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CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
Science
Quarter 4 – Module 9:
Geothermal Energy
9
Science – Grade 9
Alternative Delivery Mode
Quarter 4 – Module 9: Geothermal Energy
First Edition, 2020
Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of
the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office
wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such
agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties.
Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names,
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Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials from their
respective copyright owners. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership
over them.
Published by the Department of Education
Secretary: Leonor Magtolis Briones
Undersecretary: Diosdado M. San Antonio
Printed in the Philippines ________________________
Department of Education – Division of Iligan City
Office Address: General Aguinaldo, St., Iligan City
Telefax: (063)221-6069
E-mail Address: iligan.city@deped.gov.ph
Development Team of the Module
Writers: Mark Albert A. Minerales
Editor: Shila Rose D. Sila (PNU), Alfons Jayson O. Pelgone (PNU)
Reviewers: Richard Talaid, Fe Nijaga, Jeremy Sacon
Illustrator: Mark Albert A. Minerales, Rene Y. Sumagang, Corazon E. Booc
Layout Artists: Mark Albert A. Minerales, Jacqueline E. Libut
Management Team: Roy Angelo E. Gazo, PhD, CESO V
Nimfa R. Lago, PhD, CESE
Henry B. Abueva
Ann Q. Solijon
Sherlita L. Daguisonan
Meriam S. Otarra
Charlotte D. Quidlat
9
Science
Quarter 4 – Module 9:
Geothermal Energy
Introductory Message
This Self-Learning Module (SLM) is prepared so that you, our dear learners,
can continue your studies and learn while at home. Activities, questions, directions,
exercises, and discussions are carefully stated for you to understand each lesson.
Each SLM is composed of different parts. Each part shall guide you step-by-
step as you discover and understand the lesson prepared for you.
Pre-tests are provided to measure your prior knowledge on lessons in each
SLM. This will tell you if you need to proceed on completing this module or if you
need to ask your facilitator or your teacher’s assistance for better understanding of
the lesson. At the end of each module, you need to answer the post-test to self-check
your learning. Answer keys are provided for each activity and test. We trust that you
will be honest in using these.
In addition to the material in the main text, Notes to the Teacher are also
provided to our facilitators and parents for strategies and reminders on how they can
best help you on your home-based learning.
Please use this module with care. Do not put unnecessary marks on any part
of this SLM. Use a separate sheet of paper in answering the exercises and tests. And
read the instructions carefully before performing each task.
If you have any questions in using this SLM or any difficulty in answering the
tasks in this module, do not hesitate to consult your teacher or facilitator.
Thank you.
1
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
What I Need to Know
You’ve learned from previous lesson that Heat, as a form of energy has many
practical applications in our daily lives; cooking, heating and cooling, and generating
electricity all depend on energy transformations that end by transferring heat energy.
This module will help you learn how heat transfer and energy transformations
make heat engines like Geothermal Plants work. The children will learn how electrical
energy is being generated in a Geothermal Power Plants. Learners will do some
activities and simple experiments. For us to do it, we will go through the following
lesson;
Lesson 1: Geothermal Energy
At the end of this lesson, you will be able to explain how heat transfer and
energy transformation make heat engines like geothermal plant works.
Specifically, after going through this module, you will be able to:
1. Identify the location of some Geothermal Power plants in the Philippine
map.
2. Trace the energy transformations from thermal energy up to the
generation of electrical energy in a Geothermal power plant.
What I Know
I. Multiple Choice: Read the statements carefully. Choose the BEST answer. Write
the letter of your answers on the space provided before each number.
1. Which of the following geothermal power plants in the Philippines is/are still in
operation up to the present?
A. Tiwi Geothermal Power Plant
B. Mt. Apo – EDC Geothermal Power Plant
C. Unified Leyte Geothermal Power Plant
D. All of the Above
2. Where does geothermal energy come from?
A. Wind
B. Rivers
C. Heat from the earth
D. Sunlight
2
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
3. What does it mean when we say that geothermal energy is ‘sustainable’?
A. That it generates greenhouse gases.
B. That it will not be used up.
C. That there is a limited supply
D. That it can be used anywhere on earth.
4. What potential environmental issue can occur when building a geothermal
energy plant?
A. The burning of fossil fuels
B. Water pollution from the chemicals
C. Toxic gases can be released when drilling
D. All of the above
5. Geothermal power plants can generate ____________ by using hot water and
steam from deep in the earth.
A. Air Conditioning
B. Greenhouse Gases
C. Electricity
D. Hydropower
II. Arrange the following energy transformations that takes place in a geothermal
power plant by placing the terms below inside the appropriate box.
• Electrical Energy
• Kinetic Energy of steam rotating turbine
• Thermal Energy of Water trapped in underground reservoirs
• Thermal Energy from earth’s interior
• Thermal Energy for Distribution
• Kinetic Energy of Turbine and Generator
3
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
Lesson
1 Geothermal Energy
What’s In
In the past lesson, you have learned the three methods of heat transfer. First
is Conduction in which the transfer of heat is due to direct contact. An example is
putting a Pot in firewood. The second is through Convection in which heat is
transferred from one location to another by the movement of fluids. An example is
using an Air-conditioner in your room. The third is Radiation, the transfer of heat by
an electromagnetic wave. An example is using your microwave oven in baking some
foods in your house. You have also learned that the spontaneous or the natural
process is where energy flows from an object of high temperature to an object of lower
temperature.
Further, you have learned how heat transfer can be turned into work and how
doing work releases heat. In this module, we will make use of this mechanism of how
heat transfer and energy transformations make heat engines like geothermal plant
works.
What’s New
There is a natural source of power found beneath surface of the earth that has
been around for a considerable length of time. Underground, far underneath us,
there are pools of water warmed by magma (or liquid rocks). These pools of water
make up our geothermal repositories. Turning earth’s temperature to electricity thus
warming or cooling our homes and industries is the essence of Geothermal Energy.
"Geo" refers to "earth," and "thermal" refers to "heat," so geothermal energy
means "heat from the earth". Geothermal energy is created during the radioactive
decay of isotopes below the earth’s surface. This procedure is constant such that
geothermal energy is considered a sustainable power source.
There are currently geothermal power plants in over 80 countries in line with
the Geothermal Energy Associations and although the United States of America is
currently the worldwide leader of geothermal power, other countries like Indonesia,
4
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
Turkey and even our own country the Philippines are in the process of expanding
their power capacities.
In the table below are list of the existing Geothermal Power plants in the
Philippines as of December 2020 according to Philippines’ Department of Energy.
