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A method of data collection in
which the situation or individual of
interest is watched and the

relevant facts, actions and
behaviors are recorded.
The researcher observes the
behavior without influencing it.

1.

to describe behavior as it naturally occurs

2.

to assess relationships among variables present
 Observations

can be conducted with the

help of
 In recent research, Observations are
conducted with the help of
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Sigmund Freud
Jean Piaget
Ion Pavlov
Lev Vygotsky
John Watson
Albert Bandura
B.F Skinner
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Naturalistic observation (non-participant)
Participant-observation
Structured observation
Unstructured observation
Covert observation
Overt observation
Field experiments/Controlled Observations
Observing a phenomena
that cannot be created in lab,
for practical or ethical reasons
 Method is expensive
 Effects can only be observed
when such events occur naturally



Researcher is passive recorder
A psychologist observes the confrontation between two rival
neighborhood gangs from the window of an abandoned building.



Example: effect of early childhood isolation on later
psychological development.
We can’t isolate children to study them But we can use
naturalistic observation when we discover such cases.
(1993) – descriptions of feral
children (raised outside human cultures)

(1977) case studies of children
subjected to unusual isolation by parents (e.g.,
Genie)

(1965) – observation of institutionalized
children, Showed effects of deprivation of
stimulation during infancy and early childhood
 Observer

joins a group for the purpose of
studying group members
 Researcher is insider and intervene in situations
 Researcher can be biased
1.
2.

How is it different from ethnography?
Potential cost to objectivity= Stockholm
syndrome
 Usually

“Check Lists”
 focus on predetermined categories
 study only the factors of interest
 easy to analyze data
 saves time
 Replication depends upon following exactly the
same procedures
For example
Piaget’s studies
Watson experiemnts







Categories are not predetermined
Focus on new emergent issues
Researcher do not predict anything in advance
Observer can be biased
Difficult to analyze
Time and sources consuming


Also called

Researcher do not identify
himself and mixes in situation
 Researcher easley understands the participants
 Purpose is to achieve access to behaviors

Also called undisguised observation
 Researcher identifies himself and
explains the purpose of observation
 Participants knew that they are
being observed and can change their behavior




Researcher manipulates one or more variables in a
natural setting to determine effect on behavior
One end of the intervention – non-intervention continuum


For example Crusco & Wetzel (1984)

waitresses worked as allies, tip amount was dependent
variable
 Compared No Touch condition with Shoulder Touch
conditions
 Men tipped more than women
 Both men and women tipped more after being touched at
some point during their meal.




Phenomena can be studied in real context
Data collected is very accurate in nature and also very
reliable.
Best to study human nature






Problems of the past cannot be studied
Participant feel uncomfortable being watched
Time consuming method and hence expensive
Requires specific skills
Researcher has to wait until the appropriate event occurs
Sarfraz group.......presentation observation

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Sarfraz group.......presentation observation

  • 1.
  • 2. A method of data collection in which the situation or individual of interest is watched and the relevant facts, actions and behaviors are recorded.
  • 3. The researcher observes the behavior without influencing it. 1. to describe behavior as it naturally occurs 2. to assess relationships among variables present
  • 4.  Observations can be conducted with the help of  In recent research, Observations are conducted with the help of
  • 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Sigmund Freud Jean Piaget Ion Pavlov Lev Vygotsky John Watson Albert Bandura B.F Skinner
  • 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Naturalistic observation (non-participant) Participant-observation Structured observation Unstructured observation Covert observation Overt observation Field experiments/Controlled Observations
  • 7. Observing a phenomena that cannot be created in lab, for practical or ethical reasons  Method is expensive  Effects can only be observed when such events occur naturally 
  • 8.  Researcher is passive recorder A psychologist observes the confrontation between two rival neighborhood gangs from the window of an abandoned building.
  • 9.   Example: effect of early childhood isolation on later psychological development. We can’t isolate children to study them But we can use naturalistic observation when we discover such cases.
  • 10. (1993) – descriptions of feral children (raised outside human cultures)  (1977) case studies of children subjected to unusual isolation by parents (e.g., Genie)  (1965) – observation of institutionalized children, Showed effects of deprivation of stimulation during infancy and early childhood
  • 11.  Observer joins a group for the purpose of studying group members  Researcher is insider and intervene in situations  Researcher can be biased 1. 2. How is it different from ethnography? Potential cost to objectivity= Stockholm syndrome
  • 12.  Usually “Check Lists”  focus on predetermined categories  study only the factors of interest  easy to analyze data  saves time  Replication depends upon following exactly the same procedures
  • 14.       Categories are not predetermined Focus on new emergent issues Researcher do not predict anything in advance Observer can be biased Difficult to analyze Time and sources consuming
  • 15.  Also called Researcher do not identify himself and mixes in situation  Researcher easley understands the participants  Purpose is to achieve access to behaviors 
  • 16. Also called undisguised observation  Researcher identifies himself and explains the purpose of observation  Participants knew that they are being observed and can change their behavior 
  • 17.   Researcher manipulates one or more variables in a natural setting to determine effect on behavior One end of the intervention – non-intervention continuum
  • 18.  For example Crusco & Wetzel (1984) waitresses worked as allies, tip amount was dependent variable  Compared No Touch condition with Shoulder Touch conditions  Men tipped more than women  Both men and women tipped more after being touched at some point during their meal.
  • 19.    Phenomena can be studied in real context Data collected is very accurate in nature and also very reliable. Best to study human nature
  • 20.      Problems of the past cannot be studied Participant feel uncomfortable being watched Time consuming method and hence expensive Requires specific skills Researcher has to wait until the appropriate event occurs