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Implicit tests
         Measuring impact
beyond declared responses
                François Abiven (Repères)
                                    CEO
         Gaël Allain (Mémoire & Marketing)
           Doctor in cognitive psychology
2




1. The consumer: a complex study subject
2. The theory behind implicit tests
3. Case study : Packaging & values
3




1. The consumer: a
   complex study
   subject
4




 “The trouble with market research is
that people don’t think how they feel,
  they don’t say what they think and
     they don’t do what they say”
              David Ogilvy
5




                         of brain activity is below the

threshold of consciousness




Over                         of what we “know” was learned

implicitly (unconsciously)
It is essential to take emotions                     6



          into account




    The majority of our decisions and thoughts are
    a combination of emotion and reason
But emotions are difficult to      7



         measure!

Being capable of measuring:
• Subtle (low intensity) emotions
• Unconscious (hidden) emotions
• Mixed (simultaneous) emotions
An enriched toolkit                                        8




                      EEG                       Skin
      IRM
                      Neurofocus’ Mynd     conductance
                                           (Affectiva’s Q
                                              sensor)




Eyetracker
  (Tobii)       Facial Coding             Implicit Association Test
                (Paul Ekman’s FACS)      (Harvard’s implicit project)
Measuring emotions at                                 9


             REPERES
    Projective     The analysis of       Implicit tests
    qualitative      non-verbal
research among     communication
 a large number
                                         in conjunction with
    of people




   What are the      What happens          What is the impact
 emotional bonds   before I express an       of a stimulus
 between a brand        opinion?              beyond what
 and consumers?                             consumers say?
10




2. The theory
   behind implicit
   tests
11




What is perception?
Perception: a complex mechanism…                                                             12



                         What do you perceive here?




                       How did you recognize it was a shoe?


    The recognition of an object (sometimes in 20 milliseconds) whatever its position is
    possible because perception automatically draws on knowledge already stored in our
    memory.

    There is therefore a dual mechanism at work: extraction of perceptual information from
    the environment and implicit retrieval of information stored in our memory.
Perception: a matter of sense…                                                                         13

                                                      …and individuals




    The conclusion we arrive at will differ according to the information we retrieve from our
    memory!
    Recognition of an object is therefore very heavily influenced by the first pieces of information
    we retrieve from our memory, which tend to be the most frequent, recent… and/or
    (emotionally) striking ones!
Perception: a matter of sense…                                                                            14

                                   …and available resources




   The whole recognition process is conditioned by the availability of our resources!
   Yet in a “modern” environment we no longer have the resources needed to process all the information
   that is constantly bombarding our brain.
   The brain therefore makes an (attentional) selection of the information and only part of it is truly
   analysed.
Perception process: a mechanism that is...                   15

  Perceptions of
the outside world
                                       …highly subjective!


                                       …and largely
                                       unconscious!




        System 1                              System 2
         Quick                                  Slow
       Automatic                             Conscious
     Unconscious                           Requires effort
   The emotional field               The field of rationalisation
16




Against this
background, how can
we evaluate
perceived brand
image?
Traditional (declaration-based) questionnaires give                  17
access to a part of perception




    Questionnaire                                      !
                                        A certain number of well known
                                        biases exist…

                                        - Social desirability
                                        - Post-rationalisation
                                        - Checked responses

                                         Declared responses are not
                                        always predictive of behaviour
Info accessible to the consciousness
of the people interviewed
The challenge…                                                        18



To   complete “traditional” measures with a non declarative measure
For a fuller   and more reliable assessment

      Questionnaire                        Non declarative measure




Info accessible to the consciousness     For accessing the unconscious
of the people interviewed
How?                                                                    19




       Look for the values automatically associated with a product



                                 Principle:




        Measure reaction time                    Distract attention
Principle of implicit tests (example of priming)                         20


                                    Method:
                A test comprising a succession of sequences!

              Focus point



                                     Stimulus
                                                    Response time measured

                                       Dog                 Target



                                                             Cat




             Lexical decision task
             Is it a real word from the French language?
Principle of implicit tests (example of priming)                                                           21



      Focus point                                                Focus point



                    Stimulus                                                     Stimulus


                                    Target                                                       Target


                                    Pasta                                                         Car




                        Fast “word” response                                      Slower “word” response

                                  Focus point


                                                 Stimulus


                                                                  Target




                                                “Pseudo-word” response – distraction sequence
Principle of the test carried out                               22




           Implicit test

        To reveal the values
      conveyed unconsciously

                                      Overall analysis

                                      Full diagnosis of the
                                    brand values perceived by
                                           consumers
           Explicit test

       To evaluate the inferred
      brand image, from a more
        rational point of view
23




3. Case study
Packaging & values
24




             A brand wishes to develop new packs that
             will effectively convey certain key values of
Background   their brand.


