- 1. Unit 1 Properties of Fluids, Fluid Statics, Pressure Measurement
- 2. A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension forces.
- 3. INTRODUCTION Property: Any characteristic of a system. • Some familiar properties are pressure P, temperature T, volume V, and mass m. • Properties are considered to be either intensive or extensive. • Intensive properties: Those that are independent of the mass of a system, such as temperature, pressure, and density. • Extensive properties: Those whose values depend on the size— or extent—of the system. • Specific properties: Extensive properties per unit mass. Criterion to differentiate intensive and extensive properties.
- 4. Continuum • In a fluid system, the intermolecular spacing between the fluid particles is treated as negligible and the entire fluid mass system is assumed as continuous distribution of mass, which is known as continuum. • The continuum idealization allows us to treat properties as point functions and to assume the properties vary continually in space with no jump discontinuities. • This idealization is valid as long as the size of the system we deal with is large relative to the space between the molecules. Despite the relatively large gaps between molecules, a substance can be treated as a continuum because of the very large number of molecules even in an extremelysmall volume.
- 5. • The continuous deformation of fluid under the action of shear stress causes a flow. Figure below shows a shear stress (𝜏) is applied at any location in a fluid, the element 011' which is initially at rest, will move to 022', then to 033' and to 044' and soon. • Any matter is composed of several molecules continue concept assumes a continuous distribution of mass within the matter with no empty space or voids.
- 6. DENSITY AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY Density / Mass Density (ρ): It is the mass of the matter occupied in unit volume at a standard temperature and pressure. It is denoted by ρ Matter Mass density,ρ(kg/m3) Air 1.2 Water 1000 Mercury 13600 Steel 7850 Wood 600
- 7. Specific weight: The weight of a unit volume of a substance. Specific volume (Vₛ ): Volume occupied by unit mass of fluid Matter Specific weight; ɣ= ρg Air 11.77 N/m3 Water 9.81 kN/m3
- 8. Specific gravity (S) or relative density: It is the ratio of specific weight (or mass density) of a fluid to the specific weight (or mass density) of a standard fluid at a specified temperature. (Usually water at 4°C)
- 9. Example 1: Three liters of petrol weighs 23.7 N. Calculate the mass density, specific weight, specific volume and specific gravity of petrol. Sol. :
- 10. Viscosity: A property that represents the internal resistance of a fluid to motion or the “fluidity”. The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its “resistance to deformation.” Viscosity is due to the internal frictional force that develops between different layers of fluids as they are forced to move relative to each other. Drag force: The force a flowing fluid exerts on a body in the flow direction. The magnitude of this force depends, in part, on viscosity. A fluid moving relative to a body exerts a drag force on the body, partly because of friction caused by viscosity.
- 11. Suppose one layer of fluid is moving with respect to the other layer by a velocity = du and vertical gap between two layers be dy. Upper layer which is moving faster tries to draw the lower slowly moving layer along with it. Similarly, as a reaction to this, the lower layer tries to retard the upper one. Thus there exists a shear between the two layers as shown below.
- 12. Dimensions and Units: Dynamic Viscosity (µ):
- 13. Kinematic Viscosity (v): Variation of Viscosity with Temperature: Increase in temperature cause a decrease in the viscosity of a liquid whereas viscosity of gases increases with temperature growth
- 14. Newton's law of viscosity: The fluid for which rate of deformation is linearly proportional to shear stress. Thus, for Newtonian fluid viscosity
- 15. Example 2 : A plate 0.05 mm distant from a fixed plate moves at 1.2 m/sec and requires a shear stress of 2.2 N/m2 to maintain this velocity. Find the viscosity of the fluid between the plates. Solution:
- 16. Newtonian fluids: • Fluid which obeys Newton's law of viscosity are known as Newtonian fluid. • Fluids for which the rate of deformation is proportional to the shear stress. The rate of deformation (velocity gradient) of a Newtonian fluid is proportional to shear stress, and the constant of proportionality is the viscosity.
