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Production Technology of
BRINJAL
Presented by:
Janaharshini R
TNAU-CBE
 Scientific Name – Solanum melongena
 Chromosome Number – 2n =2X = 24 &
X=12
 Family - Solanaceae (Nightshade Family)
 Genome Size = ~ 1133 mbp (2013)
 Other Names – Egg Plant / Aubergine
(French Name)/ Poor man’s Cusp
 Day Neutral Plant
 Bitterness  SOLASODINE -
Glycoalkaloids (0.4-0.5 mg per 100 g of
fresh weight)
BRINJAL
BRINJAL
 Brinjal fruit contains Vitamin B and Iodine (7mg/Kg)
 Vitamin C – Dark Puple Brinjal > white Skin.
 White Brinjal – Diabetes Patients (Less Carbohydrate and More Fiber)
Purple Variety – Higher Copper Content , Polyphenol oxidase activity and
Amino acid content.
Green Cultivars – Highest in Iron and Catalase activity
 De Cholestrolizing properties of brinjal is due to presence of PUFA “
Linoleic and Linolenic ” which present in flesh and Seed . Mg and K
salts helps in decholestrolizing action.
 Dry Brinjal  Goitrogenic principles
ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION
 Originated in Bengal Plains of India (Martin, 1979)
 Indo Burma region (Vavilov, 1928).Introduced to rest of the world from India.
 Crop is distributed in south and south East Asia, southern Europe, China and
Japan.
Map showing the origin and migration of eggplant to the U.S.
AREAAND PRODUCTION
 India is the Second largest producer of brinjal next to China.
West Bengal > Odisha >Gujarat > Bihar >Madhya Pradesh
Area = 0.72 m ha (2018-19, NHB Database)
Production = 12.68 m tonnes (2018-19, NHB Database)
Growing districts in Tamil Nadu – Vellore, Salem, Krishnagiri,
Dindigul, Coimbatore
 Annual herbaceous plant
 Errect, Compact and well branched plant
 Leaves are large, simple, lobed and hypo
pubescent in nature
 Inflorescence is solitary or cluster of 2-5
flowers (CYMOSE)
 Flowers – actinomorphic, hypogynous,
hermaphrodite with pistil surrounded by the
stamens. White or Pinkish in colour depending
on the cultivars
 Calyx – 5 sepals , United, Pubescent
 Corolla – Pinkish/ White colour , 5 petals,
Gamopetalous
 Androecium – 5-6 stamens, small filaments,
Large anthers(Yellow) , Stamens surrounding
the Pistil.
 Anther dehiscence is Longitudinal
 Gynoecium – Carpels are united, Ovary
Superior – Two Locular with Multi ovules
 Fruit - Berry
BOTANY
Inflorescence of Brinjal
BOTANY
DIFFERENT SPECIES IN BRINJAL
◾ Solanum melongena
◾ S. incanum (Progenitor, R to Fusarium wilt)
◾ S. integrifolium (R to Fusarium wilt, little leaf)
◾ S.indicum – Brihati-(R to Fusarium wilt)
◾ S. nigrum- Manithakkali- (R to Fusarium wilt, root knot, little leaf)
◾ S.auriculatum (resistant to leaf curl disease)
◾ S. torvum- Sundaikkai-(R to Fusarium wilt)
◾ S.xanthocarpum -Kandankathiri
◾ S.maccani
◾ S.pubescence – Kaattu Sundaikaai (Thornless Turkey Berry)
◾ S.robustum
IMPORTANT BRINJAL SPECIES
DIFFERENT SPECIES IN BRINJAL
S. incanum S. integrifolium
(Pumpkin on a stick)
S.indicum (Brihati)
S. nigrum S. torvum S.xanthocarpum
BOTANY
Androecium of Brinjal
Gynoecium of Brinjal
Longitudinal Section of Brinjal
 Heterostyly is common feature in multi-flower cymes except in bunchy
type cultivars.
 Four type of flower based on style length is given by Krishnamurthy and
Subramaniam in 1954.
HETEROSTYLY IN BRINJAL
HETEROSTYLY IN BRINJAL
Types Fruit Setting(%)
1.Long Styled 70 - 86.7
2.Medium Styled 12.5 - 55.6
3.Pseudo - Short styled Nil
4. Short styled Nil
Highest fruit set is found when the stigma is above the stamens.
TAXONOMY
All the present day cultivars belong to three varieties of equal rank of the
species. These varieties are
(a) esculentum, which includes round and egg-shaped cultivars;
(b) serpentinum has long, slender types and
(c) depressum includes all early and dwarf brinjal cultivars.
Singh (1972) cited four main botanical varieties, namely
(1) Solanum melongena var. incanum (Linn.) Kuntze (Syn. S. incanum Linn.,
S. coagulans (Forsk);
(2) S. melongena var. melongena (Syn. S. melongena var. esculenta Nees);
(3) S. melongena var. depressum Bailey
(4) S. melongena var. serpentinum (Desf.) Bailey (Syn. S. serpentinum Desf.).
Filov (1940) classified both cultivated and wild forms of brinjal on agro-ecological
basis.He grouped them into five sub-species and stated that the wild forms are
mostly found in India. The five sub-species are:
(i) agrestis - it includes those forms which bear extremely bitter and inedible fruits;
(ii) occidental -includes such forms which arose in western Asia minor under
conditions of adequate humidity and high temperature;
(iii) orientale-asiaticus - which had its origin in Japan and to some extent in
China;
(iv) palestinicum- a hydrophytic type which is adapted to withstand high
temperature
(v) arabico- italicum -has bitter fruits and is only of ornamental value.
TAXONOMY
SOIL REQUIREMENT
Grows on all soils ranging from light sand to heavy clay.
Sandy soils – good for early crop production
Silt-loam or clay-loam -good for heavy production.
Well drained and fertile sandy-loam soils are preferred for
brinjal cultivation.