Name
Design Capacity
(MWe)
Location in the
Philippines
Year
Established
Maibarara 1 & 2 GPP 32
Sto. Tomas
Batangas
1 – Feb. 2014
2 – May 2018
BACMAN GPP 140
Bacon & Manito
Albay
Sept. 1993
-Makiling-Banahaw
(Mak-Ban) Geothermal
Power Plant
-Mak-Ban Binary
442.8
15.7
Calauan, Laguna
Bay, Laguna
Apr. 1979
Tiwi GPP 234 Tiwi, Albay Jan. 1979
Tongonan I GPP 123 Kananga Leyte June 1983
Nasulo GPP 49.4
Valencia, Negros
Oriental
Sept. 2014
Palinpinon GPP 172.5
Valencia, Negros
Oriental
August 1983
Unified Leyte GPP 610.2
Ormoc and
Kananga Leyte
July 1996/1997
Mt. Apo – EDC GPP 108.5
Kidapawan, North
Cotabato
December 1996
Can you recognize some of them? To do so, let us do the Activity in the next page.
Activity 1: Its more “HEAT” in the Philippines!
Objectives:
1. After performing this Activity, you should be able to;
• Identify the location of some Geothermal Power Plants in the Philippine map;
• Determine the region in which the Power plant belongs.
Materials Needed:
• Pictures of Geothermal Power Plant in the Philippines
• Philippine Map
• Pins
Procedure:
1. Prior to answering this activity, you can have a virtual eco tour at
Tongonan Leyte (now Unified Leyte) Geothermal Power Plant in Ormoc
City. Please type the link in your internet browser.
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2NzzKLtuqSU)
5
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
2. Using the Philippine Map, identify the location of the geothermal power
plants based on the table below
3. Using the table below, fill in the blank column and write the region of the
Power plants location.
4. Using the Google search engine, look for pictures of the different
Geothermal power plants on the internet. Then, print a small size, cut, and
pin the pictures of the power plant on the Philippine map.
Name
Design
Capacity
(MWe)
Location Region
Maibarara 1 & 2 GPP 32
Sto. Tomas
Batangas
BACMAN GPP 140
Bacon & Manito
Albay
-Makiling-Banahaw (Mak-
Ban) Geothermal Power Plant
-Mak-Ban Binary
442.8
15.7
Calauan, Laguna
Bay, Laguna
Tiwi GPP 234 Tiwi, Albay
Tongonan I GPP 123 Kananga Leyte
Nasulo GPP 49.4
Valencia, Negros
Oriental
Palinpinon GPP 172.5
Valencia, Negros
Oriental
Unified Leyte 610.2
Ormoc and
Kananga Leyte
Mt. Apo – EDC GPP 108.5
Kidapawan, North
Cotabato
6
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
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CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
Illustrated by: Corazon E. Booc
The Philippines is one of the world’s top producers of geothermal power, as it
is located along the Ring of Fire. It is the third biggest maker of geothermal power
after the United States of America (USA) and Indonesia. Based from ThinkGeoEnergy
Research 2020, as of 2019, the USA had a capacity of 3676 megawatts of geothermal
power, followed by Indonesia with 2133 megawatts while that of the Philippines was
1918 megawatts. The Philippines was followed by Turkey with 1526 MW.
The Philippines currently has nine operational geothermal fields which supply
about 13.4 % of the nation’s energy.
According to the Philippines’
Department of Energy (DoE) during the
Public Consultation for the Philippine
Energy Plan (PEP) 2008-2030 held at
Tacloban City on July 21, 2008, from
2008-2020 the government has a long-
term plan to double capacity of
Renewable Energy which is 4.8 % growth
rate. Further they have set plans that by
2030 there will be already an
optimization of Renewable Energy
Resources.
With that, chances would be the Philippines will hold the no 1. spot of the
world’s top producers of geothermal power replacing the mighty country USA that
has an installed capacity of around 3,676 MW. Moreover, as part of the governments’
Energy Efficiency and Conservation policies, optimization of renewable energy
resources are vital to the country’s contribution to the global movement of cutting
down carbon emissions, the attainment of sustainable development and the
improvement of quality of life of the Filipino consuming public.
Guide Questions:
1. Where is your place of residence?
2. Are there any Geothermal Power plants present near your area? If yes, please
identify them.
3. What do you think of the Philippines target to increase its geothermal power
capacities? Could it help solve the energy crisis (power shortages) the country is
facing today? And could it be the answer to the Philippines’ goal of mitigating
effects of climate change through cutting down carbon emissions? Explain your
answers.
8
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
What is It
How a Geothermal Power Plant Works?
There are a three main types of geothermal plants: 1) Dry steam, 2) Flash
steam and 3) Binary cycle.
What these types of geothermal power plants all share for all intents and
purpose is that they use steam turbines to produce Electrical energy. In general, a
steam turbine is a rotary heat engine that converts thermal energy contained in the
steam to mechanical energy or then to electrical energy. This process is
fundamentally the same as other thermal power plants utilizing different sources of
energy than geothermal.
To enhance our understanding about how a Geothermal Power plant works,
let’s take a look back at the schematic diagram of a Heat Engine.
Hot Reservoir
Cold Reservoir
Heat
Engine
QH
QC
W
The heat engine
 Absorbs heat QH from a
reservoir of higher
temperature thus increasing
its internal energy
 Converts some of this energy
to work
 Expels the remaining energy
as heat QC to a reservoir of
lower temperature.
9
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
Gasoline and diesel engines, jet engines, and steam turbines are all heat
engines that do work by using part of the heat transfer from some source. Heat
transfer occurs spontaneously from a hot object to a cold one, consistent with the
first expression of the second law of thermodynamics which states that “Heat
transfer occurs spontaneously from higher- to lower-temperature bodies but
never spontaneously in the reverse direction.”
Further, as heat engines use a large amount of energy from a reservoir of
higher temperature QH, scientists make sure that the work is done as efficient as
possible. So that the work done W will be equal to QH, and no heat transfer (QC=0) to
the environment. However, this is impossible and will violate the second expression
of the second law of thermodynamics which states “It is impossible in any system
for heat transfer from a reservoir to completely convert to work in a cyclical
process in which the system returns to its initial state.”
Based from the diagram, a heat engine operates between reservoirs of different
temperatures. It is a device that uses a cyclical process. Therefore, the heat QH taken
from the hot reservoir cannot be used completely to do work W, hence, there will
always be a transfer of heat QC that is expelled to the environment.
Moving forward, let us now see how heat transfer and energy transformations
in a Geothermal plant works by relating it to the processes of a heat engine. In a
geothermal power plant, the temperature in a production well is higher than the
temperature in the Injection well (Condenser). We can also call the wells as hot and
cold reservoirs, respectively.
In a Geothermal Power plant;
1. Heat transfers from the mantle to the hot reservoir (Production well) of the
Power plant. Then, the plant absorbs heat QH from the production wells
to produce steam.
2. Next, steam coming from the production well is used to spin electricity
turbines which is connected to a generator to generate electricity. Here,
you see that the heat coming from a source is used to do mechanical work
in moving the turbine. This shows that heat QH can be partly used to do
work W same as heat engines.