              Preliminary in-depth qualitative research to identify
               the words used by consumers to express the values
               of the brand

              5 packaging routes have been developed

              The aim is to evaluate the impact of each pack as
               regards its capacity to convey the different values of
               the brand
25



            An implicit association test combined with
             traditional explicit questioning

Protocol    Hall test
                In Paris, Lyon, Marseille, Montpellier, Metz,
                  Bordeaux and Nantes from 16 to 25 May
                  2011
                On-street recruitment and in-hall
                  interviews
                Self-completion CAWI


            120 female consumers of the product category
26


             20 minute questionnaire:

              Screener: eligibility questions
Interviews
              Implicit questionnaire
                  Test of 6 stimuli (packs) and 5 target
                    words (brand values)

              Explicit questionnaire
                  For each pack, evaluation of the target
                    words on an agreement scale
                  Brand image inferred by the packs
                    on a dozen items (CATA)
27




Declared
results
Purchase intent                                                       28




Pack 2      Pack 4          Pack 5        Pack 1         Pack 3    CURRENT




Positive purchase intent
 74%           76%            80%            79%             78%   85% +



      The current pack stands out in terms of positive PI

     The other packs are at parity
Comprehension of the packs and inferred image                                   29




 Pack 2          Pack 4          Pack 5       Pack 1          Pack 3       CURRENT



                                                                           Credible pack
                  QUALITY                    Clear, easy to     Easy to
                                              understand      understand
                                                 pack            pack        TRUST
                                                                           PROXIMITY

  -- TRUST                                                                  QUALITY

-- PROXIMITY Pack is difficult
                to understand
 -- LOYALTY
  -- ADDED                        No particular outstanding points in
    VALUE          Does not         terms of inferred brand image
                    match
 -- QUALITY      expectations
30




Implicit
results
How can we analyse the results?                               31




        Pack
                                                 TRUST
         5      Pack
                 3
                                                          LOYALTY
                       CURR               PROXIMITY
 Pack                   ENT
  4      Pack                                            ADDED
          2                                              VALUE
                Pack
                 1                          QUALITY




                Measure the PACK – WORD response time
                           Variance analysis
Current pack performances                                               32
                                                              Reminder of the
                                                              explicit results




                                                                CURRENT
                                      Trust


                                              Proximity          85% PI +
                                    Current                    Credible pack
                                     pack
                                                                 TRUST
                                                               PROXIMITY
                                                    Loyalty
                        Quality                                 QUALITY
Strength of the
                                      Added
 association                          value




       Confirms the good explicit results
Pack_3 performances                                                               33
                                                                         Reminder of the
                                                                         explicit results



                                                                           Pack 3
                                           Trust

                                                                           No particular
                                                   Proximity
                                                                           outstanding
                                       Current                               points in
                                                                             terms of
                                        pack
                                                                           brand image


                                 Quality                 Loyalty



                                           Added
                                           value




   A very impactful pack, whereas in the explicit results it was rather “lifeless”
Pack_1 performances                                                        34
                                                                  Reminder of the
                                    Trust                         explicit results



                                                      Proximity     Pack 1

                                                                   No particular
                                                                   outstanding
                                                                     points in
                                   Current
                                                                     terms of
                                    pack                           brand image



                                                 Régule
                      Quality

                                    Added
                                                    Loyalty
                                    value




    The pack struggles to convey the brand values effectively
35




Action: cross
the implicit
data with the
explicit data
Summary of pack performances                                                  36
                                                                 Overall
                Implicit                                       score for the
                                                                  pack
                association



    ++              Score = 3      Score = 5       Score = 6




 In line with
the average         Score = 2       Score = 4      Score = 5




     --             Score = 1        Score = 2     Score = 3      Explicit
                                                                  association

                      --        In line with the
                                     average
                                                      ++
Summary of pack performances                                                   37

                Implicit
                association


                       Less explicit activation               No
    ++                Work on an explicit (long-          reworking
                                                            needed
                          term) message




 In line with                                            Less implicit
the average                                               activation
                                                           Work on
                                                         “scripting the
                    Pack that                           brand values”
                   requires an
     --              in-depth                                             Explicit
                    reworking                                             association

                     --               In line with the
                                           average
                                                             ++
Summary: current pack                                              38

                Implicit
                association                                        Score
                                                                    = 25

                                                 TRUST
                                                                   CURRE
    ++                                            PROXIMITY
                                                                     NT




                              ADDED VALUE
 In line with                                     QUALITY
the average                     LOYALTY




     --                                                       Explicit
                                                              association