- 17. Non-Newtonian Fluid: •These do not follow Newton's law of viscosity. The relation between shear stress and velocity gradient is where A and B are constants depending upon type of fluid and condition of flow. Variation of shear stress with the rate of deformation for Newtonian and non- Newtonian fluids (the slope of a curve at a point is the apparent viscosity of the fluid at that point).
- 18. • The study of Non-Newtonian fluid is knows as Rheology. 1. For Dilatant Fluids: n > 1 and B = 0, Ex. Butter, Quick sand, Rice starch, Sugar in H2O 2. For Pseudoplastic Fluids: n < 1 and B = 0 Ex. Paper pulp, Rubber solution, Lipsticks, Paints, Blood, Polymetric solutions, milk, etc. 3. For Bingham Plastic Fluids: n = 1 and B ≠ 0 Ex. Sewage sludge, Drilling mud, Tooth paste, Gel. These fluids always have certain minimum shear stress before they yield. 4. For Thixotropic Fluids: n < 1 and B≠0 Viscosity increases with time. Ex. Printers ink and Enamels. 5. For Rheopectic Fluids: n> 1 and B ≠ 0 Viscosity decreases with time Ex. Gypsum solution in water and Bentonite solution.
- 19. SURFACE TENSION • Liquid droplets behave like small balloons filled with the liquid on a solid surface, and the surface of the liquid acts like a stretched elastic membrane under tension. • The pulling force that causes this tension acts parallel to the surface and is due to the attractive forces between the molecules of the liquid. • The magnitude of this force per unit length is called surface tension (or coefficient of surface tension) and is usually expressed in the unit N/m. • This effect is also called surface energy [per unit area] and is expressed in the equivalent unit of N.m/m2.
- 20. Attractive forces acting on a liquid molecule at the surface and deep inside the liquid. Stretching a liquid film with a U- shaped wire, and the forces acting on the movable wire of length b. Surface tension: The work done per unit increase in the surface area of the liquid.
- 21. The free-body diagram of half a droplet or air bubble and half a soap bubble
- 22. Surface Tension on a liquid jet
- 23. Example 2
- 25. Capillary effect: The rise or fall of a liquid in a small-diameter tube inserted into the liquid. Capillaries: Such narrow tubes or confined flow channels. The capillary effect is partially responsible for the rise of water to the top of tall trees. Meniscus: The curved free surface of a liquid in a capillary tube. The strength of the capillary effect is quantified by the contact (or wetting) angle, defined as the angle that the tangent to the liquid surface makes with the solid surface at the point of contact.
- 26. The capillary rise of water and the capillary fall of mercury in a small diameter glass tube. Capillary rise is inversely proportional to the radius of the tube and density of the liquid. The contact angle for wetting and nonwetting fluids.
- 27. The forces acting on a liquid column that has risen in a tube due to the capillary effect. (1) (2) (3) On equating eq. (1) and (2) As angle θ between fluid and glass is very less assume θ as 0 , so Cosθ will be 1
- 28. Expression for capillary fall The value of θ for mercury is 128 h
- 29. Example 3
- 30. Example 4
- 32. 32 Objectives • Determine the variation of pressure in a fluid at rest • Calculate pressure using various kinds of manometers • Calculate the forces exerted by a fluid at rest on plane or curved submerged surfaces. • Analyze the stability of floating and submerged bodies. • Analyze the rigid-body motion of fluids in containers during linear acceleration or rotation.
- 33. 33 ■ PRESSURE The normal stress (or “pressure”) on the feet of a chubby person is much greater than on the feet of a slim person. Some basic pressure gages. Pressure: A normal force exerted by a fluid per unit area
- 34. 34 Absolute pressure: The actual pressure at a given position. It is measured relative to absolute vacuum (i.e., absolute zero pressure). Gage pressure: The difference between the absolute pressure and the local atmospheric pressure. Most pressure-measuring devices are calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere, and so they indicate gage pressure. Vacuum pressures: Pressures below atmospheric pressure. Throughout this text, the pressure P will denote absolute pressure unless specified otherwise.
