SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 3
Proposition
We have learned that proposition is the verbal expression of a judgment. It is a statement in which something is
affirmed or denied. There are three general types of propositions: categorical propositions, hypothetical propositions,
and modal propositions.
Categorical Proposition is one which gives a direct assertion of agreement or disagreement between the subject and the
predicate term.
Hypothetical Proposition is a kind of proposition that does not declare an unconditional affirmation or denial, but
expresses a relation of dependence such as an opposition or a likeness between two clauses.
Modal Propositions is a kind of proposition which does not just only affirm or deny the predicate of the subject but also
states the manner or mode of in which the predicate is identified. It does not simply declare that the predicate belongs
to the subject but how the predicate belongs, or does not belong to the subject.
However, the focus of this lesson is more about categorical propositions rather than the other two mentioned.
Element and Structure of a Categorical Proposition
A categorical proposition contains three elements namely: subject term, predicate term, and copula.
The subject term is the object affirmed or denied in the proposition.
The predicate term is the quality or attribute affirmed or denied by the subject.
The copula is the element that links the subject to the predicate. It is the linking verb in grammar like the “am”, “is”, and
“are”. The negated word “not” is part of the copula.
Examples:
All men are rational
No monkeys are birds
Some dancers are singers
Some basketball players are not tall
Quality and Quantity of Propositions
The quality of a proposition consists in the nature of the proposition as either affirmative or negative. The proposition is
affirmative if there is agreement between the subject term and the predicate term. The proposition is negative if there is
disagreement between the subject term and the predicate term. The first and third proposition in the above given
example are affirmative, while the second and the fourth proposition are negative.
The quality of the proposition consists in the nature of the proposition as either universal or particular. It refers to the
denotation or number of individuals or referents to whom the subject term applies. Thus, a proposition is universal, if
the subject term is universal. If the subject term is particular, the proposition is particular. In the example given above,
the first and second propositions are universal, while the third and fourth examples are particular.
In the proposition there are concrete indicators that will tell us the quantity of the proposition. They are called the
quantifiers.
Universal Quantifiers. All, every, any, whatever, wherever, anything, everything, no, none, nothing, never, and others
that are similar to these.
Particular Quantifiers. Some, most, several, many, few, at least one, not all, majority and others.
Combining the quality and quantity of propositions, we come up with four types of categorical propositions.
Four Types of Propositions
1. Universal Affirmative Propositions or “A” Proposition
2. Universal Negative Propositions or “E” Proposition
3. Particular Affirmative Proposition or “I” Proposition
4. Particular Negative Proposition or “O” Proposition
Standard Forms
A: All S is P
E: No S is P
I: Some S is P
O: Some S is not P
A mnemonic device for the four types of proposition is to remember Affirmo and Nego.
Following the standard form above, a model statement can be represented as
Quantifier + Subject Term + Copula + Predicate Term
Distribution of a Term
A distributed term is a term of a categorical proposition that is used to refer to every member of a class. If the term is
not being used to refer to each and every member of the class then the term is undistributed.
Consider the following:
A: All birds are winged creature
E: No Birds are wingless creature
I: Some birds are black things
O: Some birds are not black things
The chart below represents the distribution of the above statements
Proposition Subject Predicate
A Refers to all birds Does not refer every member,
e.g. bats, flying fish
E Refers to all birds by
indicating that they are not
part of the predicate class
Refers to every winged
creature by indicating that
they are not part of the subject
class
I Refers only to some birds Refers only to some black
things, that is, those which are
birds
O Refers only to some birds, not
all of them
Refers to all members of the
class, that is, not one of them
is in the class referred to as
“some bird”
Only Universal propositions, either affirmative or negative, distribute their subject terms. Particular propositions, both
affirmative and negative, do NOT distribute their subject terms
Thus the quantity of any categorical proposition determines whether its subject is distributed!
Only Negative propositions, either universal or particular, distribute their predicate terms Affirmative propositions,
either universal and particular, do NOT distribute their predicate terms
Thus the quality of any categorical proposition determines whether its predicate is distributed!
So, here is the key to determining the how categorical propositions distribute their Subjects and Predicate terms:
Universal Quantity distributes the Subject term
Negative Quality distributes the Predicate term!
Quantity, Quality, and Distribution Table
Following the discussion on the form, quantity, quality and distribution, the table below summarizes the topic.
Proposition Standard Form Quantity Quality Distribution
Subject Predicate
A All S is P Universal Affirmative Distributed Undistributed
E No S is P Universal Negative Distributed Distributed
I Some S is P Particular Affirmative Undistributed Undistributed
O Some S is not P Particular Negative Undistributed Distributed

