Chapter 3: Pre-Colonial Philippines<br />1. Cultural Evolution of the Early Filipinos<br /><ul><li>Historians believed that during the Pleistocene epoch, the first settlers of the Philippines came from the present-day islands of the Malay Archipelago.
Paleolithic hunters may have followed the herds of wild animal across these land bridges to the Philippine Islands.
Austro-Melanesian people who are distinctively small with dark skin and curly brown hair were believed by some western historians as the aborigines of the Philippines.
The Mainland Origin Hypothesis by Peter Bellwood and K.C. Chang maintains that the early inhabitants originated from South China and Taiwan.
The Island Origin Hypothesis by Wilhelm Solheim II on the other hand believes that the prehistoric people originated and dispersed from an island in Southeast Asia.
Culture may be associated with manufactured materials, for these are products of human behavior.
The Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Period is the ear of crude stone tools and weapons.
Man principal way of adaptation to the environment was by hunting.
Kinilaw was believed to be the earliest method of preparing fish for consumption where vinegar and lime juice enhances the taste of the fish.
The New Stone Age or Neolithic Period was characterized by new types of stone tools.
It is otherwise known as Agricultural Revolution where root crops like taro (gabi), yam (ubi) were among the important crops.
Arabic alphabet, Islamic holiday, and Arabic arts like singkil.
Sarimanok, an indigenous bird motif.</li></ul>2. Traditional Filipino Communities<br /><ul><li>Barangay is the unit of social organization with the broader political, economic, and religious features than the family.
Sandugu or blood compact is a ritual which symbolizes unity and oneness among the people.
Social Classes during the early Filipino communities: