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Electromagnetic Compatibility Measurements
in Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski
Chair for Electromagnetic Compatibility
Institute for Medical Engineering
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg
Musik by KV https://youtube.com/c/KVmusicprod, Creative Commons — Attribution 3.0 Unported — CC BY 3.0
Free Download / Stream: https://bit.ly/3qNzbTg, Music promoted by Audio Library https://youtu.be/YPJc74M5wD4
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 1 / 70
Some words about myself
Personal background:
born in 1984
live in Magdeburg, Germany
married, two children
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 2 / 70
Some words about myself
Personal background:
born in 1984
live in Magdeburg, Germany
married, two children
Educational background:
2003 – 2008: studied “Electrical Engineering” at the Otto-von-Guericke-University in
Magdeburg
since 2008: Scientific co-worker at the Chair for EMC
2012: Ph. D. (Dr.-Ing.) with the dissertation “Comparison of the Coupling of
Deterministic and Stochastic Electromagnetic Field to Transmission Lines”
since 2015: teaching as flying faculty
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 2 / 70
Faculty for Electrical Engineering and Information Technology
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 3 / 70
Cathedral of Magdeburg seen from the river “Elbe”
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 4 / 70
Location of Magdeburg inside Germany
Magdeburg
Hannover Berlin
Dresden
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 5 / 70
Organizational matters
Slides:
yes
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 6 / 70
Organizational matters
Slides:
yes
Recording:
maybe
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 6 / 70
Organizational matters
Slides:
yes
Recording:
maybe
Questions:
with pleasure
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 6 / 70
What is EMC?
Intermediate overview
1 What is EMC?
2 Examples
3 Calculation in dB
Figures
Levels
4 Radiated EMC Measurements
5 Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 7 / 70
What is EMC?
What is electromagnetic compatibility?
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 8 / 70
What is EMC?
What is electromagnetic compatibility?
Survey: Have you heard of
EMC before?
https://www.menti.com/123456
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 8 / 70
What is EMC?
What is electromagnetic compatibility?
Survey: Have you heard of
EMC before?
https://www.menti.com/123456
Electromagnetic compatibility . . .
. . . is the ability of electrical equipment and
systems to function acceptably in their
electromagnetic environment, by limiting the
unintentional generation, propagation and
reception of electromagnetic energy which
may cause unwanted effects such as
electromagnetic interference (EMI) or even
physical damage in operational equipment.
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 8 / 70
What is EMC?
What is electromagnetic compatibility?
Survey: Have you heard of
EMC before?
https://www.menti.com/123456
Electromagnetic compatibility . . .
. . . is the ability of electrical equipment and
systems to function acceptably in their
electromagnetic environment, by limiting the
unintentional generation, propagation and
reception of electromagnetic energy which
may cause unwanted effects such as
electromagnetic interference (EMI) or even
physical damage in operational equipment.
Aspects:
Immunity
Emission
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 8 / 70
What is EMC?
What is electromagnetic compatibility?
Coupling model:
Source Coupling path Victim
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 9 / 70
What is EMC?
What is electromagnetic compatibility?
Coupling model:
Source Coupling path Victim
Example:
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 9 / 70
What is EMC?
Coupling paths
(a) conducted (b) electric fields
(c) magnetic fields (d) wave fields
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 10 / 70
Examples
Intermediate overview
1 What is EMC?
2 Examples
3 Calculation in dB
Figures
Levels
4 Radiated EMC Measurements
5 Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 11 / 70
Examples
Experiment
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 12 / 70
Examples
Survey on other EMC examples
https://www.menti.com/123456
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 13 / 70
Examples
Lightning discharges
Figure: 3 lightning discharges near an overhead line.
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 14 / 70
Examples
Lightning discharges
Countermeasures:
persons: take cover, feet close together
buildings: lightning arrester
vehicles: Faraday cage
electrical equipment: overvoltage protection
(a) overvoltage protection (b) aircraft as Faraday cage
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 15 / 70
Examples
Electrostatic discharge
Figure: Electrostatic discharge between a person and a doorknob.
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 16 / 70
Examples
Electrostatic discharge
Countermeasures:
protective elements in electronic devices
testing of devices with standard pulses from ESD guns
caution while handling unprotected modules
ESD-safe packaging
(a) Conducting wrist straps for dissipation of
the triboelectricity
(b) ESD-safe packing material of a network
card made of conductive plastic
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 17 / 70
Examples
Examples of real-life EMC problems
USS Forrestal fire in 1967:
aircraft carrier USS Forrestal (CVA-59)
before North Vietnam
electrical anomaly discharged a Zuni rocket
on the flight deck
deck contained fueled aircraft, loaded with
1000-pound bombs, as well as air-to-air and
air-to-ground missiles
devastating fire and series of chain-reaction
explosions
134 sailors killed and 161 injured
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 18 / 70
Examples
USS Forrestal fire in 1967
Problem:
RF voltage across the contacts of a shielded connector by the ship’s high-power
search radar
power surge when the pilot transferred his systems from external to internal power
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 19 / 70
Examples
Examples of real-life EMC problems
Military aircraft crash near a large radio transmitter station:
medium wave transmitter station Radio Free Europe
power of 150 kW with an antenna gain of 8
Tornado IDS aircraft passing the mean beam of the antenna
problem in the control system, ejection seats fail, two pilots dead
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 20 / 70
Examples
Mobile phone radiation
Figure: Mobile phone and active speaker
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 21 / 70
Examples
Mobile phone radiation
Active principle:
Amplitude-
modulated signal
Antenna Active speaker
with diodes
Envelope after
demodulation
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 22 / 70
Examples
Mobile phone radiation
Figure: Ferrite on a USB cable
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 23 / 70
Calculation in dB
Intermediate overview
1 What is EMC?
2 Examples
3 Calculation in dB
Figures
Levels
4 Radiated EMC Measurements
5 Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 24 / 70
Calculation in dB
Decibel experience
How large is your experience with
using decibels?
excellent
good
okay
very small
no experience at all
https://www.menti.com/123456
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 25 / 70
Calculation in dB
Motivation
Measurement result of a spectrum analyzer:
A
TRG
RBW 10 MHz
VBW 10 MHz
SWT 50 µs
Att 20 dB
Ref −10 dBm
Center 800 MHz 5 µs/
*
1 PK
VIEW
*
2 PK
AVG
PRN
−70
−65
−60
−55
−50
−45
−40
−35
−30
−25
−20
−15
−10
SWP 4144 of 10000
1
Marker 1 [T1 ]
−24.68 dBm
51.025000 µs
2
Delta 2 [T1 ]
−23.29 dB
5.600000 µs
3
Marker 3 [T1 ]
−56.17 dBm
80.525000 µs
RBW 10 MHz
VBW 10 MHz
SWT 50 µs
Att 20 dB
Ref −10 dBm
Delta 2 [T1 ]
−23.29 dB
5.600000 µs
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 26 / 70
Calculation in dB
Reminder of the logarithmic identities
Preconditions: x, y, b, r > 0 and b ̸= 1
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 27 / 70
Calculation in dB
Reminder of the logarithmic identities
Preconditions: x, y, b, r > 0 and b ̸= 1
Product:
logb(x · y) = logb x + logb y (1)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 27 / 70
Calculation in dB
Reminder of the logarithmic identities
Preconditions: x, y, b, r > 0 and b ̸= 1
Product:
logb(x · y) = logb x + logb y (1)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 27 / 70
Calculation in dB
Reminder of the logarithmic identities
Preconditions: x, y, b, r > 0 and b ̸= 1
Product:
logb(x · y) = logb x + logb y (1)
Quotient:
logb

