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Re-ingegnerizzare
   Ingegneria

  CDIO Skills

    Claudio G. Casati

   Agosto 2009 (Rev. Ott09)
Executive Summary
 Secondo CDIO, conoscenze Techniche e capacità di analisi ,
 abilità e caratteristiche Professionali e Personali , capacità
 Interpersonali (teamwork & comunicazione) costituiscono le
 fondamenta sulle quali costruire le conoscenze, abilità e
 caratteristiche ingegneristiche necessarie alle attività di
 ideazione, progettazione, realizzazione e gestione operativa di
 prodotti e sistemi nell'impresa e nel contesto sociale.
 L’ambiente di apprendimento Technology-Enhanced deve
 essere basato su:
    Integrazione disciplinare (Integrated Course Block)
    Project-based learning
    Learning by thinking-doing-use
    Realizzazione di progetti, per il mondo reale, sperimentando
    le varie fasi del ciclo di vita di un prodotto/sistema dalla
    ideazione alla gestione operativa.                           2
Citazione
Questa presentazione è un assemblaggio di materiali tratti da:
     CDIO “Ready to Engineer” at graduation, ASME 2009
     Engineering Education:Challenges and Strategies, Research
     Center for Science, Technology & Education Policy, Zhejiang
     University,China, 2009
     Progetto DIAlumni, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale,
     Politecnico di Milano, 2009
     CDIO - Integrating engineering competencies in engineering
     education, Kristina Edström, KTH, October 21, 2008
     Convegno “Le imprese cercano, gli ingegneri ci sono? Domanda e
     offerta a confronto nel panorama europeo” Assolombarda e
     Politecnico di Milano, 24 gennaio 2008
     SP1: System Requirements and Teamwork, Unified Engineering
     Spring 2004, Charles P Coleman, MIT
     The CDIO Syllabus, A Statement of Goals for Undergraduate
     Engineering Education, Edward F. Crawley, Department of
     Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIT, 2001

                                                                      3
Contenuti
  Metodologia
     CDIO Standard
     Livelli di Competenze
     Integrazione interdisciplinare
     CDIO Syllabus
  CDIO implementation process
     Project-based Learning (PBL)
  Appendice
     CDIO 12 Standards
     CDIO Syllabus

                                      4
Capacità richieste a un laureato in
Ingegneria

“   Capacità di ideare/ Conceive – progettare/
    Design – implementare/ Implement –
    operare/ Operate complessi sistemi
    ingegneristici a valore-aggiunto, in moderni
    ambienti basati-su-team.
                                  ”
Avendo sviluppato, nel corso degli studi, blocchi di
conoscenze, competenze e attitudini - tecniche,
professionali, personali, interpersonali - in un contesto
imprenditoriale e sociale, mediante un apprendimento
by-thinking, by-doing, by-use, in un contesto
imprenditoriale e sociale.
                                                            5
Learning by use
Learning by doing




  Engineering Education:Challenges and Strategies, Research Center for Science,
             Technology & Education Policy, Zhejiang University,China    6
Necessità
Desired Attributes of an   Underlying Need
Engineering Graduate       Educate students who:
   Understanding of
   fundamentals               Understand how to
   Understanding of           conceive - design –
   design & manufacturing     implement - operate
   process                    Complex value-added
   Possess a multi-           engineering systems
   disciplinary system
   perspective                In a modern team-
                              based engineering
   Good communication
   skills                     environment
   High ethical standards,
   etc.
                                                    7
The Challenge -
Transform The Culture

    CURRENT                              DESIRED
•   Engineering Science              •   Engineering
•   R&D Context                      •   Product Context
•   Reductionist                     •   Integrative
•   Individual                       •   Team

      ... but still based on a rigorous treatment of
              engineering fundamentals
Evolution of Engineering Education

• Prior to the 1950s, education was based on practice,
  taught by distinguished former practitioners
• 1950s saw the introduction of engineering science,
  and hiring of a cadre of young engineering scientists
• 1960s was the golden era of a balance between the
  old practitioners and the young engineering scientists
• In the 1980s, the engineering scientists aged — they
  replaced the practitioners with younger scientists,
  and the trend towards a scientific based education
  intensified
• In the 1990s, industry recognized a growing gap
  between the skills of graduating students and those
  needed for engineering practice
                                                          9
Development of Engineering Education

                  Pre-
     Personal,    1950s:
 Interpersonal    Practice
                                                      2000s:
   and System                                          CDIO
      Building          1960s:
         Skills         Science
                        & Practice
                                     1980s:
                                     Science

                             Disciplinary Knowledge

   Engineers need both dimensions, and Engineering
  Schools need to develop education that delivers both
                                                               10
Goals of CDIO

•   To educate students to master a deeper
    working knowledge of the technical
    fundamentals

•   To educate engineers to lead in the creation
    and operation of new products and systems

•   To educate future researchers to understand
    the importance and strategic value of their
    work


                                                   11
Vision
CDIO envision an education that stresses the
fundamentals, set in the context of Conceiving –
Designing – Implementing – Operating systems and
products:
    A curriculum organised around mutually supporting
    disciplines, but with CDIO activities highly
    interwoven
    Rich with student design-build projects
    Featuring active and experiential learning
    Set in both the classroom and a modern learning
    laboratory/workspace
    Constantly improved through robust
    assessment/evaluation process.
Pedagogic Logic
 Most engineers are “concrete operational learners” -
 Manipulate objects to understand abstractions
 Students arrive at university lacking personal
 experience - Lack foundation for “formal operational
 thought”
 Must provide authentic activities to allow mapping of
 new knowledge - alternative is rote or “pattern
 matching”
 Using CDIO as authentic activity achieves two goals --
  • Provides activities to learn fundamentals
  • Provides education in the creation and operation of
    systems

                                                         13
CDIO Standard 2001
 CDIO has adopted 12 Standards as guiding
 principles for program reform and evaluation.

 The 12 CDIO Standards address
   program philosophy,
   curriculum development,
   design-build experiences and workspaces,
   new methods of teaching and learning,
   faculty/academic development, and
   assessment and evaluation.



                                                 14
Approccio CDIO – Principali Caratteristiche
    Risultati dell’apprendimento - CDIO is based on outcomes, more
    than on contents, for producing the next generation of
    engineering leaders.
    Integrazione disciplinare - CDIO stresses engineering
    fundamentals set in the context of Conceiving, Designing,
    Implementing & Operating products, processes and systems
    Integrazione competenze trasversali personali e interpersonali
    Esperienze pratiche e spazi di lavoro
    Nuovi metodi di insegnamento e apprendimento
    Sistemi di misura dei risultati dell’apprendimento e di valutazione
    del percorso formativo

Organized around mutually supporting technical disciplines a CDIO
curriculum is richly interwoven with personal and interpersonal skills,
product, process, and system building skills, student design-implement
experiences, engineering problems requiring fundamental approach.
                                                                     15
CDIO STANDARD
1   CDIO as Context
2   CDIO Syllabus Outcomes
3   Integrated Curriculum
4   Introduction to Engineering
5   Design-Build Experiences
6   CDIO Workspaces
7   Integrated Learning Experiences
8   Active Learning
9   Enhancement of Faculty CDIO Skills
10 Enhancement of Faculty Teaching Skills
11 CDIO Skills Assessment
12 CDIO Program Evaluation