The best pH -5.5-6.6
CLIMATE REQUIREMENT
Susceptible to severe frost.
A long and warm growing season, temperature range of 21°-27°C is most
favourable for its successful production.
 In NI, the crop is adversely affected during December-February due to low night
temperature.
 Late cultivars -withstand mild frost and continue to bear some fruits.
In warm season shows luxurious growth and starts bearing from the initial
flowers
In cool season its growth is poor and slow and fruit size, quality and
production are adversely affected.
VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS
In Brinjal, a large variation in Plant types, fruit colour, shape and size are
available.
 Two Main Types – ROUND and LONG
ROUND VARIETIES LONG VARIETIES
Pant Rituraj
Pusa Purple Round
Manjari
Krishnanagar Purple Round
Punjab Bahar
Pusa Purple Long
Pusa Purple Cluster
Pusa Kranti
Krishnanagar Green Long
Arka Sheel
Arka Kusumkar
Arka Anand
Arka Keshav
Arka Navneeth
Arka Neelkanth
Arka Nidhi
Arka Shirish
Pant Samrat
Azad Kranti
VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS
 Introduction - Black beauty (USA)
Pureline Selection
▶ TNAU - MDU 1, Co 2, PLR 1, KKM 1, VRM 1, PPI 1
▶ AU – Annamalai 1
▶ IARI – Pusa Purple Long, Pusa Purple Round, Pusa Purple Cluster
▶ IIHR – Arka Sheel, Arka Shirish, Arka Kusumkar
▶ KAU – Surya, Swetha, Haritha
▶ HAU – Hisar Shyamal
▶ MPKV – Manjiri Gota, Vaishali
TNAU VARIETIES & HYBRIDS
CO-1 (1978) CO-2(1988)
MDU-1 (1979) PKM-1(1984)
PLR-1(1990) KKM-1 (1995) PPI-1 PLR (Br)-2
VRM-1 COBH-1(2001) COBH-2 (2002)
VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS
Cultivar Parentage Special features
MDU 1 PLS from Kallampatti local Round purple fruits with less seeds
CO 2 PLS from Local variety
Varikathiri of Negamum
village
Compact plant, oblong fruits, dark purple
streaks in pale gren background
PLR 1 Selection from Nagpur ecotype Egg shaped glossy purple fruits
PPI 1 PLS from Karungal local 30 -3 5 cm lengthy fruits less seeded
Tolerant to shoot & fruit borer and wilt
VRM 1 PLS Spines on leaf stem and calyx, Cluster
bearing habit, high yielder, Resistant to
leaf spot, verticilium wilt and epilachna
beetle
KKM 1 PLS from Kulathur local Small white coloured fruits with cluster
bearing habit
Annamalai 1 PLS Aphid resistant variety, deep purple
coloured with characteristic yellow mark
along calyx border. Thorns on calyx
surface
VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS
Cultivar Parentage Special features
Arka Sheel PLS from Kudagu local
Arka Shirish PLS from Evange
Arka Kusumkar PLS from Karnataka Local Cluster bearing habit
Pusa Purple Long PLS from Bhatia cultivar
of Punjab
Moderately resistant to SFB & little leaf
Pusa Purple Round PLS from local type
Pusa Purple Cluster Resistant to little leaf
Surya Bacterial Wilt resistant
Glossy violet fruits
Sweta White fruits
Haritha Bacterial Wilt resistant
Lengthy light green colour fruits
VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS
Pusa
Kranti
(Pusa Purple Long ×
Hyderpur) × Wynad
Giant - 3 way cross
IARI Suitable for both Spring &
Autumn
Photoinsensitive character from Pusa
Purple Long
Upright habit, hardiness,& glossiness
from Hyderpur
Bright purple from Wynad Giant
Arka Kesar
Arka
Neelkanth
Dingras multiple
purple x Arka Sheel
IIHR Resistant to Bacterial wilt
Pedigree Selection
VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS
Heterosis Breeding
Cultivar Parentage Special features
Pusa Bhairav Pusa Purple Long × 11a-
12-2-1
Phomopsis fruit rot resistant
Pusa Anupam Pusa Purple
Pusa Kranti
Cluster × Phomopsis fruit rot resistant
Pusa Anmol Pusa Purpe
Hyderpur
Long × Gives 80% more yield than PPL
Pusa Uttam GR × Pant Rituraj Y-40t/ha
Pusa Upkar GR × 91-1 Y- 40 t/ha
Pusa Bindu GR × Pant Rituraj Y-30 t/ha
Pusa Hybrid 5,6,9
VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS
PH 4 Hyderpur × PPL PAU Long, Purple
Punjab Neelam Jamuni Gole ×
Pant Rituraj
PAU Long, Purple
Punjab Barsati Pusa Purple Cluster ×
PH4
PAU long,cluster, Purple,
Y-45t/ha, Dwarf
Punjab Sadabahar
(Punjab Baingan)
Japanese Long × R 34 PAU Long, Black- purple
BH 2 (2003) Punjab Neelam ×
Punjab
Barsati
PAU Thornless
Hisar Shyamal
(H8)
Aushey × BR112 HAU Tolerant to Little Leaf
& Resistant to Bacterial Wilt
Hisar Jamuni (H9) Aushey × R 34 HAU Oblong,Dark –purple
VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS
Vaishali Arka
Kusamak
ar ×
Manjari Gota
MPKV Oval, spines
Bicolour
Pragati Vaishali ×
Manjari Gota
MPKV Oval,Purple
Pant Brinjal Hybrid 1 PB 129 × PB 225 GBPUAT,
Pantnagar, U.P
Resistant to Bacterial Wilt
Pant Brinjal Hybrid 4 PB 129 × PB 7 GBPUAT,
Pantnagar, U.P
Medium tall plant
Pant Rituraj T 3 × PPC GBPUAT,
Pantnagar
Oval,Violet- purple
VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS
Arka Navneet
(1991)
IHR221 × Supreme IIHR Y-70t/ha (First public sector
high yielding hybrid),
Oval, Dark-purple.