x
y

= logb x − logb y (2)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 27 / 70
Calculation in dB
Reminder of the logarithmic identities
Preconditions: x, y, b, r  0 and b ̸= 1
Product:
logb(x · y) = logb x + logb y (1)
Quotient:
logb

x
y

= logb x − logb y (2)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 27 / 70
Calculation in dB
Reminder of the logarithmic identities
Preconditions: x, y, b, r  0 and b ̸= 1
Product:
logb(x · y) = logb x + logb y (1)
Quotient:
logb

x
y

= logb x − logb y (2)
Power:
logb (xr
) = r logb x (3)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 27 / 70
Calculation in dB
Reminder of the logarithmic identities
Preconditions: x, y, b, r  0 and b ̸= 1
Product:
logb(x · y) = logb x + logb y (1)
Quotient:
logb

x
y

= logb x − logb y (2)
Power:
logb (xr
) = r logb x (3)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 27 / 70
Calculation in dB Figures
Definition of gain figures
Definition for power quantities:
P1: input power
P2: output power
GP = 10 · lg

P2
P1

dB (4)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 28 / 70
Calculation in dB Figures
Definition of gain figures
Definition for power quantities:
P1: input power
P2: output power
GP = 10 · lg

P2
P1

dB (4)
Definition for root power quantities (like a voltage):
U1: input voltage
U2: output voltage
GU = 10 · lg

