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Scratch:
                     A Constructivist
                  Learning Environment
                       for Children

                         Bernie Dodge, San Diego State University


Saturday, February 14, 2009
Course Goals




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Course Goals

                              Explain the benefits of and techniques
                              for teaching programming concepts to
                              children and adolescents;




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Course Goals

                              Explain the benefits of and techniques
                              for teaching programming concepts to
                              children and adolescents;
                              Create interactive multimedia using
                              Scratch;




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Course Goals

                              Explain the benefits of and techniques
                              for teaching programming concepts to
                              children and adolescents;
                              Create interactive multimedia using
                              Scratch;
                              Create a lesson plan that describes an
                              environment for constructivist learning
                              using Scratch.



Saturday, February 14, 2009
Saturday, February 14, 2009
Let’s start with
                     YOU

                               What’s Your
                              Programming
                              Background?
                                       ...if any.

Saturday, February 14, 2009
Why Teach
                              Programming?


Saturday, February 14, 2009
If you’re a programmer, you’re competing globally for work
Saturday, February 14, 2009
If you’re a programmer, you’re competing globally for work
Saturday, February 14, 2009
If you’re a programmer, you’re competing globally for work
Saturday, February 14, 2009
Village kids are
               doing it...




Saturday, February 14, 2009
AP CS Over Time




Saturday, February 14, 2009
AP CS Over Time


                              Before 1999 - Pascal




Saturday, February 14, 2009
AP CS Over Time


                              Before 1999 - Pascal
                              1999-2003 - C++




Saturday, February 14, 2009
AP CS Over Time


                              Before 1999 - Pascal
                              1999-2003 - C++
                              2003 to present - Java




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Other First
                                 Languages
                              Logo
                              Python
                              Scheme




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Important Concepts
                              Sequential    Boolean
                              processing    logic
                              Conditional   Interface
                              logic         design
                              Variables     Event
                                            handling
                              Iteration


Saturday, February 14, 2009
The Scratch
                                  IDE


Saturday, February 14, 2009
Saturday, February 14, 2009
Code block area




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Code block area


                              Sprite area




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Code block area


                              Sprite area



                                            Sprite list


Saturday, February 14, 2009
Stage
  Code block area


                              Sprite area



                                               Sprite list


Saturday, February 14, 2009
Your First
                               Program


Saturday, February 14, 2009
Saturday, February 14, 2009
Saturday, February 14, 2009
Beyond Hello
                                 World


Saturday, February 14, 2009
Make the script happen when
                              you click the green flag
                              Repeat it 10 times
                              Add some motion
                              Add some appearance
                              changes



Saturday, February 14, 2009
Exploration
                                 Time


Saturday, February 14, 2009
Saturday, February 14, 2009
Lunch


Saturday, February 14, 2009
Mind Buzzing?


Saturday, February 14, 2009
A Challenge


Saturday, February 14, 2009
Create this:

                              A desert or ocean scene
                              A UFO comes in from the
                              left and hovers near the
                              right side of the screen
                              while making a UFO noise



Saturday, February 14, 2009
One more thing...
                              If you put your mouse cursor
                              on the right side the screen,
                              the UFO zips over the left.
                              And vice versa.
                              And makes a different sound
                              while zipping.


Saturday, February 14, 2009
One more thing...
                              If you put your mouse cursor
                              on the right side the screen,
                              the UFO zips over the left.
                              And vice versa.
                              And makes a different sound
                              while zipping.


Saturday, February 14, 2009
One more thing...
                              If you put your mouse cursor
                              on the right side the screen,
                              the UFO zips over the left.
                              And vice versa.
                              And makes a different sound
                              while zipping.


Saturday, February 14, 2009
One more thing...
                              If you put your mouse cursor
                              on the right side the screen,
                              the UFO zips over the left.
                              And vice versa.
                              And makes a different sound
                              while zipping.


