SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 50
Download to read offline
REVISITING DIGITAL
MEDIA & INTERNET
RESEARCH ETHICS
A Process Oriented Approach
NELE HEISE, M.A. | @NELEHEISE
WORKSHOP ”RESEARCH ETHICS FOR DATA AND DIGITAL METHODS”
NOVEMBER 29, 2016 | DATA SCHOOL UTRECHT
Hello.
 Media Researcher at the University of Hamburg +
Graduate School Media and Communication Hamburg;
 forms, practices and conditions of media participation in
the digital age, as well as ethics of online communication
and digital media, e.g. Big Data, algorithms
 Master thesis: »Ethics of Internet Research« (2011)
TODAY
DIGITAL METHODS, DATA AND ETHICS
A PROCESS ORIENTED APPROACH
CONCLUSION
WHY BOTHER ABOUT ETHICS?
WHY BOTHER ABOUT ETHICS?
August 9, 1945HTTP://WWW.ARCHIVES.GOV/RESEARCH/MILITARY/WW2/PHOTOS/IMAGES/WW2-163.JPG
»The social sciences can […] have a
tremendous impact on society, even to
the point of revolutionizing our
conceptions of human nature, society,
and culture.«
DIENER & CRANDALL [1978: 195]
HTTPS://WWW.THEGUARDIAN.COM/SCIENCE/HEAD-QUARTERS/2014/JUL/01/FACEBOOK-CORNELL-STUDY-EMOTIONAL-CONTAGION-ETHICS-BREACH
Corporate vs.
Academic
HTTP://MOTHERBOARD.VICE.COM/READ/70000-OKCUPID-USERS-JUST-HAD-THEIR-DATA-PUBLISHED
»The data may be ‘public’
(though it must require login
and agreement to a [terms of
service]) but that does not
absolve anyone from an
ethical responsibility.«
R. Munksgaard
HTTPS://TWITTER.COM/SCOTT_BOT/STATUS/730508560778530816
HTTPS://ARXIV.ORG/ABS/1611.04135
AI Research
& Ethics
HTTPS://THEINTERCEPT.COM/2016/11/18/TROUBLING-STUDY-SAYS-ARTIFICIAL-INTELLIGENCE-CAN-PREDICT-WHO-WILL-BE-CRIMINALS-BASED-ON-FACIAL-FEATURES/
AI Research
& Ethics
AI Research
& Ethics
HTTPS://TWITTER.COM/NATEMATIAS/STATUS/802291972488757252
HTTPS://TWITTER.COM/TECHREVIEW/STATUS/800734306998120448
Algorithm
Ethics
HTTPS://TWITTER.COM/TECHREVIEW/STATUS/800734306998120448
Ethical challenges and questions, according to The Alan
Turing Institute & Oxford Internet Institute:
 how data is generated, recorded, shared (ethics of data)
 how artificial intelligence, machine learning and robots
interpret data (ethics of algorithms)
 devising responsible innovation and professional codes
to guide this emerging science (ethics of practice)
 See e.g. special issue of Philosophical Transactions A on “the ethical impact
of data science” (ed. by M. Taddeo & L. Floridi)
HTTPS://WWW.TURING.AC.UK/NEWS/WHAT-IS-DATA-ETHICS/
Data Science &
Ethics
SOME BASICS
RESEARCH ETHICS: KEY ELEMENTS
Ethics are guidelines and principles that help us to
uphold our values – to decide which goals of research are
most important and to reconcile values and goals that
are in conflict. Ethical guides are not simply prohibitions;
they also support our positive responsibilities.
DIENER/CRANDALL [1978: 3]
(shared) valuesdecision-making responsibility
LEVELS OF ETHICAL REASONING
cf. STROHM KITCHENER & KITCHENER [2009]
critical-evaluative
immediate-situational
Meta-Ethics
Ethical Theories
Ethical Principles
Ethical Rules
»ordinary moral sense«
 Ethics as safeguard for good scientific practice,
based on trust, scientific freedom, …
 responsibilities regarding
 employees, colleagues, team members, peers,
scientific community, … [internal]
 participants, society, clients etc. [external]
ETHICAL PRINCIPLES & STANDARDS
 Core principles:
 Human Dignity,Autonomy (self-determination, agency)
& Respect for Persons
 maximization of benefits and minimization of harms
(Nonmalificence & Beneficence), Justice
 Protection, Safety & Fidelity
 Research standards in regard to participants
– Voluntariness, informed consent
– Anonymity, Privacy & Confidentiality
– »Do no harm« (avoidance of potential risks)
DIGITAL METHODS,
DATA AND ETHICS
»virtual worlds, as sites for
meaningful social interaction, also
tend to be sites where meaningful
ethical harm can occur […].«
VANACKER & HEIDER [2012: 83]
»Internet research encompasses inquiry that:
a) utilizes the internet to collect data or information, e.g., through online interviews,
surveys, archiving, or automated means of data scraping;
b) studies how people use and access the internet, e.g., through collecting and
observing activities or participating on social network sites, listservs, web sites,
blogs, games, virtual worlds, or other online environments or contexts;
c) utilizes or engages in data processing, analysis, or storage of datasets, databanks,
and/or repositories available via the
d) studies software, code, and internet technologies
e) examines the design or structures of systems, interfaces, pages, and elements
f) employs visual and textual analysis, semiotic analysis, content analysis, or other
methods of analysis to study the web and/or internet-facilitated images, writings,
and media forms.
g) studies large scale production, use, and regulation of the internet by governments,
industries, corporations, and military forces.«
MARKHAM & BUCHANAN [2012: 3f.]
CHALLENGES OF DIGITAL RESEARCH METHODS
 De-contextualization (space/time) and global reach
of research and data
 Data structures: networked, persistent, searchable, …
 Informational constraints: disembodiment,
communicative distance, degree of social presence,
anonymity (verification/authentication)
 Blurring boundaries of publicity and privacy (data,
spaces) and hybrid roles of the researcher
 Legal gray areas and insecurities (no best practices)
e. g. frictionless sharing and »contextual integrity« [NISSENBAUM: 2004]
[DE-]CONTEXTUALIZATION
STAKEHOLDERS, ACTORS, RELATIONS
Codes/Guidelines
Intermediaries
MCKEE & PORTER [2009: 17]
 personal rights (of others) and handling of
personal identifiable information; right to
informational self-determination (in Germany)
 data security and privacy (national, EU)
 scientific freedom; science/education related laws
 third parties and providers, e.g. Terms of Use
LEGAL CONTEXT
Many ethical conflicts in online / digital
media research occur due to violations of
communication norms and principles (e.g.
reciprocity, authenticity, personhood)
online research = communication
Research
 Ethical rules (codes), standards and principles
 Technical / methodological requirements
 Research experience, practices and object of study
Use  (Online) communication ethics
 (In)formal rules of play (e.g. netiquettes)
 Media literacy/competence
 Technical and social frames of media practices
 Characteristics of digital media environments
 Terms of Use and providers’ rights
 Ethical position & paradigm
 Values (trust, responsibility, accountability)
hybrid contexts
DIGITAL MEDIA RESEARCH CONTEXTS
CONTEXTUAL DETAILS MATTER
 Object(s) of analysis: texts, aggregated bits of information,
or the persons themselves?
 use expectations of the online site and participants?
 sensitivity of the information collected?
 ages, geo-cultural-political affiliations, and/or
technological expertise of the online participants?
 In what form are the researchers collecting data, and in
what forms are they re-distributing it?
 Is the researcher using real names or real user/avatar
names, quoting passages, taking screenshots, etc.?
 And where will this material appear and to whom will it be
accessible?
MCKEE & PORTER [2009: 7F.]
 Type of Data
 Type of Venues
and/or Contexts
 set of questions to
reflect and evaluate
ethical practice
AoIR Guidelines [2012]
PRACTICAL JUDGEMENT
IN SPECIFIC CONTEXTS
[›PHRONESIS‹]
HTTP://S2.QUICKMEME.COM/IMG/2C/2CF739C4AAC76C9EFF549E105
390EB22B899CBF161784E671A1F50AD6E63040F.JPG
A PROCESS ORIENTED APPROACH
HTTP://CT.FRA.BZ/OL/FZ/SW/I54/5/10/3/FRABZ-ONE-DOES-NOT-SIMPLY-START-THE-PROJECT-WITHOUT-CONSIDERING-ETHICS-9E0B60.JPG
»Different ethical issues become salient as the
researcher develops research questions, seeks
and gains access to individuals and/or
information, manages and protects personally
identifiable information, selects analytical
tools, and represents the data through
dissemination, in published reports,
conference presentations, or other venues.«
MARKHAM & BUCHANAN [2012: 4]
HTTPS://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/LLAMNUDS/8543376308/
Research Question
Research Design
Data Collection
Data Analysis
Publication/Dissemination
Initial Stage Data Collection Data Analysis Publication
ACCESS TO SPACES & DATA
ACCESS TO
PARTICIPANTS
VISIBILITY / AUTHENTICITY STRATEGIES
ANONYMITY VS
AUTHORSHIP
ANONYMIZATION STRATEGIES
(INTER)ACTION VS.
ARTIFACTS
VOLUNTARINESS / INFORMED CONSENT
DATA SECURITY / STORAGE
DO NO HARM-PRINCIPLE