Arka Unnathi Arka Kusumakar x IIHR
– 3
IIHR Green Long fruits
Arka Harshita Arka Kusumakar x IIHR
– 3
IIHR Green long fruits Resistant
to Bacterial wilt
Arka Avinash Arka Kusumakar x Long IIHR Resistant to Bacterial wilt
Arka Nidhi Dingrasmultiple
purple x
Arka Sheel
IIHR Resistant to Bacterial wilt
Arka Anand IIHR 3 x IIHR 322 IIHR Resistant to Bacterial wilt
VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS
Azad Kranti PPL × BGL CSAU&T,Kanpur, U.P Erect plant, Less Seeded Variety
Azad Hybrid Azad B1 × Kalyanpur type
3
CSAU&T,Kanpur, U.P Less prone to shoot & Fruit
borer
VRBHR-1
(2003)
Pant Rituraj × BR-SPS-14 IIVR,Varanasi Y-78.9t/ha
Utkal Tarini Pusa Kranti × Gopa Local OUA & T,
Bhubaneswar,
Orissa
Less prone to Bacterial wilt
resistant
Artica 764 - 84 B ×
L.519 – 81B
Italian F1 hybrid Suit for both out door & green
house cultivation & is
recommended for cooking,
industrial processing & freezing.
Co BH 1 EP 45 x Co 2 TNAU Deep purple fruits
60t / Ha
Co BH 2 EP 65 x Pusa Uttam TNAU Glossy violet fruits
Moderately tolerant to shoot &
Fruit borer
VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS
PKM-l
▶ Developed at HC & RI, Periyakulam
▶ An induced mutant (gamma rays) of a local type called Puzhuthi
kathiri
▶ It yields on an average of 34.75 t/ha in a duration of 150-155 days
▶ The fruits weigh 45 to 65 g
▶ Adopted to rainfed cultivation
▶ Small fruits with green stripes
▶ It is drought tolerant and can withstand long distance transport
Mutation Breeding
SPL CHARACTERS OF
VARIETIES/HYBRIDS
 NDB 25 – Soft joint and Easy to Harvest
 BH-2 – Popular for Bharta Making
Manjarigota – Bicolour Variety
 Arka Kusumkar – Finger Shaped fruits
Pusa Purple Long – Extra early Variety
Phomposis blight resistant – Pusa Bhairav, Pusa Anupam , Florida Market
 Bacterial wilt resistant – Pusa Anupam, Pant Rituraj, Arka Nidhi, Arka Neelkanth, Arka
Keshav, Pusa Purple Cluster
Little leaf resistant – Pusa Purple Round, Arka Sheel, Manjarigota
 Aphid Resistant – Annamalai
Pusa Shyamala, Pusa Hara Baingan -1, Pusa Safed Baingan -1, Arka Neelchal
Shyamala, Arka Harshita , DBHL -20 (IARI)
SEED SOWING
SOWING:
North India :
(1) June-July for autumn- winter crop (Seedlings transplanted – 4 weeks)
(2) November for spring summer crop (Protected from windduring night and it takes 6-8
weeks for the seedlings to be of size suitable for transplanting.)
Other parts -June-September and again in December-January.
Hilly regions- March-April and seedlings are transplanted in May.
SEED RATE
Varieties – 400 g/ha
Hybrid Variety – 150-200 g/ha
SPACING
45 x 45 cm (Early and Dwarf Varieties)
60 x 45 cm (Long Fruited Cultivars / Semi vigorous and mid season Varieties)
75 x 60 cm (Vigorous and round cultivars)
90 x 90 cm (High yielding cultivars)
Highly vigorous bushy and late bearing cultivars are given wider distance as
compared to dwarf, upright and early types.
Seed Production : FS -200 m ,CS-100 m
SEED TREATMENT
 Trichoderma viride – 4g/Kg
Azospirillum – 40g / 400g of seeds using rice gruel as adhesive
RAISING OF NURSERY
Nursery area 3 cents with slanting slope of 2 % to cover 1 ha.
Cover the nursery area with 50 % shade net and cover the sides using 40 / 50
mesh insect proof nylon net.
Form raised beds of 1 m width and convenient length and place HDPV pipes at
2m interval for further protection with polythene sheets during rainy months.
Mix sterilized cocopeat @ 300 kg with neem cake 5 kg along with Azospirillum
and phosphobacteria each @ 1 kg.
Approximately 1.2 kg of cocopeat is required for filling one protray.
 200 protrays are required for the production of 18,700 seedlings, which is
required for one hectare adopting a spacing of 90 x 60 x 75 cm in paired row
system.
Water with rose-can everyday and drench with 19:19:19 @ 0.5% (5g/l) at 18 days
after sowing.
GRAFTING IN BRINJAL
NEED FOR GRAFTING ?
ADVANTAGES :
 Extended Duration
Resistant to Nematode and Dry root rot
Higher Yield
 Ratooning can be done
GRAFTING IN BRINJAL
GRAFTING IN BRINJAL
GRAFTING IN BRINJAL
CROPPING SYSTEM
Brinjal is grown in different crop rotations of cropping system are as
follows:
Leafy vegetables like spinach, amaranth, fenugreek (methi), coriander and
mint can be grown in between the rows of brinjal.
The root crops like carrot, turnip, radish can be grown on the ridges of the
plots of brinjal.
NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Apply 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria in the main field at
planting.
Varieties
Basal dose : FYM 25 t/ha, NPK 50:50:30 kg/ ha.
Top dressing : 50 kg N/ha on 30th day of planting or during earthing up.
Hybrids
Basal dose : FYM 25 t/ha, NPK 100:150:100 kg/ha.
Top dressing : 100 kg N/ha on 30th day of planting or during earthing up.