                                            16
Learning Outcomes
 Towards Learning Outcomes:
     learning outcomes, or end qualifications, or
     academic competences are the key to future
     program development, quality assurance, and
     accreditation in higher education in Europe
     this is not a trivial but a major reorientation in the
     field (product versus process)
 If learning outcomes are key it is necessary:
     to measure what comes out of the system in terms
     of learning outcomes: students’ competences at
     the end of bachelor and master (output)
     to evaluate and optimize the study program in
     terms of its contribution to the development of the
     desired learning outcomes (input)
                                                         17
Program Outcomes for Aeronautics
and Astronautics at MIT
1.0            1. Demonstrate a capacity to use the principles of the
Technical         underlying sciences of mathematics, physics,
Skills            chemistry, and biology.
               2. Apply the principles of core engineering
                  fundamentals.
               3. Demonstrate deep working knowledge of
                  professional engineering.
2.0            1. Analyze and solve engineering problems.
Personal       2. Conduct inquiry and experimentation in engineering
and               problems.
Professional   3. Think holistically and systemically.
               4. Master personal skills that contribute to successful
Skills
                  engineering practice: initiative, flexibility, creativity,
                  curiosity, and time management.
               5. Master professional skills that contribute to
                  successful engineering practice: professional ethics,
                  integrity, currency in the field, career planning.
                                                                        18
Program Outcomes for Aeronautics
and Astronautics at MIT
3.0        1. Lead and work in teams.
Inter-     2. Communicate effectively in writing, in electronic
personal      form, in graphic media, and in oral presentations.
Skills     3. Communicate effectively in foreign languages.

4.0        1. Appreciate different enterprise cultures and work
CDIO          successfully in organizations.
System     2. Conceive engineering systems including setting
              requirements, defining functions, modeling, and
Skills
              managing projects.
           3. Design complex systems.
           4. Implement hardware and software processes and
              manage implementation procedures.
           5. Operate complex systems and processes and
              manage operations.



                                                                   19
Competenze/Livelli/Profilo
  Competenza = Integrazione di Conoscenze, Capacità &
  Attitudini caratterizzate da un Dominio, Metodi e Contesto
  Livello di competenza: definito da descrittori.
  Profilo: gruppo di competenze di un programma di formazione o
  di una persona




                                                               20
Livelli di Competenze/
Bloom’s taxonomy

                 Expert

                    Proficient

                          Competent

      Competenza             Advanced Beginner

                                 Novice



                                                 21
Bloom’s Taxonomy

Old Bloom          New Bloom
  Knowledge         Remember
  Comprehension     Understand
  Application       Apply
  Analysis          Analyze
  Synthesis         Evaluate
  Evaluation        Create



                                 22
Integrazione
A CDIO curriculum is designed with mutually supporting
disciplinary courses, with an explicit plan to integrate
personal, interpersonal, and product, process, and
system building skills. (CDIO Standard 3 -- Integrated
Curriculum).




                                                      23
Integrazione (es. 1/3)
SYSTEMATIC INTEGRATION
               Introductory                    Mathematics
   Year 1                        Physics
                  course                            I
                                                Numerical
               Mechanics I    Mathematics II
                                                 Methods
               Mechanics II      Solid           Product
   Year 2
                               Mechanics       development
                 Thermo-      Mathematics        Fluid       Sound and
                dynamics           III         mechanics     Vibrations
                                                               Signal
   Year 3    Control Theory Electrical Eng.     Statistics
                                                              analysis
 Personal &
                  Oral           Written      Project
Interpersonal                                          Teamwork
              communication   communication management
    Skills
                                                                     24
Integrazione (es. 2/3)
SYSTEMATIC INTEGRATION
                  Introductory                  Mathematics
    Year 1                          Physics
                     course                          I
                                  Mathematics    Numerical
                  Mechanics I
                                       II         Methods
                  Mechanics II      Solid         Product
    Year 2
                                  Mechanics     development
                    Thermo-       Mathematics     Fluid       Sound and
                   dynamics            III      mechanics     Vibrations
                                   Electrical                   Signal
    Year 3       Control Theory                  Statistics
                                     Eng.                      analysis
  Personal &
                      Oral          Written    Project
 Interpersonal                                          Teamwork
                 communication communication management
     Skills
                                                                      25
Integrazione (es. 3/3)
SYSTEMATIC INTEGRATION
                  Introductory                  Mathematics
    Year 1                          Physics
                     course                          I
                                  Mathematics    Numerical
                  Mechanics I
                                       II         Methods
                  Mechanics II       Solid        Product
    Year 2
                                   Mechanics    development
                    Thermo-       Mathematics     Fluid       Sound and
                   dynamics            III      mechanics     Vibrations
                                   Electrical                   Signal
    Year 3       Control Theory                  Statistics
                                     Eng.                      analysis
  Personal &
                      Oral          Written       Project
 Interpersonal                                             Teamwork
                 communication    communication management
     Skills
                                                                    26
CDIO Syllabus 2001
1. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE AND REASONING
2. PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS & ATTRIBUTES
3. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS: TEAMWORK & COMMUNICATION
4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING AND OPERATING
   SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT

             4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING,
            IMPLEMENTING & OPERATING
            SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE
              AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT

                  2. PERSONAL &    3. INTERPERSONAL
  1. TECHNICAL
                  PROFESSIONAL           SKILLS:
  KNOWLEDGE
                      SKILLS &         TEAMWORK &
 AND REASONING
                   ATTRIBUTES       COMMUNICATION

                                                   27
CDIO SYLLABUS – THE SET OF SKILLS
1     TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE
1.1     Knowledge of underlying sciences
1.2     Core engineering fundamental knowledge
1.3     Advanced engineering fundamental knowledge
2     PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS
2.1     Engineering Reasoning and Problem Solving
2.2     Experimentation and Knowledge Discovery
2.3     System Thinking
2.4     Personal Skills and Attributes
2.5     Professional Skills and Attitudes
3     INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
3.1      Teamwork and Leadership
3.2      Communication
3.3     Communication in Foreign Languages
4     PRODUCT AND SYSTEM BUILDING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
4.1     External and Societal Context
4.2     Enterprise and Business Context
4.3     Conceiving
4.4     Designing
4.5     Implementing
4.6     Operating                                        28
CDIO Syllabus - Personal and
professional skills & attributes
1.   ENGINEERING REASONING AND PROBLEM SOLVING - Capacità di
     identificare e formulare correttamente un problema, di modellarlo ed
     affrontarlo qualitativamente, di studiare l’effetto delle incertezze, di
     definire una soluzione e le relative raccomandazioni per il suo utilizzo
2.   EXPERIMENTATION AND KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY - Formulazione di
     ipotesi, ricerca tra bibliografia scritta ed elettronica, analisi di validità
     mediante sperimentazione
3.   SYSTEM THINKING - Capacità di valutare le soluzioni in modo integrato,
     di gestire le situazioni non standard e l’interazione tra sistemi, scegliere
     le priorità, eseguire un’analisi di trade-off tra le soluzioni
4.   PERSONAL SKILLS AND ATTITUDES - Capacità di iniziativa ed
     assunzione dei rischi, perseveranza e flessibilità, capacità di pensare in
     modo critico e creativo, curiosità e visione a lungo termine, capacità di
     gestire il tempo e le risorse
5.   PROFESSIONAL SKILLS AND ATTITUDES - Etica professionale,
     integrità e responsabilità, capacità di pianificare la propria carriera,
     capacità di mantenersi aggiornati
                                                                                 29
CDIO Syllabus - Interpersonal skills:
teamwork & communication
1. TEAMWORK - Capacità di formare gruppi di lavoro efficienti,
   di gestirne le operazioni e l’evoluzione, di assumere la
   leadership
2. COMMUNICATION – Capacita’ comunicative tra cui strategia e
   struttura della comunicazione, comunicazione scritta,
   elettronica o multimediale, presentazione orale e
   comunicazione inter-personale
3. COMMUNICATION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES




                                                            30
CDIO Syllabus - Conceiving, designing,
implementing & operating systems in the
enterprise and societal context
1. EXTERNAL AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT - Ruolo e
   responsabilità degli ingegneri, impatto dell’ingegneria nella
   societa’, regolamentazione, contesto storico e culturale,
   sviluppo di una prospettiva globale
2. ENTERPRISE AND BUSINESS CONTEXT - Capacità di
   comprendere diversi culture imprenditoriali, strategia
   d’impresa, obiettivi e pianificazione, capacità di lavoro in
   strutture organizzate
3. CONCEIVING AND ENGINEERING SYSTEMS - Capacità di
   definire gli obiettivi e i requisiti, capacità di definire una
   configurazione di prodotto, di modellarla a livello sistemistico
   per garantire che gli obiettivi siano rispettati, capacità di
   sviluppo e pianificazione di progetti
4. …                                                              31
CDIO Syllabus - Conceiving, designing,
implementing & operating systems in the
enterprise and societal context
4. DESIGNING - Capacità progettuali, mediante opportune fasi ed
   approcci, utilizzo della conoscenza durante il progetto,
   capacità di gestire progetti mono e multidisciplinari, capacità
   di gestire progetti aventi multi-obiettivi
5. IMPLEMENTING - Capacità di progettare ed implementare i
   diversi processi di un progetto, dal punto di vista hardware e
   software, capacità di gestire l’integrazione, la verifica, la
   validazione, la certificazione e la gestione
6. OPERATING - Capacità di progettare e ottimizzare attività
   operative, addestramento, gestione e sviluppo



                                                               32
Embedded Competences
Communication in engineering means being able to
► use the technical concepts comfortably,
► discuss a problem at different levels,
► determine what is relevant to the situation,
► argue for or against conceptual ideas and solutions,
► develop ideas through discussion and collaborative
  sketching,
► explain the technical matters for different audiences,
► show confidence in expressing yourself within the field ...
  Communication skills as contextualized competences are
  embedded in, and inseparable from, students’ application of
  technical knowledge.
  The same kind of reasoning can be made for teamwork, ethics
  (etc...) as well.
  This is about students becoming engineers!                    33
Hands-on practice - 20th century
                                    1950_Caulfield Technical
       1985_Mechanical              School engineering students
       Engineering
       student Mr Dennis
       Stathos working
       on ......




                           1984_Half scale prototype design for
                           remotely piloted plane and tracking
                           system, designed by Mr Don Scutt of
                           Mechanical Engineering (right) and
                           Dr Ian Kirkwood of Mathematics
                                                                  34
Hands-on practice - CDIO




   Early in the CDIO curriculum, students are exposed to the
 engineering experience and given opportunities to build things.
                                                                   35
CDIO MIT Aero-Astro's Guggenheim
Aeronautical Learning Laboratory




                               36
CDIO MIT Aero-Astro's Guggenheim
Aeronautical Learning Laboratory




                               37
After the course the participant is
expected to be able to …
 work in a project setting in a way that effectively utilises the
 knowledge and efforts of the group members
 explain mechanisms behind progress and difficulties in such
 a setting
 communicate engineering: orally, in writing and graphically
 analyse technical problems from a holistic point of view
 handle technical problems which are incompletely stated
 and subjects to multiple constraints
 develop strategies for systematic choice and use of available
 engineering methods and tools
 make estimations and appreciate their value and limitations
 pursue own ideas and realise them practically
 make decisions based on acquired knowledge
 assess quality of own work and work by others

They enter as students and leave the course as engineers!
                                                              38
The new College of Engineering
   PBL (Project-based Learning) experiences make up 40% of the
   curriculum
   By graduation, every student has had a minimum of 10 team project
   experiences
   The curricular “triangle” include engineering, business, liberal arts
   Corporate sponsors support 12-14 projects per year, in which
   students engage in a significant engineering project under realistic
   constraints for an actual client.
   On average, each summer more than 40% of students go
   internships and about 30% engage in research
   More than 50% of the courses bridge two or more disciplinary areas
   such as maths, engineering, science and design
   Every student starts and runs a business during their years at
   College of Engineering

Source: Franklin W.Olin College of Engineering                        39
Implementation Process
CDIO Implementation Process
         1a. Validation with stakeholders
         1b. Benchmarking of existing courses


             2. Mapping of CDIO competences
               to existing and new courses



                  3. Course development




                        4. Fine-tune coordination
                                                41
New methods of teaching and
learning (Standards 7 and 8)
 Standard 7 — Integrated Learning Experiences that lead to the
 acquisition of disciplinary knowledge, as well as personal,
 interpersonal, and product and system building skills.
 Standard 8 — Teaching and learning based on active
 experiential learning methods
 Active learning methods engage students directly in thinking and
 problem solving activities. There is less emphasis on passive
 transmission of information, and more on engaging students in
 manipulating, applying, analyzing, and evaluating ideas.
 Active learning in lecture-based courses can include such
 methods as partner and small-group discussions,
 demonstrations, debates, concept questions, and feedback from
 students about what they are learning.
 Active learning is considered experiential when students take
 on roles that simulate professional engineering practice, for
 example, design-build projects, simulations, and case studies.
                                                                  42
Project-based Learning (PBL or PjBL)
PBL provides complex tasks based on challenging questions or
problems that involve the students' problem solving, decision
making, investigative skills, and reflection.
PBL allows students to work in groups or by themselves and allows
them to come up with ideas and realistic solutions or presentations.
PBL includes teacher facilitation, but not direction.
Students take a problem and apply it to a real life situation with
these projects.
PBL is focused on questions that drive students to encounter the
central concepts and principles of a subject hands-on.
PBL encourages students
   to take responsibility for their own learning and
   to develop a broad set of generic skills and attributes, along
   with relevant content knowledge.
The expectation is that PBL would better prepare students for their
work placements and professional employment.
                                                                     43
PBL Characteristics
 Reliance on problems to drive the curriculum - The
 problems do not test skills; they assist in the
 development of skills. Problems are similar to the ones
 encountered in real world.
 The problems are ill-structured - There is not meant to
 be one solution, and as new information is gathered,
 perception of the problem, and thus the solution,
 changes.
 Students solve the problems - Teachers are the
 coaches and facilitators.
 Students are only given guidelines for how to
 approach problems - There is no one formula for
 student approaches to the problem.
 Assessment: Authentic, performance based
                         By: W. J. Stepien and S. A. Gallagher   44
PBL – Good Project … Good Question
GOOD PROJECT                                   GOOD QUESTION
  Student-centered                                 Big questions
  Collaborative                                    open-ended
  Good essential question                          those that require research
  Involving experts and the                        and reflection
  community                                        those that are not obvious or
  Standards-based                                  easily answered