More Related Content

What's hot

Judgment and proposition or logical statement
Judgment and proposition or logical statementJudgment and proposition or logical statement
Judgment and proposition or logical statement
ling selanoba
 
The categorical-syllogism
The categorical-syllogismThe categorical-syllogism
The categorical-syllogism
anandhjose
 
Categorical syllogism
Categorical syllogismCategorical syllogism
Categorical syllogism
3842
 

What's hot (20)

LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING
LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKINGLOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING
LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING
 
CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM
CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISMCATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM
CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM
 
Logic
LogicLogic
Logic
 
Distribution of terms
Distribution of termsDistribution of terms
Distribution of terms
 
Logic & critical thinking
Logic & critical thinking Logic & critical thinking
Logic & critical thinking
 
Syllogisms
SyllogismsSyllogisms
Syllogisms
 
Judgment and proposition or logical statement
Judgment and proposition or logical statementJudgment and proposition or logical statement
Judgment and proposition or logical statement
 
Logic
LogicLogic
Logic
 
Categorical propositions
Categorical propositions Categorical propositions
Categorical propositions
 
Logic hand outs#4
Logic hand outs#4Logic hand outs#4
Logic hand outs#4
 
The categorical-syllogism
The categorical-syllogismThe categorical-syllogism
The categorical-syllogism
 
Deductive and Inductive Arguments
Deductive and Inductive ArgumentsDeductive and Inductive Arguments
Deductive and Inductive Arguments
 
Mediate Inference/Syllogisms
Mediate Inference/SyllogismsMediate Inference/Syllogisms
Mediate Inference/Syllogisms
 
4.1 And 4.2 Categorical Propositions
4.1 And 4.2   Categorical Propositions4.1 And 4.2   Categorical Propositions
4.1 And 4.2 Categorical Propositions
 
Inversion
InversionInversion
Inversion
 
Hypothetical Syllogism
Hypothetical SyllogismHypothetical Syllogism
Hypothetical Syllogism
 
Categorical syllogism
Categorical syllogismCategorical syllogism
Categorical syllogism
 
Notes for logic
Notes for logicNotes for logic
Notes for logic
 
Types of Argument presentation
Types of Argument presentationTypes of Argument presentation
Types of Argument presentation
 
Hypothetical & Modal Propositions
Hypothetical & Modal PropositionsHypothetical & Modal Propositions
Hypothetical & Modal Propositions
 

Viewers also liked

Hypothetical proposition
Hypothetical propositionHypothetical proposition
Hypothetical proposition
lp tangcuangco
 
Presupposition lecture
Presupposition lecturePresupposition lecture
Presupposition lecture
zouhirgabsi
 
Presupposition & entailmant
Presupposition & entailmantPresupposition & entailmant
Presupposition & entailmant
Uspan Sayuti
 
Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...
Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...
Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...
Ijaz Ahmed
 
Plato's Republic (part 2)
Plato's Republic (part 2)Plato's Republic (part 2)
Plato's Republic (part 2)
Noel Jopson
 
Brief historical introduction
Brief historical introductionBrief historical introduction
Brief historical introduction
Noel Jopson
 
