Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 3)


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Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 3)

  1. 1. Chapter 3: Pre-Colonial Philippines<br />1. Cultural Evolution of the Early Filipinos<br /><ul><li>Historians believed that during the Pleistocene epoch, the first settlers of the Philippines came from the present-day islands of the Malay Archipelago.
  2. 2. Paleolithic hunters may have followed the herds of wild animal across these land bridges to the Philippine Islands.
  3. 3. Austro-Melanesian people who are distinctively small with dark skin and curly brown hair were believed by some western historians as the aborigines of the Philippines.
  4. 4. The Mainland Origin Hypothesis by Peter Bellwood and K.C. Chang maintains that the early inhabitants originated from South China and Taiwan.
  5. 5. The Island Origin Hypothesis by Wilhelm Solheim II on the other hand believes that the prehistoric people originated and dispersed from an island in Southeast Asia.
  6. 6. Culture may be associated with manufactured materials, for these are products of human behavior.
  7. 7. The Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Period is the ear of crude stone tools and weapons.
  8. 8. Man principal way of adaptation to the environment was by hunting.
  9. 9. Kinilaw was believed to be the earliest method of preparing fish for consumption where vinegar and lime juice enhances the taste of the fish.
  10. 10. The New Stone Age or Neolithic Period was characterized by new types of stone tools.
  11. 11. It is otherwise known as Agricultural Revolution where root crops like taro (gabi), yam (ubi) were among the important crops.
  12. 12. Rice farming was also developed.
  13. 13. The discovery of fire made a great impact in the lifestyle of people.
  14. 14. People were able to grill and boil food, practice slash-and-burn (kaingin), and pottery and jar making through the process of kilning.
  15. 15. Jars are also used as burial coffins as evidenced by the Manunggul jar of Palawan.
  16. 16. Other jar and potteries include palayok, banga, and tapayan.
  17. 17. Metal Age refers to the time in the development of human culture where tools and weapons were made of metal, which gradually replaced stone tools.
  18. 18. The use of jewelry as an ancient art began in this period.
  19. 19. Industries like metal working, pottery making, glassmaking, and tie-and-dye weaving.
  20. 20. The Age of Contact is the period of trading relations with neighboring islands, mostly by Asian traders.
  21. 21. The common sharing of culture like religion and writing was facilitated by intensive internal trade, principally between riverine and coastal communities.
  22. 22. Some Malayan influences
  23. 23. The barangay system.
  24. 24. In language, words such as: kalan, pinggan, biyaya, tunay, aral and pagsamba.
  25. 25. Some Hindu influences
  26. 26. In religion, the term Bathala referring to the chief god.
  27. 27. The belief that the universe is filled with good and bad spirits.
  28. 28. The use sipol, a pointed iron instrument used in writing.
  29. 29. The Laguna Copperplate Inscription.
  30. 30. Oral and written literature such as bugtong, salawikain, and awit.
  31. 31. Bigaykaya (dowry) and placing of fresh flower garland around the neck of a visitor.
  32. 32. Superstitious belief.
  33. 33. Industries like boat building, weaving of cotton clothes, and metalwork.
  34. 34. Borrowed words from the Sanskrit language such as sandata, maharlika, saksi, tala and others.
  35. 35. Some Chinese influences
  36. 36. In language, particularly Tagalog, reveals a good number of loaned words like ate, katay, hukbo, pansit, sangla, lumpiya, and kuya.
  37. 37. Use of umbrella, porcelain, gongs, lead, fans, and bakya.
  38. 38. Wearing of white dress when mourning and hiring of professional mourners.
  39. 39. Manufacture of gunpowder and blasting of firecrackers on New Year’s Eve.
  40. 40. Mining methods and Metallurgy.
  41. 41. Parental-arrangement (in marriage).
  42. 42. Haggling between the merchant and buyer.
  43. 43. Some Arab influences
  44. 44. The sultanate political system.
  45. 45. The religion of Islam.
  46. 46. Five Pillars of Islam
  47. 47. Shahada – the profession of faith
  48. 48. Salat – the ritual prayer
  49. 49. Zakat – the practice of giving alms
  50. 50. Hajj – the pilgrimage to Mecca
  51. 51. Sawm - fasting
  52. 52. Arabic alphabet, Islamic holiday, and Arabic arts like singkil.
  53. 53. Sarimanok, an indigenous bird motif.</li></ul>2. Traditional Filipino Communities<br /><ul><li>Barangay is the unit of social organization with the broader political, economic, and religious features than the family.
  54. 54. Sandugu or blood compact is a ritual which symbolizes unity and oneness among the people.
  55. 55. Social Classes during the early Filipino communities:
  56. 56. Datu – the ruler of the barangay
  57. 57. Maharlika – the aristocracy
  58. 58. Timawa – the common class
  59. 59. Alipin – the dependent class classified into namamahay and sagigilid.
  60. 60. The datu holds executive, judicial, legislative, administrative, and military power.
  61. 61. One becomes a datu war exploits, possession of great wisdom, influence, and wealth.
  62. 62. Tattooes are regarded as
  63. 63. The ancient Filipinos practiced a form of spirit and nature worship. This is known as animism.
  64. 64. Early Filipinos believed in other spirits called anitos or diwata who were either benevolent or malevolent.
  65. 65. The people appeased them so that they would bring good fortune and heal the sick members of the society.
  66. 66. This spirits are offered sacrifices in the form food, wine, pigs, and gold. 
  67. 67. Native dwellers lived in houses made of wood and bamboo, roofed by nipa palm leaves are called bahay kubo.
  68. 68. Pets like cat, dog and monkeys were kept for their beneficial effects.