREEDOM TO ACT: permission,lack of permission; ability; obligation.
  • 12. WILL  Making personal predictions I don't think the Queen will ever abdicate. I doubt if I'll stay here much longer.  Talking about the present with certainty (making deductions) I'm sure you will understand that there is nothing the Department can do There's a letter for you. It'll be from the bank: they said they'd be writing.
  • 13.  Talking about the future with certainty I won't be in the office until 11; I've got a meeting. Don't bother ringing: they'll have left for their 10 o'clock lecture.  Talking about the past with certainty I'm sure you will have noticed that attendance has fallen sharply.
  • 14.  Reassuring someone Don't worry! You'll settle down quickly, I'm sure. It'll be all right! You won't have to speak by yourself.  Making a decision For the main course I'll have grilled tuna. I'm very tired. I think I'll stay at home tonight.
  • 15.  Making a semi-formal request Will you open the window, please? It's very hot in here. Sign this, will you?  Offering to do something You stay there! I'll fetch the drinks.
  • 16.  Insistence; habitual behaviour I'm not surprised you don't know what to do! You will keep talking in class. Damn! My car won't start. I'll have to call the garage.  Making a promise or a threat You can count on me! I'll be there at 8 o'clock sharp. If you don't finish your dinner off, you'll go straight to bed!
  • 17. SHALL  Shall is a form of will, used mostly in the first person. Its use, however, is decreasing, and in any case in spoken English it would be contracted to "-ll" and be indistinguishable from will. Making offers Shall I fetch you another glass of wine?  Making suggestions Shall we go to the cinema tonight?
  • 18. MAY & MIGHT  Talking about the present or future with uncertainty She may be back in her office: the lecture finished ten minutes ago. I may go shopping tonight, I haven't decided yet. England might win the World Cup, you never know.
  • 19.  Talking about the past with uncertainty I'm surprised he failed. I suppose he might have been ill on the day of the exam. They can also sometimes be used for talking about permission, but usually only in formal situations. Instead of saying May I open a window? we would say Is it all right/OK if I open a window? or Can I open a window? for example. You might, however, see: Students may not borrow equipment without written permission.
  • 20. MAY  Talking about things that can happen in certain situations If the monitors are used in poorly lit places, some users may experience headaches. Each nurse may be responsible for up to twenty patients.  With a similar meaning to although The experiment may have been a success, but there is still a lot of work to be done. (= Although it was a success, there is still ...)
  • 21.  MIGHT  Saying that something was possible, but did not actually happen You saw me standing at the bus stop! You might have stopped and given me a lift!
  • 22. WOULD  As the past of will, for example in indirect speech "The next meeting will be in a month's time" becomes He said the next meeting would be in a month's time.  Polite requests and offers (a 'softer' form of will) Would you like another cup of tea? Would you give me a ring after lunch? I'd like the roast duck, please.
  • 23.  In conditionals, to indicate 'distance from reality': imagined, unreal, impossible situations If I ruled the world, every day would be the first day of Spring. It would have been better if you'd word processed your assignment.
  • 24.  Talking about past habits (similiar meaning to used to) When I was small, we would always visit relatives on Christmas Day.  Future in the past The assassination would become one of the key events of the century.
  • 25. CAN & COULD  Talking about ability Can you speak Mandarin? (present) She could play the piano when she was five. (past)  Making requests Can you give me a ring at about 10? Could you speak up a bit please? (slightly more formal, polite or 'softer')
  • 26.  Asking permission Can I ask you a question? Could I ask you a personal question? (more formal, polite or indirect)  Reported speech Could is used as the past of can. He asked me if I could pick him up after work.
  • 27.  General possibility You can drive when you're 17. (present) Women couldn't vote until just after the First World War.  Choice and opportunities If you want some help with your writing, you can come to classes, or you can get some 1:1 help. We could go to Stratford tomorrow, but the forecast's not brilliant. (less definite)
  • 28. Future probability Could (NOT can) is sometimes used in the same way as might or may, often indicating something less definite. When I leave university I might travel around a bit, I might do an MA or I suppose I could even get a job.
  • 29.  Present possibility I think you could be right you know. (NOT can) That can't be the right answer, it just doesn't make sense.  Past possibility If I'd known the lecture had been cancelled, I could have stayed in bed longer.