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HRM
Quality of Work Life
Quality of Work Life
• A multi-faceted concept
• It means having a work-environment
  where an employee’s activities become
  more important by implementing
  procedures or policies that make the work
  less routine and more rewarding for the
  employee
• There exists a relationship between Q.W.L
  and productivity
Quality of Work Life
• The people involved get a sense of satisfaction
  in their work. Work then becomes not a burden
  but a means by which the abilities of a person
  can find expression
• Mass-production technology has made worker’s
  job monotonous and it is of little meaning to him
• Results of low Q.W.L are absenteeism, low
  performance, poor morale and occasional
  sabotage. Ultimately it is the organization that
  suffers.
Quality of Work Life-Origin of the
              concept
• After Industrial Revolution, the importance of human
  factor reduced because of the vast mechanization.
  Various problems like job dissatisfaction, boredom,
  absenteeism, lack of commitment etc came up.
• Most mgt theories gave emphasis on production,
  manipulating the skills of the employees
• Tavi Stock Institute of Human Relations, London
  conducted some research on “workers’ problems in
  Industrial world” and they produced a study approach
  called Socio-technical system in which they gave great
  importance to “Job Design” to satisfy human needs
  adequately and the need for Q.W.L in an Organization
  was emphasized.
Meaning and definition of Q.W.L
• Q.W.L is any conscious effort for improving working
  conditions, work content, and its safety, security, wages
  and benefits, etc.
• Q.W.L can be said to be all the original inputs which aim
  at improving the employees’ satisfaction and enhancing
  organizational effectiveness
• Q.W.L is a concern not only to improve life at work, but
  also life outside work
• It is nothing but having a work environment where an
  employees activities become more important. This
  means implementing procedures or policies that make
  the work less routine and more rewarding for the
  employee. These procedures or policies include
  autonomy, recognition, belongingness, development and
  external rewards
Quality of Work Life
• Simply speaking, through Q.W.L the
  people involved get a sense of satisfaction
  in their work. Work then becomes not a
  burden but a means by which the abilities
  of a person can find expression
• Q.W.L is just humanizing the work
• Q.W.L = The sum total of physical
  (working conditions), psychological and
  economic factors which affect the job.
Objectives of Q.W.L
• To improve the standard of living of the
  employees
• To increase the productivity
• To create a positive attitude in the minds
  of the employees
• To increase the effectiveness of the
  organization (Profitability, goal
  accomplishment etc.)
Factors affecting Quality of Work
                 Life
  Some people consider Q.W.L as the existence
  of a certain set of original conditions and
  practices. They agree that high Q.W.L exists
  when
• Democratic management practices are prevalent
  in the organization
• When employees’ jobs are enriching
• They are treated with dignity and safe working
  conditions are present
  Others equate Q.W.L with the impact of working
  conditions on the employee's well-being
Countries that practiced Q.W.L
                 initially
•   Sweden
•   Denmark
•   Holland
•   Switzerland
•   Australia
•   USA
Companies practicing Quality of
             Work Life
•   General Motors
•   Ford Motors with UAW
•   XEROX
•   IBM
•   BHEL, Hardwar
•   TISCO
Measuring of Q.W.L
Questionnaires and interviews are relevant
 here. In General Motors the management
 gives a questionnaire of 16 critical
 dimensions of Q.W.L to its employees
 each year. The responses are then used
 to measure the employees’ perception of
 their work life.
Implementation of Q.W.L
• Management and Employees’ co-operation- A
  worker-Mgt committee on work improvement can
  function effectively to increase co-operation
• Action plans developed must be followed to
  completion
• Support ot middle-managers by top
  management and bottom-level employees to
  implement the programme
• The objectives of Q.W.L should be a joint one,
  i.e., for workers it is to improve Q.W.L; for
  management it is to improve organizational
  efficiency
Barriers to Q.W.L
• Resistance to change both by mgt and
  employees
• There is a general perception that Q.W.L
  implementation will cost much to the
  organization
• Continuous increase in Q.W.L may result
  in less productivity, i.e., after a certain
  level the productivity will not increase in
  proportion to the increase in Q.W.L
Barriers to Q.W.L in India
    (According to Dr. S.K. Chakraborty of IIM-C)
•   Widespread unhappiness due to comparison with
    colleagues
•   Skepticism about the performance appraisal system and
    promotion criteria
•   Division into camps and cliques hampering fruitful
    communication
•   Frequent fits of anger of top level officials
•   Regional prejudice
•   Glorification of speed and excitement as against serenity
•   Unreasonable personal expectation
•   Limitless addiction to lower-order material needs
                                  Source: The Hindu, November 29, 1990, p 18

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Quality of worklife

  • 2. Quality of Work Life • A multi-faceted concept • It means having a work-environment where an employee’s activities become more important by implementing procedures or policies that make the work less routine and more rewarding for the employee • There exists a relationship between Q.W.L and productivity
  • 3. Quality of Work Life • The people involved get a sense of satisfaction in their work. Work then becomes not a burden but a means by which the abilities of a person can find expression • Mass-production technology has made worker’s job monotonous and it is of little meaning to him • Results of low Q.W.L are absenteeism, low performance, poor morale and occasional sabotage. Ultimately it is the organization that suffers.
  • 4. Quality of Work Life-Origin of the concept • After Industrial Revolution, the importance of human factor reduced because of the vast mechanization. Various problems like job dissatisfaction, boredom, absenteeism, lack of commitment etc came up. • Most mgt theories gave emphasis on production, manipulating the skills of the employees • Tavi Stock Institute of Human Relations, London conducted some research on “workers’ problems in Industrial world” and they produced a study approach called Socio-technical system in which they gave great importance to “Job Design” to satisfy human needs adequately and the need for Q.W.L in an Organization was emphasized.
  • 5. Meaning and definition of Q.W.L • Q.W.L is any conscious effort for improving working conditions, work content, and its safety, security, wages and benefits, etc. • Q.W.L can be said to be all the original inputs which aim at improving the employees’ satisfaction and enhancing organizational effectiveness • Q.W.L is a concern not only to improve life at work, but also life outside work • It is nothing but having a work environment where an employees activities become more important. This means implementing procedures or policies that make the work less routine and more rewarding for the employee. These procedures or policies include autonomy, recognition, belongingness, development and external rewards
  • 6. Quality of Work Life • Simply speaking, through Q.W.L the people involved get a sense of satisfaction in their work. Work then becomes not a burden but a means by which the abilities of a person can find expression • Q.W.L is just humanizing the work • Q.W.L = The sum total of physical (working conditions), psychological and economic factors which affect the job.
  • 7. Objectives of Q.W.L • To improve the standard of living of the employees • To increase the productivity • To create a positive attitude in the minds of the employees • To increase the effectiveness of the organization (Profitability, goal accomplishment etc.)
  • 8. Factors affecting Quality of Work Life Some people consider Q.W.L as the existence of a certain set of original conditions and practices. They agree that high Q.W.L exists when • Democratic management practices are prevalent in the organization • When employees’ jobs are enriching • They are treated with dignity and safe working conditions are present Others equate Q.W.L with the impact of working conditions on the employee's well-being
  • 9. Countries that practiced Q.W.L initially • Sweden • Denmark • Holland • Switzerland • Australia • USA
  • 10. Companies practicing Quality of Work Life • General Motors • Ford Motors with UAW • XEROX • IBM • BHEL, Hardwar • TISCO
  • 11. Measuring of Q.W.L Questionnaires and interviews are relevant here. In General Motors the management gives a questionnaire of 16 critical dimensions of Q.W.L to its employees each year. The responses are then used to measure the employees’ perception of their work life.
  • 12. Implementation of Q.W.L • Management and Employees’ co-operation- A worker-Mgt committee on work improvement can function effectively to increase co-operation • Action plans developed must be followed to completion • Support ot middle-managers by top management and bottom-level employees to implement the programme • The objectives of Q.W.L should be a joint one, i.e., for workers it is to improve Q.W.L; for management it is to improve organizational efficiency
  • 13. Barriers to Q.W.L • Resistance to change both by mgt and employees • There is a general perception that Q.W.L implementation will cost much to the organization • Continuous increase in Q.W.L may result in less productivity, i.e., after a certain level the productivity will not increase in proportion to the increase in Q.W.L
  • 14. Barriers to Q.W.L in India (According to Dr. S.K. Chakraborty of IIM-C) • Widespread unhappiness due to comparison with colleagues • Skepticism about the performance appraisal system and promotion criteria • Division into camps and cliques hampering fruitful communication • Frequent fits of anger of top level officials • Regional prejudice • Glorification of speed and excitement as against serenity • Unreasonable personal expectation • Limitless addiction to lower-order material needs Source: The Hindu, November 29, 1990, p 18