Scaffolding Decision Making

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Presented at NECC, San Antonio, July 2, 2008.

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Scaffolding Decision Making

  1. 1. Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University
  2. 2. Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University
  3. 7. Summarize Design Decide Create Predict Decide
  4. 8. Decide
  5. 9. Adult life is full of decisions
  6. 10. Adult life is full of decisions
  7. 11. Adult life is full of decisions
  8. 12. Adult life is full of decisions
  9. 13. Adult life is full of decisions
  10. 14. Some people are decisive
  11. 15. Others find it hard
  12. 16. Comfort with deciding may be inborn 54% = J
  13. 17. <ul><li>A practice problem… </li></ul>
  14. 18. New, Perfect Job <ul><li>You have to choose one of three places: </li></ul><ul><li>Claremont, CA </li></ul><ul><li>Grapevine, TX </li></ul><ul><li>Salem, NH </li></ul>
  15. 19. Claremont, California
  16. 20. Grapevine, Texas
  17. 21. Salem, New Hampshire
  18. 22. <ul><li>You have 2 minutes to decide on where to move </li></ul>
  19. 23. Claremont CA Grapevine TX Salem NH Avg Home Price $843,500 $258,800 $346,400 Air Quality 32% 71% 85% July High Temp 87 ℉ 95 ℉ 83 ℉ January Low Temp 41 ℉ 31 ℉ 15 ℉ Clear Days 44% 37% 25% Job Growth 8.3% 15.4% 8.5% Median Age 37 34 40 Married 44% 60% 60% Racial Diversity 112 37 19 Property Crime 31 29 15 Museums 9 8 27 Restaurants 3405 5446 1901
  20. 24. <ul><li>Time’s up! </li></ul>
  21. 25. A decision I have to make…
  22. 26. Decisions we allow kids to make <ul><li>Which book would you like to do your report on? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you want to be the record-keeper, the spokesperson or the artist? </li></ul><ul><li>Color the sky with whatever crayon you like </li></ul>
  23. 28. So…how do we uncover the decisions hidden in our content?
  24. 29. First…. <ul><li>Ask yourself, when do adults need to apply this content? </li></ul>
  25. 30. Second… <ul><li>Look for (or create) disequilibrium </li></ul>
  26. 31. Strategy 1: Find a Real Problem <ul><li>Identify a real problem over which there is strong disagreement and decide on what to recommend . </li></ul>
  27. 32. Find a Real Problem
  28. 33. Strategy 2: Create a Problem <ul><li>Change the situation to create new problems that someone needs to decide how to respond to . </li></ul>
  29. 34. Create a Problem
  30. 35. Strategy 3: Create an Opportunity <ul><li>Identify (or make up) an opportunity for action that requires choosing from among alternatives . </li></ul>
  31. 36. Create an Opportunity
  32. 37. Create an Opportunity
  33. 38. Create an Opportunity
  34. 39. To summarize, look for one of these: <ul><li>Responding to an existing problem </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to a new problem </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>… and pick situations that require learning what you need them to learn. </li></ul>
  35. 40. <ul><li>A practice problem… </li></ul>
  36. 42. To summarize, look for one of these: <ul><li>Responding to an existing problem </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to a new problem </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>… and pick situations that require learning what you need them to learn. </li></ul>
  37. 44. Teaching decision-making skills <ul><li>Should occur in context, not isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Should provide reusable techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately should be internalized by repeated practice </li></ul>
  38. 45. Don’t just flip a coin…
  39. 46. Technique #1: PMI <ul><li>Make a list of aspects of the choice to be made. </li></ul><ul><li>Mark each one as Plus, Minus or Interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Optionally, put a number from 1 to 10 to indicate how important each aspect is </li></ul><ul><li>Total up the number of items in each column </li></ul>http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_05.htm
  40. 47. Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting
  41. 48. Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper
  42. 49. Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one Won’t be ready for Spring Break If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper It may break again in 18 months or less We could get a new one immediately
  43. 50. Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one Won’t be ready for Spring Break Repairman says LCD is better than plasma If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper It may break again in 18 months or less We could get a new one immediately
  44. 51. Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one (+5) Won’t be ready for Spring Break (-3) Repairman says LCD is better than plasma If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper (+7) It may break again in 18 months or less (-4) We could get a new one immediately (-4) 12 -11