TRANSPARENCY | DISCLOSURE | RECIPROCITY
INHERENT
BIASES
When in the research process – and by whom
– is consent required?
 Object of Study: actions/practices vs
artifacts/text
 Accessibility and/or sensitivity of data and
information
 Expectations of the users, e.g. regarding
publicity/privacy of information/behaviour, …
OBTAINING INFORMED CONSENT
Visual heuristic to support ethical decision-making; in: MCKEE & PORTER [2009: 132/136]
»it is not only […] a technology, an infrastructure, which
is simply there–it is appropriated and has a specific
meaning to us. If you are going to MySpace you do
different things than on Facebook […] these are very
different spaces or Lebenswelten, with different
functions and meanings. Once you acknowledge that […]
we as researchers have to take a certain position: not to
sniff around and observe everything because it is easily
accessible, but instead to be aware of the fact that these
spaces are made by people for themselves.«
PhD Candidate studying self-representation in SNS; in: HEISE [2013]
USERS’ PERSPECTIVES
 Goal: protecting individual/group privacy and
personal identifiable information
 Potential risks: de-anonymization due to
traceability of data, …
 Possible approaches: »Data Fabrication«
[MARKHAM 2012], »visual paraphrases«, word
clouds etc.
Which degree of anonymization is required?
PUBLICATION OF RESULTS / DATA
in: HEISE & SCHMIDT [2014]
CONCLUSION
»There cannot be a blanket,
whole cloth approach to Internet
Research ethics.«
MCKEE & PORTER [2009: 7]
Process oriented ethical perspective as …
 basis of research design and (individual/group)
practice  sensitivity, deliberative process
 means to improve your research, e.g. in regard to
project management (planning/adjusting), quality
of methods/data, impact (trust, responsibility),
transparency, accountability
 flexible, adjustable case and context sensitive
framework to anticipate, address and evaluate
(potential) ethical dimensions of research
RESOURCES
Guidelines
 MARKHAM/BUCHANAN [2012]: AoIR Recommendations (aoir.org)
 NESH [2015]: Ethical Guidelines for Internet Research (etikkom.no)
 ESOMAR/GRBN [2015]: Online Research Guideline (esomar.org)
 BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY [2013]: Ethics Guidelines for Internet-
mediated Research
Literature
 ALIM [2014]: Ethics & automated data retraction from Social Media
 ZIMMER [2010]: Ethics & Facebook, private/public data, publication
 MCKEE/PORTER [2009]: Ethics of Internet Research (case based approach)
 MARKHAM/BAYM [2009]: qualitative Internet methodology (challenges)
 HEISE/SCHMIDT [2014]: ethics of online research [GER]
 DZEYK [2001]: ethical dimensions of online research [GER]
 RIVERS/LEWIS [2014]: Ethical research standards in a world of big data.
Nele Heise, M.A.
University of Hamburg | Journalism and Mass
Communication Studies
Graduate School Media & Communication Hamburg
@neleheise
nele.heise@wiso.uni-hamburg.de
THANK YOU.
ADM (2014). Richtlinie für Untersuchungen in den und mittels der Sozialen Medien (Soziale Medien Richtlinie). https://www.adm-
ev.de/fileadmin/user_upload/PDFS/R11_D.pdf.
ALIM, S. (2014). An initial exploration of ethical research practices regarding automated data extraction from online social media user
profiles. First Monday, 19(7). http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i7.5382.
BORGATTI, S. P.; MOLINA, J.L. (2002). Ethical and Strategic Issues in Organizational Social Network Analysis. The Journal of Applied Behavioral
Science, 39(3), 337-349. http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/papers/ethics.pdf.
BOYD, D.; CRAWFORD, K. (2012). Critical questions for Big Data. Information, Communication & Society, 15(5), 662–679.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2012.678878.
BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY (2013). Ethics Guidelines for Internet-mediated Research.
http://www.bps.org.uk/system/files/Public%20files/inf206-guidelines-for-internet-mediated-research.pdf.
BURGESS, J.; BRUNS, A. (2012): Twitter Archives and the Challenges of ›Big Social Data‹ for Media and Communication Research. M/C
Journal, 15 (5). http://journal.media-culture.org.au/index.php/mcjournal/article/viewArticle/561.
CAPURRO, R.; PINGEL, C.: (2002). Ethical issues of online communication research. Ethics and Information Technology, 4(2002), 189-194.
DIENER, E.; CRANDALL, R. (1978). Ethics in Social and Behavioral Research. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press.
DÖRING, N. (1999). Sozialpsychologie des Internet: die Bedeutung des Internet für Kommunikationsprozesse, Identitäten, soziale Beziehungen und
Gruppen. Göttingen u.a.: Hogrefe.
DZEYK, W. (2001). Ethische Dimensionen der Online-Forschung. Kölner Psychologische Studien 6(1), 1-30. http://kups.ub.uni-
koeln.de/2424/1/ethdimon.pdf.
ELGESEM, D. (2002). What is special about the ethical issues in online research? Ethics and Information Technology 4(3), 195–203.
ESS, C.(2007). Internet research ethics. In: Joinson, A.; Mckenna, K.; Postmes, T.; Reips, U. (Eds.): The Oxford handbook of Internet psychology
(pp. 91–107). Oxford: University Press.
EYNON, R.; SCHROEDER, R.; FRY, J. (2009). New Techniques in Online Research. Challenges for Research Ethics. 21st Century Society 4 (2),
187-199.
FRAAS, C.; MEIER, S.; PENTZOLD, C. (2012). Online-Kommunikation. Grundlagen, Praxisfelder und Methoden. Wien: Oldenbourg Verlag.
HAMILTON, R. J.; BOWERS, B. J. (2006). Internet Recruitment and E-Mail Interviews in Qualitative Studies. Qualitative Health Research, 16 (6),
821-835.
HEISE, N. (2013). “Doing it for real”. Authentizität als kommunikationsethische Voraussetzung onlinebasierter Forschung. In: Emmer, M.;
Filipovic, A.; Schmidt, J.-H.; Stapf, I. (Eds.): Authentizität in der computervermittelten Kommunikation (pp. 88-109). Weinheim: Juventa.
References
HEISE, N. (2015). Big Data – small problems? Ethische Dimensionen der Forschung mit Online-Kommunikationsspuren. In: A. Maireder, J.
Ausserhofer, C. Schumann, M. Taddicken (Eds.): Digitale Methoden in der Kommunikationswissenschaft (pp. 39-58). Berlin.
http://dx.doi.org/10.17174/dcr.v2.3.
HEISE, N.; SCHMIDT, J.-H. (2014). Ethik der Onlineforschung. In: M. Welker, M. Taddicken, J.-H. Schmidt, N. Jackob (Eds.): Handbuch Online-
Forschung (pp. 519-539). Köln: Herbert von Halem Verlag.
MCKEE, H.; PORTER, J. (2009). The Ethics of Internet Research. A Rhetorical, Case-Based Process. New York u.a.: Peter Lang.
MARKHAM, A. (2012). Fabrication as ethical practice: Qualitative inquiry in ambiguous internet contexts. Information, Communication &
Society, 15 (3), 334-353.
MARKHAM, A.; BUCHANAN, E. (2012). Ethical Decision-Making and Internet Research: Recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working
Committee (version 2.0). http://aoir.org/reports/ethics2.pdf.
NESH (2015). Ethical Guidelines for Internet Research. https://www.etikkom.no/en/ethical-guidelines-for-research/ethical-guidelines-for-
internet-research/.
NISSENBAUM, H. (2004). Privacy as contextual integrity. Washington Law Review, 79(1), 119-157.
RIVERS, C.M.; LEWIS, B.L. (2014). Ethical research standards in a world of big data. F1000Research, 3(38).
http://f1000research.com/articles/3-38/v2.
ROBARD, B. (2013). Friending Participants: Managing the Researcher–Participant Relationship on Social Network Sites. Young, 21(3),
217–235.
SCHMIDT, J.-H. (2009). Braucht das Web 2.0 eine eigene Forschungsethik? Zeitschrift für Kommunikationsökologie und Medienethik 11(2),
38-42.
STROHM KITCHENER, K.; KITCHENER, R. F. (2009). Social Research Ethics. Historical and Philosophical Issues. In: Mertens, Donna M.;
Ginsberg, Pauline E. (Eds.): The handbook of social research ethics (pp. 5-22). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
TREVISAN, F.; REILLY, P. (2012). Ethical Dilemmas in Researching Social Media Campaigns on Sensitive Personal Issues. Paper presented at
the 4th European Communication Conference, October 2012, Istanbul.
VIS, F. (2013). A critical reflection on Big Data: Considering APIs, researchers and tools as data makers. First Monday, 10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5210%2Ffm.v18i10.4878.
WILLIAMS, F.; RICE, R.; ROGERS, E. M. (1988). Research methods and the new media. New York u.a.: Free Press.
ZIMMER, M. (2010). “But the data is already public”: on the ethics of research on Facebook. Ethics and Information Technology, 12(4), 313-
326.
References