Cu increased the number of flowers and fruits
Zn improved the weight of fruits
Mn showed similar but less pronounced effect on flowering and fruiting
IRRIGATION REQUIREMENTS
Brinjal requires several irrigations for successful
cultivation.
Timely irrigation is essential for fruit- set and its
development.
When there is danger of frost during winter, the
soil should be kept moist to save the crop from frost
injury.
After establishment of seedlings, irrigate at weekly
intervals.
Drip irrigation was beneficial for reducing water
use and weed control.
 The water used in drip irrigation was only
24.47cm as. compared to 69.18cm under furrow
system of irrigation.
Drip irrigation
Shallow inter-cultivation is given to remove the weeds. Care is taken to avoid injury
to the developing root system. Three to four hoeing and weeding are normally
needed for an effective control of weeds, proper aeration and good growth of the
plants.
INTERCULTURE AND WEED
CONTROL
Earthing up is essential when it is grown on ridges.
 Orbanchae sp. is one of the serious weeds affecting solanaceous crops in
some areas. It is a root parasite and should be controlled very effectively.
Chemical weed control is also practiced by farmers in different zones of the
country. A pre-planting treatment of 1.0kg a.i/ha of fluchloralin at Bangalore
and 1.5kg a.i./ha followed by one hand weeding 30 days after transplanting
at Hyderabad
Orbanchae sp
Earthing up
MULCHING
Mulch with black LDPE sheets of 25 micron thickness and bury both the ends
into the soil to a depth of 10 cm.
Conserves soil-moisture and controls weeds
Mulching -black polythene film reduces weed growth,accelerates crop
growth, induces early bearing and increases yield.
 Sarkanda grass (Erianthus arrundinaceus) used as Mulching material in
Brinjal.
ROLE OF PGRs
2, 4-D (2ppm) at flowering - parthenocarpy, increases fruit-set, advances fruit
maturation ,increases the total yield.
Increase in yield (50%) was obtained by whole plant spray of 2, 4-D at 2 ppm at
intervals of one week over a period of 60-70 days from commencement of flowering.
Spraying of 2, 4-D (2.5 ppm), 4 CPA (20ppm) and n-metatolylphthalamic acid
(0.5%) promotes fruit-set in brinjal.
NAA (60ppm) alone or in combination with BA (30ppm) applied on open flowers
improved fruit set and their development and spraying of n-metatolylphthalamic acid
at 250- 500ppm considerably increases the early yield.
Root-dipping of one-month-old seedlings in ascorbic acid, GA3, IAA and thiourea
advances the flowering by 4-5 days.
 Highest yield was obtained from plants whose roots were dipped in GA3 +
ascorbic acid each at 250ppm solution.
Spray of Mixtalol (long chain C 24-C 34 aliphatic alcohols) on cv. Arka Navneet of
brinjal has given beneficial effect, with single spray of 4ppm solution.
PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS
PHYSIOLOGICAL
DISORDER
Calyx Withering  Occurs between mid – February and mid- April
Affected fruits – Reddish brown colour and lacking in normal
luster and the marketability hampered.
Affected fruit – Higher Ca and Nitrate content than healthy ones.
Poor Fruit Set  Pseudo short and Short Styled flowers do not normally set fruit but
their numbers in a plant are normally higher than long and medium
styled of lower which produce fruits.
 Flowers normally borne Solitarily as well as clusters,
SOLITARILY – Long/ medium styled flowers
CLUSTER – Mixtures of Shoer styled, pseudo short styled and
medium/ long styled flowers.
(Short styled : Long / Medium styled flowers – 3-4:1)
 Natural drop – high as 50% in Medium styled , 30% in long
styled flowers.
CONTROL:
2 ppm 2,4-D at flowering stage when few flower cluster appears.
60 ppm NAA or 500 ppm PCPA at full bloom stage.
HARVESTING AND YIELD
Early crops - 20-30 tonnes/ha
Long-duration- 35-40 tonnes/ha.
F1 hybrids at high fertility level -40-80 tonnes/ha.
Brinjal fruits are harvested when they have developed a good colour and
marketable size, are still immature, tender and have not lost culinary qualities
 The attractive bright, glossy appearance having freshness and optimum size
of fruit are qualities for good market price.
Variety NDB 25 have soft joint and is easy to harvest while others need help
of sharp instrument.
 Brinjal Variety Processing – More dry matter and less phenolics
First Picking – 120-130 DAS
Harvest Interval – 8-10 days
YIELD
PEST CONTROL
MEASURES
DISEASES CONTROL
MEASURES
Shoot and Fruit
Borer
(Loss upto 70%)
Carbaryl 50% or
Monocrotophos @
1.25 ml per litre of
water
Early blight Spray with
Bordeaux mixture
5:5:50 or Zineb
0.25%
Epilachna Beetles Spray Malathion
0.16%@ 3ml per
water
Methyl Parathion
0.03% @ 1 ml per
litre of water
Little leaf
(Thomas and
Krishnaswamy
reported In India )
Vector – Leaf
hopper
Mycoplasma.Rouge
out diseased plants.
Spray any
insecticide to
control the vector.
Mealy bug Malathion 0.15%
@ 3ml/litre of
water
Monocrotophos @
0.4% -1.25 ml per
litre of water
Mosaic Virus Rouge out diseased
plants.
Spray any
insecticide to
control the vector.
PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT
PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT
Little leaf Shoot and Fruit Borer(Loss upto 70%)
BRIMATO – BRINJAL + TOMATO
 Dual or Multiple Grafting – A new technological option , wherein , two or
more than two scions of the same family are grafted together to harvest more than
one vegetable from a single parent.