P2
P1

dB = 10 · lg

U2
2/R
U2
1/R

dB = 20 · lg

U2
U1

dB (5)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 28 / 70
Calculation in dB Figures
Not to be confused with:
Figure: “Figure” of Otto von Guericke in Magdeburg
source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Magdeburg_Guericke.jpg#/media/File:Magdeburg_Guericke.jpg
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 29 / 70
Calculation in dB Figures
Origin of the unit name bel
Alexander Graham Bell
(1847–1922)
speech therapist, engineer
and inventor
made the telephone
commercially successful
after his death all telephones
in the US were silenced for
one minute Figure: Alexander Graham Bell
(ca. between 1914–1919)
source: https:
//commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1559
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 30 / 70
Calculation in dB Figures
Some numbers to bear in mind
Table: Conversion dB – linear values
Figure Power ratio Voltage ratio
in dB approx. exact approx. exact
0 1 1 1 1
3 2 1.995 1.4 1.412
6 4 3.98 2 1.995
10 10 10 3 3.162
20 100 100 10 10
40 10 000 10 000 100 100
60 1 000 000 1 000 000 1000 1000
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 31 / 70
Calculation in dB Figures
Some numbers to bear in mind
Table: Conversion dB – linear values
Figure Power ratio Voltage ratio
in dB approx. exact approx. exact
0 1 1 1 1
−3 0.5 0.501 0.7 0.708
−6 0.25 0.25 0.5 0.501
−10 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.316
−20 0.01 0.01 0.1 0.1
−40 0.0001 0.0001 0.01 0.01
−60 0.000 001 0.000 001 0.001 0.001
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 32 / 70
Calculation in dB Levels
Definition of levels
Definition for power quantities:
P: power
P0: reference value
LP (re P0) = LP/P0
= 10 · lg

P
P0

dB (6)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 33 / 70
Calculation in dB Levels
Definition of levels
Definition for power quantities:
P: power
P0: reference value
LP (re P0) = LP/P0
= 10 · lg

P
P0

dB (6)
Definition for root power quantities:
U: voltage
U0: reference value
LU (re U0) = LU/U0
= 20 · lg

U
U0

dB (7)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 33 / 70
Calculation in dB Levels
Not to be confused with:
Figure: “Level” of the river Elbe in Magdeburg
source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pegelhaus_Magdeburg.jpg
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 34 / 70
Calculation in dB Levels
Summary of calculation rules
Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure:
20 dB + 30 dB =
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
Calculation in dB Levels
Summary of calculation rules
Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure:
20 dB + 30 dB = 50 dB (8)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
Calculation in dB Levels
Summary of calculation rules
Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure:
20 dB + 30 dB = 50 dB (8)
Sum of figure and level gives a level:
0 dB (mW) + 50 dB =
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
Calculation in dB Levels
Summary of calculation rules
Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure:
20 dB + 30 dB = 50 dB (8)
Sum of figure and level gives a level:
0 dB (mW) + 50 dB = 50 dB (mW) (9)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
Calculation in dB Levels
Summary of calculation rules
Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure:
20 dB + 30 dB = 50 dB (8)
Sum of figure and level gives a level:
0 dB (mW) + 50 dB = 50 dB (mW) (9)
Difference of two levels gives a figure:
50 dB (mW) − 0 dB (mW) =
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
Calculation in dB Levels
Summary of calculation rules
Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure:
20 dB + 30 dB = 50 dB (8)
Sum of figure and level gives a level:
0 dB (mW) + 50 dB = 50 dB (mW) (9)
Difference of two levels gives a figure:
50 dB (mW) − 0 dB (mW) = 50 dB (10)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
Calculation in dB Levels
Summary of calculation rules
Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure:
20 dB + 30 dB = 50 dB (8)
Sum of figure and level gives a level:
0 dB (mW) + 50 dB = 50 dB (mW) (9)
Difference of two levels gives a figure:
50 dB (mW) − 0 dB (mW) = 50 dB (10)
Sum of two levels does not make sense:
20 dB (mW) + 30 dB (mW)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
Calculation in dB Levels
Summary of calculation rules
Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure:
20 dB + 30 dB = 50 dB (8)
Sum of figure and level gives a level:
0 dB (mW) + 50 dB = 50 dB (mW) (9)
Difference of two levels gives a figure:
50 dB (mW) − 0 dB (mW) = 50 dB (10)
Sum of two levels does not make sense:
20 dB (mW) + 30 dB (mW) wrong! (11)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
Radiated EMC Measurements
Intermediate overview
1 What is EMC?
2 Examples
3 Calculation in dB
Figures
Levels
4 Radiated EMC Measurements
5 Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 36 / 70
Radiated EMC Measurements
How to verify the electromagnetic compatibility?
Verification of devices by:
Calculations
Simulations
Measurements
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 37 / 70
Radiated EMC Measurements
How to verify the electromagnetic compatibility?
Verification of devices by:
Calculations
Simulations
Measurements
Certification by the CE mark:
Conformité Européenne China Export
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 37 / 70
Radiated EMC Measurements
Open area test site
Figure: Open area test site at the Technical University in Dresden
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 38 / 70
Radiated EMC Measurements
Experiment
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 39 / 70
Radiated EMC Measurements
Scattering parameters
Complex scattering parameters of a two-port:
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 40 / 70
Radiated EMC Measurements
Scattering parameters
Complex scattering parameters of a two-port:

b1
b2

=

s11 s12
s21 s22

·

a1
a2

(12)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 40 / 70
Radiated EMC Measurements
Scattering parameters
Complex scattering parameters of a two-port:

b1
b2

=

s11 s12
s21 s22

·

a1
a2

(12)
s21 =
b2
a1
(13)
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 40 / 70
Radiated EMC Measurements
Shielded room
Figure: By M.junghans at nl.wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4696426
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 41 / 70
Radiated EMC Measurements
Semi-anechoic chamber
Figure: Semi-anechoic chamber with 10 m measurement distance in Magdeburg
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 42 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Intermediate overview
1 What is EMC?
2 Examples
3 Calculation in dB
Figures
Levels
4 Radiated EMC Measurements
5 Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 43 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Mode-stirred chamber
Figure: Large mode-stirred chamber at the chair for EMC in Magdeburg
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 44 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Carl Baum: The Microwave-Oven Theorem
Question:
What is the difference
between a microwave oven
and a mode-stirred
chamber?
Answer:
The former cooks chicken
and the latter cooks
electronics.
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 45 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Microwave oven
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 46 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
First commercial oven from Raytheon
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 47 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Percy Spencer
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 48 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 49 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 50 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
“Eggsperiment”
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 51 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
“White chicken egg square” by Ren West
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 52 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
“Eggsplosion”
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 53 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Photo: Wolfgang Gerlach
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 54 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 55 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Pot in the microwave oven?
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 56 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Pot in the microwave oven?
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 56 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Spoon in the microwave oven?
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 57 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Spoon in the microwave oven?
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 57 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 58 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 59 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 59 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 60 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 61 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 62 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
12 cm
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 63 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 64 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 65 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
c = λ · f
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 65 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
c = λ · f = 12 cm · 2450 MHz
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 65 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
c = λ · f = 12 cm · 2450 MHz = 294 000 km
s
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 65 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Kahoot! Quiz
https:
//create.kahoot.it/share/quiz-for-the-course-electromagnetic-compatibility-measurements-in-reverberation-chambers/
80804c8c-d5f6-480d-a658-a4d90befce67
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 66 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber
(a) Demonstration with neon tubes (b) In-situ testing on a ship
Source: Prof. Frank Leferink, University of Twente and THALES, Netherlands
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 67 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
Pros and cons of EMC measurements in reverberation chambers
Advantages:
high field strength with small input power
relatively small costs
robust tests
Disadvantages:
no information about directivity or polarization
statistical electrodynamics
coupling between generator and EUT
comparability with established test environments
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 68 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
PInput = PWalls + PStirrer + PChicken
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 69 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
PInput = PWalls + PStirrer + PChicken
PWalls = 0
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 69 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
PInput = PWalls + PStirrer + PChicken
PWalls = 0
PStirrer = 0
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 69 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
PInput = PWalls + PStirrer + PChicken
PWalls = 0
PStirrer = 0
PInput = PChicken
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 69 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
PInput = PWalls + PStirrer + PChicken
PWalls = 0
PStirrer = 0
PInput = PChicken
All Power to the Chicken
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 69 / 70
Reverberation Chambers
https://twitter.com/MarkusRidderbu8/status/
1523708966039351297
Thank you very much for
your attention!
Are there any questions?
Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 70 / 70

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Electromagnetic Compatibility Measurements in Reverberation Chambers