A Primer on the Philosophy of Religion and the Problem of God's Existence
A Primer on the Philosophy of Religion and the Problem of God's ExistenceA Primer on the Philosophy of Religion and the Problem of God's Existence
A Primer on the Philosophy of Religion and the Problem of God's Existence
Noel Jopson
 
Symbolism in religion
Symbolism in religionSymbolism in religion
Symbolism in religion
Noel Jopson
 
Is aesthetics itself beautiful
Is aesthetics itself beautifulIs aesthetics itself beautiful
Is aesthetics itself beautiful
Noel Jopson
 
Branches of philosophy
Branches of philosophyBranches of philosophy
Branches of philosophy
Noel Jopson
 

Viewers also liked (19)

Logic Ppt
Logic PptLogic Ppt
Logic Ppt
 
Hypothetical proposition
Hypothetical propositionHypothetical proposition
Hypothetical proposition
 
Logic (PROPOSITIONS)
Logic (PROPOSITIONS)Logic (PROPOSITIONS)
Logic (PROPOSITIONS)
 
Logic (slides)
Logic (slides)Logic (slides)
Logic (slides)
 
Presupposition lecture
Presupposition lecturePresupposition lecture
Presupposition lecture
 
Presupposition & entailmant
Presupposition & entailmantPresupposition & entailmant
Presupposition & entailmant
 
Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...
Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...
Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...
 
Plato's Republic (part 2)
Plato's Republic (part 2)Plato's Republic (part 2)
Plato's Republic (part 2)
 
Brief historical introduction
Brief historical introductionBrief historical introduction
Brief historical introduction
 
A Primer on the Philosophy of Religion and the Problem of God's Existence
A Primer on the Philosophy of Religion and the Problem of God's ExistenceA Primer on the Philosophy of Religion and the Problem of God's Existence
A Primer on the Philosophy of Religion and the Problem of God's Existence
 
Symbolism in religion
Symbolism in religionSymbolism in religion
Symbolism in religion
 
Discussion of plato's apology transcript
Discussion of plato's apology transcriptDiscussion of plato's apology transcript
Discussion of plato's apology transcript
 
Microcosms
MicrocosmsMicrocosms
Microcosms
 
A Primer on the Philosophy of Religion and the Problem of God's Existence (pa...
A Primer on the Philosophy of Religion and the Problem of God's Existence (pa...A Primer on the Philosophy of Religion and the Problem of God's Existence (pa...
A Primer on the Philosophy of Religion and the Problem of God's Existence (pa...
 
Bahala na
Bahala naBahala na
Bahala na
 
Is aesthetics itself beautiful
Is aesthetics itself beautifulIs aesthetics itself beautiful
Is aesthetics itself beautiful
 
Branches of philosophy
Branches of philosophyBranches of philosophy
Branches of philosophy
 
Letter
LetterLetter
Letter
 
Primer in Logic
Primer in LogicPrimer in Logic
Primer in Logic
 

Similar to Propositions

Intro logic ch 4 categorical propositions
Intro logic ch 4 categorical propositionsIntro logic ch 4 categorical propositions
Intro logic ch 4 categorical propositions
temkin abdlkader
 
Categorical syllogism
Categorical syllogismCategorical syllogism
Categorical syllogism
Noel Jopson
 
Rogerian Analysis.docx
Rogerian Analysis.docxRogerian Analysis.docx
Rogerian Analysis.docx
joellemurphey
 

Similar to Propositions (20)

Determiner and its types
Determiner  and  its  typesDeterminer  and  its  types
Determiner and its types
 
Syllogism its types with examples shown by venn diagram and their fallacy
Syllogism its types with examples shown by venn diagram and their fallacySyllogism its types with examples shown by venn diagram and their fallacy
Syllogism its types with examples shown by venn diagram and their fallacy
 
categorical logic.ppt
categorical logic.pptcategorical logic.ppt
categorical logic.ppt
 
Intro logic ch 4 categorical propositions
Intro logic ch 4 categorical propositionsIntro logic ch 4 categorical propositions
Intro logic ch 4 categorical propositions
 