More Related Content

What's hot

Rebecca eynon e research ethics 2014
Rebecca eynon e research ethics 2014Rebecca eynon e research ethics 2014
Rebecca eynon e research ethics 2014
oiisdp
 
Ethics, Openness and the Future of Learning
Ethics, Openness and the Future of LearningEthics, Openness and the Future of Learning
Ethics, Openness and the Future of Learning
Robert Farrow
 

What's hot (20)

Research Ethics 20th Nov 09 Arec
Research Ethics 20th Nov 09 ArecResearch Ethics 20th Nov 09 Arec
Research Ethics 20th Nov 09 Arec
 
Rebecca eynon e research ethics 2014
Rebecca eynon e research ethics 2014Rebecca eynon e research ethics 2014
Rebecca eynon e research ethics 2014
 
Chapter5
Chapter5Chapter5
Chapter5
 
Research Ethics in the 2.0 Era: New Challenges for Researchers and IRBs
Research Ethics in the 2.0 Era: New Challenges for Researchers and IRBsResearch Ethics in the 2.0 Era: New Challenges for Researchers and IRBs
Research Ethics in the 2.0 Era: New Challenges for Researchers and IRBs
 
Ethics of research
Ethics of researchEthics of research
Ethics of research
 
RESEARCH ETHICS AND PUBLIC TRUST, PRECONDITIONS FOR CONTINUED GROWTH OF INTER...
RESEARCH ETHICS AND PUBLIC TRUST, PRECONDITIONS FOR CONTINUED GROWTH OF INTER...RESEARCH ETHICS AND PUBLIC TRUST, PRECONDITIONS FOR CONTINUED GROWTH OF INTER...
RESEARCH ETHICS AND PUBLIC TRUST, PRECONDITIONS FOR CONTINUED GROWTH OF INTER...
 
Research ethics
Research ethicsResearch ethics
Research ethics
 
Ethics and Qualitative Research
Ethics and Qualitative ResearchEthics and Qualitative Research
Ethics and Qualitative Research
 
Ethics presentation
Ethics presentationEthics presentation
Ethics presentation
 
Research Ethics
Research EthicsResearch Ethics
Research Ethics
 
Research ethics overview for social science researchers
Research  ethics  overview for social science researchers Research  ethics  overview for social science researchers
Research ethics overview for social science researchers
 
Research Ethics for JPCFM (Jan2011)
Research Ethics for JPCFM (Jan2011)Research Ethics for JPCFM (Jan2011)
Research Ethics for JPCFM (Jan2011)
 
Digital literacy & reserach ethics
Digital literacy & reserach ethicsDigital literacy & reserach ethics
Digital literacy & reserach ethics
 
Ethics, Openness and the Future of Learning
Ethics, Openness and the Future of LearningEthics, Openness and the Future of Learning
Ethics, Openness and the Future of Learning
 
How do you define research ethics? Discuss Ethics and the Research Process. ...
 How do you define research ethics? Discuss Ethics and the Research Process. ... How do you define research ethics? Discuss Ethics and the Research Process. ...
How do you define research ethics? Discuss Ethics and the Research Process. ...
 