- 35. 35 40 kPa 100 kPa 100 − 40 = 60 kPa
- 36. 36 Pascal law Pressure or intensity of a pressure at a point in a static fluid is equal in all directions
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- 38. 38 Pressure at a Point Pressure is a scalar quantity, not a vector; the pressure at a point in a fluid is the same in all directions. Pressure is the compressive force per unit area but it is not a vector. Pressure at any point in a fluid is the same in all directions. Pressure has magnitude but not a specific direction, and thus it is a scalar quantity.
- 39. 39 Variation of Pressure with Depth The pressure of a fluid at rest increases with depth (as a result of added weight since more fluid rest on deeper layer).
- 40. 40 When the variation of density with elevation is known Free-body diagram of a rectangular fluid element in equilibrium.
- 41. 41 In a room filled with a gas, the variation of pressure with height is negligible. Pressure in a liquid at rest increases linearly with distance from the free surface.
- 42. 42 The pressure is the same at all points on a horizontal plane in a given fluid regardless of geometry, provided that the points are interconnected by the same fluid.
- 43. 43 Pascal’s law: The pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the pressure throughout by the same amount. Lifting of a large weight by a small force by the application of Pascal’s law. The area ratio A2/A1 is called the ideal mechanical advantage of the hydraulic lift.
- 44. 44 The Barometer • Atmospheric pressure is measured by a device called a barometer; thus, the atmospheric pressure is often referred to as the barometric pressure. • A frequently used pressure unit is the standard atmosphere, which is defined as the pressure produced by a column of mercury 760 mm in height at 0°C (Hg = 13,595 kg/m3) under standard gravitational acceleration (g = 9.807 m/s2). The basic barometer. The length or the cross- sectional area of the tube has no effect on the height of the fluid column of a barometer, provided that the tube diameter is large enough to avoid surface tension (capillary) effects. ■ PRESSURE MEASUREMENT DEVICES
- 45. 45 At high altitudes, a car engine generates less power and a person gets less oxygen because of the lower density of air.
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- 49. 51 The Manometer In stacked-up fluid layers, the pressure change across a fluid layer of density and height h is gh. The basic manometer. It is commonly used to measure small and moderate pressure differences. A manometer contains one or more fluids such as mercury, water, alcohol, or oil.
- 50. 52 1. 1. Piezometer 2. U-tube manometer
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- 54. 56 Measuring the pressure drop across a flow section or a flow device by a differential manometer. Differential manometer
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- 57. 61 Other Pressure Measurement Devices Various types of Bourdon tubes used to measure pressure. • Bourdon tube: Consists of a hollow metal tube bent like a hook whose end is closed and connected to a dial indicator needle. • Pressure transducers: Use various techniques to convert the pressure effect to an electrical effect such as a change in voltage, resistance, or capacitance. • Pressure transducers are smaller and faster, and they can be more sensitive, reliable, and precise than their mechanical counterparts. • Strain-gage pressure transducers: Work by having a diaphragm deflect between two chambers open to the pressure inputs. • Piezoelectric transducers: Also called solid- state pressure transducers, work on the principle that an electric potential is generated in a crystalline substance when it is subjected to mechanical pressure.
- 58. 62 3–3 ■ INTRODUCTION TO FLUID STATICS Fluid statics: Deals with problems associated with fluids at rest. The fluid can be either gaseous or liquid. Hydrostatics: When the fluid is a liquid. Aerostatics: When the fluid is a gas. In fluid statics, there is no relative motion between adjacent fluid layers, and thus there are no shear (tangential) stresses in the fluid trying to deform it. The only stress we deal with in fluid statics is the normal stress, which is the pressure, and the variation of pressure is due only to the weight of the fluid. The topic of fluid statics has significance only in gravity fields. The design of many engineering systems such as water dams and liquid storage tanks requires the determination of the forces acting on the surfaces using fluid statics.