Characters of Brimato:
 Developed by: IIVR, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
 The Brinjal Hybrid –Kashi Sandesh and improved cultivar of Tomato-Kashi
Aman were successfully grafted into brinjal rootstock –IC 111056
Bt BRINJAL
 STEPS IN MAKING Bt BRINJAL:
a) Identification of particular character in any organism (Microorganism-
Bacillus thuringiensis)
b) Find the genes for desired character (toxic to shoot and fruit borers)
c) Isolate gene
d) Prepare gene construct (consists of promoter sequence, terminator sequence and
marker genes for successful integration and expression in plant)
e) gene transfer and establishment of introduced DNA by two means:-
i. Agrobacterium tumifaciens
ii. Genegun method
 Bt. Brinjal is a transgenic brinjal created out of inserting a gene (cry 1 Ac) from
the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis in to brinjal.
 The insertion of the gene into the cell has been done through Agrobacterium-
mediated vector, along with other genes like promoters, makers etc.
 When infested by the FSB larvae, the 'Bt protein is activated in the gut leading
to lysis of cell wall and death of the larvae.
Bt Brinjal banned in India in the year in 2010.
Ndereyimana Assinapol, S Praneetha and V Rajasree (2017) Performance of
grafted brinjal (Solanum melongena L) under different spacing and fertigation
levels. J Pharmacogn Phytochem;6(2):307-311
MATERIALS:
Scion -COBH 2 Brinjal
Rootstock- Solanum torvum
TREATMENT DETAILS
• Strip Plot design
• Four levels of Spacing -1 m x 1 m, 2
m x 1 m, 1.5 m x 1.5 m and 0.6 m x
0.6 m
•Three levels of Fertigation - 75, 100
and 125 % RDF
•Replication – 4
•200:150: 100 kg of N: P: K Kg/ h –
RDF
•After six months the plants were
pruned to obtain ratoon crop which
was maintained four 4 months
RESULTS:
1 m x 1 m spaced plants applied with 100 per
cent RDF can be adopted for commercial
cultivation.
DISCUSSION:
Widest spaced plants -lowest competition for
soil nutrients and light, they would produce
more and bigger sized fruits (Sanches et al.
1993)
The superiority of 100 over 125 per cent RDF
could be attributed to the fact that that excess
fertilizer application, mainly N, is associated
with vigorous vegetative growth and
extended duration for flower bud appearance,
leading to the reduction in potential number
of fruits per plant.
Batal et al. (1994) and Everaarts (1994)
opined that excessive N may increase pests,
diseases.
Ndereyimana, Assinapol & Athanase, Hategekimana. (2013). Effect of Spacing and Fertigation
on Incidence of Shoot and Fruit Borer (Leucinodes Orbonalis Guenee) in Eggplant (Solanum
Melongena L) Grafts. Journal of Renewable Agriculture. 1. 102. 10.12966/jra.08.05.2013.
•The lowest shoot borer (8.61 and 7.86 per
cent) and fruit borer (9.66 and 8.20 per cent)
infestations were recorded under widest plant
spacing as compared to the closest;
•while the lowest fertigation level (75 per cent
RDF) recorded the lowest shoot borer (7.74
and 7.01 per cent) and fruit borer (8.91 and
8.21 per cent) incidence in main and ratoon
crops, respectively.
•It can be concluded that the shoot and fruit
borer infestation reduces with increased
spacing and with decreased nutrition level.
MATERIALS:
Scion -COBH 2 Brinjal
Rootstock- Solanum torvum
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
TREATMENT DETAILS
• Strip Plot design
• Four levels of Spacing -1 m x 1 m, 2
m x 1 m, 1.5 m x 1.5 m and 0.6 m x
0.6 m
•Three levels of Fertigation - 75, 100
and 125 % RDF
•Replication – 4
•200:150: 100 kg of N: P: K Kg/ h –
RDF
•After six months the plants were
pruned to obtain ratoon crop which
was maintained four 4 months
3. Yield performance of eggplant as influenced by different cutting heights of
ratooning
Salomes, F. M., Geromo, F. B., Ambabang, P. L., Comamao, J. G., & Comamao, J. (2011).
Philippine Journal of Crop Science (Philippines).
The study was conducted to verify and recommend appropriate cutting height in ratooning
eggplant to prolong production and extended farmers' income.
The different cutting heights of ratooning varies from 10,15,20,25 and 30 cm, which was
arranged in a randomized complete block design(RCBD) replicated four times.
 The data collected were percentage of rejuvenated plants, fruit circumference,length and
weight of marketable and non-marketable fruits.
Cost and return analysis were computed on a hectare basis.
Results of the study showed that different ratooning heights exhibited no significant
differences on percentage of rejuvenated plants and yield of the ratooned eggplants.
On fruit length, plants ratooned at 10 cm significantly gave the longest fruit compared to
ratooning height of 25 and 30 cm.
Plants ratooned at 15 cm gave the highest ROC of 253% due to highest percentage of
eggplant that figurative rejuvenated.
THANK YOU

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Production technology of Brinjal -Solanum melongena

  • 1. Production Technology of BRINJAL Presented by: Janaharshini R TNAU-CBE
  • 2.  Scientific Name – Solanum melongena  Chromosome Number – 2n =2X = 24 & X=12  Family - Solanaceae (Nightshade Family)  Genome Size = ~ 1133 mbp (2013)  Other Names – Egg Plant / Aubergine (French Name)/ Poor man’s Cusp  Day Neutral Plant  Bitterness  SOLASODINE - Glycoalkaloids (0.4-0.5 mg per 100 g of fresh weight) BRINJAL
  • 3. BRINJAL  Brinjal fruit contains Vitamin B and Iodine (7mg/Kg)  Vitamin C – Dark Puple Brinjal > white Skin.  White Brinjal – Diabetes Patients (Less Carbohydrate and More Fiber) Purple Variety – Higher Copper Content , Polyphenol oxidase activity and Amino acid content. Green Cultivars – Highest in Iron and Catalase activity  De Cholestrolizing properties of brinjal is due to presence of PUFA “ Linoleic and Linolenic ” which present in flesh and Seed . Mg and K salts helps in decholestrolizing action.  Dry Brinjal  Goitrogenic principles
  • 4. ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION  Originated in Bengal Plains of India (Martin, 1979)  Indo Burma region (Vavilov, 1928).Introduced to rest of the world from India.  Crop is distributed in south and south East Asia, southern Europe, China and Japan. Map showing the origin and migration of eggplant to the U.S.