Saturday, February 14, 2009
One more thing...
                              If you put your mouse cursor
                              on the right side the screen,
                              the UFO zips over the left.
                              And vice versa.
                              And makes a different sound
                              while zipping.


Saturday, February 14, 2009
What are the
                building
                 blocks?



Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Change
                              costumes




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Change
                              costumes
                              Move




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Change
                              costumes
                              Move
                              Disappear




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Change
                              costumes
                              Move
                              Disappear
                              Grow and
                              shrink


Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Change
                              costumes
                              Move
                              Disappear
                              Grow and
                              shrink
                              Speak

Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Change      Change
                              costumes    color
                              Move
                              Disappear
                              Grow and
                              shrink
                              Speak

Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Change      Change
                              costumes    color
                              Move        Be distorted
                              Disappear
                              Grow and
                              shrink
                              Speak

Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Change      Change
                              costumes    color
                              Move        Be distorted
                              Disappear   Follow the
                                          cursor
                              Grow and
                              shrink
                              Speak

Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Change      Change
                              costumes    color
                              Move        Be distorted
                              Disappear   Follow the
                                          cursor
                              Grow and
                              shrink      Notice other
                                          sprites
                              Speak

Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Play
                              music...
                              whole tunes
                              or single
                              notes




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Play
                              music...
                              whole tunes
                              or single
                              notes
                              Draw lines



Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Play          Respond to
                              music...      keys
                              whole tunes   pressed or
                              or single     mouse
                              notes         actions
                              Draw lines



Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Play          Respond to
                              music...      keys
                              whole tunes   pressed or
                              or single     mouse
                              notes         actions
                              Draw lines    Respond to
                                            sound

Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Respond to
                              their
                              location




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Respond to
                              their
                              location
                              Respond to
                              a timer




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Sprites can...
                              Respond to   Respond to
                              their        the color on
                              location     the stage
                                           they’re on
                              Respond to
                              a timer




Saturday, February 14, 2009
So What Can
                               We Build?


Saturday, February 14, 2009
Scratch Makes
                              Stories       Adventure
                                            games
                              Interactive
                              art pieces    Simulations
                              MTV           Math or
                                            physics
                              Arcade
                                            sandboxes
                              games


Saturday, February 14, 2009
What Could You Do In...?




Saturday, February 14, 2009
What Could You Do In...?

                              Foreign Language




Saturday, February 14, 2009
What Could You Do In...?

                              Foreign Language
                              Health




Saturday, February 14, 2009
What Could You Do In...?

                              Foreign Language
                              Health
                              Creative Writing




Saturday, February 14, 2009
What Could You Do In...?

                              Foreign Language
                              Health
                              Creative Writing
                              History




Saturday, February 14, 2009
http://scratch.mit.edu
Saturday, February 14, 2009
Final Project




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Final Project
                              A document for teachers




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Final Project
                              A document for teachers
                              A Scratch environment, unfinished
                                 Sprites
                                 Scripts
                                 Sounds




Saturday, February 14, 2009
Final Project
                              A document for teachers
                              A Scratch environment, unfinished
                                 Sprites
                                 Scripts
                                 Sounds
                              A sample program as might be
                              made by a student


Saturday, February 14, 2009
http://edweb.sdsu.edu/courses/
                        edtec700/scratch/




Saturday, February 14, 2009

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Scratch: Constructivist Learning Environment