Research Ethics
Research EthicsResearch Ethics
Research Ethics
 
Blogs: Public, Private, and the "Intimsphere" - A Danish Example
Blogs: Public, Private, and the "Intimsphere" - A Danish ExampleBlogs: Public, Private, and the "Intimsphere" - A Danish Example
Blogs: Public, Private, and the "Intimsphere" - A Danish Example
 
Introduction To Critical Enquiry Research
Introduction To Critical Enquiry ResearchIntroduction To Critical Enquiry Research
Introduction To Critical Enquiry Research
 
Philosophical Assumptions Underlying Qualitative as Opposed to Quantitative R...
Philosophical Assumptions Underlying Qualitative as Opposed to Quantitative R...Philosophical Assumptions Underlying Qualitative as Opposed to Quantitative R...
Philosophical Assumptions Underlying Qualitative as Opposed to Quantitative R...
 
Privacy attitudes, incentives and behaviours
Privacy attitudes, incentives and behavioursPrivacy attitudes, incentives and behaviours
Privacy attitudes, incentives and behaviours
 

Viewers also liked

FINAL presentationMay2016
FINAL presentationMay2016FINAL presentationMay2016
FINAL presentationMay2016
Melissa Krasnow
 
Brochure - Lenze motion control solutions
Brochure - Lenze motion control solutionsBrochure - Lenze motion control solutions
Brochure - Lenze motion control solutions
Derek Jones ★ Lenze UK
 
Evaluation question 6
Evaluation question 6Evaluation question 6
Evaluation question 6
Mark Rivas
 
Capers forAoS paper 1 part ii
Capers forAoS paper 1 part iiCapers forAoS paper 1 part ii
Capers forAoS paper 1 part ii
Leonie Krieger
 

Viewers also liked (13)

FINAL presentationMay2016
FINAL presentationMay2016FINAL presentationMay2016
FINAL presentationMay2016
 
Sohna road gurgaon property
Sohna road gurgaon propertySohna road gurgaon property
Sohna road gurgaon property
 
Vorteil Audio: Podcast Werkstatt (2. Teil): Audacity
Vorteil Audio: Podcast Werkstatt (2. Teil): AudacityVorteil Audio: Podcast Werkstatt (2. Teil): Audacity
Vorteil Audio: Podcast Werkstatt (2. Teil): Audacity
 
Pleurotus y Venturia
Pleurotus y VenturiaPleurotus y Venturia
Pleurotus y Venturia
 
Mediakit 2016 Zi de zi
Mediakit  2016 Zi de ziMediakit  2016 Zi de zi
Mediakit 2016 Zi de zi
 
Form,structure and language
Form,structure and language Form,structure and language
Form,structure and language
 
Brochure - Lenze motion control solutions
Brochure - Lenze motion control solutionsBrochure - Lenze motion control solutions
Brochure - Lenze motion control solutions
 
Heybe Pentest Automation Toolkit - Sec4U
Heybe Pentest Automation Toolkit - Sec4U Heybe Pentest Automation Toolkit - Sec4U
Heybe Pentest Automation Toolkit - Sec4U
 
Anchored pile retaining wall embedded, by Dr. sachpazis
Anchored pile retaining wall embedded, by Dr. sachpazisAnchored pile retaining wall embedded, by Dr. sachpazis
Anchored pile retaining wall embedded, by Dr. sachpazis
 
Evaluation question 6
Evaluation question 6Evaluation question 6
Evaluation question 6
 
Discovery - intro and rubric statements
Discovery - intro and rubric statementsDiscovery - intro and rubric statements
Discovery - intro and rubric statements
 
Capers forAoS paper 1 part ii
Capers forAoS paper 1 part iiCapers forAoS paper 1 part ii
Capers forAoS paper 1 part ii
 
Ethics and Big Data
Ethics and Big Data Ethics and Big Data
Ethics and Big Data
 

Similar to Revisiting Digital Media and Internet Research Ethics. A Process Oriented Approach

Trust and Accountability: experiences from the FAIRDOM Commons Initiative.
Trust and Accountability: experiences from the FAIRDOM Commons Initiative.Trust and Accountability: experiences from the FAIRDOM Commons Initiative.
Trust and Accountability: experiences from the FAIRDOM Commons Initiative.
Carole Goble
 
Deliberative Democracy as a strategy for co-designing university ethics aro...
Deliberative Democracy as a strategy for co-designing university ethics aro...Deliberative Democracy as a strategy for co-designing university ethics aro...
Deliberative Democracy as a strategy for co-designing university ethics aro...
Simon Buckingham Shum
 
Towards Decision Support and Goal AchievementIdentifying Ac.docx
Towards Decision Support and Goal AchievementIdentifying Ac.docxTowards Decision Support and Goal AchievementIdentifying Ac.docx
Towards Decision Support and Goal AchievementIdentifying Ac.docx
turveycharlyn
 

Similar to Revisiting Digital Media and Internet Research Ethics. A Process Oriented Approach (20)

Blurring the Boundaries? Ethical challenges in using social media for social...
Blurring the Boundaries? Ethical challenges in using social media for social...Blurring the Boundaries? Ethical challenges in using social media for social...
Blurring the Boundaries? Ethical challenges in using social media for social...
 
Research methods - ethics
Research methods - ethicsResearch methods - ethics
Research methods - ethics
 
Online research and ethical principles of online communication
Online research and ethical principles of online communicationOnline research and ethical principles of online communication
Online research and ethical principles of online communication
 
Internet Research Ethics.docx
Internet Research Ethics.docxInternet Research Ethics.docx
Internet Research Ethics.docx
 
‘Damn those ethics boards!’ How to make sense of an ethics committee approach...
‘Damn those ethics boards!’ How to make sense of an ethics committee approach...‘Damn those ethics boards!’ How to make sense of an ethics committee approach...
‘Damn those ethics boards!’ How to make sense of an ethics committee approach...
 
Edirisingha ethics unisa2012_12_june2012
Edirisingha ethics unisa2012_12_june2012Edirisingha ethics unisa2012_12_june2012
Edirisingha ethics unisa2012_12_june2012
 
A Lifecycle Approach to Information Privacy
A Lifecycle Approach to Information PrivacyA Lifecycle Approach to Information Privacy
A Lifecycle Approach to Information Privacy
 
Working with Social Media Data: Ethics & good practice around collecting, usi...
Working with Social Media Data: Ethics & good practice around collecting, usi...Working with Social Media Data: Ethics & good practice around collecting, usi...
Working with Social Media Data: Ethics & good practice around collecting, usi...
 
Data as a service: a human-centered design approach/Retha de la Harpe
Data as a service: a human-centered design approach/Retha de la HarpeData as a service: a human-centered design approach/Retha de la Harpe
Data as a service: a human-centered design approach/Retha de la Harpe
 
Overview of Ethical Issues in Digital Watermarking
Overview of Ethical Issues in Digital WatermarkingOverview of Ethical Issues in Digital Watermarking
Overview of Ethical Issues in Digital Watermarking
 
Chapter 3 research design
Chapter 3 research designChapter 3 research design
Chapter 3 research design
 
Trust and Accountability: experiences from the FAIRDOM Commons Initiative.
Trust and Accountability: experiences from the FAIRDOM Commons Initiative.Trust and Accountability: experiences from the FAIRDOM Commons Initiative.
Trust and Accountability: experiences from the FAIRDOM Commons Initiative.
 