- 59. 63 3–4 ■ HYDROSTATIC FORCES ON SUBMERGED PLANE SURFACES Hoover Dam. A plate, such as a gate valve in a dam, the wall of a liquid storage tank, or the hull of a ship at rest, is subjected to fluid pressure distributed over its surface when exposed to a liquid. On a plane surface, the hydrostatic forces form a system of parallel forces, and we often need to determine the magnitude of the force and its point of application, which is called the center of pressure. When analyzing hydrostatic forces on submerged surfaces, the atmospheric pressure can be subtracted for simplicity when it acts on both sides of the structure.
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- 66. 70 The centroid and the centroidal moments of inertia for some common geometries.
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- 68. 72 The pressure at the centroid of a surface is equivalent to the average pressure on the surface. The resultant force acting on a plane surface is equal to the product of the pressure at the centroid of the surface and the surface area, and its line of action passes through the center of pressure.
- 69. 73 Hydrostatic force on an inclined plane surface completely submerged in a liquid.
- 70. 76 Special Case: Submerged Rectangular Plate Hydrostatic force acting on the top surface of a submerged tilted rectangular plate.
- 71. 77 Hydrostatic force acting on the top surface of a submerged vertical rectangular plate. Hydrostatic force acting on the top surface of a submerged horizontal rectangular plate.
- 72. 80 3–5 ■ HYDROSTATIC FORCES ON SUBMERGED CURVED SURFACES Determination of the hydrostatic force acting on a submerged curved surface. W = ρgV α tan α = FV/FH
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- 77. 85 When a curved surface is above the liquid, the weight of the liquid and the vertical component of the hydrostatic force act in the opposite directions. The hydrostatic force acting on a circular surface always passes through the center of the circle since the pressure forces are normal to the surface and they all pass through the center.
- 78. 90 ■ BUOYANCY AND STABILITY
- 79. 91 Buoyant force: The upward force a fluid exerts on a body immersed in it. The buoyant force is caused by the increase of pressure with depth in a fluid. A flat plate of uniform thickness h submerged in a liquid parallel to the free surface. The buoyant force acting on the plate is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the plate. For a fluid with constant density, the buoyant force is independent of the distance of the body from the free surface. It is also independent of the density of the solid body.
- 80. 92 Archimedes’ principle: The buoyant force acting on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body, and it acts upward through the centroid of the displaced volume.
- 81. 93 The buoyant forces acting on a solid body submerged in a fluid and on a fluid body of the same shape at the same depth are identical. The buoyant force FB acts upward through the centroid C of the displaced volume and is equal in magnitude to the weight W of the displaced fluid, but is opposite in direction. For a solid of uniform density, its weight Ws also acts through the centroid, but its magnitude is not necessarily equal to that of the fluid it displaces. (Here Ws > W and thus Ws > FB; this solid body would sink.)
- 82. 94 For floating bodies, the weight of the entire body must be equal to the buoyant force, which is the weight of the fluid whose volume is equal to the volume of the submerged portion of the floating body: A solid body dropped into a fluid will sink, float, or remain at rest at any point in the fluid, depending on its average density relative to the density of the fluid.
- 83. 99 Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies For floating bodies such as ships, stability is an important consideration for safety. Stability is easily understood by analyzing a ball on the floor.
- 84. 100 An immersed neutrally buoyant body is (a) stable if the center of gravity, G is directly below the center of buoyancy, B of the body, (b) neutrally stable if G and B are coincident, and (c) unstable if G is directly above B. A floating body possesses vertical stability, while an immersed neutrally buoyant body is neutrally stable since it does not return to its original position after a disturbance.