  • 1. Electromagnetic Compatibility Measurements in Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski Chair for Electromagnetic Compatibility Institute for Medical Engineering Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg Musik by KV https://youtube.com/c/KVmusicprod, Creative Commons — Attribution 3.0 Unported — CC BY 3.0 Free Download / Stream: https://bit.ly/3qNzbTg, Music promoted by Audio Library https://youtu.be/YPJc74M5wD4 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 1 / 70
  • 2. Some words about myself Personal background: born in 1984 live in Magdeburg, Germany married, two children Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 2 / 70
  • 3. Some words about myself Personal background: born in 1984 live in Magdeburg, Germany married, two children Educational background: 2003 – 2008: studied “Electrical Engineering” at the Otto-von-Guericke-University in Magdeburg since 2008: Scientific co-worker at the Chair for EMC 2012: Ph. D. (Dr.-Ing.) with the dissertation “Comparison of the Coupling of Deterministic and Stochastic Electromagnetic Field to Transmission Lines” since 2015: teaching as flying faculty Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 2 / 70
  • 4. Faculty for Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 3 / 70
  • 5. Cathedral of Magdeburg seen from the river “Elbe” Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 4 / 70
  • 6. Location of Magdeburg inside Germany Magdeburg Hannover Berlin Dresden Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 5 / 70
  • 7. Organizational matters Slides: yes Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 6 / 70
  • 8. Organizational matters Slides: yes Recording: maybe Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 6 / 70
  • 9. Organizational matters Slides: yes Recording: maybe Questions: with pleasure Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 6 / 70
  • 10. What is EMC? Intermediate overview 1 What is EMC? 2 Examples 3 Calculation in dB Figures Levels 4 Radiated EMC Measurements 5 Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 7 / 70
  • 11. What is EMC? What is electromagnetic compatibility? Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 8 / 70
  • 12. What is EMC? What is electromagnetic compatibility? Survey: Have you heard of EMC before? https://www.menti.com/123456 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 8 / 70
  • 13. What is EMC? What is electromagnetic compatibility? Survey: Have you heard of EMC before? https://www.menti.com/123456 Electromagnetic compatibility . . . . . . is the ability of electrical equipment and systems to function acceptably in their electromagnetic environment, by limiting the unintentional generation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy which may cause unwanted effects such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) or even physical damage in operational equipment. Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 8 / 70
  • 14. What is EMC? What is electromagnetic compatibility? Survey: Have you heard of EMC before? https://www.menti.com/123456 Electromagnetic compatibility . . . . . . is the ability of electrical equipment and systems to function acceptably in their electromagnetic environment, by limiting the unintentional generation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy which may cause unwanted effects such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) or even physical damage in operational equipment. Aspects: Immunity Emission Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 8 / 70
  • 15. What is EMC? What is electromagnetic compatibility? Coupling model: Source Coupling path Victim Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 9 / 70
  • 16. What is EMC? What is electromagnetic compatibility? Coupling model: Source Coupling path Victim Example: Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 9 / 70
  • 17. What is EMC? Coupling paths (a) conducted (b) electric fields (c) magnetic fields (d) wave fields Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 10 / 70
  • 18. Examples Intermediate overview 1 What is EMC? 2 Examples 3 Calculation in dB Figures Levels 4 Radiated EMC Measurements 5 Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 11 / 70
  • 19. Examples Experiment Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 12 / 70
  • 20. Examples Survey on other EMC examples https://www.menti.com/123456 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 13 / 70
  • 21. Examples Lightning discharges Figure: 3 lightning discharges near an overhead line. Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 14 / 70
  • 22. Examples Lightning discharges Countermeasures: persons: take cover, feet close together buildings: lightning arrester vehicles: Faraday cage electrical equipment: overvoltage protection (a) overvoltage protection (b) aircraft as Faraday cage Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 15 / 70
  • 23. Examples Electrostatic discharge Figure: Electrostatic discharge between a person and a doorknob. Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 16 / 70
  • 24. Examples Electrostatic discharge Countermeasures: protective elements in electronic devices testing of devices with standard pulses from ESD guns caution while handling unprotected modules ESD-safe packaging (a) Conducting wrist straps for dissipation of the triboelectricity (b) ESD-safe packing material of a network card made of conductive plastic Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 17 / 70