3. And lastly, it expels some of the heat QC in an Injection well (condenser),
this will ensure that the water that is drawn up from the production wells
returns to the geothermal reservoir where it regains the thermal energy
that was used to generate electricity.
10
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
Let us see the diagram of a Geothermal Plant from this site
https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/geothermal/geothermal-power-plants.php to
understand this better.
Thermal Energy from the Mantle
Based from the diagram, water is being heated deep below (mantle) from the
earth surface. Then, the plant uses up the Heat QH from the production well to
produce steam. This will be sent to the steam turbine where the thermal energy is
converted to electricity with a generator through a process called electromagnetic
induction. The following stage in the cycle is cooling the liquid and sending it back
to the heat source.
What’s More
Activity 2: A closer look at a Geothermal Power plant!
Most power plants—regardless of whether energized by coal, gas, atomic force,
or geothermal energy—share one element for all intents and purpose: they convert
heat to electricity.
Here is something you will do to understand this better. Read the following
steps on how a Geothermal Plant works. After that, in the given illustration, label the
locations where the different processes (energy transformations) in a Geothermal
Power Plant take place. Good luck!
11
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
Now it’s your turn! Can you locate the five processes that take place in a
Geothermal Power plant in the following diagram? The first step is done for you!
Illustrated by: Corazon E. Booc
1. Thermal Energy from the Mantle
A Geothermal Power Plant gets its energy deep below the surface of
the earth.
2. Production Wells are drilled
Shafts/wells are bored down a few kilometers to the earth surface.
One shaft is used to pump water down to the hot rocks, and another
one which will permit the steam to rise up.
3.1 Steam Turns the turbine
Steam is used to spin electricity turbines which is connected to a
generator.
3.2 Injection Wells
At this part of the power plant, this will ensure that the water that is
drawn up from the production wells returns to the geothermal reservoir
where it regains the thermal energy (heat) that we have used to generate
electricity.
4. The turbine drives the electric generator
The rotational energy from the turning turbine shaft is used directly
to spin magnets inside a large coil and create electrical current. The
turbine and generator are the primary pieces of equipment used to
convert geothermal energy to electrical energy.
12
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
Activity 3:
Identification. Using the graph below, carefully answer each of the questions
below.
1. In what year did the Philippines had its first Geothermal Power Plant established?
Which plant/s is it?
______________________________________________________________________________.
2. Among the Geothermal Power Plants in the Philippines, which has the greatest
contribution to electricity generation? How much is it in terms of Megawatt
electric (MWe)?
______________________________________________________________________________.
3. Which plant has the lowest generated electricity?
______________________________________________________________________________.
4. How much is the total generated electricity in terms of Megawatt Electric (MWe)
of all the Geothermal Power Plants based on their design capacity?
______________________________________________________________________________.
5. Would you support the local government in your area if a geothermal power plant
will be built? Why?
______________________________________________________________________________.
32 140 442.8
15.7
234 123 49.4 172.5
610.2
108.5
1928.1
2018
1993
1979
1979
1979
1983
2014
1983
1997
1996
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
2030
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
Year
Established
Design
Capacity
(MWe)
Axis Title
Geothermal Power Plants in the Philippines
Design Capacity (MWe) Year Established
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CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
What I Have Learned
I. Write T if the statement is True and F if the statement is false.
__________ 1. A heat engine takes in heat from the low temperature reservoir, does
work using this energy, and expels the rest in the heat sink at the high-
temperature reservoir.
__________ 2. A Geothermal Power plant takes its energy from the heat deep below
the earth’s surface.
__________ 3. Heat naturally travels from cold to hot objects.
__________ 4. Steam engines takes it energy from the condenser to drive the turbines
and generator in generating electricity.
__________ 5. The main energy transformations in geothermal power stations are;
Kinetic Energy ---->Thermal Energy ----> Electrical Energy.
II. Explain briefly how heat engines processes conforms with the mechanisms
of how Geothermal Plants generates electricity.
What I Can Do
According to an article entitled Environmental effects of heat provision from
geothermal energy in comparison to other sources of energy, from Proceedings World
Geothermal Congress by Kaltschmitt, M. (2000, May), he compares heat provision
from geothermal energy with the provision of heat from other renewable energy and
fossil fuel energy sources. This was done based on Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)
methodology for the potential impacts "finite energy resource consumption",
"additional anthropogenic greenhouse effect", "acidification of lakes and rivers" and
"human and ecotoxicity (based on SO2 and NOx)". During his investigation, he
compared heat provision from the soil and from groundwater with heat pumps, from
hydrothermal resources and from deep wells as well as from biomass, from solar
collectors and from light oil and natural gas. His study showed that the heat
provision from geothermal energy could contribute considerably to reduce the
environmental impact caused by the use of fossil fuel energy to accomplish the same
supply.
To find out more of this study, let us do the following activity.
14
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
How do the emissions from a geothermal power plant compare to those from
a fossil fuel power plant?
Objective/s:
1. After performing this activity, you should be able to;
• Perform laboratory experiments using household materials.
• Know and differentiate the combustion products from fossil fuel power plants
and a geothermal power plant.
• Understand and explain how does the combustion products of power plants
from different fuel source contributes to air pollution.
Materials & Equipment Needed:
• Bunsen Burners (Candle Lamp or gas stove)
• Charcoal and wood chips
• Matches
• Kettle
• Water
• Small mirror
• Tongs (Kitchen tool)
• Hand gloves
Safety and Environmental Requirements: Caution should be used when handling
hot materials, especially the mirror. Fuels are combustible and should be kept
contained while burning. When using the Bunsen burner, be sure to keep the mirror
high above the flame. Parents can do the activity following the procedure while letting
their children observe what happens during the experiment.
Suggestions: You can use multiple fuel sources to determine the amount of
particulates produced by each source.
Procedure:
Illustrated by: Rene Y. Sumagang
15
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
A. Candle Pollution (see figure A) – Fossil Fuel Power Plants
1. Light a candle and let it burn for a few seconds.
2. Hold the small mirror above the flame using a tong so that the glass touches
the top of the flame.
3. After soot has covered most of the surface, set it upside down to cool. Repeat
as many times as you want. (Tip: Older students can do this in small groups.
Please bear in minds that the glass will get HOT.)
4. Observe the mirror and see (or you can touch it if you want but let it cool
first) the black substance covering the mirror.
5. What is it? How is it formed?
The black substance that is created in the mirror is what we call soot. The
soot is the build-up of carbon particles from burning a candle. This is a small-scale
version of the air pollution resulting from the burning of fossil fuels.
B. Heating Up Water (See Figure B) – Geothermal Plants
1. Using a kettle, bring to a boil a small amount of water using a Bunsen burner
or a stove.
2. Hold the small mirror above the steam using a tong so that the glass touches
the top of the water vapor.