Adam Phillips, Session Chair, UK
Adam Phillips, Session Chair, UKAdam Phillips, Session Chair, UK
Adam Phillips, Session Chair, UK
 
Philosophical Aspects of Big Data
Philosophical Aspects of Big DataPhilosophical Aspects of Big Data
Philosophical Aspects of Big Data
 
CIC Networked Learning Practices Workshop - Caroline Haythornthwaite
CIC Networked Learning Practices Workshop - Caroline HaythornthwaiteCIC Networked Learning Practices Workshop - Caroline Haythornthwaite
CIC Networked Learning Practices Workshop - Caroline Haythornthwaite
 
Deliberative Democracy as a strategy for co-designing university ethics aro...
Deliberative Democracy as a strategy for co-designing university ethics aro...Deliberative Democracy as a strategy for co-designing university ethics aro...
Deliberative Democracy as a strategy for co-designing university ethics aro...
 
Making our mark: the important role of social scientists in the ‘era of big d...
Making our mark: the important role of social scientists in the ‘era of big d...Making our mark: the important role of social scientists in the ‘era of big d...
Making our mark: the important role of social scientists in the ‘era of big d...
 
Towards Decision Support and Goal AchievementIdentifying Ac.docx
Towards Decision Support and Goal AchievementIdentifying Ac.docxTowards Decision Support and Goal AchievementIdentifying Ac.docx
Towards Decision Support and Goal AchievementIdentifying Ac.docx
 
Accessing and Using Big Data to Advance Social Science Knowledge
Accessing and Using Big Data to Advance Social Science KnowledgeAccessing and Using Big Data to Advance Social Science Knowledge
Accessing and Using Big Data to Advance Social Science Knowledge
 
The wicked problem of data literacy - Corrall
The wicked problem of data literacy - CorrallThe wicked problem of data literacy - Corrall
The wicked problem of data literacy - Corrall
 

More from Nele Heise

More from Nele Heise (20)

News Ways to be Heard? Potenziale und Barrieren medialer Teilhabe am Beispiel...
News Ways to be Heard? Potenziale und Barrieren medialer Teilhabe am Beispiel...News Ways to be Heard? Potenziale und Barrieren medialer Teilhabe am Beispiel...
News Ways to be Heard? Potenziale und Barrieren medialer Teilhabe am Beispiel...
 
Neue Räume - neue Regeln? Ethische Herausforderungen des Forschens im Netz
Neue Räume - neue Regeln? Ethische Herausforderungen des Forschens im NetzNeue Räume - neue Regeln? Ethische Herausforderungen des Forschens im Netz
Neue Räume - neue Regeln? Ethische Herausforderungen des Forschens im Netz
 
Vom Archiv in die Kopfhörer. Der Einsatz von Podcasts zur Wissensvermittlung
Vom Archiv in die Kopfhörer. Der Einsatz von Podcasts zur Wissensvermittlung Vom Archiv in die Kopfhörer. Der Einsatz von Podcasts zur Wissensvermittlung
Vom Archiv in die Kopfhörer. Der Einsatz von Podcasts zur Wissensvermittlung
 
Digital Media Participation: Blogging and Podcasting
Digital Media Participation: Blogging and PodcastingDigital Media Participation: Blogging and Podcasting
Digital Media Participation: Blogging and Podcasting
 
Shape it - or be shaped! Von der Notwendigkeit digitale Umgebungen geschlecht...
Shape it - or be shaped! Von der Notwendigkeit digitale Umgebungen geschlecht...Shape it - or be shaped! Von der Notwendigkeit digitale Umgebungen geschlecht...
Shape it - or be shaped! Von der Notwendigkeit digitale Umgebungen geschlecht...
 
Forschungspraxis aus ethischer Perspektive
Forschungspraxis aus ethischer PerspektiveForschungspraxis aus ethischer Perspektive
Forschungspraxis aus ethischer Perspektive
 
[Stimm]Vielfalt im Netz. Repräsentation und Teilhabe erforschen
[Stimm]Vielfalt im Netz. Repräsentation und Teilhabe erforschen[Stimm]Vielfalt im Netz. Repräsentation und Teilhabe erforschen
[Stimm]Vielfalt im Netz. Repräsentation und Teilhabe erforschen
 
Wissen to Go - Podcasting und Wissenschaftskommunikation
Wissen to Go - Podcasting und WissenschaftskommunikationWissen to Go - Podcasting und Wissenschaftskommunikation
Wissen to Go - Podcasting und Wissenschaftskommunikation
 
Serial & Co - was das Radio vom Podcast-Hype lernen kann
Serial & Co - was das Radio vom Podcast-Hype lernen kann Serial & Co - was das Radio vom Podcast-Hype lernen kann
Serial & Co - was das Radio vom Podcast-Hype lernen kann
 
Digitale Kommunikation - ethische Perspektiven
Digitale Kommunikation - ethische PerspektivenDigitale Kommunikation - ethische Perspektiven
Digitale Kommunikation - ethische Perspektiven
 
Was wir über Podcastnutzung wissen #ppw15b
Was wir über Podcastnutzung wissen #ppw15bWas wir über Podcastnutzung wissen #ppw15b
Was wir über Podcastnutzung wissen #ppw15b
 
Podcasting as a catalyst of diversity? An exploration of women hosted podcasts
Podcasting as a catalyst of diversity? An exploration of women hosted podcastsPodcasting as a catalyst of diversity? An exploration of women hosted podcasts
Podcasting as a catalyst of diversity? An exploration of women hosted podcasts
 
"Ethics in digital media research"
"Ethics in digital media research""Ethics in digital media research"
"Ethics in digital media research"
 
An die Mikrofone! Mit Podcasting für mehr Vielfalt in Netzdiskursen
An die Mikrofone! Mit Podcasting für mehr Vielfalt in NetzdiskursenAn die Mikrofone! Mit Podcasting für mehr Vielfalt in Netzdiskursen
An die Mikrofone! Mit Podcasting für mehr Vielfalt in Netzdiskursen
 
Blogs, Instagram & Co. - ethische Aspekte des Elternseins im Netz
Blogs, Instagram & Co. - ethische Aspekte des Elternseins im NetzBlogs, Instagram & Co. - ethische Aspekte des Elternseins im Netz
Blogs, Instagram & Co. - ethische Aspekte des Elternseins im Netz
 
Anything goes!? Ethische Dimensionen der Onlineforschung
Anything goes!? Ethische Dimensionen der OnlineforschungAnything goes!? Ethische Dimensionen der Onlineforschung
Anything goes!? Ethische Dimensionen der Onlineforschung
 
"It's just not my thing" Why audience members don't use participatory feature...
"It's just not my thing" Why audience members don't use participatory feature..."It's just not my thing" Why audience members don't use participatory feature...
"It's just not my thing" Why audience members don't use participatory feature...
 
The "Blue Pages" as promoter of demarginalization & empowerment - An explorat...
The "Blue Pages" as promoter of demarginalization & empowerment - An explorat...The "Blue Pages" as promoter of demarginalization & empowerment - An explorat...
The "Blue Pages" as promoter of demarginalization & empowerment - An explorat...
 