  • 25. Examples Examples of real-life EMC problems USS Forrestal fire in 1967: aircraft carrier USS Forrestal (CVA-59) before North Vietnam electrical anomaly discharged a Zuni rocket on the flight deck deck contained fueled aircraft, loaded with 1000-pound bombs, as well as air-to-air and air-to-ground missiles devastating fire and series of chain-reaction explosions 134 sailors killed and 161 injured Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 18 / 70
  • 26. Examples USS Forrestal fire in 1967 Problem: RF voltage across the contacts of a shielded connector by the ship’s high-power search radar power surge when the pilot transferred his systems from external to internal power Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 19 / 70
  • 27. Examples Examples of real-life EMC problems Military aircraft crash near a large radio transmitter station: medium wave transmitter station Radio Free Europe power of 150 kW with an antenna gain of 8 Tornado IDS aircraft passing the mean beam of the antenna problem in the control system, ejection seats fail, two pilots dead Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 20 / 70
  • 28. Examples Mobile phone radiation Figure: Mobile phone and active speaker Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 21 / 70
  • 29. Examples Mobile phone radiation Active principle: Amplitude- modulated signal Antenna Active speaker with diodes Envelope after demodulation Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 22 / 70
  • 30. Examples Mobile phone radiation Figure: Ferrite on a USB cable Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 23 / 70
  • 31. Calculation in dB Intermediate overview 1 What is EMC? 2 Examples 3 Calculation in dB Figures Levels 4 Radiated EMC Measurements 5 Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 24 / 70
  • 32. Calculation in dB Decibel experience How large is your experience with using decibels? excellent good okay very small no experience at all https://www.menti.com/123456 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 25 / 70
  • 33. Calculation in dB Motivation Measurement result of a spectrum analyzer: A TRG RBW 10 MHz VBW 10 MHz SWT 50 µs Att 20 dB Ref −10 dBm Center 800 MHz 5 µs/ * 1 PK VIEW * 2 PK AVG PRN −70 −65 −60 −55 −50 −45 −40 −35 −30 −25 −20 −15 −10 SWP 4144 of 10000 1 Marker 1 [T1 ] −24.68 dBm 51.025000 µs 2 Delta 2 [T1 ] −23.29 dB 5.600000 µs 3 Marker 3 [T1 ] −56.17 dBm 80.525000 µs RBW 10 MHz VBW 10 MHz SWT 50 µs Att 20 dB Ref −10 dBm Delta 2 [T1 ] −23.29 dB 5.600000 µs Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 26 / 70
  • 34. Calculation in dB Reminder of the logarithmic identities Preconditions: x, y, b, r > 0 and b ̸= 1 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 27 / 70
  • 35. Calculation in dB Reminder of the logarithmic identities Preconditions: x, y, b, r > 0 and b ̸= 1 Product: logb(x · y) = logb x + logb y (1) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 27 / 70
  • 36. Calculation in dB Reminder of the logarithmic identities Preconditions: x, y, b, r > 0 and b ̸= 1 Product: logb(x · y) = logb x + logb y (1) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 27 / 70
  • 37. Calculation in dB Reminder of the logarithmic identities Preconditions: x, y, b, r > 0 and b ̸= 1 Product: logb(x · y) = logb x + logb y (1) Quotient: logb x y = logb x − logb y (2) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 27 / 70
  • 38. Calculation in dB Reminder of the logarithmic identities Preconditions: x, y, b, r 0 and b ̸= 1 Product: logb(x · y) = logb x + logb y (1) Quotient: logb x y = logb x − logb y (2) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 27 / 70
  • 39. Calculation in dB Reminder of the logarithmic identities Preconditions: x, y, b, r 0 and b ̸= 1 Product: logb(x · y) = logb x + logb y (1) Quotient: logb x y = logb x − logb y (2) Power: logb (xr ) = r logb x (3) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 27 / 70
  • 40. Calculation in dB Reminder of the logarithmic identities Preconditions: x, y, b, r 0 and b ̸= 1 Product: logb(x · y) = logb x + logb y (1) Quotient: logb x y = logb x − logb y (2) Power: logb (xr ) = r logb x (3) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 27 / 70
  • 41. Calculation in dB Figures Definition of gain figures Definition for power quantities: P1: input power P2: output power GP = 10 · lg P2 P1 dB (4) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 28 / 70
  • 42. Calculation in dB Figures Definition of gain figures Definition for power quantities: P1: input power P2: output power GP = 10 · lg P2 P1 dB (4) Definition for root power quantities (like a voltage): U1: input voltage U2: output voltage GU = 10 · lg P2 P1 dB = 10 · lg U2 2/R U2 1/R dB = 20 · lg U2 U1 dB (5) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 28 / 70
  • 43. Calculation in dB Figures Not to be confused with: Figure: “Figure” of Otto von Guericke in Magdeburg source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Magdeburg_Guericke.jpg#/media/File:Magdeburg_Guericke.jpg Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 29 / 70
  • 44. Calculation in dB Figures Origin of the unit name bel Alexander Graham Bell (1847–1922) speech therapist, engineer and inventor made the telephone commercially successful after his death all telephones in the US were silenced for one minute Figure: Alexander Graham Bell (ca. between 1914–1919) source: https: //commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1559 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 30 / 70