Parts of speech
Parts of speechParts of speech
Parts of speech
 
Logic
LogicLogic
Logic
 
introduction to logics
introduction to logicsintroduction to logics
introduction to logics
 
PART-OF-SPEECH_CCA.pptx
PART-OF-SPEECH_CCA.pptxPART-OF-SPEECH_CCA.pptx
PART-OF-SPEECH_CCA.pptx
 
Categorical syllogism
Categorical syllogismCategorical syllogism
Categorical syllogism
 
JUDGMENT.pptx
JUDGMENT.pptxJUDGMENT.pptx
JUDGMENT.pptx
 
semantics
semanticssemantics
semantics
 
Eight Parts of Speech.pdf
Eight Parts of Speech.pdfEight Parts of Speech.pdf
Eight Parts of Speech.pdf
 
Rogerian Analysis.docx
Rogerian Analysis.docxRogerian Analysis.docx
Rogerian Analysis.docx
 
Semantics
Semantics Semantics
Semantics
 
Gmat verbal review
Gmat verbal reviewGmat verbal review
Gmat verbal review
 
Semantics
Semantics Semantics
Semantics
 
Prepositions
PrepositionsPrepositions
Prepositions
 
G10__WK3_D1_Adjectives_and_Adverbs.pptx
G10__WK3_D1_Adjectives_and_Adverbs.pptxG10__WK3_D1_Adjectives_and_Adverbs.pptx
G10__WK3_D1_Adjectives_and_Adverbs.pptx
 
Mood
MoodMood
Mood
 
Week four (2) thurs
Week four (2) thursWeek four (2) thurs
Week four (2) thurs
 

More from Noel Jopson

Notes in Philippine History Chapter 5
Notes in Philippine History Chapter 5Notes in Philippine History Chapter 5
Notes in Philippine History Chapter 5
Noel Jopson
 
Spanish Conquest of the Islands
Spanish Conquest of the IslandsSpanish Conquest of the Islands
Spanish Conquest of the Islands
Noel Jopson
 
Notes in Philippine History Chapter 4(Part 1)
Notes in Philippine History Chapter 4(Part 1)Notes in Philippine History Chapter 4(Part 1)
Notes in Philippine History Chapter 4(Part 1)
Noel Jopson
 
Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 3)
Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 3)Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 3)
Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 3)
Noel Jopson
 
Powerpoint in Philippine History (Chapter 2 part 2)
Powerpoint in Philippine History (Chapter 2 part 2)Powerpoint in Philippine History (Chapter 2 part 2)
Powerpoint in Philippine History (Chapter 2 part 2)
Noel Jopson
 
Notes in Philippine History (Chap. 2 part 1)
Notes in Philippine History (Chap. 2 part 1)Notes in Philippine History (Chap. 2 part 1)
Notes in Philippine History (Chap. 2 part 1)
Noel Jopson
 
Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 1)
Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 1)Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 1)
Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 1)
Noel Jopson
 
Brief historical introduction
Brief historical introductionBrief historical introduction
Brief historical introduction
Noel Jopson
 
Some Philosophical School of Thought
Some Philosophical School of ThoughtSome Philosophical School of Thought
Some Philosophical School of Thought
Noel Jopson
 
Introduction to philosophy
Introduction to philosophyIntroduction to philosophy
Introduction to philosophy
Noel Jopson
 
Notes in Philippine Government and Constitution (Finals)
Notes in Philippine Government and Constitution (Finals)Notes in Philippine Government and Constitution (Finals)
Notes in Philippine Government and Constitution (Finals)
Noel Jopson
 
Branches of Government
Branches of GovernmentBranches of Government
Branches of Government
Noel Jopson
 
The Political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes
The Political philosophy of Thomas HobbesThe Political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes
The Political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes
Noel Jopson
 
Epistemology and the problem of knowledge
Epistemology and the problem of knowledgeEpistemology and the problem of knowledge
Epistemology and the problem of knowledge
Noel Jopson
 