  Opens the door to more                           those that lead to more
  questions                                        questions

  Interdisciplinary
  Includes a quality product
  Creative, engaging, and fun
  Thoughtful rubrics, including
  reflection
            Fonte: Introduction to Project-Based Learning, Sara Armstrong, Ph.D. ISTE 2009   45
Appendice

CDIO 12 Standards 2001

  CDIO Syllabus 2001
CDIO 12 Standard (1 di 5)
1. The Context. This is the adoption of the principle that product,
   process and system lifecycle development and deployment
   (Conceiving, Designing, Implementing and Operating) are the
   context for engineering education.
2. Learning Outcomes. The learning outcomes detail what students
   should know and be able to do at the conclusion of their
   engineeringprogram. Specific, detailed learning outcomes are
   codified for personal and interpersonal skills, product, process and
   system building skills, and disciplinary knowledge that are
   consistent with the university’s program goals and validated by
   program stakeholders.
3. Integrated Curriculum. The curriculum is designed with mutually
   supporting disciplinary courses that include an explicit plan to
   integrate personal and interpersonal skills and product, process
   and system building skills. These skills should not be considered
   an addition to an already full curriculum but an integral part of it.
4. …
                                                                    47
CDIO 12 Standard (2 di 5)
4. Introduction to Engineering. An introductory course is offered
   that provides students with the framework to understand
   engineering practice in product, process and system building
   and the personal and interpersonal skills they will need.
   Students usually select engineering because they want to build
   things, and introductory courses can capitalize on this interest.
5. Design Implement Experience. The curriculum includes two
   or more design‐implement experiences, including one at a
   basic level and one at an advanced level. The objective is to
   promote early successes in engineering practice.
6. Engineering Workspaces. Engineering workspaces and
   laboratories provide the physical environment to support and
   encourage hands‐on learning of product, process, system and
   social building skills concurrently with learning disciplinary
   knowledge. These workspaces are separate from traditional
   classrooms and lecture halls.
7. …
                                                                   48
CDIO 12 Standard (3 di 5)
7. Integrated Learning experience. This provides the pedagogical
   environment that fosters learning of disciplinary knowledge
   simultaneously (interwoven) with personal, product, process and
   social skills. Students learn to recognize engineering faculty as
   role models of professional engineers who instruct them in not
   only disciplinary knowledge but also the other skills listed above.
8. Active Learning. This is teaching and learning based on active
   experiential learning methods that engage students directly in
   thinking and problem solving activities. It involves ‘project based
   learning’. There is less emphasis on passive transmission of
   information in a classical lecture hall and more emphasis on
   engaging students in manipulating, applying, analyzing and
   evaluating ideas. As Dr. Vest said, “We need to move from the
   sage on the stage to the guide on the side”.
9. …


                                                                   49
CDIO 12 Standard (4 di 5)
9.  Enhancing of Faculty Skills Competence. Many engineering
    professors tend to be experts in the research and knowledge
    base of their respective disciplines but have only limited, if
    any, experience in the practice of engineering in business and
    industrial settings. Therefore the CDIO program provides
    support and training for faculty to improve their competence in
    personal and interpersonal skills and process, product and
    system building skills.
10. Enhancing of Faculty Teaching Competence. The CDIO
    program also provides support for faculty to improve their
    competence in integrated learning experiences, in using active
    experiential learning methods and in assessing student
    learning.
11. …



                                                                 50
CDIO 12 Standard (5 di 5)

11.   Learning Assessment. This is the measure of the extent to
      which each student achieves specified learning outcomes.
12.   Program Evaluation. This process evaluates the university
      program against these twelve standards and provides
      feedback to students, faculty and other stakeholders for the
      purpose of continuous improvement. It is a judgment of the
      overall value of the program based on evidence of the
      program’s progress toward achieving its goals.




                                                                     51
CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 1/7)
1. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE AND REASONING
   1. KNOWLEDGE OF UNDERLYING SCIENCES
      1. Mathematics (including statistics)
      2. Physics
      3. Chemistry
      4. Biology
   2. CORE ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTAL KNOWLEDGE
   3. ADVANCED ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTAL
      KNOWLEDGE



                  CDIO Syllabus complete:
                   CDIO Syllabus complete:
       http://www.cdio.org/tools/syllabuscomplete.htm
        http://www.cdio.org/tools/syllabuscomplete.htm
                                                         52
CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 2/7)
2. PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS & ATTRIBUTES
   1. ENGINEERING REASONING AND PROBLEM SOLVING
      1. Problem Identification and Formulation
      2. Modeling
      3. Estimation and Qualitative Analysis
      4. Analysis With Uncertainty
      5. Solution and Recommendation
  2. EXPERIMENTATION AND KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY
     1. Hypothesis Formulation
     2. Survey of Print and Electronic Literature
     3. Experimental Inquiry
     4. Hypothesis Test, and Defense
  3. SYSTEM THINKING
     1. Thinking Holistically
     2. Emergence and Interactions in Systems
     3. Prioritization and Focus
     4. Tradeoffs, Judgment and Balance in Resolution   53
CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 3/7)
2. PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS & ATTRIBUTES
   4. PERSONAL SKILLS AND ATTITUDES
      1. Initiative and Willingness to Take Risks
      2. Perseverance and Flexibility
      3. Creative Thinking
      4. Critical Thinking
      5. Awareness of One’s Personal Knowledge, Skills, and
         Attitudes
      6. Curiosity and Lifelong Learning
      7. Time and Resource Management
   5. PROFESSIONAL SKILLS AND ATTITUDES
      1. Professional Ethics, Integrity, Responsibility and
         Accountability
      2. Professional Behavior
      3. Proactively Planning for One’s Career
      4. Staying Current on World of Engineer
                                                              54
CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 4/7)
3. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS: TEAMWORK & COMMUNICATION
   1. TEAMWORK
      1. Forming Effective Teams
      2. Team Operation
      3. Team Growth and Evolution
      4. Leadership
      5. Technical Teaming
  2. COMMUNICATION
     1. Communication Strategy
     2. Communication Structure
     3. Written Communication
     4. Electronic/ Multimedia Communication
     5. Graphical Communication
     6. Oral Presentation and Interpersonal Communication
  3. COMMUNICATION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES
     1. English
     2. Languages of Regional Industrial Nations
     3. Other Languages                                     55
CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 5/7)
4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING & OPERATING
   SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT

   1. EXTERNAL AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT
      1. Roles and Responsibility of Engineers
      2. The Impact of Engineering on Society
      3. Society’s Regulation of Engineering
      4. The Historical and Cultural Context
      5. Contemporary Issues and Values
      6. Developing a Global Perspective