  45. 52. Technique #2: Weighted Sum <ul><li>Good for when there is a single decision with multiple aspects to consider </li></ul><ul><li>Allows you to clarify what’s really important </li></ul>
  46. 53. Claremont CA Grapevine TX Salem NH Avg Home Price $843,500 $258,800 $346,400 Air Quality 32% 71% 85% July High Temp 87 ℉ 95 ℉ 83 ℉ January Low Temp 41 ℉ 31 ℉ 15 ℉ Clear Days 44% 37% 25% Job Growth 8.3% 15.4% 8.5% Median Age 37 34 40 Married 44% 60% 60% Racial Diversity 112 37 19 Property Crime 31 29 15 Museums 9 8 27 Restaurants 3405 5446 1901
  47. 54. Weight Claremont CA Grapevine TX Salem NH Avg Home Price 9 $843,500 $258,800 $346,400 Air Quality 2 32% 71% 85% July High Temp 3 87 ℉ 95 ℉ 83 ℉ January Low Temp 9 41 ℉ 31 ℉ 15 ℉ Clear Days 8 44% 37% 25% Job Growth 9 8.3% 15.4% 8.5% Median Age 3 37 34 40 Married 3 44% 60% 60% Racial Diversity 1 112 37 19 Property Crime 7 31 29 15 Museums 9 9 8 27 Restaurants 9 3405 5446 1901
  48. 55. Weight Claremont CA Grapevine TX Salem NH Avg Home Price 9 2 9 8 Air Quality 2 3 7 9 July High Temp 3 5 3 6 January Low Temp 9 8 4 2 Clear Days 8 8 7 3 Job Growth 9 5 9 5 Median Age 3 5 6 4 Married 3 4 7 7 Racial Diversity 1 7 5 3 Property Crime 7 4 5 7 Museums 9 5 5 9 Restaurants 9 5 9 2
  49. 56. 386 482 379 Weight Claremont CA Grapevine TX Salem NH Avg Home Price 9 9 x 2 = 18 9 x 9 = 81 9 x 8 = 72 Air Quality 2 2 x 3 = 6 2 x 7 = 14 2 x 9 = 18 July High Temp 3 3 x 5 = 15 3 x 3 = 9 3 x 6 = 18 January Low Temp 9 9 x 8 = 72 9 x 4 = 36 9 x 2 = 18 Clear Days 8 8 x 8 = 64 8 x 7 = 56 8 x 3 = 24 Job Growth 9 9 x 5 = 45 9 x 9 = 81 9 x 5= 45 Median Age 3 3 x 5 = 15 3 x 6 = 18 3 x 4 = 12 Married 3 3 x 4 = 12 3 x 7 = 21 3 x 7 = 21 Racial Diversity 1 3 x 7 = 21 1 x 5 = 5 1 x 3 = 3 Property Crime 7 7 x 4 = 28 7 x 5 = 35 7 x 7 = 49 Museums 9 9 x 5 = 45 9 x 5 = 45 9 x 9 = 81 Restaurants 9 9 x 5 = 45 9 x 9 = 81 9 x 2= 18
  50. 57. Technique #3: Decision Trees <ul><li>Useful for decisions that lead to more decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks down big decisions into a series of smaller ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows you to evaluate the end points to see which path is best. </li></ul>
  51. 58. A decision I have to make…
  52. 59. Bernie’s Plasma Decision Tree $1800 $2400 $800 7/10 10/10 10/10
  53. 60. Bernie’s Plasma Decision Tree $1800 $2400 $800 7/10 10/10 10/10 $0 2/10
  54. 61. Who Decides? 20% 80%
  55. 62. Who Decides? $1800 $2400 7/10 10/10 $0 8/10 20% 80%
  56. 63. Pawns vs. Origins Richard DeCharms – Personal Causation
  57. 64. A Great Resource http://www.mindtools.com
  58. 65. Technique #4: Six Thinking Hats
  59. 66. 6 Thinking Hats
  60. 67. 1. Blue Hat <ul><li>Hat worn by people chairing meetings. </li></ul><ul><li>Pays attention to the process and directs the other hats to pitch in </li></ul>
  61. 68. 2. White Hat <ul><li>focus on the data available. </li></ul><ul><li>look at the information you have, and see </li></ul><ul><li>look for gaps in your knowledge, and either try to fill them or take account of them. </li></ul>
  62. 69. 3. Green Hat <ul><li>stands for creativity. This is where you can develop creative solutions to a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>freewheeling way of thinking, in which there is little criticism of ideas. </li></ul>
  63. 70. 4. Red Hat <ul><li>looks at problems using intuition, gut reaction, and emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>tries to think how other people will react emotionally. </li></ul><ul><li>tries to understand the responses of people who do not fully know your reasoning. </li></ul>
  64. 71. 5. Yellow Hat <ul><li>the optimistic viewpoint that helps you to see all the benefits of the decision and the value in it. </li></ul><ul><li>helps you to keep going when everything looks gloomy and difficult. </li></ul>
  65. 72. 6. Black Hat <ul><li>looks at all the bad points of the decision. </li></ul><ul><li>tries to see why it might not work. </li></ul><ul><li>highlights the weak points in a plan. </li></ul>
  66. 73. In conclusion… <ul><li>Look for decisions your kids can make as part of learning what they need to learn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend a solution to an existing problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change the situation and create a new problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create an opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scaffold that decision-making experience by providing techniques that they can use outside of class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PMI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weighted Sum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six Thinking Hats </li></ul></ul>
  67. 74. <ul><li>Nothing is more difficult, and therefore more precious, than to be able to decide. </li></ul>
  68. 75. Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University Webquest.org/workshops/decider

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