  • 45. Calculation in dB Figures Some numbers to bear in mind Table: Conversion dB – linear values Figure Power ratio Voltage ratio in dB approx. exact approx. exact 0 1 1 1 1 3 2 1.995 1.4 1.412 6 4 3.98 2 1.995 10 10 10 3 3.162 20 100 100 10 10 40 10 000 10 000 100 100 60 1 000 000 1 000 000 1000 1000 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 31 / 70
  • 46. Calculation in dB Figures Some numbers to bear in mind Table: Conversion dB – linear values Figure Power ratio Voltage ratio in dB approx. exact approx. exact 0 1 1 1 1 −3 0.5 0.501 0.7 0.708 −6 0.25 0.25 0.5 0.501 −10 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.316 −20 0.01 0.01 0.1 0.1 −40 0.0001 0.0001 0.01 0.01 −60 0.000 001 0.000 001 0.001 0.001 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 32 / 70
  • 47. Calculation in dB Levels Definition of levels Definition for power quantities: P: power P0: reference value LP (re P0) = LP/P0 = 10 · lg P P0 dB (6) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 33 / 70
  • 48. Calculation in dB Levels Definition of levels Definition for power quantities: P: power P0: reference value LP (re P0) = LP/P0 = 10 · lg P P0 dB (6) Definition for root power quantities: U: voltage U0: reference value LU (re U0) = LU/U0 = 20 · lg U U0 dB (7) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 33 / 70
  • 49. Calculation in dB Levels Not to be confused with: Figure: “Level” of the river Elbe in Magdeburg source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pegelhaus_Magdeburg.jpg Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 34 / 70
  • 50. Calculation in dB Levels Summary of calculation rules Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure: 20 dB + 30 dB = Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
  • 51. Calculation in dB Levels Summary of calculation rules Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure: 20 dB + 30 dB = 50 dB (8) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
  • 52. Calculation in dB Levels Summary of calculation rules Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure: 20 dB + 30 dB = 50 dB (8) Sum of figure and level gives a level: 0 dB (mW) + 50 dB = Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
  • 53. Calculation in dB Levels Summary of calculation rules Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure: 20 dB + 30 dB = 50 dB (8) Sum of figure and level gives a level: 0 dB (mW) + 50 dB = 50 dB (mW) (9) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
  • 54. Calculation in dB Levels Summary of calculation rules Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure: 20 dB + 30 dB = 50 dB (8) Sum of figure and level gives a level: 0 dB (mW) + 50 dB = 50 dB (mW) (9) Difference of two levels gives a figure: 50 dB (mW) − 0 dB (mW) = Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
  • 55. Calculation in dB Levels Summary of calculation rules Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure: 20 dB + 30 dB = 50 dB (8) Sum of figure and level gives a level: 0 dB (mW) + 50 dB = 50 dB (mW) (9) Difference of two levels gives a figure: 50 dB (mW) − 0 dB (mW) = 50 dB (10) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
  • 56. Calculation in dB Levels Summary of calculation rules Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure: 20 dB + 30 dB = 50 dB (8) Sum of figure and level gives a level: 0 dB (mW) + 50 dB = 50 dB (mW) (9) Difference of two levels gives a figure: 50 dB (mW) − 0 dB (mW) = 50 dB (10) Sum of two levels does not make sense: 20 dB (mW) + 30 dB (mW) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
  • 57. Calculation in dB Levels Summary of calculation rules Sum or difference of two figures is again a figure: 20 dB + 30 dB = 50 dB (8) Sum of figure and level gives a level: 0 dB (mW) + 50 dB = 50 dB (mW) (9) Difference of two levels gives a figure: 50 dB (mW) − 0 dB (mW) = 50 dB (10) Sum of two levels does not make sense: 20 dB (mW) + 30 dB (mW) wrong! (11) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 35 / 70
  • 58. Radiated EMC Measurements Intermediate overview 1 What is EMC? 2 Examples 3 Calculation in dB Figures Levels 4 Radiated EMC Measurements 5 Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 36 / 70
  • 59. Radiated EMC Measurements How to verify the electromagnetic compatibility? Verification of devices by: Calculations Simulations Measurements Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 37 / 70
  • 60. Radiated EMC Measurements How to verify the electromagnetic compatibility? Verification of devices by: Calculations Simulations Measurements Certification by the CE mark: Conformité Européenne China Export Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 37 / 70
  • 61. Radiated EMC Measurements Open area test site Figure: Open area test site at the Technical University in Dresden Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 38 / 70
  • 62. Radiated EMC Measurements Experiment Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 39 / 70
  • 63. Radiated EMC Measurements Scattering parameters Complex scattering parameters of a two-port: Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 40 / 70
  • 64. Radiated EMC Measurements Scattering parameters Complex scattering parameters of a two-port: b1 b2 = s11 s12 s21 s22 · a1 a2 (12) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 40 / 70