Medienforschung auf's Ohr - ein Podcast für den Nachwuchs der Medien- und Kom...
Medienforschung auf's Ohr - ein Podcast für den Nachwuchs der Medien- und Kom...Medienforschung auf's Ohr - ein Podcast für den Nachwuchs der Medien- und Kom...
Medienforschung auf's Ohr - ein Podcast für den Nachwuchs der Medien- und Kom...
 
#rp14 "Into the Wild? Nicht mit mir! Warum menschen das Internet nicht nutzen"
#rp14 "Into the Wild? Nicht mit mir! Warum menschen das Internet nicht nutzen"#rp14 "Into the Wild? Nicht mit mir! Warum menschen das Internet nicht nutzen"
#rp14 "Into the Wild? Nicht mit mir! Warum menschen das Internet nicht nutzen"
 

Recently uploaded

Heat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree days
Heat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree daysHeat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree days
Heat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree days
Brahmesh Reddy B R
 
THE ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE ECONOMIC UPLIFT.pptx
THE ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE ECONOMIC UPLIFT.pptxTHE ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE ECONOMIC UPLIFT.pptx
THE ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE ECONOMIC UPLIFT.pptx
ANSARKHAN96
 
Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease_102718.pptx
Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease_102718.pptxNanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease_102718.pptx
Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease_102718.pptx
ssusera4ec7b
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Heat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree days
Heat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree daysHeat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree days
Heat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree days
 
Energy is the beat of life irrespective of the domains. ATP- the energy curre...
Energy is the beat of life irrespective of the domains. ATP- the energy curre...Energy is the beat of life irrespective of the domains. ATP- the energy curre...
Energy is the beat of life irrespective of the domains. ATP- the energy curre...
 
THE ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE ECONOMIC UPLIFT.pptx
THE ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE ECONOMIC UPLIFT.pptxTHE ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE ECONOMIC UPLIFT.pptx
THE ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE ECONOMIC UPLIFT.pptx
 
Precision Farming in Fruit Crops presentation
Precision Farming in Fruit Crops presentationPrecision Farming in Fruit Crops presentation
Precision Farming in Fruit Crops presentation
 
Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease_102718.pptx
Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease_102718.pptxNanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease_102718.pptx
Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease_102718.pptx
 
Harry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation is Possible in Quantum Mechanic...
Harry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation is Possible in Quantum Mechanic...Harry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation is Possible in Quantum Mechanic...
Harry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation is Possible in Quantum Mechanic...
 
Factor Causing low production and physiology of mamary Gland
Factor Causing low production and physiology of mamary GlandFactor Causing low production and physiology of mamary Gland
Factor Causing low production and physiology of mamary Gland
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 8) Enzymology
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 8) EnzymologyGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 8) Enzymology
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 8) Enzymology
 
Soil and Water Conservation Engineering (SWCE) is a specialized field of stud...
Soil and Water Conservation Engineering (SWCE) is a specialized field of stud...Soil and Water Conservation Engineering (SWCE) is a specialized field of stud...
Soil and Water Conservation Engineering (SWCE) is a specialized field of stud...
 
Terpineol and it's characterization pptx
Terpineol and it's characterization pptxTerpineol and it's characterization pptx
Terpineol and it's characterization pptx
 
An Overview of Active and Passive Targeting Strategies to Improve the Nano-Ca...
An Overview of Active and Passive Targeting Strategies to Improve the Nano-Ca...An Overview of Active and Passive Targeting Strategies to Improve the Nano-Ca...
An Overview of Active and Passive Targeting Strategies to Improve the Nano-Ca...
 
PARENTAL CARE IN FISHES.pptx for 5th sem
PARENTAL CARE IN FISHES.pptx for 5th semPARENTAL CARE IN FISHES.pptx for 5th sem
PARENTAL CARE IN FISHES.pptx for 5th sem
 
Efficient spin-up of Earth System Models usingsequence acceleration
Efficient spin-up of Earth System Models usingsequence accelerationEfficient spin-up of Earth System Models usingsequence acceleration
Efficient spin-up of Earth System Models usingsequence acceleration
 
Micropropagation of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)
Micropropagation of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)Micropropagation of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)
Micropropagation of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)
 
NuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdf
NuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdfNuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdf
NuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdf
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 5) Concept of isolation
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 5) Concept of isolationGBSN - Microbiology (Unit 5) Concept of isolation
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 5) Concept of isolation
 
Vital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed Rahimoon
Vital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed RahimoonVital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed Rahimoon
Vital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed Rahimoon
 
SaffronCrocusGenomicsThessalonikiOnlineMay2024TalkOnline.pptx
SaffronCrocusGenomicsThessalonikiOnlineMay2024TalkOnline.pptxSaffronCrocusGenomicsThessalonikiOnlineMay2024TalkOnline.pptx
SaffronCrocusGenomicsThessalonikiOnlineMay2024TalkOnline.pptx
 
Introduction and significance of Symbiotic algae
Introduction and significance of  Symbiotic algaeIntroduction and significance of  Symbiotic algae
Introduction and significance of Symbiotic algae
 
Taphonomy and Quality of the Fossil Record
Taphonomy and Quality of the  Fossil RecordTaphonomy and Quality of the  Fossil Record
Taphonomy and Quality of the Fossil Record
 

Revisiting Digital Media and Internet Research Ethics. A Process Oriented Approach