3. Observe the mirror and see if it contains any particulates (soot) covering the
mirror?
4. Did you see any soot? If yes, how it is formed?
Record your observations in the table below:
Guide questions:
1. If you answer yes in the question 1 in the table above, how it is formed in A?
in B?
2. How are you going to compare the combustion products of fossil plants and
geothermal plants?
3. Which of the two combustion products contributes to air pollution? Explain
why?
Question
Experiments
Set-up A Set-up B
1. Did you see any soot in the mirror?
2. How it is formed?
3. Describe the combustion products in
terms of its physical appearance.
4. Can this combustion product contributes
to air pollution? Why?
16
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
Summary:
In this module, we have learned that:
• "Geo" refers to "earth," and "warm" refers to "heat," so geothermal energy
means "heat from the earth".
• According to ThinkGeoEnergy Research 2020, as of 2019, the Philippines is
the third biggest maker of geothermal power after the United States of America
and Indonesia.
• Geothermal reservoirs are pools of water heated by magma deep below the
surface.
• Megawatt Electrical (MWe) is a unit of electrical power used in the electric
power industry.
• Heat Engines takes in heat from the high temperature reservoir, does work
using this energy, and expels the rest in the cold sink at the low-temperature
reservoir.
• Geothermal Power Plant takes its energy from the heat deep below the earth’s
surface.
• Geothermal Power plants takes the same heat processes and energy
transformations as heat engines.
• The main energy transformations that takes place in a Geothermal Power
station are; Thermal Energy ---> Mechanical Energy ----> Electrical Energy
The diagram below shows how energy transfers in a Geothermal Power Stations.
17
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
Assessment
I. Select the letter of the option that answers each question or complete the
statements.
1. Heat transfers in heat engines just like in a Geothermal Plants from
A. From/to reservoirs of the same temperature
B. From cold to hot reservoirs
C. From hot to cold reservoirs
D. Cannot be predicted
2. According to International Geothermal Association (IGA), worldwide, the
Philippines ranks ___________ to the United States of America in producing
Geothermal Energy.
A. First
B. Third
C. Second
D. Fourth
3. A geothermal Power plant takes its energy from
A. Wind
B. Water
C. Sunlight
D. Heat from the earth
4. What country is the largest producer of Geothermal Energy?
A. Russia
B. United States of America
C. Japan
D. China
5. All of the following power plants uses steam to drive the turbines to produce
electricity except
A. Hydropower
B. Coal-fired
C. Geothermal
D. Nuclear
II. Complete the following paragraph by filling in the blank space.
The main energy transformations in Geothermal power stations are:
________________ ---> ________________ ---> ________________ .
A geothermal power plant gets energy from the __________ deep below the
surface of the earth. _______________ are drilled down, often as deep as several
kilometers, one to pump water down to the hot rocks, and another nearby which will
allow the _________ to rise up. This ___________ is then used to spin turbines which
is connected to a generator that generates _____________.
18
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
Answer Key
What
I
Know
Test
I.
1.
D
2.
C
3.
B
4.
C
5.
C
Test
II.
What
Is
It What
I
have
Learned
I.
1.
F
2.
T
3.
F
4.
F
5.
F
II.
Heat
engines
absorbed
heat
from
hot
reservoir
to
increase
its
internal
energy.
The
heat
taken
from
the
hot
reservoir
is
partly
used
to
do
work,
whereas
the
remaining
heat
is
expelled
to
the
cold
reservoir
(environment).
Similarly,
in
a
Geothermal
Power
Plant,
they
absorbed
heat
from
the
production
well
(hot
reservoir)
to
produce
heated
water
(steam)
and
this
steam
(heat
energy)
is
used
to
do
mechanical
work
(turn
turbines)
to
produce
electricity
and
releases
some
of
the
heated
water
(steam)
going
back
to
the
injection
wells
(cold
reservoir).
What’s
More
I.
Identification:
1.
1979.
Tiwi
GPP,
Mak-Ban
Binary
and
Mak-Ban
GPP.
2.
Unified
Leyte
GPP.
610.2
MWe.
3.
Mak-Ban
Binary.
4.
1928.1
MWe.
5.
Answers
may
vary.
Assessment
Test
I.
1.
C
2.
C
3.
D
4.
B
5.
A
Test
II.
The
main
energy
transformations
in
Geothermal
power
stations
are:
Thermal
Energy
--->Mechanical
Energy
--->Electrical
Energy.
A
geothermal
power
plant
gets
energy
from
the
heat
deep
below
the
surface
of
the
earth.
Wells
are
drilled
down,
often
as
deep
as
several
kilometers,
one
to
pump
water
down
to
the
hot
rocks,
and
another
nearby
which
will
allow
the
heated
water
(steam)
to
rise
up.
This
steam
is
then
used
to
spin
turbines
which
is
connected
to
a
generator
that
generates
electricity.
19
CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9
References
Department of Education. EASE Module 14 The Laws of Thermodynamics.
Department of Education. Science 9 Learner’s Material. Unit 4 Module 4 Electricity
& Magnetism.
"How A Geothermal Power Plant Works (Simple) - Text Version". 2020. Energy.Gov.
https://www.energy.gov/eere/geothermal/how-geothermal-power-plant-
works-simple-text-version. [Accessed 29 May 2020, 8:30 PM].
Butterfield, Ph. D., Laura J. W., Brandon A. Gillette, and Richard Shin. 2020.
"Geothermal Energy (Five Activities)". Energy.Gov.
https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/06/f16/geothermal_energy.
pdf. [Accessed 23 May 2020, 1:30 PM].
Kaltschmitt, M. (2000, May). Environmental effects of heat provision from geothermal
energy in comparison to other resources of energy. In Proceedings World
Geothermal Congress (pp. 627-632). https://www. geothermal-
energy.org/pdf/IGAstandard/WGC /2000/R0908.PDF. [Accessed 1 July
2021]
Urone, P. P., & Hinrichs, R. (2012, June 21). College Physics. OpenStax.
https://openstax.org/books/college-physics/pages/15-3-introduction-to-
the-second-law-of-thermodynamics-heat-engines-and-their-efficiency
[Accessed 1 July, 2020 12:00 PM]
U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - independent statistics and analysis.
Geothermal power plants - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).