Introduction to Ethics
Introduction to EthicsIntroduction to Ethics
Introduction to Ethics
Noel Jopson
 
Aristotle's Politics (Summary)
Aristotle's Politics (Summary)Aristotle's Politics (Summary)
Aristotle's Politics (Summary)
Noel Jopson
 

More from Noel Jopson (20)

Notes in Philippine History Chapter 5
Notes in Philippine History Chapter 5Notes in Philippine History Chapter 5
Notes in Philippine History Chapter 5
 
Suffrage
SuffrageSuffrage
Suffrage
 
Citizenship
CitizenshipCitizenship
Citizenship
 
Spanish Conquest of the Islands
Spanish Conquest of the IslandsSpanish Conquest of the Islands
Spanish Conquest of the Islands
 
The Spanish Era
The Spanish EraThe Spanish Era
The Spanish Era
 
Notes in Philippine History Chapter 4(Part 1)
Notes in Philippine History Chapter 4(Part 1)Notes in Philippine History Chapter 4(Part 1)
Notes in Philippine History Chapter 4(Part 1)
 
SONA 2011
SONA 2011SONA 2011
SONA 2011
 
Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 3)
Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 3)Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 3)
Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 3)
 
Powerpoint in Philippine History (Chapter 2 part 2)
Powerpoint in Philippine History (Chapter 2 part 2)Powerpoint in Philippine History (Chapter 2 part 2)
Powerpoint in Philippine History (Chapter 2 part 2)
 
Notes in Philippine History (Chap. 2 part 1)
Notes in Philippine History (Chap. 2 part 1)Notes in Philippine History (Chap. 2 part 1)
Notes in Philippine History (Chap. 2 part 1)
 
Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 1)
Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 1)Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 1)
Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 1)
 
Brief historical introduction
Brief historical introductionBrief historical introduction
Brief historical introduction
 
Some Philosophical School of Thought
Some Philosophical School of ThoughtSome Philosophical School of Thought
Some Philosophical School of Thought
 
Introduction to philosophy
Introduction to philosophyIntroduction to philosophy
Introduction to philosophy
 
Notes in Philippine Government and Constitution (Finals)
Notes in Philippine Government and Constitution (Finals)Notes in Philippine Government and Constitution (Finals)
Notes in Philippine Government and Constitution (Finals)
 
Branches of Government
Branches of GovernmentBranches of Government
Branches of Government
 
The Political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes
The Political philosophy of Thomas HobbesThe Political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes
The Political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes
 
Epistemology and the problem of knowledge
Epistemology and the problem of knowledgeEpistemology and the problem of knowledge
Epistemology and the problem of knowledge
 
Introduction to Ethics
Introduction to EthicsIntroduction to Ethics
Introduction to Ethics
 
Aristotle's Politics (Summary)
Aristotle's Politics (Summary)Aristotle's Politics (Summary)
Aristotle's Politics (Summary)
 

Recently uploaded

PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...
PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...
PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...
Faga1939
 
R$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatórios
R$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatóriosR$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatórios
R$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatórios
Maurílio Júnior
 
CaseThe legal victory in the turmeric patent case safeguarded traditional kno...
CaseThe legal victory in the turmeric patent case safeguarded traditional kno...CaseThe legal victory in the turmeric patent case safeguarded traditional kno...
CaseThe legal victory in the turmeric patent case safeguarded traditional kno...
alpha012343210
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Embed-4-1-1.pdf vm ;sdkp[kdp[kpdkpodp;p;j
Embed-4-1-1.pdf vm ;sdkp[kdp[kpdkpodp;p;jEmbed-4-1-1.pdf vm ;sdkp[kdp[kpdkpodp;p;j
Embed-4-1-1.pdf vm ;sdkp[kdp[kpdkpodp;p;j
 