                     --       In line with the
                                   average
                                                    ++
Summary: pack 3                                            39

                Implicit
                association                                Score
                                                            = 23

                              QUALITY
                                                           Pack 3
    ++                        TRUST
                              PROXIMITY

                              ADDED VALUE
 In line with
the average
                                LOYALTY




     --                                               Explicit
                                                      association

                     --       In line with the
                                   average
                                                 ++
Summary: pack 1                                             40

                Implicit
                association                                Score
                                                            = 14

                                                            Pack 1
    ++

                              ADDED VALUE
 In line with
the average                   QUALITY


                              LOYALTY

     --                       TRUST                   Explicit
                              PROXIMITY               association

                     --       In line with the
                                   average
                                                 ++
41




Benefits of
the method
42

                    Benefits

• Innovatory results:

  • A complementary evaluation method to traditional
    tests that is well suited to FMCG

  • Precise reworking recommendations for excellence
    as regards pack execution
43

                      Benefits
• A new dimension of the consumer that it is possible to
  quantify

• A reliable measure already proven in the field of
  cognitive psychology

• A simple measure to implement
44




Thank you for your
attention!

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Reperes implicit tests - gb - sept 2012

  • 1. Implicit tests Measuring impact beyond declared responses François Abiven (Repères) CEO Gaël Allain (Mémoire & Marketing) Doctor in cognitive psychology
  • 2. 2 1. The consumer: a complex study subject 2. The theory behind implicit tests 3. Case study : Packaging & values
  • 3. 3 1. The consumer: a complex study subject
  • 4. 4 “The trouble with market research is that people don’t think how they feel, they don’t say what they think and they don’t do what they say” David Ogilvy
  • 5. 5 of brain activity is below the threshold of consciousness Over of what we “know” was learned implicitly (unconsciously)
  • 6. It is essential to take emotions 6 into account The majority of our decisions and thoughts are a combination of emotion and reason
  • 7. But emotions are difficult to 7 measure! Being capable of measuring: • Subtle (low intensity) emotions • Unconscious (hidden) emotions • Mixed (simultaneous) emotions
  • 8. An enriched toolkit 8 EEG Skin IRM Neurofocus’ Mynd conductance (Affectiva’s Q sensor) Eyetracker (Tobii) Facial Coding Implicit Association Test (Paul Ekman’s FACS) (Harvard’s implicit project)
  • 9. Measuring emotions at 9 REPERES Projective The analysis of Implicit tests qualitative non-verbal research among communication a large number in conjunction with of people What are the What happens What is the impact emotional bonds before I express an of a stimulus between a brand opinion? beyond what and consumers? consumers say?
  • 10. 10 2. The theory behind implicit tests
  • 12. Perception: a complex mechanism… 12 What do you perceive here? How did you recognize it was a shoe? The recognition of an object (sometimes in 20 milliseconds) whatever its position is possible because perception automatically draws on knowledge already stored in our memory. There is therefore a dual mechanism at work: extraction of perceptual information from the environment and implicit retrieval of information stored in our memory.
  • 13. Perception: a matter of sense… 13 …and individuals The conclusion we arrive at will differ according to the information we retrieve from our memory! Recognition of an object is therefore very heavily influenced by the first pieces of information we retrieve from our memory, which tend to be the most frequent, recent… and/or (emotionally) striking ones!
  • 14. Perception: a matter of sense… 14 …and available resources The whole recognition process is conditioned by the availability of our resources! Yet in a “modern” environment we no longer have the resources needed to process all the information that is constantly bombarding our brain. The brain therefore makes an (attentional) selection of the information and only part of it is truly analysed.
  • 15. Perception process: a mechanism that is... 15 Perceptions of the outside world …highly subjective! …and largely unconscious! System 1 System 2 Quick Slow Automatic Conscious Unconscious Requires effort The emotional field The field of rationalisation
  • 16. 16 Against this background, how can we evaluate perceived brand image?
  • 17. Traditional (declaration-based) questionnaires give 17 access to a part of perception Questionnaire ! A certain number of well known biases exist… - Social desirability - Post-rationalisation - Checked responses  Declared responses are not always predictive of behaviour Info accessible to the consciousness of the people interviewed