(2020, November 19). https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/geothermal/
geothermal-power-plants.php. [Accessed 1 July, 2020 12:00 PM]
https://www.doe.gov.ph/sites/default/files/pdf/electric_power/electric_power_
plants_luzon_december_2020.pdf. [Accessed 1 July, 2021 12:00 PM]
https://www.doe.gov.ph/sites/default/files/pdf/electric_power/electric_power_
plants_visayas_december_2020.pdf. [Accessed 1 July, 2021 12:00 PM]
https://www.doe.gov.ph/sites/default/files/pdf/electric_power/electric_power_
plants_mindanao_december_2020-03_may-2021.pdf. [Accessed 1 July, 2021
12:00 PM]
https://www.doe.gov.ph/sites/default/files/pdf/pep/2008_re_alternative_fuels_
energy_efficiency_and_conservation.pdf
[Accessed 1 July, 2021 12:00 PM]
For inquiries or feedback, please write or call:
Department of Education - Bureau of Learning Resources (DepEd-BLR)
Ground Floor, Bonifacio Bldg., DepEd Complex
Meralco Avenue, Pasig City, Philippines 1600
Telefax: (632) 8634-1072; 8634-1054; 8631-4985
Email Address: blr.lrqad@deped.gov.ph * blr.lrpd@deped.gov.ph

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SCI9-Q4-MOD9.pdfetiwtitw3i3uu45w5wtitwjt

  • 1. CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 Science Quarter 4 – Module 9: Geothermal Energy 9
  • 2. Science – Grade 9 Alternative Delivery Mode Quarter 4 – Module 9: Geothermal Energy First Edition, 2020 Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties. Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trademarks, etc.) included in this module are owned by their respective copyright holders. Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them. Published by the Department of Education Secretary: Leonor Magtolis Briones Undersecretary: Diosdado M. San Antonio Printed in the Philippines ________________________ Department of Education – Division of Iligan City Office Address: General Aguinaldo, St., Iligan City Telefax: (063)221-6069 E-mail Address: iligan.city@deped.gov.ph Development Team of the Module Writers: Mark Albert A. Minerales Editor: Shila Rose D. Sila (PNU), Alfons Jayson O. Pelgone (PNU) Reviewers: Richard Talaid, Fe Nijaga, Jeremy Sacon Illustrator: Mark Albert A. Minerales, Rene Y. Sumagang, Corazon E. Booc Layout Artists: Mark Albert A. Minerales, Jacqueline E. Libut Management Team: Roy Angelo E. Gazo, PhD, CESO V Nimfa R. Lago, PhD, CESE Henry B. Abueva Ann Q. Solijon Sherlita L. Daguisonan Meriam S. Otarra Charlotte D. Quidlat
  • 3. 9 Science Quarter 4 – Module 9: Geothermal Energy
  • 4. Introductory Message This Self-Learning Module (SLM) is prepared so that you, our dear learners, can continue your studies and learn while at home. Activities, questions, directions, exercises, and discussions are carefully stated for you to understand each lesson. Each SLM is composed of different parts. Each part shall guide you step-by- step as you discover and understand the lesson prepared for you. Pre-tests are provided to measure your prior knowledge on lessons in each SLM. This will tell you if you need to proceed on completing this module or if you need to ask your facilitator or your teacher’s assistance for better understanding of the lesson. At the end of each module, you need to answer the post-test to self-check your learning. Answer keys are provided for each activity and test. We trust that you will be honest in using these. In addition to the material in the main text, Notes to the Teacher are also provided to our facilitators and parents for strategies and reminders on how they can best help you on your home-based learning. Please use this module with care. Do not put unnecessary marks on any part of this SLM. Use a separate sheet of paper in answering the exercises and tests. And read the instructions carefully before performing each task. If you have any questions in using this SLM or any difficulty in answering the tasks in this module, do not hesitate to consult your teacher or facilitator. Thank you.
  • 5. 1 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 What I Need to Know You’ve learned from previous lesson that Heat, as a form of energy has many practical applications in our daily lives; cooking, heating and cooling, and generating electricity all depend on energy transformations that end by transferring heat energy. This module will help you learn how heat transfer and energy transformations make heat engines like Geothermal Plants work. The children will learn how electrical energy is being generated in a Geothermal Power Plants. Learners will do some activities and simple experiments. For us to do it, we will go through the following lesson; Lesson 1: Geothermal Energy At the end of this lesson, you will be able to explain how heat transfer and energy transformation make heat engines like geothermal plant works. Specifically, after going through this module, you will be able to: 1. Identify the location of some Geothermal Power plants in the Philippine map. 2. Trace the energy transformations from thermal energy up to the generation of electrical energy in a Geothermal power plant. What I Know I. Multiple Choice: Read the statements carefully. Choose the BEST answer. Write the letter of your answers on the space provided before each number. 1. Which of the following geothermal power plants in the Philippines is/are still in operation up to the present? A. Tiwi Geothermal Power Plant B. Mt. Apo – EDC Geothermal Power Plant C. Unified Leyte Geothermal Power Plant D. All of the Above 2. Where does geothermal energy come from? A. Wind B. Rivers C. Heat from the earth D. Sunlight
  • 6. 2 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 3. What does it mean when we say that geothermal energy is ‘sustainable’? A. That it generates greenhouse gases. B. That it will not be used up. C. That there is a limited supply D. That it can be used anywhere on earth. 4. What potential environmental issue can occur when building a geothermal energy plant? A. The burning of fossil fuels B. Water pollution from the chemicals C. Toxic gases can be released when drilling D. All of the above 5. Geothermal power plants can generate ____________ by using hot water and steam from deep in the earth. A. Air Conditioning B. Greenhouse Gases C. Electricity D. Hydropower II. Arrange the following energy transformations that takes place in a geothermal power plant by placing the terms below inside the appropriate box. • Electrical Energy • Kinetic Energy of steam rotating turbine • Thermal Energy of Water trapped in underground reservoirs • Thermal Energy from earth’s interior • Thermal Energy for Distribution • Kinetic Energy of Turbine and Generator
  • 7. 3 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 Lesson 1 Geothermal Energy What’s In In the past lesson, you have learned the three methods of heat transfer. First is Conduction in which the transfer of heat is due to direct contact. An example is putting a Pot in firewood. The second is through Convection in which heat is transferred from one location to another by the movement of fluids. An example is using an Air-conditioner in your room. The third is Radiation, the transfer of heat by an electromagnetic wave. An example is using your microwave oven in baking some foods in your house. You have also learned that the spontaneous or the natural process is where energy flows from an object of high temperature to an object of lower temperature. Further, you have learned how heat transfer can be turned into work and how doing work releases heat. In this module, we will make use of this mechanism of how heat transfer and energy transformations make heat engines like geothermal plant works. What’s New There is a natural source of power found beneath surface of the earth that has been around for a considerable length of time. Underground, far underneath us, there are pools of water warmed by magma (or liquid rocks). These pools of water make up our geothermal repositories. Turning earth’s temperature to electricity thus warming or cooling our homes and industries is the essence of Geothermal Energy. "Geo" refers to "earth," and "thermal" refers to "heat," so geothermal energy means "heat from the earth". Geothermal energy is created during the radioactive decay of isotopes below the earth’s surface. This procedure is constant such that geothermal energy is considered a sustainable power source. There are currently geothermal power plants in over 80 countries in line with the Geothermal Energy Associations and although the United States of America is currently the worldwide leader of geothermal power, other countries like Indonesia,
  • 8. 4 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 Turkey and even our own country the Philippines are in the process of expanding their power capacities. In the table below are list of the existing Geothermal Power plants in the Philippines as of December 2020 according to Philippines’ Department of Energy. Name Design Capacity (MWe) Location in the Philippines Year Established Maibarara 1 & 2 GPP 32 Sto. Tomas Batangas 1 – Feb. 2014 2 – May 2018 BACMAN GPP 140 Bacon & Manito Albay Sept. 1993 -Makiling-Banahaw (Mak-Ban) Geothermal Power Plant -Mak-Ban Binary 442.8 15.7 Calauan, Laguna Bay, Laguna Apr. 1979 Tiwi GPP 234 Tiwi, Albay Jan. 1979 Tongonan I GPP 123 Kananga Leyte June 1983 Nasulo GPP 49.4 Valencia, Negros Oriental Sept. 2014 Palinpinon GPP 172.5 Valencia, Negros Oriental August 1983 Unified Leyte GPP 610.2 Ormoc and Kananga Leyte July 1996/1997 Mt. Apo – EDC GPP 108.5 Kidapawan, North Cotabato December 1996 Can you recognize some of them? To do so, let us do the Activity in the next page. Activity 1: Its more “HEAT” in the Philippines! Objectives: 1. After performing this Activity, you should be able to; • Identify the location of some Geothermal Power Plants in the Philippine map; • Determine the region in which the Power plant belongs. Materials Needed: • Pictures of Geothermal Power Plant in the Philippines • Philippine Map • Pins Procedure: 1. Prior to answering this activity, you can have a virtual eco tour at Tongonan Leyte (now Unified Leyte) Geothermal Power Plant in Ormoc City. Please type the link in your internet browser. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2NzzKLtuqSU)
  • 9. 5 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 2. Using the Philippine Map, identify the location of the geothermal power plants based on the table below 3. Using the table below, fill in the blank column and write the region of the Power plants location. 4. Using the Google search engine, look for pictures of the different Geothermal power plants on the internet. Then, print a small size, cut, and pin the pictures of the power plant on the Philippine map. Name Design Capacity (MWe) Location Region Maibarara 1 & 2 GPP 32 Sto. Tomas Batangas BACMAN GPP 140 Bacon & Manito Albay -Makiling-Banahaw (Mak- Ban) Geothermal Power Plant -Mak-Ban Binary 442.8 15.7 Calauan, Laguna Bay, Laguna Tiwi GPP 234 Tiwi, Albay Tongonan I GPP 123 Kananga Leyte Nasulo GPP 49.4 Valencia, Negros Oriental Palinpinon GPP 172.5 Valencia, Negros Oriental Unified Leyte 610.2 Ormoc and Kananga Leyte Mt. Apo – EDC GPP 108.5 Kidapawan, North Cotabato
  • 11. 7 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 Illustrated by: Corazon E. Booc The Philippines is one of the world’s top producers of geothermal power, as it is located along the Ring of Fire. It is the third biggest maker of geothermal power after the United States of America (USA) and Indonesia. Based from ThinkGeoEnergy Research 2020, as of 2019, the USA had a capacity of 3676 megawatts of geothermal power, followed by Indonesia with 2133 megawatts while that of the Philippines was 1918 megawatts. The Philippines was followed by Turkey with 1526 MW. The Philippines currently has nine operational geothermal fields which supply about 13.4 % of the nation’s energy. According to the Philippines’ Department of Energy (DoE) during the Public Consultation for the Philippine Energy Plan (PEP) 2008-2030 held at Tacloban City on July 21, 2008, from 2008-2020 the government has a long- term plan to double capacity of Renewable Energy which is 4.8 % growth rate. Further they have set plans that by 2030 there will be already an optimization of Renewable Energy Resources. With that, chances would be the Philippines will hold the no 1. spot of the world’s top producers of geothermal power replacing the mighty country USA that has an installed capacity of around 3,676 MW. Moreover, as part of the governments’ Energy Efficiency and Conservation policies, optimization of renewable energy resources are vital to the country’s contribution to the global movement of cutting down carbon emissions, the attainment of sustainable development and the improvement of quality of life of the Filipino consuming public. Guide Questions: 1. Where is your place of residence? 2. Are there any Geothermal Power plants present near your area? If yes, please identify them. 3. What do you think of the Philippines target to increase its geothermal power capacities? Could it help solve the energy crisis (power shortages) the country is facing today? And could it be the answer to the Philippines’ goal of mitigating effects of climate change through cutting down carbon emissions? Explain your answers.
  • 12. 8 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 What is It How a Geothermal Power Plant Works? There are a three main types of geothermal plants: 1) Dry steam, 2) Flash steam and 3) Binary cycle. What these types of geothermal power plants all share for all intents and purpose is that they use steam turbines to produce Electrical energy. In general, a steam turbine is a rotary heat engine that converts thermal energy contained in the steam to mechanical energy or then to electrical energy. This process is fundamentally the same as other thermal power plants utilizing different sources of energy than geothermal. To enhance our understanding about how a Geothermal Power plant works, let’s take a look back at the schematic diagram of a Heat Engine. Hot Reservoir Cold Reservoir Heat Engine QH QC W The heat engine  Absorbs heat QH from a reservoir of higher temperature thus increasing its internal energy  Converts some of this energy to work  Expels the remaining energy as heat QC to a reservoir of lower temperature.
  • 13. 9 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 Gasoline and diesel engines, jet engines, and steam turbines are all heat engines that do work by using part of the heat transfer from some source. Heat transfer occurs spontaneously from a hot object to a cold one, consistent with the first expression of the second law of thermodynamics which states that “Heat transfer occurs spontaneously from higher- to lower-temperature bodies but never spontaneously in the reverse direction.” Further, as heat engines use a large amount of energy from a reservoir of higher temperature QH, scientists make sure that the work is done as efficient as possible. So that the work done W will be equal to QH, and no heat transfer (QC=0) to the environment. However, this is impossible and will violate the second expression of the second law of thermodynamics which states “It is impossible in any system for heat transfer from a reservoir to completely convert to work in a cyclical process in which the system returns to its initial state.” Based from the diagram, a heat engine operates between reservoirs of different temperatures. It is a device that uses a cyclical process. Therefore, the heat QH taken from the hot reservoir cannot be used completely to do work W, hence, there will always be a transfer of heat QC that is expelled to the environment. Moving forward, let us now see how heat transfer and energy transformations in a Geothermal plant works by relating it to the processes of a heat engine. In a geothermal power plant, the temperature in a production well is higher than the temperature in the Injection well (Condenser). We can also call the wells as hot and cold reservoirs, respectively. In a Geothermal Power plant; 1. Heat transfers from the mantle to the hot reservoir (Production well) of the Power plant. Then, the plant absorbs heat QH from the production wells to produce steam. 2. Next, steam coming from the production well is used to spin electricity turbines which is connected to a generator to generate electricity. Here, you see that the heat coming from a source is used to do mechanical work in moving the turbine. This shows that heat QH can be partly used to do work W same as heat engines. 3. And lastly, it expels some of the heat QC in an Injection well (condenser), this will ensure that the water that is drawn up from the production wells returns to the geothermal reservoir where it regains the thermal energy that was used to generate electricity.