Minnesota Timberwolves Bring Ya Ass T Shirt
Minnesota Timberwolves Bring Ya Ass T ShirtMinnesota Timberwolves Bring Ya Ass T Shirt
Minnesota Timberwolves Bring Ya Ass T Shirt
 
Meta_AI_ads_investigation.pdfldoljjwejolejolol
Meta_AI_ads_investigation.pdfldoljjwejolejololMeta_AI_ads_investigation.pdfldoljjwejolejolol
Meta_AI_ads_investigation.pdfldoljjwejolejolol
 
19052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
19052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf19052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
19052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
Embed-4-3 (1).pdf cvxx'f['df[p'lf][l][fl][fl][][l[
Embed-4-3 (1).pdf cvxx'f['df[p'lf][l][fl][fl][][l[Embed-4-3 (1).pdf cvxx'f['df[p'lf][l][fl][fl][][l[
Embed-4-3 (1).pdf cvxx'f['df[p'lf][l][fl][fl][][l[
 
Dominican American Coalition PAC Executive Summary
Dominican American Coalition PAC Executive SummaryDominican American Coalition PAC Executive Summary
Dominican American Coalition PAC Executive Summary
 
PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...
PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...
PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...
 
Positive Effects Of Social Media On Mental Health
Positive Effects Of Social Media On Mental HealthPositive Effects Of Social Media On Mental Health
Positive Effects Of Social Media On Mental Health
 
israeil_bnetaniahou_panel_report_eng.pdf
israeil_bnetaniahou_panel_report_eng.pdfisraeil_bnetaniahou_panel_report_eng.pdf
israeil_bnetaniahou_panel_report_eng.pdf
 
Have A Complimentary Cheat Sheet, On Us!!!
Have A Complimentary Cheat Sheet, On Us!!!Have A Complimentary Cheat Sheet, On Us!!!
Have A Complimentary Cheat Sheet, On Us!!!
 
21052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
21052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf21052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
21052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
May 2024 - Crypto Market Report_FINAL.pdf
May 2024 - Crypto Market Report_FINAL.pdfMay 2024 - Crypto Market Report_FINAL.pdf
May 2024 - Crypto Market Report_FINAL.pdf
 
Encore portal Project PPt on live portal
Encore portal Project PPt on live portalEncore portal Project PPt on live portal
Encore portal Project PPt on live portal
 
R$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatórios
R$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatóriosR$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatórios
R$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatórios
 
Embed-3-1-1.pdf The ECI direction on April 2, 2024 can be read here:
Embed-3-1-1.pdf  The ECI direction on April 2, 2024 can be read here:Embed-3-1-1.pdf  The ECI direction on April 2, 2024 can be read here:
Embed-3-1-1.pdf The ECI direction on April 2, 2024 can be read here:
 
25052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
25052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf25052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
25052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
23052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
23052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf23052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
23052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
24052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
24052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf24052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
24052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
2024 - Love and Madness - a book about love, madness, heartbreak and politics
2024 - Love and Madness - a book about love, madness, heartbreak and politics2024 - Love and Madness - a book about love, madness, heartbreak and politics
2024 - Love and Madness - a book about love, madness, heartbreak and politics
 
CaseThe legal victory in the turmeric patent case safeguarded traditional kno...
CaseThe legal victory in the turmeric patent case safeguarded traditional kno...CaseThe legal victory in the turmeric patent case safeguarded traditional kno...
CaseThe legal victory in the turmeric patent case safeguarded traditional kno...
 