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- 86. 102 When the center of gravity G of an immersed neutrally buoyant body is not vertically aligned with the center of buoyancy B of the body, it is not in an equilibrium state and would rotate to its stable state, even without any disturbance. A boat can tilt to some max angle without capsizing but beyond that angle, it overturns. E.g: a ball in a trough between two hills is stable for small disturbances, but unstable for large disturbances.
- 87. 103 A floating body is stable if the body is bottom-heavy and thus the center of gravity G is below the centroid B of the body, or if the metacenter M is above point G. However, the body is unstable if point M is below point G.
- 88. 104 Metacentric height GM: The distance between the center of gravity G and the metacenter M—the intersection point of the lines of action of the buoyant force through the body before and after rotation. The length of the metacentric height GM above G is a measure of the stability: the larger it is, the more stable is the floating body.
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- 90. 106 3–7 ■ FLUIDS IN RIGID-BODY MOTION Pressure at a given point has the same magnitude in all directions, and thus it is a scalar function. In this section we obtain relations for the variation of pressure in fluids moving like a solid body with or without acceleration in the absence of any shear stresses (i.e., no motion between fluid layers relative to each other). Newton’s 2nd law of motion Net surface force:
- 91. 107 Expressing in vector form: i, j, k = unit vectors in x,y,z directions Pressure gradient From Newton’s 2nd law of motion, δF = δma = ρ dx dy dz . a Therefore, Expressing in scalar form in three orthogonal directions; Remember, m = ρ V Body force,
- 92. 108 Special Case 1: Fluids at Rest For fluids at rest or moving on a straight path at constant velocity, all components of acceleration are zero, and the relations reduce to The pressure remains constant in any horizontal direction (P is independent of x and y) and varies only in the vertical direction as a result of gravity [and thus P = P(z)]. These relations are applicable for both compressible and incompressible fluids.
- 93. 109 Special Case 2: Free Fall of a Fluid Body A freely falling body accelerates under the influence of gravity. When the air resistance is negligible, the acceleration of the body equals the gravitational acceleration, and acceleration in any horizontal direction is zero. Therefore, ax = ay = 0 and az = -g. The effect of acceleration on the pressure of a liquid during free fall and upward acceleration.
- 94. 110 Acceleration on a Straight Path Rigid-body motion of a liquid in a linearly accelerating tank. Example: a container partially filled with a liquid, moving on straight path with constant acceleration. ay = 0, then Equation 3-43 reduced to: Therefore: Taking point 1 to be origin (x1 = 0, z1 = 0),
- 95. 111 Lines of constant pressure (which are the projections of the surfaces of constant pressure on the xz-plane) in a linearly accelerating liquid. Also shown is the vertical rise. zs = z-coordinate of liquid’s free surface By taking P1 = P2, Setting dP = 0, (isobars)
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- 98. 114 Rotation in a Cylindrical Container Consider a vertical cylindrical container partially filled with a liquid. The container is now rotated about its axis at a constant angular velocity of . After initial transients, the liquid will move as a rigid body together with the container. There is no deformation, and thus there can be no shear stress, and every fluid particle in the container moves with the same angular velocity. Rigid-body motion of a liquid in a rotating vertical cylindrical container. Equations of motion for rotating fluid; Integrating:
- 99. 115 The distance of free surface from the bottom of container at radius r Volume of paraboloid formed by the free surface Original volume of fluid in container (without rotation)
- 100. 116 Note that at a fixed radius, the pressure varies hydrostatically in the vertical direction, as in a fluid at rest. For a fixed vertical distance z, the pressure varies with the square of the radial distance r, increasing from the centerline toward the outer edge. In any horizontal plane, the pressure difference between the center and edge of the container of radius R is integrating: Taking point 1 to be the origin (r1=0, z1=0);
- 101. 117 (Eq. 3-61)
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- 103. 119 Summary • Pressure • Pressure Measurement Devices • Introduction to Fluid Statics • Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane Surfaces • Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Curved Surfaces • Buoyancy and Stability • Fluids in Rigid-Body Motion