  • 14. 10 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 Let us see the diagram of a Geothermal Plant from this site https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/geothermal/geothermal-power-plants.php to understand this better. Thermal Energy from the Mantle Based from the diagram, water is being heated deep below (mantle) from the earth surface. Then, the plant uses up the Heat QH from the production well to produce steam. This will be sent to the steam turbine where the thermal energy is converted to electricity with a generator through a process called electromagnetic induction. The following stage in the cycle is cooling the liquid and sending it back to the heat source. What’s More Activity 2: A closer look at a Geothermal Power plant! Most power plants—regardless of whether energized by coal, gas, atomic force, or geothermal energy—share one element for all intents and purpose: they convert heat to electricity. Here is something you will do to understand this better. Read the following steps on how a Geothermal Plant works. After that, in the given illustration, label the locations where the different processes (energy transformations) in a Geothermal Power Plant take place. Good luck!
  • 15. 11 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 Now it’s your turn! Can you locate the five processes that take place in a Geothermal Power plant in the following diagram? The first step is done for you! Illustrated by: Corazon E. Booc 1. Thermal Energy from the Mantle A Geothermal Power Plant gets its energy deep below the surface of the earth. 2. Production Wells are drilled Shafts/wells are bored down a few kilometers to the earth surface. One shaft is used to pump water down to the hot rocks, and another one which will permit the steam to rise up. 3.1 Steam Turns the turbine Steam is used to spin electricity turbines which is connected to a generator. 3.2 Injection Wells At this part of the power plant, this will ensure that the water that is drawn up from the production wells returns to the geothermal reservoir where it regains the thermal energy (heat) that we have used to generate electricity. 4. The turbine drives the electric generator The rotational energy from the turning turbine shaft is used directly to spin magnets inside a large coil and create electrical current. The turbine and generator are the primary pieces of equipment used to convert geothermal energy to electrical energy.
  • 16. 12 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 Activity 3: Identification. Using the graph below, carefully answer each of the questions below. 1. In what year did the Philippines had its first Geothermal Power Plant established? Which plant/s is it? ______________________________________________________________________________. 2. Among the Geothermal Power Plants in the Philippines, which has the greatest contribution to electricity generation? How much is it in terms of Megawatt electric (MWe)? ______________________________________________________________________________. 3. Which plant has the lowest generated electricity? ______________________________________________________________________________. 4. How much is the total generated electricity in terms of Megawatt Electric (MWe) of all the Geothermal Power Plants based on their design capacity? ______________________________________________________________________________. 5. Would you support the local government in your area if a geothermal power plant will be built? Why? ______________________________________________________________________________. 32 140 442.8 15.7 234 123 49.4 172.5 610.2 108.5 1928.1 2018 1993 1979 1979 1979 1983 2014 1983 1997 1996 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Year Established Design Capacity (MWe) Axis Title Geothermal Power Plants in the Philippines Design Capacity (MWe) Year Established
  • 17. 13 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 What I Have Learned I. Write T if the statement is True and F if the statement is false. __________ 1. A heat engine takes in heat from the low temperature reservoir, does work using this energy, and expels the rest in the heat sink at the high- temperature reservoir. __________ 2. A Geothermal Power plant takes its energy from the heat deep below the earth’s surface. __________ 3. Heat naturally travels from cold to hot objects. __________ 4. Steam engines takes it energy from the condenser to drive the turbines and generator in generating electricity. __________ 5. The main energy transformations in geothermal power stations are; Kinetic Energy ---->Thermal Energy ----> Electrical Energy. II. Explain briefly how heat engines processes conforms with the mechanisms of how Geothermal Plants generates electricity. What I Can Do According to an article entitled Environmental effects of heat provision from geothermal energy in comparison to other sources of energy, from Proceedings World Geothermal Congress by Kaltschmitt, M. (2000, May), he compares heat provision from geothermal energy with the provision of heat from other renewable energy and fossil fuel energy sources. This was done based on Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology for the potential impacts "finite energy resource consumption", "additional anthropogenic greenhouse effect", "acidification of lakes and rivers" and "human and ecotoxicity (based on SO2 and NOx)". During his investigation, he compared heat provision from the soil and from groundwater with heat pumps, from hydrothermal resources and from deep wells as well as from biomass, from solar collectors and from light oil and natural gas. His study showed that the heat provision from geothermal energy could contribute considerably to reduce the environmental impact caused by the use of fossil fuel energy to accomplish the same supply. To find out more of this study, let us do the following activity.
  • 18. 14 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 How do the emissions from a geothermal power plant compare to those from a fossil fuel power plant? Objective/s: 1. After performing this activity, you should be able to; • Perform laboratory experiments using household materials. • Know and differentiate the combustion products from fossil fuel power plants and a geothermal power plant. • Understand and explain how does the combustion products of power plants from different fuel source contributes to air pollution. Materials & Equipment Needed: • Bunsen Burners (Candle Lamp or gas stove) • Charcoal and wood chips • Matches • Kettle • Water • Small mirror • Tongs (Kitchen tool) • Hand gloves Safety and Environmental Requirements: Caution should be used when handling hot materials, especially the mirror. Fuels are combustible and should be kept contained while burning. When using the Bunsen burner, be sure to keep the mirror high above the flame. Parents can do the activity following the procedure while letting their children observe what happens during the experiment. Suggestions: You can use multiple fuel sources to determine the amount of particulates produced by each source. Procedure: Illustrated by: Rene Y. Sumagang
  • 19. 15 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 A. Candle Pollution (see figure A) – Fossil Fuel Power Plants 1. Light a candle and let it burn for a few seconds. 2. Hold the small mirror above the flame using a tong so that the glass touches the top of the flame. 3. After soot has covered most of the surface, set it upside down to cool. Repeat as many times as you want. (Tip: Older students can do this in small groups. Please bear in minds that the glass will get HOT.) 4. Observe the mirror and see (or you can touch it if you want but let it cool first) the black substance covering the mirror. 5. What is it? How is it formed? The black substance that is created in the mirror is what we call soot. The soot is the build-up of carbon particles from burning a candle. This is a small-scale version of the air pollution resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. B. Heating Up Water (See Figure B) – Geothermal Plants 1. Using a kettle, bring to a boil a small amount of water using a Bunsen burner or a stove. 2. Hold the small mirror above the steam using a tong so that the glass touches the top of the water vapor. 3. Observe the mirror and see if it contains any particulates (soot) covering the mirror? 4. Did you see any soot? If yes, how it is formed? Record your observations in the table below: Guide questions: 1. If you answer yes in the question 1 in the table above, how it is formed in A? in B? 2. How are you going to compare the combustion products of fossil plants and geothermal plants? 3. Which of the two combustion products contributes to air pollution? Explain why? Question Experiments Set-up A Set-up B 1. Did you see any soot in the mirror? 2. How it is formed? 3. Describe the combustion products in terms of its physical appearance. 4. Can this combustion product contributes to air pollution? Why?