   2. ENTERPRISE AND BUSINESS CONTEXT
      1. Appreciating Different Enterprise Cultures
      2. Enterprise Strategy, Goals and Planning
      3. Technical Entrepreneurship
      4. Working Successfully in Organizations

                                                      56
CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 6/7)
4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING & OPERATING
   SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT

   3. CONCEIVING AND ENGINEERING SYSTEMS
      1. Setting System Goals and Requirements
      2. Defining Function, Concept and Architecture
      3. Modeling of System and Ensuring Goals Can Be Met
      4. Development Project Management

   4. DESIGNING
      1. The Design Process
      2. The Design Process Phasing and Approaches
      3. Utilization of Knowledge in Design
      4. Disciplinary Design
      5. Multidisciplinary Design
      6. Multi-objective Design

                                                            57
CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 7/7)
4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING & OPERATING
   SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT

   5. IMPLEMENTING
      1. Designing the Implementation Process
      2. Hardware Manufacturing Process
      3. Software Implementing Process
      4. Hardware Software Integration
      5. Test, Verification, Validation and Certification
      6. Implementation Management

   6. OPERATING
      1. Designing and Optimizing Operations
      2. Training and Operations
      3. Supporting the System Lifecycle
      4. System Improvement and Evolution
      5. Disposal and Life-End Issues
      6. Operations Management                              58
An Invitation
 The book:
 Crawley et al. (2007) Rethinking Engineering
 Education: The CDIO Approach, Springer Verlag.
 ISBN 0387382879
 The International CDIO Conference Proceedings
 The site www.cdio.org




                                                  59

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CDIO Skills: Reingegnerizzare Ingegneria