  • 65. Radiated EMC Measurements Scattering parameters Complex scattering parameters of a two-port: b1 b2 = s11 s12 s21 s22 · a1 a2 (12) s21 = b2 a1 (13) Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 40 / 70
  • 66. Radiated EMC Measurements Shielded room Figure: By M.junghans at nl.wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4696426 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 41 / 70
  • 67. Radiated EMC Measurements Semi-anechoic chamber Figure: Semi-anechoic chamber with 10 m measurement distance in Magdeburg Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 42 / 70
  • 68. Reverberation Chambers Intermediate overview 1 What is EMC? 2 Examples 3 Calculation in dB Figures Levels 4 Radiated EMC Measurements 5 Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 43 / 70
  • 69. Reverberation Chambers Mode-stirred chamber Figure: Large mode-stirred chamber at the chair for EMC in Magdeburg Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 44 / 70
  • 70. Reverberation Chambers Carl Baum: The Microwave-Oven Theorem Question: What is the difference between a microwave oven and a mode-stirred chamber? Answer: The former cooks chicken and the latter cooks electronics. Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 45 / 70
  • 71. Reverberation Chambers Microwave oven Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 46 / 70
  • 72. Reverberation Chambers First commercial oven from Raytheon Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 47 / 70
  • 73. Reverberation Chambers Percy Spencer Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 48 / 70
  • 74. Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 49 / 70
  • 75. Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 50 / 70
  • 76. Reverberation Chambers “Eggsperiment” Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 51 / 70
  • 77. Reverberation Chambers “White chicken egg square” by Ren West Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 52 / 70
  • 78. Reverberation Chambers “Eggsplosion” Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 53 / 70
  • 79. Reverberation Chambers Photo: Wolfgang Gerlach Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 54 / 70
  • 80. Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 55 / 70
  • 81. Reverberation Chambers Pot in the microwave oven? Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 56 / 70
  • 82. Reverberation Chambers Pot in the microwave oven? Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 56 / 70
  • 83. Reverberation Chambers Spoon in the microwave oven? Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 57 / 70
  • 84. Reverberation Chambers Spoon in the microwave oven? Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 57 / 70
  • 85. Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 58 / 70
  • 86. Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 59 / 70
  • 87. Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 59 / 70
  • 88. Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 60 / 70
  • 89. Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 61 / 70
  • 90. Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 62 / 70
  • 91. Reverberation Chambers 12 cm Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 63 / 70
  • 92. Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 64 / 70
  • 93. Reverberation Chambers Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 65 / 70
  • 94. Reverberation Chambers c = λ · f Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 65 / 70
  • 95. Reverberation Chambers c = λ · f = 12 cm · 2450 MHz Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 65 / 70
  • 96. Reverberation Chambers c = λ · f = 12 cm · 2450 MHz = 294 000 km s Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 65 / 70
  • 98. Reverberation Chambers Vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber (a) Demonstration with neon tubes (b) In-situ testing on a ship Source: Prof. Frank Leferink, University of Twente and THALES, Netherlands Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 67 / 70
  • 99. Reverberation Chambers Pros and cons of EMC measurements in reverberation chambers Advantages: high field strength with small input power relatively small costs robust tests Disadvantages: no information about directivity or polarization statistical electrodynamics coupling between generator and EUT comparability with established test environments Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 68 / 70
  • 100. Reverberation Chambers PInput = PWalls + PStirrer + PChicken Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 69 / 70
  • 101. Reverberation Chambers PInput = PWalls + PStirrer + PChicken PWalls = 0 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 69 / 70
  • 102. Reverberation Chambers PInput = PWalls + PStirrer + PChicken PWalls = 0 PStirrer = 0 Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 69 / 70
  • 103. Reverberation Chambers PInput = PWalls + PStirrer + PChicken PWalls = 0 PStirrer = 0 PInput = PChicken Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 69 / 70
  • 104. Reverberation Chambers PInput = PWalls + PStirrer + PChicken PWalls = 0 PStirrer = 0 PInput = PChicken All Power to the Chicken Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 69 / 70
  • 105. Reverberation Chambers https://twitter.com/MarkusRidderbu8/status/ 1523708966039351297 Thank you very much for your attention! Are there any questions? Mathias Magdowski (Chair for EMC) EMC Measurements in Reverb Chambers 70 / 70