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Logic hand outs#4

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Logic hand outs#4

  1. 1. Standard Categorical Proposition Proposition <ul><li>external sign of judgment </li></ul><ul><li>provides reason, explanation to support a judgment made </li></ul><ul><li>expresses an idea, explanation feeling or emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>can be analyzed as either true or false </li></ul>definition <ul><li>a statement which affirms or denies something about a reality or object </li></ul>
  2. 2. Elements of a Proposition Subject term <ul><li>the point under discussion </li></ul><ul><li>the central focus or the main idea or the content in a proposition </li></ul><ul><li>term to be affirmed or denied </li></ul>Predicate term <ul><li>tells or describes something about the main idea (or the subject term) in a proposition </li></ul><ul><li>that w/c is to be affirmed or denied of the subject </li></ul>Copula <ul><li>the connector b/w the subject & the predicate term; generally using the verb “to be” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Kinds of a Proposition Categorical <ul><li>proposition by which the affirmation or denial b/w two concepts is expressed in an Absolute, Immediate, Direct or Unconditional manner </li></ul>Hypothetical <ul><li>proposition by which the affirmation or denial b/w two concepts is expressed in an Indirect & Conditional manner </li></ul>If man can think then he is rational. Mangyans are the minorities from Mindoro.
  4. 4. Kinds of hypothetical Proposition Conditional <ul><li>contains antecedent & consequent statements </li></ul>If man can think then he is rational Disjunctive <ul><li>presents alternatives but one of these alternative will prove to be true & the other will be false </li></ul>Either you love me or you hate me
  5. 5. Kinds of hypothetical Proposition Conjunctive <ul><li>denies the simultaneous possibility of two alternatives </li></ul>Man can not be rational & irrational at the same time
  6. 6. 4 Standard forms of C.P. <ul><li>All government officials are natural-born citizens </li></ul><ul><li>No involuntary act is a conscious act </li></ul><ul><li>Several movie directors are passionate </li></ul><ul><li>Not all commentators are objective </li></ul>
  7. 7. Quantity or Extension of the Proposition The quantity of the proposition can be determined by checking the quantifiers used in each proposition Universal <ul><li>if it implies each & every member of the class or if it signifies general expression & ideas </li></ul><ul><li>common quantifiers are “all, every, no, no one, nobody, nothing, none, whoever, whenever, whichever, whomever, whatever, whenever” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Singular <ul><li>if it refers to something definite or refers to only one. </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns, personal pronouns, collective nouns are example of singular quantifier </li></ul>Particular <ul><li>if it pertains to a part of a whole or less than the whole, or something definite </li></ul><ul><li>indefinite pronouns are most commonly used particular quantifiers like “many, several. Most, few, almost all, not all, some, part, etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Quality of the Proposition The quality of proposition is determined by the quality of the copula Affirmative <ul><li>whenever the predicate term accepts something of the subject term </li></ul>Negative <ul><li>whenever the predicate term negates or denies something of the subject term </li></ul>All roses are flowers . A squash is not an eggplant .
  10. 10. Proposition Quantity Quality A Universal or Singular Affirmative E Universal or Singular Negative I Particular Affirmative O Particular Negative
  11. 11. Quantity or Extension of the Predicate <ul><li>Is entirely different from the quantity of the proposition </li></ul><ul><li>to determined the quantity of the predicate, the point of reference will be the quality of the proposition, whether affirmative or affirmative </li></ul>
  12. 12. Particular <ul><li>if the quality of the proposition is affirmative , the quantity of the predicate is automatically particular </li></ul><ul><li>if the quality of the proposition is negative , the quantity of the predicate is automatically universal </li></ul>Universal <ul><li>This modern technology is the solution to our problem </li></ul><ul><li>Most ideas were not expressed </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>All government officials are natural-born citizens </li></ul><ul><li>No involuntary act is a conscious act </li></ul><ul><li>Several movie directors are passionate </li></ul><ul><li>Not all commentators are objective </li></ul>Subject term Predicate term Quantity of proposition Quality of the Prop. Symbol Quantity of the predicate Government officials Natural-born citizens Universal Affirmative A Particular Involuntary act Conscious act Universal Negative E Universal Movie directors Passionate Particular Affirmative I Particular Commentators Objective Particular Negative O Universal
  14. 14. <ul><li>All affirmative propositions share their extensions to the subject terms and by doing so the predicate gives some of its parts to the subject </li></ul><ul><li>subject is drawn to the extension of the predicate </li></ul><ul><li>In Negative propositions the subject is excluded from the extension of the predicate </li></ul><ul><li>No relationship exists b/w the subject and the predicate </li></ul>

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