Propositions

  • 1. Proposition We have learned that proposition is the verbal expression of a judgment. It is a statement in which something is affirmed or denied. There are three general types of propositions: categorical propositions, hypothetical propositions, and modal propositions. Categorical Proposition is one which gives a direct assertion of agreement or disagreement between the subject and the predicate term. Hypothetical Proposition is a kind of proposition that does not declare an unconditional affirmation or denial, but expresses a relation of dependence such as an opposition or a likeness between two clauses. Modal Propositions is a kind of proposition which does not just only affirm or deny the predicate of the subject but also states the manner or mode of in which the predicate is identified. It does not simply declare that the predicate belongs to the subject but how the predicate belongs, or does not belong to the subject. However, the focus of this lesson is more about categorical propositions rather than the other two mentioned. Element and Structure of a Categorical Proposition A categorical proposition contains three elements namely: subject term, predicate term, and copula. The subject term is the object affirmed or denied in the proposition. The predicate term is the quality or attribute affirmed or denied by the subject. The copula is the element that links the subject to the predicate. It is the linking verb in grammar like the “am”, “is”, and “are”. The negated word “not” is part of the copula. Examples: All men are rational No monkeys are birds Some dancers are singers Some basketball players are not tall Quality and Quantity of Propositions The quality of a proposition consists in the nature of the proposition as either affirmative or negative. The proposition is affirmative if there is agreement between the subject term and the predicate term. The proposition is negative if there is disagreement between the subject term and the predicate term. The first and third proposition in the above given example are affirmative, while the second and the fourth proposition are negative. The quality of the proposition consists in the nature of the proposition as either universal or particular. It refers to the denotation or number of individuals or referents to whom the subject term applies. Thus, a proposition is universal, if
  • 2. the subject term is universal. If the subject term is particular, the proposition is particular. In the example given above, the first and second propositions are universal, while the third and fourth examples are particular. In the proposition there are concrete indicators that will tell us the quantity of the proposition. They are called the quantifiers. Universal Quantifiers. All, every, any, whatever, wherever, anything, everything, no, none, nothing, never, and others that are similar to these. Particular Quantifiers. Some, most, several, many, few, at least one, not all, majority and others. Combining the quality and quantity of propositions, we come up with four types of categorical propositions. Four Types of Propositions 1. Universal Affirmative Propositions or “A” Proposition 2. Universal Negative Propositions or “E” Proposition 3. Particular Affirmative Proposition or “I” Proposition 4. Particular Negative Proposition or “O” Proposition Standard Forms A: All S is P E: No S is P I: Some S is P O: Some S is not P A mnemonic device for the four types of proposition is to remember Affirmo and Nego. Following the standard form above, a model statement can be represented as Quantifier + Subject Term + Copula + Predicate Term Distribution of a Term A distributed term is a term of a categorical proposition that is used to refer to every member of a class. If the term is not being used to refer to each and every member of the class then the term is undistributed. Consider the following: A: All birds are winged creature E: No Birds are wingless creature I: Some birds are black things O: Some birds are not black things
  • 3. The chart below represents the distribution of the above statements Proposition Subject Predicate A Refers to all birds Does not refer every member, e.g. bats, flying fish E Refers to all birds by indicating that they are not part of the predicate class Refers to every winged creature by indicating that they are not part of the subject class I Refers only to some birds Refers only to some black things, that is, those which are birds O Refers only to some birds, not all of them Refers to all members of the class, that is, not one of them is in the class referred to as “some bird” Only Universal propositions, either affirmative or negative, distribute their subject terms. Particular propositions, both affirmative and negative, do NOT distribute their subject terms Thus the quantity of any categorical proposition determines whether its subject is distributed! Only Negative propositions, either universal or particular, distribute their predicate terms Affirmative propositions, either universal and particular, do NOT distribute their predicate terms Thus the quality of any categorical proposition determines whether its predicate is distributed! So, here is the key to determining the how categorical propositions distribute their Subjects and Predicate terms: Universal Quantity distributes the Subject term Negative Quality distributes the Predicate term! Quantity, Quality, and Distribution Table Following the discussion on the form, quantity, quality and distribution, the table below summarizes the topic. Proposition Standard Form Quantity Quality Distribution Subject Predicate A All S is P Universal Affirmative Distributed Undistributed E No S is P Universal Negative Distributed Distributed I Some S is P Particular Affirmative Undistributed Undistributed O Some S is not P Particular Negative Undistributed Distributed