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Seminar on conversion of plastic wastes into fuels

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Seminar report on conversion of plastic waste into fuels

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Seminar on conversion of plastic wastes into fuels

  1. 1. Conversion of Plastic Wastes into Fuels Presented by Padam Kumar Yadav 2011UME1530
  2. 2. Content 1. Introduction 2. Material 3. Process 4. Result 5. Applications 6. Conclusion
  3. 3. What is plastic ? • The term “plastics” includes materials composed of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulphur. • Plastics are macromolecules, formed by polymerization and having the ability to be shaped by the application of reasonable amount of heat and pressure or any other form of forces. • It is one of the few new chemical materials which pose environmental problem. • Polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene is largely used in the manufacturing of plastics.
  4. 4. Why do we need to convert waste plastic into fuel ? • According to a recent study performed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approximately billion of tons of waste plastic are generated in the world every year. • Statistics show that approximately 10% of this plastic is recycled, 25% is incinerated and the remaining 65% is dumped in landfills. • The cost of waste plastic management is around $2800/ton of waste plastics. • Incineration is an alternative to landfill disposal of plastic wastes, but this practice could result in the formation of unacceptable emissions of gases such as nitrous oxide, sulfur oxides, dusts, dioxins and other toxins. • The option of secondary recycling or mechanical recycling, which is the reprocessing of plastic waste into new plastic products with a lower quality level, is not showing any signs of growth in the recycling industry • The method of converting the polymers present in the waste plastics into Fuel.
  5. 5. Selection of plastic…… Reference: Thermofuel – “ Pyrolysis of waste plastic to produce Liquid Hydroocarbons” Dr. P.V. Thorata*, Miss. Sandhya Warulkara ,Miss.Harshal Sathonea a*Head of Department , a Assistant Professor a Department of Polymer Technology, College of engineering and technology Akola, NH6, Murtizapur Road,
  6. 6. Conversion of plastic waste into liquid fuel…
  7. 7. Result & discussion… • The curve shows that maximum mass loss related to volatilization of hydrocarbons occurred at 673K. Total 99.98 % mass changes occurred from 448.5K to 673K. The residue mass was 0.2 % and was found constant upto 1273K TGA curve of waste LDPE.
  8. 8. • It can be seen from the results that maximum conversion into liquid product 69.73 % was achieved with calcium carbide catalyst at 623K temperature. Temperature optimization for catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastic
  9. 9. • In the absence of catalyst the conversion into liquid was only 10.0 %, while in the presence of catalyst the yield of liquid increased up to 69.73 % Catalyst mass optimization for catalytic pyrolysis of waste LDPE
  10. 10. • It was investigated that 60 minutes reaction time sufficient for maximum conversion into liquid product. At this optimum time the conversion into liquid was 69.73 %, which was the maximum conversion Time optimization for catalytic pyrolysis of waste LDPE Reference: Catalytic conversion of waste low density polyethylene into fuel oil Fazal Mabood *,a, M Rasul Jan b, Jasmin Shah c, Farah Jabeen d, Zahid Hussain e a Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara, N.W.F.P., Pakistan b University of Malakand, Chakdara, N.W.F.P., Pakistan c Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, N.W.F.P., Pakistan d Department of Chemistry, Sarhad University of Science & Information Technology, Peshawar, N.W.F.P, Pakistan e Department of Chemistry, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, N.W.F.P,Pakistan Received 18 February 2010; received in revised form 10 May 2010; accepted 20 May 2010
  11. 11. Characterization of liquid product Physical parameters of various fractions collected at different temperatures from fractional distillation of oil obtained using CaC2 catalyst
  12. 12. Standards parameter of gasoline, diesel and kerosene oil Reference: Catalytic conversion of waste low density polyethylene into fuel oil Fazal Mabood *,a, M Rasul Jan b, Jasmin Shah c, Farah Jabeen d, Zahid Hussain e a Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara, N.W.F.P., Pakistan b University of Malakand, Chakdara, N.W.F.P., Pakistan c Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, N.W.F.P., Pakistan d Department of Chemistry, Sarhad University of Science & Information Technology, Peshawar, N.W.F.P, Pakistan e Department of Chemistry, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, N.W.F.P,Pakistan Received 18 February 2010; received in revised form 10 May 2010; accepted 20 May 2010