  • 1. REVISITING DIGITAL MEDIA & INTERNET RESEARCH ETHICS A Process Oriented Approach NELE HEISE, M.A. | @NELEHEISE WORKSHOP ”RESEARCH ETHICS FOR DATA AND DIGITAL METHODS” NOVEMBER 29, 2016 | DATA SCHOOL UTRECHT
  • 2. Hello.  Media Researcher at the University of Hamburg + Graduate School Media and Communication Hamburg;  forms, practices and conditions of media participation in the digital age, as well as ethics of online communication and digital media, e.g. Big Data, algorithms  Master thesis: »Ethics of Internet Research« (2011)
  • 3. TODAY DIGITAL METHODS, DATA AND ETHICS A PROCESS ORIENTED APPROACH CONCLUSION WHY BOTHER ABOUT ETHICS?
  • 4.
  • 7. »The social sciences can […] have a tremendous impact on society, even to the point of revolutionizing our conceptions of human nature, society, and culture.« DIENER & CRANDALL [1978: 195]
  • 9. HTTP://MOTHERBOARD.VICE.COM/READ/70000-OKCUPID-USERS-JUST-HAD-THEIR-DATA-PUBLISHED »The data may be ‘public’ (though it must require login and agreement to a [terms of service]) but that does not absolve anyone from an ethical responsibility.« R. Munksgaard
  • 15. Ethical challenges and questions, according to The Alan Turing Institute & Oxford Internet Institute:  how data is generated, recorded, shared (ethics of data)  how artificial intelligence, machine learning and robots interpret data (ethics of algorithms)  devising responsible innovation and professional codes to guide this emerging science (ethics of practice)  See e.g. special issue of Philosophical Transactions A on “the ethical impact of data science” (ed. by M. Taddeo & L. Floridi) HTTPS://WWW.TURING.AC.UK/NEWS/WHAT-IS-DATA-ETHICS/ Data Science & Ethics
  • 16.
  • 18. RESEARCH ETHICS: KEY ELEMENTS Ethics are guidelines and principles that help us to uphold our values – to decide which goals of research are most important and to reconcile values and goals that are in conflict. Ethical guides are not simply prohibitions; they also support our positive responsibilities. DIENER/CRANDALL [1978: 3] (shared) valuesdecision-making responsibility
  • 19. LEVELS OF ETHICAL REASONING cf. STROHM KITCHENER & KITCHENER [2009] critical-evaluative immediate-situational Meta-Ethics Ethical Theories Ethical Principles Ethical Rules »ordinary moral sense«
  • 20.  Ethics as safeguard for good scientific practice, based on trust, scientific freedom, …  responsibilities regarding  employees, colleagues, team members, peers, scientific community, … [internal]  participants, society, clients etc. [external]
  • 21. ETHICAL PRINCIPLES & STANDARDS  Core principles:  Human Dignity,Autonomy (self-determination, agency) & Respect for Persons  maximization of benefits and minimization of harms (Nonmalificence & Beneficence), Justice  Protection, Safety & Fidelity  Research standards in regard to participants – Voluntariness, informed consent – Anonymity, Privacy & Confidentiality – »Do no harm« (avoidance of potential risks)
  • 23. »virtual worlds, as sites for meaningful social interaction, also tend to be sites where meaningful ethical harm can occur […].« VANACKER & HEIDER [2012: 83]
  • 24. »Internet research encompasses inquiry that: a) utilizes the internet to collect data or information, e.g., through online interviews, surveys, archiving, or automated means of data scraping; b) studies how people use and access the internet, e.g., through collecting and observing activities or participating on social network sites, listservs, web sites, blogs, games, virtual worlds, or other online environments or contexts; c) utilizes or engages in data processing, analysis, or storage of datasets, databanks, and/or repositories available via the d) studies software, code, and internet technologies e) examines the design or structures of systems, interfaces, pages, and elements f) employs visual and textual analysis, semiotic analysis, content analysis, or other methods of analysis to study the web and/or internet-facilitated images, writings, and media forms. g) studies large scale production, use, and regulation of the internet by governments, industries, corporations, and military forces.« MARKHAM & BUCHANAN [2012: 3f.]
  • 25. CHALLENGES OF DIGITAL RESEARCH METHODS  De-contextualization (space/time) and global reach of research and data  Data structures: networked, persistent, searchable, …  Informational constraints: disembodiment, communicative distance, degree of social presence, anonymity (verification/authentication)  Blurring boundaries of publicity and privacy (data, spaces) and hybrid roles of the researcher  Legal gray areas and insecurities (no best practices)
  • 26. e. g. frictionless sharing and »contextual integrity« [NISSENBAUM: 2004] [DE-]CONTEXTUALIZATION
  • 28.  personal rights (of others) and handling of personal identifiable information; right to informational self-determination (in Germany)  data security and privacy (national, EU)  scientific freedom; science/education related laws  third parties and providers, e.g. Terms of Use LEGAL CONTEXT
  • 29. Many ethical conflicts in online / digital media research occur due to violations of communication norms and principles (e.g. reciprocity, authenticity, personhood) online research = communication
  • 30. Research  Ethical rules (codes), standards and principles  Technical / methodological requirements  Research experience, practices and object of study Use  (Online) communication ethics  (In)formal rules of play (e.g. netiquettes)  Media literacy/competence  Technical and social frames of media practices  Characteristics of digital media environments  Terms of Use and providers’ rights  Ethical position & paradigm  Values (trust, responsibility, accountability) hybrid contexts DIGITAL MEDIA RESEARCH CONTEXTS
  • 31. CONTEXTUAL DETAILS MATTER  Object(s) of analysis: texts, aggregated bits of information, or the persons themselves?  use expectations of the online site and participants?  sensitivity of the information collected?  ages, geo-cultural-political affiliations, and/or technological expertise of the online participants?  In what form are the researchers collecting data, and in what forms are they re-distributing it?  Is the researcher using real names or real user/avatar names, quoting passages, taking screenshots, etc.?  And where will this material appear and to whom will it be accessible? MCKEE & PORTER [2009: 7F.]
  • 32.  Type of Data  Type of Venues and/or Contexts  set of questions to reflect and evaluate ethical practice AoIR Guidelines [2012]
  • 33. PRACTICAL JUDGEMENT IN SPECIFIC CONTEXTS [›PHRONESIS‹] HTTP://S2.QUICKMEME.COM/IMG/2C/2CF739C4AAC76C9EFF549E105 390EB22B899CBF161784E671A1F50AD6E63040F.JPG
  • 34. A PROCESS ORIENTED APPROACH
  • 36. »Different ethical issues become salient as the researcher develops research questions, seeks and gains access to individuals and/or information, manages and protects personally identifiable information, selects analytical tools, and represents the data through dissemination, in published reports, conference presentations, or other venues.« MARKHAM & BUCHANAN [2012: 4]
  • 38. Initial Stage Data Collection Data Analysis Publication ACCESS TO SPACES & DATA ACCESS TO PARTICIPANTS VISIBILITY / AUTHENTICITY STRATEGIES ANONYMITY VS AUTHORSHIP ANONYMIZATION STRATEGIES (INTER)ACTION VS. ARTIFACTS VOLUNTARINESS / INFORMED CONSENT DATA SECURITY / STORAGE DO NO HARM-PRINCIPLE TRANSPARENCY | DISCLOSURE | RECIPROCITY INHERENT BIASES
  • 39. When in the research process – and by whom – is consent required?  Object of Study: actions/practices vs artifacts/text  Accessibility and/or sensitivity of data and information  Expectations of the users, e.g. regarding publicity/privacy of information/behaviour, …
  • 40. OBTAINING INFORMED CONSENT Visual heuristic to support ethical decision-making; in: MCKEE & PORTER [2009: 132/136]