  • 5. AREAAND PRODUCTION  India is the Second largest producer of brinjal next to China. West Bengal > Odisha >Gujarat > Bihar >Madhya Pradesh Area = 0.72 m ha (2018-19, NHB Database) Production = 12.68 m tonnes (2018-19, NHB Database) Growing districts in Tamil Nadu – Vellore, Salem, Krishnagiri, Dindigul, Coimbatore
  • 6.  Annual herbaceous plant  Errect, Compact and well branched plant  Leaves are large, simple, lobed and hypo pubescent in nature  Inflorescence is solitary or cluster of 2-5 flowers (CYMOSE)  Flowers – actinomorphic, hypogynous, hermaphrodite with pistil surrounded by the stamens. White or Pinkish in colour depending on the cultivars  Calyx – 5 sepals , United, Pubescent  Corolla – Pinkish/ White colour , 5 petals, Gamopetalous  Androecium – 5-6 stamens, small filaments, Large anthers(Yellow) , Stamens surrounding the Pistil.  Anther dehiscence is Longitudinal  Gynoecium – Carpels are united, Ovary Superior – Two Locular with Multi ovules  Fruit - Berry BOTANY Inflorescence of Brinjal
  • 8. DIFFERENT SPECIES IN BRINJAL ◾ Solanum melongena ◾ S. incanum (Progenitor, R to Fusarium wilt) ◾ S. integrifolium (R to Fusarium wilt, little leaf) ◾ S.indicum – Brihati-(R to Fusarium wilt) ◾ S. nigrum- Manithakkali- (R to Fusarium wilt, root knot, little leaf) ◾ S.auriculatum (resistant to leaf curl disease) ◾ S. torvum- Sundaikkai-(R to Fusarium wilt) ◾ S.xanthocarpum -Kandankathiri ◾ S.maccani ◾ S.pubescence – Kaattu Sundaikaai (Thornless Turkey Berry) ◾ S.robustum
  • 10. DIFFERENT SPECIES IN BRINJAL S. incanum S. integrifolium (Pumpkin on a stick) S.indicum (Brihati) S. nigrum S. torvum S.xanthocarpum
  • 11. BOTANY Androecium of Brinjal Gynoecium of Brinjal Longitudinal Section of Brinjal
  • 12.  Heterostyly is common feature in multi-flower cymes except in bunchy type cultivars.  Four type of flower based on style length is given by Krishnamurthy and Subramaniam in 1954. HETEROSTYLY IN BRINJAL
  • 13. HETEROSTYLY IN BRINJAL Types Fruit Setting(%) 1.Long Styled 70 - 86.7 2.Medium Styled 12.5 - 55.6 3.Pseudo - Short styled Nil 4. Short styled Nil Highest fruit set is found when the stigma is above the stamens.
  • 14. TAXONOMY All the present day cultivars belong to three varieties of equal rank of the species. These varieties are (a) esculentum, which includes round and egg-shaped cultivars; (b) serpentinum has long, slender types and (c) depressum includes all early and dwarf brinjal cultivars. Singh (1972) cited four main botanical varieties, namely (1) Solanum melongena var. incanum (Linn.) Kuntze (Syn. S. incanum Linn., S. coagulans (Forsk); (2) S. melongena var. melongena (Syn. S. melongena var. esculenta Nees); (3) S. melongena var. depressum Bailey (4) S. melongena var. serpentinum (Desf.) Bailey (Syn. S. serpentinum Desf.).
  • 15. Filov (1940) classified both cultivated and wild forms of brinjal on agro-ecological basis.He grouped them into five sub-species and stated that the wild forms are mostly found in India. The five sub-species are: (i) agrestis - it includes those forms which bear extremely bitter and inedible fruits; (ii) occidental -includes such forms which arose in western Asia minor under conditions of adequate humidity and high temperature; (iii) orientale-asiaticus - which had its origin in Japan and to some extent in China; (iv) palestinicum- a hydrophytic type which is adapted to withstand high temperature (v) arabico- italicum -has bitter fruits and is only of ornamental value. TAXONOMY
  • 16. SOIL REQUIREMENT Grows on all soils ranging from light sand to heavy clay. Sandy soils – good for early crop production Silt-loam or clay-loam -good for heavy production. Well drained and fertile sandy-loam soils are preferred for brinjal cultivation. The best pH -5.5-6.6
  • 17. CLIMATE REQUIREMENT Susceptible to severe frost. A long and warm growing season, temperature range of 21°-27°C is most favourable for its successful production.  In NI, the crop is adversely affected during December-February due to low night temperature.  Late cultivars -withstand mild frost and continue to bear some fruits. In warm season shows luxurious growth and starts bearing from the initial flowers In cool season its growth is poor and slow and fruit size, quality and production are adversely affected.