  • 18. The challenge… 18 To complete “traditional” measures with a non declarative measure For a fuller and more reliable assessment Questionnaire Non declarative measure Info accessible to the consciousness For accessing the unconscious of the people interviewed
  • 19. How? 19 Look for the values automatically associated with a product Principle:  Measure reaction time  Distract attention
  • 20. Principle of implicit tests (example of priming) 20 Method: A test comprising a succession of sequences! Focus point Stimulus Response time measured Dog Target Cat Lexical decision task Is it a real word from the French language?
  • 21. Principle of implicit tests (example of priming) 21 Focus point Focus point Stimulus Stimulus Target Target Pasta Car Fast “word” response Slower “word” response Focus point Stimulus Target “Pseudo-word” response – distraction sequence
  • 22. Principle of the test carried out 22 Implicit test  To reveal the values conveyed unconsciously Overall analysis  Full diagnosis of the brand values perceived by consumers Explicit test  To evaluate the inferred brand image, from a more rational point of view
  • 24. 24 A brand wishes to develop new packs that will effectively convey certain key values of Background their brand.  Preliminary in-depth qualitative research to identify the words used by consumers to express the values of the brand  5 packaging routes have been developed  The aim is to evaluate the impact of each pack as regards its capacity to convey the different values of the brand
  • 25. 25  An implicit association test combined with traditional explicit questioning Protocol  Hall test  In Paris, Lyon, Marseille, Montpellier, Metz, Bordeaux and Nantes from 16 to 25 May 2011  On-street recruitment and in-hall interviews  Self-completion CAWI  120 female consumers of the product category
  • 26. 26 20 minute questionnaire:  Screener: eligibility questions Interviews  Implicit questionnaire  Test of 6 stimuli (packs) and 5 target words (brand values)  Explicit questionnaire  For each pack, evaluation of the target words on an agreement scale  Brand image inferred by the packs on a dozen items (CATA)
  • 28. Purchase intent 28 Pack 2 Pack 4 Pack 5 Pack 1 Pack 3 CURRENT Positive purchase intent 74% 76% 80% 79% 78% 85% +  The current pack stands out in terms of positive PI The other packs are at parity
  • 29. Comprehension of the packs and inferred image 29 Pack 2 Pack 4 Pack 5 Pack 1 Pack 3 CURRENT Credible pack QUALITY Clear, easy to Easy to understand understand pack pack TRUST PROXIMITY -- TRUST QUALITY -- PROXIMITY Pack is difficult to understand -- LOYALTY -- ADDED No particular outstanding points in VALUE Does not terms of inferred brand image match -- QUALITY expectations
  • 31. How can we analyse the results? 31 Pack TRUST 5 Pack 3 LOYALTY CURR PROXIMITY Pack ENT 4 Pack ADDED 2 VALUE Pack 1 QUALITY Measure the PACK – WORD response time  Variance analysis
  • 32. Current pack performances 32 Reminder of the explicit results CURRENT Trust Proximity 85% PI + Current Credible pack pack TRUST PROXIMITY Loyalty Quality QUALITY Strength of the Added association value  Confirms the good explicit results
  • 33. Pack_3 performances 33 Reminder of the explicit results Pack 3 Trust No particular Proximity outstanding Current points in terms of pack brand image Quality Loyalty Added value  A very impactful pack, whereas in the explicit results it was rather “lifeless”
  • 34. Pack_1 performances 34 Reminder of the Trust explicit results Proximity Pack 1 No particular outstanding points in Current terms of pack brand image Régule Quality Added Loyalty value  The pack struggles to convey the brand values effectively
  • 35. 35 Action: cross the implicit data with the explicit data
  • 36. Summary of pack performances 36 Overall Implicit score for the pack association ++ Score = 3 Score = 5 Score = 6 In line with the average Score = 2 Score = 4 Score = 5 -- Score = 1 Score = 2 Score = 3 Explicit association -- In line with the average ++
  • 37. Summary of pack performances 37 Implicit association Less explicit activation  No ++  Work on an explicit (long- reworking needed term) message In line with Less implicit the average activation  Work on “scripting the  Pack that brand values” requires an -- in-depth Explicit reworking association -- In line with the average ++
  • 38. Summary: current pack 38 Implicit association Score = 25 TRUST CURRE ++ PROXIMITY NT ADDED VALUE In line with QUALITY the average LOYALTY -- Explicit association -- In line with the average ++
  • 39. Summary: pack 3 39 Implicit association Score = 23 QUALITY Pack 3 ++ TRUST PROXIMITY ADDED VALUE In line with the average LOYALTY -- Explicit association -- In line with the average ++
  • 40. Summary: pack 1 40 Implicit association Score = 14 Pack 1 ++ ADDED VALUE In line with the average QUALITY LOYALTY -- TRUST Explicit PROXIMITY association -- In line with the average ++
  • 42. 42 Benefits • Innovatory results: • A complementary evaluation method to traditional tests that is well suited to FMCG • Precise reworking recommendations for excellence as regards pack execution
  • 43. 43 Benefits • A new dimension of the consumer that it is possible to quantify • A reliable measure already proven in the field of cognitive psychology • A simple measure to implement
  • 44. 44 Thank you for your attention!