  • 1. Re-ingegnerizzare Ingegneria CDIO Skills Claudio G. Casati Agosto 2009 (Rev. Ott09)
  • 2. Executive Summary Secondo CDIO, conoscenze Techniche e capacità di analisi , abilità e caratteristiche Professionali e Personali , capacità Interpersonali (teamwork & comunicazione) costituiscono le fondamenta sulle quali costruire le conoscenze, abilità e caratteristiche ingegneristiche necessarie alle attività di ideazione, progettazione, realizzazione e gestione operativa di prodotti e sistemi nell'impresa e nel contesto sociale. L’ambiente di apprendimento Technology-Enhanced deve essere basato su: Integrazione disciplinare (Integrated Course Block) Project-based learning Learning by thinking-doing-use Realizzazione di progetti, per il mondo reale, sperimentando le varie fasi del ciclo di vita di un prodotto/sistema dalla ideazione alla gestione operativa. 2
  • 3. Citazione Questa presentazione è un assemblaggio di materiali tratti da: CDIO “Ready to Engineer” at graduation, ASME 2009 Engineering Education:Challenges and Strategies, Research Center for Science, Technology & Education Policy, Zhejiang University,China, 2009 Progetto DIAlumni, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, Politecnico di Milano, 2009 CDIO - Integrating engineering competencies in engineering education, Kristina Edström, KTH, October 21, 2008 Convegno “Le imprese cercano, gli ingegneri ci sono? Domanda e offerta a confronto nel panorama europeo” Assolombarda e Politecnico di Milano, 24 gennaio 2008 SP1: System Requirements and Teamwork, Unified Engineering Spring 2004, Charles P Coleman, MIT The CDIO Syllabus, A Statement of Goals for Undergraduate Engineering Education, Edward F. Crawley, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIT, 2001 3
  • 4. Contenuti Metodologia CDIO Standard Livelli di Competenze Integrazione interdisciplinare CDIO Syllabus CDIO implementation process Project-based Learning (PBL) Appendice CDIO 12 Standards CDIO Syllabus 4
  • 5. Capacità richieste a un laureato in Ingegneria “ Capacità di ideare/ Conceive – progettare/ Design – implementare/ Implement – operare/ Operate complessi sistemi ingegneristici a valore-aggiunto, in moderni ambienti basati-su-team. ” Avendo sviluppato, nel corso degli studi, blocchi di conoscenze, competenze e attitudini - tecniche, professionali, personali, interpersonali - in un contesto imprenditoriale e sociale, mediante un apprendimento by-thinking, by-doing, by-use, in un contesto imprenditoriale e sociale. 5
  • 6. Learning by use Learning by doing Engineering Education:Challenges and Strategies, Research Center for Science, Technology & Education Policy, Zhejiang University,China 6
  • 7. Necessità Desired Attributes of an Underlying Need Engineering Graduate Educate students who: Understanding of fundamentals Understand how to Understanding of conceive - design – design & manufacturing implement - operate process Complex value-added Possess a multi- engineering systems disciplinary system perspective In a modern team- based engineering Good communication skills environment High ethical standards, etc. 7
  • 8. The Challenge - Transform The Culture CURRENT DESIRED • Engineering Science • Engineering • R&D Context • Product Context • Reductionist • Integrative • Individual • Team ... but still based on a rigorous treatment of engineering fundamentals
  • 9. Evolution of Engineering Education • Prior to the 1950s, education was based on practice, taught by distinguished former practitioners • 1950s saw the introduction of engineering science, and hiring of a cadre of young engineering scientists • 1960s was the golden era of a balance between the old practitioners and the young engineering scientists • In the 1980s, the engineering scientists aged — they replaced the practitioners with younger scientists, and the trend towards a scientific based education intensified • In the 1990s, industry recognized a growing gap between the skills of graduating students and those needed for engineering practice 9
  • 10. Development of Engineering Education Pre- Personal, 1950s: Interpersonal Practice 2000s: and System CDIO Building 1960s: Skills Science & Practice 1980s: Science Disciplinary Knowledge Engineers need both dimensions, and Engineering Schools need to develop education that delivers both 10
  • 11. Goals of CDIO • To educate students to master a deeper working knowledge of the technical fundamentals • To educate engineers to lead in the creation and operation of new products and systems • To educate future researchers to understand the importance and strategic value of their work 11
  • 12. Vision CDIO envision an education that stresses the fundamentals, set in the context of Conceiving – Designing – Implementing – Operating systems and products: A curriculum organised around mutually supporting disciplines, but with CDIO activities highly interwoven Rich with student design-build projects Featuring active and experiential learning Set in both the classroom and a modern learning laboratory/workspace Constantly improved through robust assessment/evaluation process.
  • 13. Pedagogic Logic Most engineers are “concrete operational learners” - Manipulate objects to understand abstractions Students arrive at university lacking personal experience - Lack foundation for “formal operational thought” Must provide authentic activities to allow mapping of new knowledge - alternative is rote or “pattern matching” Using CDIO as authentic activity achieves two goals -- • Provides activities to learn fundamentals • Provides education in the creation and operation of systems 13
  • 14. CDIO Standard 2001 CDIO has adopted 12 Standards as guiding principles for program reform and evaluation. The 12 CDIO Standards address program philosophy, curriculum development, design-build experiences and workspaces, new methods of teaching and learning, faculty/academic development, and assessment and evaluation. 14
  • 15. Approccio CDIO – Principali Caratteristiche Risultati dell’apprendimento - CDIO is based on outcomes, more than on contents, for producing the next generation of engineering leaders. Integrazione disciplinare - CDIO stresses engineering fundamentals set in the context of Conceiving, Designing, Implementing & Operating products, processes and systems Integrazione competenze trasversali personali e interpersonali Esperienze pratiche e spazi di lavoro Nuovi metodi di insegnamento e apprendimento Sistemi di misura dei risultati dell’apprendimento e di valutazione del percorso formativo Organized around mutually supporting technical disciplines a CDIO curriculum is richly interwoven with personal and interpersonal skills, product, process, and system building skills, student design-implement experiences, engineering problems requiring fundamental approach. 15
  • 16. CDIO STANDARD 1 CDIO as Context 2 CDIO Syllabus Outcomes 3 Integrated Curriculum 4 Introduction to Engineering 5 Design-Build Experiences 6 CDIO Workspaces 7 Integrated Learning Experiences 8 Active Learning 9 Enhancement of Faculty CDIO Skills 10 Enhancement of Faculty Teaching Skills 11 CDIO Skills Assessment 12 CDIO Program Evaluation 16
  • 17. Learning Outcomes Towards Learning Outcomes: learning outcomes, or end qualifications, or academic competences are the key to future program development, quality assurance, and accreditation in higher education in Europe this is not a trivial but a major reorientation in the field (product versus process) If learning outcomes are key it is necessary: to measure what comes out of the system in terms of learning outcomes: students’ competences at the end of bachelor and master (output) to evaluate and optimize the study program in terms of its contribution to the development of the desired learning outcomes (input) 17
  • 18. Program Outcomes for Aeronautics and Astronautics at MIT 1.0 1. Demonstrate a capacity to use the principles of the Technical underlying sciences of mathematics, physics, Skills chemistry, and biology. 2. Apply the principles of core engineering fundamentals. 3. Demonstrate deep working knowledge of professional engineering. 2.0 1. Analyze and solve engineering problems. Personal 2. Conduct inquiry and experimentation in engineering and problems. Professional 3. Think holistically and systemically. 4. Master personal skills that contribute to successful Skills engineering practice: initiative, flexibility, creativity, curiosity, and time management. 5. Master professional skills that contribute to successful engineering practice: professional ethics, integrity, currency in the field, career planning. 18
  • 19. Program Outcomes for Aeronautics and Astronautics at MIT 3.0 1. Lead and work in teams. Inter- 2. Communicate effectively in writing, in electronic personal form, in graphic media, and in oral presentations. Skills 3. Communicate effectively in foreign languages. 4.0 1. Appreciate different enterprise cultures and work CDIO successfully in organizations. System 2. Conceive engineering systems including setting requirements, defining functions, modeling, and Skills managing projects. 3. Design complex systems. 4. Implement hardware and software processes and manage implementation procedures. 5. Operate complex systems and processes and manage operations. 19
  • 20. Competenze/Livelli/Profilo Competenza = Integrazione di Conoscenze, Capacità & Attitudini caratterizzate da un Dominio, Metodi e Contesto Livello di competenza: definito da descrittori. Profilo: gruppo di competenze di un programma di formazione o di una persona 20
  • 21. Livelli di Competenze/ Bloom’s taxonomy Expert Proficient Competent Competenza Advanced Beginner Novice 21
  • 22. Bloom’s Taxonomy Old Bloom New Bloom Knowledge Remember Comprehension Understand Application Apply Analysis Analyze Synthesis Evaluate Evaluation Create 22
  • 23. Integrazione A CDIO curriculum is designed with mutually supporting disciplinary courses, with an explicit plan to integrate personal, interpersonal, and product, process, and system building skills. (CDIO Standard 3 -- Integrated Curriculum). 23
  • 24. Integrazione (es. 1/3) SYSTEMATIC INTEGRATION Introductory Mathematics Year 1 Physics course I Numerical Mechanics I Mathematics II Methods Mechanics II Solid Product Year 2 Mechanics development Thermo- Mathematics Fluid Sound and dynamics III mechanics Vibrations Signal Year 3 Control Theory Electrical Eng. Statistics analysis Personal & Oral Written Project Interpersonal Teamwork communication communication management Skills 24