  • 1. Scratch: A Constructivist Learning Environment for Children Bernie Dodge, San Diego State University Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 3. Course Goals Explain the benefits of and techniques for teaching programming concepts to children and adolescents; Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 4. Course Goals Explain the benefits of and techniques for teaching programming concepts to children and adolescents; Create interactive multimedia using Scratch; Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 5. Course Goals Explain the benefits of and techniques for teaching programming concepts to children and adolescents; Create interactive multimedia using Scratch; Create a lesson plan that describes an environment for constructivist learning using Scratch. Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 7. Let’s start with YOU What’s Your Programming Background? ...if any. Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 8. Why Teach Programming? Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 9. If you’re a programmer, you’re competing globally for work Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 10. If you’re a programmer, you’re competing globally for work Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 11. If you’re a programmer, you’re competing globally for work Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 12. Village kids are doing it... Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 13. AP CS Over Time Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 14. AP CS Over Time Before 1999 - Pascal Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 15. AP CS Over Time Before 1999 - Pascal 1999-2003 - C++ Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 16. AP CS Over Time Before 1999 - Pascal 1999-2003 - C++ 2003 to present - Java Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 17. Other First Languages Logo Python Scheme Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 18. Important Concepts Sequential Boolean processing logic Conditional Interface logic design Variables Event handling Iteration Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 19. The Scratch IDE Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 21. Code block area Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 22. Code block area Sprite area Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 23. Code block area Sprite area Sprite list Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 24. Stage Code block area Sprite area Sprite list Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 25. Your First Program Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 28. Beyond Hello World Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 29. Make the script happen when you click the green flag Repeat it 10 times Add some motion Add some appearance changes Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 30. Exploration Time Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 35. Create this: A desert or ocean scene A UFO comes in from the left and hovers near the right side of the screen while making a UFO noise Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 36. One more thing... If you put your mouse cursor on the right side the screen, the UFO zips over the left. And vice versa. And makes a different sound while zipping. Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 37. One more thing... If you put your mouse cursor on the right side the screen, the UFO zips over the left. And vice versa. And makes a different sound while zipping. Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 38. One more thing... If you put your mouse cursor on the right side the screen, the UFO zips over the left. And vice versa. And makes a different sound while zipping. Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 39. One more thing... If you put your mouse cursor on the right side the screen, the UFO zips over the left. And vice versa. And makes a different sound while zipping. Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 40. One more thing... If you put your mouse cursor on the right side the screen, the UFO zips over the left. And vice versa. And makes a different sound while zipping. Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 41. What are the building blocks? Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 43. Sprites can... Change costumes Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 44. Sprites can... Change costumes Move Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 45. Sprites can... Change costumes Move Disappear Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 46. Sprites can... Change costumes Move Disappear Grow and shrink Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 47. Sprites can... Change costumes Move Disappear Grow and shrink Speak Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 48. Sprites can... Change Change costumes color Move Disappear Grow and shrink Speak Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 49. Sprites can... Change Change costumes color Move Be distorted Disappear Grow and shrink Speak Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 50. Sprites can... Change Change costumes color Move Be distorted Disappear Follow the cursor Grow and shrink Speak Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 51. Sprites can... Change Change costumes color Move Be distorted Disappear Follow the cursor Grow and shrink Notice other sprites Speak Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 53. Sprites can... Play music... whole tunes or single notes Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 54. Sprites can... Play music... whole tunes or single notes Draw lines Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 55. Sprites can... Play Respond to music... keys whole tunes pressed or or single mouse notes actions Draw lines Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 56. Sprites can... Play Respond to music... keys whole tunes pressed or or single mouse notes actions Draw lines Respond to sound Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 58. Sprites can... Respond to their location Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 59. Sprites can... Respond to their location Respond to a timer Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 60. Sprites can... Respond to Respond to their the color on location the stage they’re on Respond to a timer Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 61. So What Can We Build? Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 62. Scratch Makes Stories Adventure games Interactive art pieces Simulations MTV Math or physics Arcade sandboxes games Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 63. What Could You Do In...? Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 64. What Could You Do In...? Foreign Language Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 65. What Could You Do In...? Foreign Language Health Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 66. What Could You Do In...? Foreign Language Health Creative Writing Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 67. What Could You Do In...? Foreign Language Health Creative Writing History Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 70. Final Project A document for teachers Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 71. Final Project A document for teachers A Scratch environment, unfinished Sprites Scripts Sounds Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 72. Final Project A document for teachers A Scratch environment, unfinished Sprites Scripts Sounds A sample program as might be made by a student Saturday, February 14, 2009
  • 73. http://edweb.sdsu.edu/courses/ edtec700/scratch/ Saturday, February 14, 2009

Editor's Notes