  • 18. VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS In Brinjal, a large variation in Plant types, fruit colour, shape and size are available.  Two Main Types – ROUND and LONG ROUND VARIETIES LONG VARIETIES Pant Rituraj Pusa Purple Round Manjari Krishnanagar Purple Round Punjab Bahar Pusa Purple Long Pusa Purple Cluster Pusa Kranti Krishnanagar Green Long Arka Sheel Arka Kusumkar Arka Anand Arka Keshav Arka Navneeth Arka Neelkanth Arka Nidhi Arka Shirish Pant Samrat Azad Kranti
  • 19. VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS  Introduction - Black beauty (USA) Pureline Selection ▶ TNAU - MDU 1, Co 2, PLR 1, KKM 1, VRM 1, PPI 1 ▶ AU – Annamalai 1 ▶ IARI – Pusa Purple Long, Pusa Purple Round, Pusa Purple Cluster ▶ IIHR – Arka Sheel, Arka Shirish, Arka Kusumkar ▶ KAU – Surya, Swetha, Haritha ▶ HAU – Hisar Shyamal ▶ MPKV – Manjiri Gota, Vaishali
  • 20. TNAU VARIETIES & HYBRIDS CO-1 (1978) CO-2(1988) MDU-1 (1979) PKM-1(1984) PLR-1(1990) KKM-1 (1995) PPI-1 PLR (Br)-2 VRM-1 COBH-1(2001) COBH-2 (2002)
  • 21. VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS Cultivar Parentage Special features MDU 1 PLS from Kallampatti local Round purple fruits with less seeds CO 2 PLS from Local variety Varikathiri of Negamum village Compact plant, oblong fruits, dark purple streaks in pale gren background PLR 1 Selection from Nagpur ecotype Egg shaped glossy purple fruits PPI 1 PLS from Karungal local 30 -3 5 cm lengthy fruits less seeded Tolerant to shoot & fruit borer and wilt VRM 1 PLS Spines on leaf stem and calyx, Cluster bearing habit, high yielder, Resistant to leaf spot, verticilium wilt and epilachna beetle KKM 1 PLS from Kulathur local Small white coloured fruits with cluster bearing habit Annamalai 1 PLS Aphid resistant variety, deep purple coloured with characteristic yellow mark along calyx border. Thorns on calyx surface
  • 22. VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS Cultivar Parentage Special features Arka Sheel PLS from Kudagu local Arka Shirish PLS from Evange Arka Kusumkar PLS from Karnataka Local Cluster bearing habit Pusa Purple Long PLS from Bhatia cultivar of Punjab Moderately resistant to SFB & little leaf Pusa Purple Round PLS from local type Pusa Purple Cluster Resistant to little leaf Surya Bacterial Wilt resistant Glossy violet fruits Sweta White fruits Haritha Bacterial Wilt resistant Lengthy light green colour fruits
  • 23. VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS Pusa Kranti (Pusa Purple Long × Hyderpur) × Wynad Giant - 3 way cross IARI Suitable for both Spring & Autumn Photoinsensitive character from Pusa Purple Long Upright habit, hardiness,& glossiness from Hyderpur Bright purple from Wynad Giant Arka Kesar Arka Neelkanth Dingras multiple purple x Arka Sheel IIHR Resistant to Bacterial wilt Pedigree Selection
  • 24. VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS Heterosis Breeding Cultivar Parentage Special features Pusa Bhairav Pusa Purple Long × 11a- 12-2-1 Phomopsis fruit rot resistant Pusa Anupam Pusa Purple Pusa Kranti Cluster × Phomopsis fruit rot resistant Pusa Anmol Pusa Purpe Hyderpur Long × Gives 80% more yield than PPL Pusa Uttam GR × Pant Rituraj Y-40t/ha Pusa Upkar GR × 91-1 Y- 40 t/ha Pusa Bindu GR × Pant Rituraj Y-30 t/ha Pusa Hybrid 5,6,9
  • 25. VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS PH 4 Hyderpur × PPL PAU Long, Purple Punjab Neelam Jamuni Gole × Pant Rituraj PAU Long, Purple Punjab Barsati Pusa Purple Cluster × PH4 PAU long,cluster, Purple, Y-45t/ha, Dwarf Punjab Sadabahar (Punjab Baingan) Japanese Long × R 34 PAU Long, Black- purple BH 2 (2003) Punjab Neelam × Punjab Barsati PAU Thornless Hisar Shyamal (H8) Aushey × BR112 HAU Tolerant to Little Leaf & Resistant to Bacterial Wilt Hisar Jamuni (H9) Aushey × R 34 HAU Oblong,Dark –purple
  • 26. VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS Vaishali Arka Kusamak ar × Manjari Gota MPKV Oval, spines Bicolour Pragati Vaishali × Manjari Gota MPKV Oval,Purple Pant Brinjal Hybrid 1 PB 129 × PB 225 GBPUAT, Pantnagar, U.P Resistant to Bacterial Wilt Pant Brinjal Hybrid 4 PB 129 × PB 7 GBPUAT, Pantnagar, U.P Medium tall plant Pant Rituraj T 3 × PPC GBPUAT, Pantnagar Oval,Violet- purple
  • 27. VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS Arka Navneet (1991) IHR221 × Supreme IIHR Y-70t/ha (First public sector high yielding hybrid), Oval, Dark-purple. Arka Unnathi Arka Kusumakar x IIHR – 3 IIHR Green Long fruits Arka Harshita Arka Kusumakar x IIHR – 3 IIHR Green long fruits Resistant to Bacterial wilt Arka Avinash Arka Kusumakar x Long IIHR Resistant to Bacterial wilt Arka Nidhi Dingrasmultiple purple x Arka Sheel IIHR Resistant to Bacterial wilt Arka Anand IIHR 3 x IIHR 322 IIHR Resistant to Bacterial wilt
  • 28. VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS Azad Kranti PPL × BGL CSAU&T,Kanpur, U.P Erect plant, Less Seeded Variety Azad Hybrid Azad B1 × Kalyanpur type 3 CSAU&T,Kanpur, U.P Less prone to shoot & Fruit borer VRBHR-1 (2003) Pant Rituraj × BR-SPS-14 IIVR,Varanasi Y-78.9t/ha Utkal Tarini Pusa Kranti × Gopa Local OUA & T, Bhubaneswar, Orissa Less prone to Bacterial wilt resistant Artica 764 - 84 B × L.519 – 81B Italian F1 hybrid Suit for both out door & green house cultivation & is recommended for cooking, industrial processing & freezing. Co BH 1 EP 45 x Co 2 TNAU Deep purple fruits 60t / Ha Co BH 2 EP 65 x Pusa Uttam TNAU Glossy violet fruits Moderately tolerant to shoot & Fruit borer