  • 25. Integrazione (es. 2/3) SYSTEMATIC INTEGRATION Introductory Mathematics Year 1 Physics course I Mathematics Numerical Mechanics I II Methods Mechanics II Solid Product Year 2 Mechanics development Thermo- Mathematics Fluid Sound and dynamics III mechanics Vibrations Electrical Signal Year 3 Control Theory Statistics Eng. analysis Personal & Oral Written Project Interpersonal Teamwork communication communication management Skills 25
  • 26. Integrazione (es. 3/3) SYSTEMATIC INTEGRATION Introductory Mathematics Year 1 Physics course I Mathematics Numerical Mechanics I II Methods Mechanics II Solid Product Year 2 Mechanics development Thermo- Mathematics Fluid Sound and dynamics III mechanics Vibrations Electrical Signal Year 3 Control Theory Statistics Eng. analysis Personal & Oral Written Project Interpersonal Teamwork communication communication management Skills 26
  • 27. CDIO Syllabus 2001 1. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE AND REASONING 2. PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS & ATTRIBUTES 3. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS: TEAMWORK & COMMUNICATION 4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING AND OPERATING SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT 4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING & OPERATING SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT 2. PERSONAL & 3. INTERPERSONAL 1. TECHNICAL PROFESSIONAL SKILLS: KNOWLEDGE SKILLS & TEAMWORK & AND REASONING ATTRIBUTES COMMUNICATION 27
  • 28. CDIO SYLLABUS – THE SET OF SKILLS 1 TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE 1.1 Knowledge of underlying sciences 1.2 Core engineering fundamental knowledge 1.3 Advanced engineering fundamental knowledge 2 PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS 2.1 Engineering Reasoning and Problem Solving 2.2 Experimentation and Knowledge Discovery 2.3 System Thinking 2.4 Personal Skills and Attributes 2.5 Professional Skills and Attitudes 3 INTERPERSONAL SKILLS 3.1 Teamwork and Leadership 3.2 Communication 3.3 Communication in Foreign Languages 4 PRODUCT AND SYSTEM BUILDING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS 4.1 External and Societal Context 4.2 Enterprise and Business Context 4.3 Conceiving 4.4 Designing 4.5 Implementing 4.6 Operating 28
  • 29. CDIO Syllabus - Personal and professional skills & attributes 1. ENGINEERING REASONING AND PROBLEM SOLVING - Capacità di identificare e formulare correttamente un problema, di modellarlo ed affrontarlo qualitativamente, di studiare l’effetto delle incertezze, di definire una soluzione e le relative raccomandazioni per il suo utilizzo 2. EXPERIMENTATION AND KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY - Formulazione di ipotesi, ricerca tra bibliografia scritta ed elettronica, analisi di validità mediante sperimentazione 3. SYSTEM THINKING - Capacità di valutare le soluzioni in modo integrato, di gestire le situazioni non standard e l’interazione tra sistemi, scegliere le priorità, eseguire un’analisi di trade-off tra le soluzioni 4. PERSONAL SKILLS AND ATTITUDES - Capacità di iniziativa ed assunzione dei rischi, perseveranza e flessibilità, capacità di pensare in modo critico e creativo, curiosità e visione a lungo termine, capacità di gestire il tempo e le risorse 5. PROFESSIONAL SKILLS AND ATTITUDES - Etica professionale, integrità e responsabilità, capacità di pianificare la propria carriera, capacità di mantenersi aggiornati 29
  • 30. CDIO Syllabus - Interpersonal skills: teamwork & communication 1. TEAMWORK - Capacità di formare gruppi di lavoro efficienti, di gestirne le operazioni e l’evoluzione, di assumere la leadership 2. COMMUNICATION – Capacita’ comunicative tra cui strategia e struttura della comunicazione, comunicazione scritta, elettronica o multimediale, presentazione orale e comunicazione inter-personale 3. COMMUNICATION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES 30
  • 31. CDIO Syllabus - Conceiving, designing, implementing & operating systems in the enterprise and societal context 1. EXTERNAL AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT - Ruolo e responsabilità degli ingegneri, impatto dell’ingegneria nella societa’, regolamentazione, contesto storico e culturale, sviluppo di una prospettiva globale 2. ENTERPRISE AND BUSINESS CONTEXT - Capacità di comprendere diversi culture imprenditoriali, strategia d’impresa, obiettivi e pianificazione, capacità di lavoro in strutture organizzate 3. CONCEIVING AND ENGINEERING SYSTEMS - Capacità di definire gli obiettivi e i requisiti, capacità di definire una configurazione di prodotto, di modellarla a livello sistemistico per garantire che gli obiettivi siano rispettati, capacità di sviluppo e pianificazione di progetti 4. … 31
  • 32. CDIO Syllabus - Conceiving, designing, implementing & operating systems in the enterprise and societal context 4. DESIGNING - Capacità progettuali, mediante opportune fasi ed approcci, utilizzo della conoscenza durante il progetto, capacità di gestire progetti mono e multidisciplinari, capacità di gestire progetti aventi multi-obiettivi 5. IMPLEMENTING - Capacità di progettare ed implementare i diversi processi di un progetto, dal punto di vista hardware e software, capacità di gestire l’integrazione, la verifica, la validazione, la certificazione e la gestione 6. OPERATING - Capacità di progettare e ottimizzare attività operative, addestramento, gestione e sviluppo 32
  • 33. Embedded Competences Communication in engineering means being able to ► use the technical concepts comfortably, ► discuss a problem at different levels, ► determine what is relevant to the situation, ► argue for or against conceptual ideas and solutions, ► develop ideas through discussion and collaborative sketching, ► explain the technical matters for different audiences, ► show confidence in expressing yourself within the field ... Communication skills as contextualized competences are embedded in, and inseparable from, students’ application of technical knowledge. The same kind of reasoning can be made for teamwork, ethics (etc...) as well. This is about students becoming engineers! 33
  • 34. Hands-on practice - 20th century 1950_Caulfield Technical 1985_Mechanical School engineering students Engineering student Mr Dennis Stathos working on ...... 1984_Half scale prototype design for remotely piloted plane and tracking system, designed by Mr Don Scutt of Mechanical Engineering (right) and Dr Ian Kirkwood of Mathematics 34
  • 35. Hands-on practice - CDIO Early in the CDIO curriculum, students are exposed to the engineering experience and given opportunities to build things. 35
  • 36. CDIO MIT Aero-Astro's Guggenheim Aeronautical Learning Laboratory 36
  • 37. CDIO MIT Aero-Astro's Guggenheim Aeronautical Learning Laboratory 37
  • 38. After the course the participant is expected to be able to … work in a project setting in a way that effectively utilises the knowledge and efforts of the group members explain mechanisms behind progress and difficulties in such a setting communicate engineering: orally, in writing and graphically analyse technical problems from a holistic point of view handle technical problems which are incompletely stated and subjects to multiple constraints develop strategies for systematic choice and use of available engineering methods and tools make estimations and appreciate their value and limitations pursue own ideas and realise them practically make decisions based on acquired knowledge assess quality of own work and work by others They enter as students and leave the course as engineers! 38
  • 39. The new College of Engineering PBL (Project-based Learning) experiences make up 40% of the curriculum By graduation, every student has had a minimum of 10 team project experiences The curricular “triangle” include engineering, business, liberal arts Corporate sponsors support 12-14 projects per year, in which students engage in a significant engineering project under realistic constraints for an actual client. On average, each summer more than 40% of students go internships and about 30% engage in research More than 50% of the courses bridge two or more disciplinary areas such as maths, engineering, science and design Every student starts and runs a business during their years at College of Engineering Source: Franklin W.Olin College of Engineering 39
  • 41. CDIO Implementation Process 1a. Validation with stakeholders 1b. Benchmarking of existing courses 2. Mapping of CDIO competences to existing and new courses 3. Course development 4. Fine-tune coordination 41
  • 42. New methods of teaching and learning (Standards 7 and 8) Standard 7 — Integrated Learning Experiences that lead to the acquisition of disciplinary knowledge, as well as personal, interpersonal, and product and system building skills. Standard 8 — Teaching and learning based on active experiential learning methods Active learning methods engage students directly in thinking and problem solving activities. There is less emphasis on passive transmission of information, and more on engaging students in manipulating, applying, analyzing, and evaluating ideas. Active learning in lecture-based courses can include such methods as partner and small-group discussions, demonstrations, debates, concept questions, and feedback from students about what they are learning. Active learning is considered experiential when students take on roles that simulate professional engineering practice, for example, design-build projects, simulations, and case studies. 42
  • 43. Project-based Learning (PBL or PjBL) PBL provides complex tasks based on challenging questions or problems that involve the students' problem solving, decision making, investigative skills, and reflection. PBL allows students to work in groups or by themselves and allows them to come up with ideas and realistic solutions or presentations. PBL includes teacher facilitation, but not direction. Students take a problem and apply it to a real life situation with these projects. PBL is focused on questions that drive students to encounter the central concepts and principles of a subject hands-on. PBL encourages students to take responsibility for their own learning and to develop a broad set of generic skills and attributes, along with relevant content knowledge. The expectation is that PBL would better prepare students for their work placements and professional employment. 43
