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# Logic

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### Logic

1. 1. Presentation of logic: <ul><li>Presented To: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Madam Uzma Rehman </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Presented By: </li></ul><ul><li> Syed Ali Kamran Abidi. 50 Mirza Ali Raza. 90 </li></ul><ul><li> M. Jaffar Tayar. 48 </li></ul><ul><li> Syed Hussain Zain-ul-Abideen. 85 </li></ul>
2. 2. Topic to be described: <ul><li>1.) The Theory of Deduction. </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Categorical Propositions and classes. </li></ul><ul><li>3.) Quality, Quantity and Distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>4.) The Traditional Square of Opposition. </li></ul><ul><li>(Contradictories, Contraries, Subcontraries, Subalternation). </li></ul>
3. 3. 1. The Theory of Deduction: <ul><li>“A deductive argument is one whose premises are claimed to provide conclusive grounds for the truth of its conclusion.” </li></ul><ul><li>Logic is divided into two parts. The first of it is the “classical” or “Aristotelian” Logic. The second is called “Modern” or “Symbolic” Logic. </li></ul>
4. 4. 2. (a) Categorical propositions: <ul><li>Categorical proposition is the base for the Classical Logic. They are called categorical propositions because they are about categories or classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Such propositions affirm or deny that some class S is included in some other class p, completely or partially. </li></ul>
5. 5. There are four types of categorical propositions which are also called Four Fold Scheme: <ul><li>1. A (Inclusion). Universal Affirmative proposition. </li></ul><ul><li>All politicians are liars. </li></ul><ul><li>2. E (Exclusion) Universal Negative proposition. </li></ul><ul><li>No politicians are liars. </li></ul><ul><li>3. I (Partially Inclusion) Particular Affirmative Proposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Some politicians are liars. </li></ul><ul><li>4. O (Partially Exclusion). Particular Negative Proposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Some politicians are not liars. </li></ul>
6. 6. (b) Classes: <ul><li>Classical categories (special kinds) are three: </li></ul><ul><li>Class Inclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Class Exclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Class Partially Inclusion and Exclusion </li></ul>
7. 7. 3. (a) Quality: <ul><li>Quality wise any proposition may be called negative or affirmative. </li></ul><ul><li>If the proposition affirms some class inclusion, whether complete or partial, its quality is affirmative. </li></ul><ul><li>If the proposition denies some class inclusion, whether complete or partial, its quality is negative. </li></ul>
8. 8. (b) Quantity: <ul><li>Quantity wise any proposition is divided into Universal & Particular. </li></ul><ul><li>If the proposition refers to all members of the class designated by its subject term, its quantity is Universal. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus A and E are Universal. </li></ul><ul><li>If the proposition refers only to some members of the class designated by its subject term, its quantity is Particular. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus I and O are Particular. </li></ul>
9. 9. (c) Structure of standard form categorical proposition: <ul><li>The general skeleton of proposition is: </li></ul><ul><li>Quantifier + Subject + Copula + Predicate. </li></ul>
10. 10. (d) Distribution: <ul><li>In distribution we check the class inclusion and exclusion in propositions. </li></ul><ul><li>A: </li></ul><ul><li>A distribute its subject only. </li></ul><ul><li>E: </li></ul><ul><li>E distributes its subject as well as predicate. </li></ul><ul><li>I: </li></ul><ul><li>In I Both terms are not distributed. </li></ul><ul><li>O: </li></ul><ul><li>O distributes its predicate only. </li></ul>
11. 11. The Traditional Square of Opposition: The categorical propositions having same subject and predicate terms may differ in quality & quantity or in both. This differing is called “Opposition”. A Contraries E Subalternation Contradictories Subalternation I Sub Contraries O
12. 12. Contraries: <ul><li>Two propositions in contraries both cannot be true or false or truth and falsity of one entails on the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Relation b/w A and E is called contraries. </li></ul>Example: A : All judges are lawyers. E : No judges are lawyers. A E
13. 13. Subcontraries: <ul><li>Both cannot be false both can be true. </li></ul><ul><li>Relation b/w I and O is called Subcontraries. </li></ul>I O Example: I : Some judges are lawyers. O : Some judges are not lawyers.
14. 14. Subalternation: <ul><li>If universal is true than particular must be true. If universal is false than particular may be undecided. </li></ul><ul><li>Relation b/w A & I and E & O is called Subalternation. </li></ul>A I E O Example: A: All teachers are idealistic persons. I: Some teachers are idealistic persons. E: No teachers are idealistic persons O: Some teachers are not idelisti
15. 15. Contradictories: <ul><li>Both can not be true and both cannot be false. </li></ul><ul><li>Relation b/w A & O and E & I is called Contradictories. </li></ul>A : All diamonds are precious stones. O : Some diamonds are not precious stones. E : No diamonds are precious stones. I : Some diamonds are precious stones. A O E I
16. 16. Any Questions?
17. 17. THANK YOU