  13. 13. Typical properties of oil derived from catalytic pyrolysis of oil obtained from catalytic pyrolysis of waste LDPE
  14. 14. Performance characteristics • Break thermal efficiency • The experimental study on a single cylinder, four-stroke, air cooled DI diesel engine with waste plastic oil5, Results the thermal efficiency is 28.2% at rated power for diesel and for the waste plastic oil it is 27.4%. Variation of brake thermal efficiency with brake power • Break Specific fuel consumption Brake specific fuel consumption measures how efficiently an engine is using the fuel supplied to produce work. it is inversely proportional to thermal efficiency, The brake specific fuel consumption for the waste plastic oil varies from 0.574 g/kWh at no load to 10.297 g/kWh at full load for standard injection timing, and it varies from0.514 g/kWh at no load to 0.235 g/kWh at full load for retarded injection timing. At full load, WPPO blends show the specific fuel consumption higher than the diesel. The main reason for this could be that percent increase in fuel required to operate the engine is less than the percent increase in brake power due to relatively less portion of the heat losses at higher loads
  15. 15. • Exhaust gas temperature • This result in higher exhaust gas temperature in the case of waste plastic oil compared to diesel5. An experiment study on waste plastic oil and diesel fuel blends in compression ignition engine proved that the exhaust gas temperature increases with load because more fuel is burnt to meet the power requirement. It seen that in the case of WPO operation, the exhaust gas temperature ranges from 240oC at low load to 450oC at full load whereas in the case of DF operation it ranges from 221oC at low load to 417oC at full load. For WPO 10 and WPO 30, at full load the exhaust gas temperature marginally increases to 420oC and 424oC respectively Variation of exhaust gas temperature with load Reference: Waste plastic Pyrolysis oil Alternative Fuel for CI Engine – A Review Pawar Harshal R. and Lawankar Shailendra M. Department of Mechanical Engineering, GCOE, Amravati, MS, INDIA
  16. 16. Feasibility….. • The production of the fuels from the waste plastic of various sorts has been carried out a number of times to arrive at the unit cost of production. The break - up of the cost for per kg input of the plastic and the related output for the same is depicted in the Table Process for 1 kg input and yield of the output Reference : Conversion of Plastic Wastes into Fuels Antony Raja and Advaith Murali Department of Chemical Engineering, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur 602105, India Received: October 23, 2010 / Accepted: November 10, 2010 / Published: June 10, 2011.
  17. 17. Applications in real world…. • The city-based Sustainable Technologies & Environmental Projects (STEPS) plans to set up a plant to convert plastic waste into light diesel, calorific value combustible gas and carbon pellets. • The company has succeeded in generating diesel from waste plastic, for which it won the Lockheed Martin Innovations Award three times. • Pune Municipal Corporation, India is planning on running a pilot project that will convert plastic into fuel for generators.
  18. 18. Conclusion • Plastics present a major threat to today's society and environment. Over 14 million tons of plastics are dumped into the oceans annually, killing about 1,000,000 species of oceanic life. Though mankind has awoken to this threat and responded with developments in creating degradable bio plastics , there is still no conclusive effort done to repair the damage already caused. • In this regard, the catalytic pyrolysis studied here presents an efficient, clean and very effective means of removing the debris that we have left behind over the last several decades. • By converting plastics to fuel, we solve two issues, one of the large plastic seas, and the other of the fuel shortage. This dual benefit, though will exist only as long as the waste plastics last, but will surely provide a strong platform for us to build on a sustainable, clean and green future. By taking into account the financial benefits of • such a project, it would be a great boon to our economy.

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