  • 44. PBL Characteristics Reliance on problems to drive the curriculum - The problems do not test skills; they assist in the development of skills. Problems are similar to the ones encountered in real world. The problems are ill-structured - There is not meant to be one solution, and as new information is gathered, perception of the problem, and thus the solution, changes. Students solve the problems - Teachers are the coaches and facilitators. Students are only given guidelines for how to approach problems - There is no one formula for student approaches to the problem. Assessment: Authentic, performance based By: W. J. Stepien and S. A. Gallagher 44
  • 45. PBL – Good Project … Good Question GOOD PROJECT GOOD QUESTION Student-centered Big questions Collaborative open-ended Good essential question those that require research Involving experts and the and reflection community those that are not obvious or Standards-based easily answered Opens the door to more those that lead to more questions questions Interdisciplinary Includes a quality product Creative, engaging, and fun Thoughtful rubrics, including reflection Fonte: Introduction to Project-Based Learning, Sara Armstrong, Ph.D. ISTE 2009 45
  • 46. Appendice CDIO 12 Standards 2001 CDIO Syllabus 2001
  • 47. CDIO 12 Standard (1 di 5) 1. The Context. This is the adoption of the principle that product, process and system lifecycle development and deployment (Conceiving, Designing, Implementing and Operating) are the context for engineering education. 2. Learning Outcomes. The learning outcomes detail what students should know and be able to do at the conclusion of their engineeringprogram. Specific, detailed learning outcomes are codified for personal and interpersonal skills, product, process and system building skills, and disciplinary knowledge that are consistent with the university’s program goals and validated by program stakeholders. 3. Integrated Curriculum. The curriculum is designed with mutually supporting disciplinary courses that include an explicit plan to integrate personal and interpersonal skills and product, process and system building skills. These skills should not be considered an addition to an already full curriculum but an integral part of it. 4. … 47
  • 48. CDIO 12 Standard (2 di 5) 4. Introduction to Engineering. An introductory course is offered that provides students with the framework to understand engineering practice in product, process and system building and the personal and interpersonal skills they will need. Students usually select engineering because they want to build things, and introductory courses can capitalize on this interest. 5. Design Implement Experience. The curriculum includes two or more design‐implement experiences, including one at a basic level and one at an advanced level. The objective is to promote early successes in engineering practice. 6. Engineering Workspaces. Engineering workspaces and laboratories provide the physical environment to support and encourage hands‐on learning of product, process, system and social building skills concurrently with learning disciplinary knowledge. These workspaces are separate from traditional classrooms and lecture halls. 7. … 48
  • 49. CDIO 12 Standard (3 di 5) 7. Integrated Learning experience. This provides the pedagogical environment that fosters learning of disciplinary knowledge simultaneously (interwoven) with personal, product, process and social skills. Students learn to recognize engineering faculty as role models of professional engineers who instruct them in not only disciplinary knowledge but also the other skills listed above. 8. Active Learning. This is teaching and learning based on active experiential learning methods that engage students directly in thinking and problem solving activities. It involves ‘project based learning’. There is less emphasis on passive transmission of information in a classical lecture hall and more emphasis on engaging students in manipulating, applying, analyzing and evaluating ideas. As Dr. Vest said, “We need to move from the sage on the stage to the guide on the side”. 9. … 49
  • 50. CDIO 12 Standard (4 di 5) 9. Enhancing of Faculty Skills Competence. Many engineering professors tend to be experts in the research and knowledge base of their respective disciplines but have only limited, if any, experience in the practice of engineering in business and industrial settings. Therefore the CDIO program provides support and training for faculty to improve their competence in personal and interpersonal skills and process, product and system building skills. 10. Enhancing of Faculty Teaching Competence. The CDIO program also provides support for faculty to improve their competence in integrated learning experiences, in using active experiential learning methods and in assessing student learning. 11. … 50
  • 51. CDIO 12 Standard (5 di 5) 11. Learning Assessment. This is the measure of the extent to which each student achieves specified learning outcomes. 12. Program Evaluation. This process evaluates the university program against these twelve standards and provides feedback to students, faculty and other stakeholders for the purpose of continuous improvement. It is a judgment of the overall value of the program based on evidence of the program’s progress toward achieving its goals. 51
  • 52. CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 1/7) 1. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE AND REASONING 1. KNOWLEDGE OF UNDERLYING SCIENCES 1. Mathematics (including statistics) 2. Physics 3. Chemistry 4. Biology 2. CORE ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTAL KNOWLEDGE 3. ADVANCED ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTAL KNOWLEDGE CDIO Syllabus complete: CDIO Syllabus complete: http://www.cdio.org/tools/syllabuscomplete.htm http://www.cdio.org/tools/syllabuscomplete.htm 52
  • 53. CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 2/7) 2. PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS & ATTRIBUTES 1. ENGINEERING REASONING AND PROBLEM SOLVING 1. Problem Identification and Formulation 2. Modeling 3. Estimation and Qualitative Analysis 4. Analysis With Uncertainty 5. Solution and Recommendation 2. EXPERIMENTATION AND KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY 1. Hypothesis Formulation 2. Survey of Print and Electronic Literature 3. Experimental Inquiry 4. Hypothesis Test, and Defense 3. SYSTEM THINKING 1. Thinking Holistically 2. Emergence and Interactions in Systems 3. Prioritization and Focus 4. Tradeoffs, Judgment and Balance in Resolution 53
  • 54. CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 3/7) 2. PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS & ATTRIBUTES 4. PERSONAL SKILLS AND ATTITUDES 1. Initiative and Willingness to Take Risks 2. Perseverance and Flexibility 3. Creative Thinking 4. Critical Thinking 5. Awareness of One’s Personal Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes 6. Curiosity and Lifelong Learning 7. Time and Resource Management 5. PROFESSIONAL SKILLS AND ATTITUDES 1. Professional Ethics, Integrity, Responsibility and Accountability 2. Professional Behavior 3. Proactively Planning for One’s Career 4. Staying Current on World of Engineer 54
  • 55. CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 4/7) 3. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS: TEAMWORK & COMMUNICATION 1. TEAMWORK 1. Forming Effective Teams 2. Team Operation 3. Team Growth and Evolution 4. Leadership 5. Technical Teaming 2. COMMUNICATION 1. Communication Strategy 2. Communication Structure 3. Written Communication 4. Electronic/ Multimedia Communication 5. Graphical Communication 6. Oral Presentation and Interpersonal Communication 3. COMMUNICATION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES 1. English 2. Languages of Regional Industrial Nations 3. Other Languages 55
  • 56. CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 5/7) 4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING & OPERATING SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT 1. EXTERNAL AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT 1. Roles and Responsibility of Engineers 2. The Impact of Engineering on Society 3. Society’s Regulation of Engineering 4. The Historical and Cultural Context 5. Contemporary Issues and Values 6. Developing a Global Perspective 2. ENTERPRISE AND BUSINESS CONTEXT 1. Appreciating Different Enterprise Cultures 2. Enterprise Strategy, Goals and Planning 3. Technical Entrepreneurship 4. Working Successfully in Organizations 56
  • 57. CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 6/7) 4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING & OPERATING SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT 3. CONCEIVING AND ENGINEERING SYSTEMS 1. Setting System Goals and Requirements 2. Defining Function, Concept and Architecture 3. Modeling of System and Ensuring Goals Can Be Met 4. Development Project Management 4. DESIGNING 1. The Design Process 2. The Design Process Phasing and Approaches 3. Utilization of Knowledge in Design 4. Disciplinary Design 5. Multidisciplinary Design 6. Multi-objective Design 57
  • 58. CDIO Syllabus (condensed form 7/7) 4. CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING & OPERATING SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT 5. IMPLEMENTING 1. Designing the Implementation Process 2. Hardware Manufacturing Process 3. Software Implementing Process 4. Hardware Software Integration 5. Test, Verification, Validation and Certification 6. Implementation Management 6. OPERATING 1. Designing and Optimizing Operations 2. Training and Operations 3. Supporting the System Lifecycle 4. System Improvement and Evolution 5. Disposal and Life-End Issues 6. Operations Management 58
  • 59. An Invitation The book: Crawley et al. (2007) Rethinking Engineering Education: The CDIO Approach, Springer Verlag. ISBN 0387382879 The International CDIO Conference Proceedings The site www.cdio.org 59