  • 20. 16 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 Summary: In this module, we have learned that: • "Geo" refers to "earth," and "warm" refers to "heat," so geothermal energy means "heat from the earth". • According to ThinkGeoEnergy Research 2020, as of 2019, the Philippines is the third biggest maker of geothermal power after the United States of America and Indonesia. • Geothermal reservoirs are pools of water heated by magma deep below the surface. • Megawatt Electrical (MWe) is a unit of electrical power used in the electric power industry. • Heat Engines takes in heat from the high temperature reservoir, does work using this energy, and expels the rest in the cold sink at the low-temperature reservoir. • Geothermal Power Plant takes its energy from the heat deep below the earth’s surface. • Geothermal Power plants takes the same heat processes and energy transformations as heat engines. • The main energy transformations that takes place in a Geothermal Power station are; Thermal Energy ---> Mechanical Energy ----> Electrical Energy The diagram below shows how energy transfers in a Geothermal Power Stations.
  • 21. 17 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 Assessment I. Select the letter of the option that answers each question or complete the statements. 1. Heat transfers in heat engines just like in a Geothermal Plants from A. From/to reservoirs of the same temperature B. From cold to hot reservoirs C. From hot to cold reservoirs D. Cannot be predicted 2. According to International Geothermal Association (IGA), worldwide, the Philippines ranks ___________ to the United States of America in producing Geothermal Energy. A. First B. Third C. Second D. Fourth 3. A geothermal Power plant takes its energy from A. Wind B. Water C. Sunlight D. Heat from the earth 4. What country is the largest producer of Geothermal Energy? A. Russia B. United States of America C. Japan D. China 5. All of the following power plants uses steam to drive the turbines to produce electricity except A. Hydropower B. Coal-fired C. Geothermal D. Nuclear II. Complete the following paragraph by filling in the blank space. The main energy transformations in Geothermal power stations are: ________________ ---> ________________ ---> ________________ . A geothermal power plant gets energy from the __________ deep below the surface of the earth. _______________ are drilled down, often as deep as several kilometers, one to pump water down to the hot rocks, and another nearby which will allow the _________ to rise up. This ___________ is then used to spin turbines which is connected to a generator that generates _____________.
  • 22. 18 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 Answer Key What I Know Test I. 1. D 2. C 3. B 4. C 5. C Test II. What Is It What I have Learned I. 1. F 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. F II. Heat engines absorbed heat from hot reservoir to increase its internal energy. The heat taken from the hot reservoir is partly used to do work, whereas the remaining heat is expelled to the cold reservoir (environment). Similarly, in a Geothermal Power Plant, they absorbed heat from the production well (hot reservoir) to produce heated water (steam) and this steam (heat energy) is used to do mechanical work (turn turbines) to produce electricity and releases some of the heated water (steam) going back to the injection wells (cold reservoir). What’s More I. Identification: 1. 1979. Tiwi GPP, Mak-Ban Binary and Mak-Ban GPP. 2. Unified Leyte GPP. 610.2 MWe. 3. Mak-Ban Binary. 4. 1928.1 MWe. 5. Answers may vary. Assessment Test I. 1. C 2. C 3. D 4. B 5. A Test II. The main energy transformations in Geothermal power stations are: Thermal Energy --->Mechanical Energy --->Electrical Energy. A geothermal power plant gets energy from the heat deep below the surface of the earth. Wells are drilled down, often as deep as several kilometers, one to pump water down to the hot rocks, and another nearby which will allow the heated water (steam) to rise up. This steam is then used to spin turbines which is connected to a generator that generates electricity.
  • 23. 19 CO_Q4_Science 9_ Module 9 References Department of Education. EASE Module 14 The Laws of Thermodynamics. Department of Education. Science 9 Learner’s Material. Unit 4 Module 4 Electricity & Magnetism. "How A Geothermal Power Plant Works (Simple) - Text Version". 2020. Energy.Gov. https://www.energy.gov/eere/geothermal/how-geothermal-power-plant- works-simple-text-version. [Accessed 29 May 2020, 8:30 PM]. Butterfield, Ph. D., Laura J. W., Brandon A. Gillette, and Richard Shin. 2020. "Geothermal Energy (Five Activities)". Energy.Gov. https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/06/f16/geothermal_energy. pdf. [Accessed 23 May 2020, 1:30 PM]. Kaltschmitt, M. (2000, May). Environmental effects of heat provision from geothermal energy in comparison to other resources of energy. In Proceedings World Geothermal Congress (pp. 627-632). https://www. geothermal- energy.org/pdf/IGAstandard/WGC /2000/R0908.PDF. [Accessed 1 July 2021] Urone, P. P., & Hinrichs, R. (2012, June 21). College Physics. OpenStax. https://openstax.org/books/college-physics/pages/15-3-introduction-to- the-second-law-of-thermodynamics-heat-engines-and-their-efficiency [Accessed 1 July, 2020 12:00 PM] U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - independent statistics and analysis. Geothermal power plants - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). (2020, November 19). https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/geothermal/ geothermal-power-plants.php. [Accessed 1 July, 2020 12:00 PM] https://www.doe.gov.ph/sites/default/files/pdf/electric_power/electric_power_ plants_luzon_december_2020.pdf. [Accessed 1 July, 2021 12:00 PM] https://www.doe.gov.ph/sites/default/files/pdf/electric_power/electric_power_ plants_visayas_december_2020.pdf. [Accessed 1 July, 2021 12:00 PM] https://www.doe.gov.ph/sites/default/files/pdf/electric_power/electric_power_ plants_mindanao_december_2020-03_may-2021.pdf. [Accessed 1 July, 2021 12:00 PM] https://www.doe.gov.ph/sites/default/files/pdf/pep/2008_re_alternative_fuels_ energy_efficiency_and_conservation.pdf [Accessed 1 July, 2021 12:00 PM]
  • 24. For inquiries or feedback, please write or call: Department of Education - Bureau of Learning Resources (DepEd-BLR) Ground Floor, Bonifacio Bldg., DepEd Complex Meralco Avenue, Pasig City, Philippines 1600 Telefax: (632) 8634-1072; 8634-1054; 8631-4985 Email Address: blr.lrqad@deped.gov.ph * blr.lrpd@deped.gov.ph