  • 41. »it is not only […] a technology, an infrastructure, which is simply there–it is appropriated and has a specific meaning to us. If you are going to MySpace you do different things than on Facebook […] these are very different spaces or Lebenswelten, with different functions and meanings. Once you acknowledge that […] we as researchers have to take a certain position: not to sniff around and observe everything because it is easily accessible, but instead to be aware of the fact that these spaces are made by people for themselves.« PhD Candidate studying self-representation in SNS; in: HEISE [2013] USERS’ PERSPECTIVES
  • 42.  Goal: protecting individual/group privacy and personal identifiable information  Potential risks: de-anonymization due to traceability of data, …  Possible approaches: »Data Fabrication« [MARKHAM 2012], »visual paraphrases«, word clouds etc. Which degree of anonymization is required?
  • 43. PUBLICATION OF RESULTS / DATA in: HEISE & SCHMIDT [2014]
  • 45. »There cannot be a blanket, whole cloth approach to Internet Research ethics.« MCKEE & PORTER [2009: 7]
  • 46. Process oriented ethical perspective as …  basis of research design and (individual/group) practice  sensitivity, deliberative process  means to improve your research, e.g. in regard to project management (planning/adjusting), quality of methods/data, impact (trust, responsibility), transparency, accountability  flexible, adjustable case and context sensitive framework to anticipate, address and evaluate (potential) ethical dimensions of research
  • 47. RESOURCES Guidelines  MARKHAM/BUCHANAN [2012]: AoIR Recommendations (aoir.org)  NESH [2015]: Ethical Guidelines for Internet Research (etikkom.no)  ESOMAR/GRBN [2015]: Online Research Guideline (esomar.org)  BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY [2013]: Ethics Guidelines for Internet- mediated Research Literature  ALIM [2014]: Ethics & automated data retraction from Social Media  ZIMMER [2010]: Ethics & Facebook, private/public data, publication  MCKEE/PORTER [2009]: Ethics of Internet Research (case based approach)  MARKHAM/BAYM [2009]: qualitative Internet methodology (challenges)  HEISE/SCHMIDT [2014]: ethics of online research [GER]  DZEYK [2001]: ethical dimensions of online research [GER]  RIVERS/LEWIS [2014]: Ethical research standards in a world of big data.
  • 48. Nele Heise, M.A. University of Hamburg | Journalism and Mass Communication Studies Graduate School Media & Communication Hamburg @neleheise nele.heise@wiso.uni-hamburg.de THANK YOU.
  • 49. ADM (2014). Richtlinie für Untersuchungen in den und mittels der Sozialen Medien (Soziale Medien Richtlinie). https://www.adm- ev.de/fileadmin/user_upload/PDFS/R11_D.pdf. ALIM, S. (2014). An initial exploration of ethical research practices regarding automated data extraction from online social media user profiles. First Monday, 19(7). http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i7.5382. BORGATTI, S. P.; MOLINA, J.L. (2002). Ethical and Strategic Issues in Organizational Social Network Analysis. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 39(3), 337-349. http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/papers/ethics.pdf. BOYD, D.; CRAWFORD, K. (2012). Critical questions for Big Data. Information, Communication & Society, 15(5), 662–679. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2012.678878. BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY (2013). Ethics Guidelines for Internet-mediated Research. http://www.bps.org.uk/system/files/Public%20files/inf206-guidelines-for-internet-mediated-research.pdf. BURGESS, J.; BRUNS, A. (2012): Twitter Archives and the Challenges of ›Big Social Data‹ for Media and Communication Research. M/C Journal, 15 (5). http://journal.media-culture.org.au/index.php/mcjournal/article/viewArticle/561. CAPURRO, R.; PINGEL, C.: (2002). Ethical issues of online communication research. Ethics and Information Technology, 4(2002), 189-194. DIENER, E.; CRANDALL, R. (1978). Ethics in Social and Behavioral Research. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press. DÖRING, N. (1999). Sozialpsychologie des Internet: die Bedeutung des Internet für Kommunikationsprozesse, Identitäten, soziale Beziehungen und Gruppen. Göttingen u.a.: Hogrefe. DZEYK, W. (2001). Ethische Dimensionen der Online-Forschung. Kölner Psychologische Studien 6(1), 1-30. http://kups.ub.uni- koeln.de/2424/1/ethdimon.pdf. ELGESEM, D. (2002). What is special about the ethical issues in online research? Ethics and Information Technology 4(3), 195–203. ESS, C.(2007). Internet research ethics. In: Joinson, A.; Mckenna, K.; Postmes, T.; Reips, U. (Eds.): The Oxford handbook of Internet psychology (pp. 91–107). Oxford: University Press. EYNON, R.; SCHROEDER, R.; FRY, J. (2009). New Techniques in Online Research. Challenges for Research Ethics. 21st Century Society 4 (2), 187-199. FRAAS, C.; MEIER, S.; PENTZOLD, C. (2012). Online-Kommunikation. Grundlagen, Praxisfelder und Methoden. Wien: Oldenbourg Verlag. HAMILTON, R. J.; BOWERS, B. J. (2006). Internet Recruitment and E-Mail Interviews in Qualitative Studies. Qualitative Health Research, 16 (6), 821-835. HEISE, N. (2013). “Doing it for real”. Authentizität als kommunikationsethische Voraussetzung onlinebasierter Forschung. In: Emmer, M.; Filipovic, A.; Schmidt, J.-H.; Stapf, I. (Eds.): Authentizität in der computervermittelten Kommunikation (pp. 88-109). Weinheim: Juventa. References
  • 50. HEISE, N. (2015). Big Data – small problems? Ethische Dimensionen der Forschung mit Online-Kommunikationsspuren. In: A. Maireder, J. Ausserhofer, C. Schumann, M. Taddicken (Eds.): Digitale Methoden in der Kommunikationswissenschaft (pp. 39-58). Berlin. http://dx.doi.org/10.17174/dcr.v2.3. HEISE, N.; SCHMIDT, J.-H. (2014). Ethik der Onlineforschung. In: M. Welker, M. Taddicken, J.-H. Schmidt, N. Jackob (Eds.): Handbuch Online- Forschung (pp. 519-539). Köln: Herbert von Halem Verlag. MCKEE, H.; PORTER, J. (2009). The Ethics of Internet Research. A Rhetorical, Case-Based Process. New York u.a.: Peter Lang. MARKHAM, A. (2012). Fabrication as ethical practice: Qualitative inquiry in ambiguous internet contexts. Information, Communication & Society, 15 (3), 334-353. MARKHAM, A.; BUCHANAN, E. (2012). Ethical Decision-Making and Internet Research: Recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee (version 2.0). http://aoir.org/reports/ethics2.pdf. NESH (2015). Ethical Guidelines for Internet Research. https://www.etikkom.no/en/ethical-guidelines-for-research/ethical-guidelines-for- internet-research/. NISSENBAUM, H. (2004). Privacy as contextual integrity. Washington Law Review, 79(1), 119-157. RIVERS, C.M.; LEWIS, B.L. (2014). Ethical research standards in a world of big data. F1000Research, 3(38). http://f1000research.com/articles/3-38/v2. ROBARD, B. (2013). Friending Participants: Managing the Researcher–Participant Relationship on Social Network Sites. Young, 21(3), 217–235. SCHMIDT, J.-H. (2009). Braucht das Web 2.0 eine eigene Forschungsethik? Zeitschrift für Kommunikationsökologie und Medienethik 11(2), 38-42. STROHM KITCHENER, K.; KITCHENER, R. F. (2009). Social Research Ethics. Historical and Philosophical Issues. In: Mertens, Donna M.; Ginsberg, Pauline E. (Eds.): The handbook of social research ethics (pp. 5-22). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. TREVISAN, F.; REILLY, P. (2012). Ethical Dilemmas in Researching Social Media Campaigns on Sensitive Personal Issues. Paper presented at the 4th European Communication Conference, October 2012, Istanbul. VIS, F. (2013). A critical reflection on Big Data: Considering APIs, researchers and tools as data makers. First Monday, 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.5210%2Ffm.v18i10.4878. WILLIAMS, F.; RICE, R.; ROGERS, E. M. (1988). Research methods and the new media. New York u.a.: Free Press. ZIMMER, M. (2010). “But the data is already public”: on the ethics of research on Facebook. Ethics and Information Technology, 12(4), 313- 326. References