  • 29. VARIETIES/ HYBRIDS PKM-l ▶ Developed at HC & RI, Periyakulam ▶ An induced mutant (gamma rays) of a local type called Puzhuthi kathiri ▶ It yields on an average of 34.75 t/ha in a duration of 150-155 days ▶ The fruits weigh 45 to 65 g ▶ Adopted to rainfed cultivation ▶ Small fruits with green stripes ▶ It is drought tolerant and can withstand long distance transport Mutation Breeding
  • 30. SPL CHARACTERS OF VARIETIES/HYBRIDS  NDB 25 – Soft joint and Easy to Harvest  BH-2 – Popular for Bharta Making Manjarigota – Bicolour Variety  Arka Kusumkar – Finger Shaped fruits Pusa Purple Long – Extra early Variety Phomposis blight resistant – Pusa Bhairav, Pusa Anupam , Florida Market  Bacterial wilt resistant – Pusa Anupam, Pant Rituraj, Arka Nidhi, Arka Neelkanth, Arka Keshav, Pusa Purple Cluster Little leaf resistant – Pusa Purple Round, Arka Sheel, Manjarigota  Aphid Resistant – Annamalai Pusa Shyamala, Pusa Hara Baingan -1, Pusa Safed Baingan -1, Arka Neelchal Shyamala, Arka Harshita , DBHL -20 (IARI)
  • 31. SEED SOWING SOWING: North India : (1) June-July for autumn- winter crop (Seedlings transplanted – 4 weeks) (2) November for spring summer crop (Protected from windduring night and it takes 6-8 weeks for the seedlings to be of size suitable for transplanting.) Other parts -June-September and again in December-January. Hilly regions- March-April and seedlings are transplanted in May. SEED RATE Varieties – 400 g/ha Hybrid Variety – 150-200 g/ha SPACING 45 x 45 cm (Early and Dwarf Varieties) 60 x 45 cm (Long Fruited Cultivars / Semi vigorous and mid season Varieties) 75 x 60 cm (Vigorous and round cultivars) 90 x 90 cm (High yielding cultivars) Highly vigorous bushy and late bearing cultivars are given wider distance as compared to dwarf, upright and early types. Seed Production : FS -200 m ,CS-100 m
  • 32. SEED TREATMENT  Trichoderma viride – 4g/Kg Azospirillum – 40g / 400g of seeds using rice gruel as adhesive
  • 33. RAISING OF NURSERY Nursery area 3 cents with slanting slope of 2 % to cover 1 ha. Cover the nursery area with 50 % shade net and cover the sides using 40 / 50 mesh insect proof nylon net. Form raised beds of 1 m width and convenient length and place HDPV pipes at 2m interval for further protection with polythene sheets during rainy months. Mix sterilized cocopeat @ 300 kg with neem cake 5 kg along with Azospirillum and phosphobacteria each @ 1 kg. Approximately 1.2 kg of cocopeat is required for filling one protray.  200 protrays are required for the production of 18,700 seedlings, which is required for one hectare adopting a spacing of 90 x 60 x 75 cm in paired row system. Water with rose-can everyday and drench with 19:19:19 @ 0.5% (5g/l) at 18 days after sowing.
  • 34. GRAFTING IN BRINJAL NEED FOR GRAFTING ? ADVANTAGES :  Extended Duration Resistant to Nematode and Dry root rot Higher Yield  Ratooning can be done
  • 38. CROPPING SYSTEM Brinjal is grown in different crop rotations of cropping system are as follows: Leafy vegetables like spinach, amaranth, fenugreek (methi), coriander and mint can be grown in between the rows of brinjal. The root crops like carrot, turnip, radish can be grown on the ridges of the plots of brinjal.
  • 39. NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS Apply 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria in the main field at planting. Varieties Basal dose : FYM 25 t/ha, NPK 50:50:30 kg/ ha. Top dressing : 50 kg N/ha on 30th day of planting or during earthing up. Hybrids Basal dose : FYM 25 t/ha, NPK 100:150:100 kg/ha. Top dressing : 100 kg N/ha on 30th day of planting or during earthing up. Cu increased the number of flowers and fruits Zn improved the weight of fruits Mn showed similar but less pronounced effect on flowering and fruiting
  • 40. IRRIGATION REQUIREMENTS Brinjal requires several irrigations for successful cultivation. Timely irrigation is essential for fruit- set and its development. When there is danger of frost during winter, the soil should be kept moist to save the crop from frost injury. After establishment of seedlings, irrigate at weekly intervals. Drip irrigation was beneficial for reducing water use and weed control.  The water used in drip irrigation was only 24.47cm as. compared to 69.18cm under furrow system of irrigation. Drip irrigation
  • 41. Shallow inter-cultivation is given to remove the weeds. Care is taken to avoid injury to the developing root system. Three to four hoeing and weeding are normally needed for an effective control of weeds, proper aeration and good growth of the plants. INTERCULTURE AND WEED CONTROL Earthing up is essential when it is grown on ridges.  Orbanchae sp. is one of the serious weeds affecting solanaceous crops in some areas. It is a root parasite and should be controlled very effectively. Chemical weed control is also practiced by farmers in different zones of the country. A pre-planting treatment of 1.0kg a.i/ha of fluchloralin at Bangalore and 1.5kg a.i./ha followed by one hand weeding 30 days after transplanting at Hyderabad Orbanchae sp Earthing up
  • 42. MULCHING Mulch with black LDPE sheets of 25 micron thickness and bury both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm. Conserves soil-moisture and controls weeds Mulching -black polythene film reduces weed growth,accelerates crop growth, induces early bearing and increases yield.  Sarkanda grass (Erianthus arrundinaceus) used as Mulching material in Brinjal.
  • 43. ROLE OF PGRs 2, 4-D (2ppm) at flowering - parthenocarpy, increases fruit-set, advances fruit maturation ,increases the total yield. Increase in yield (50%) was obtained by whole plant spray of 2, 4-D at 2 ppm at intervals of one week over a period of 60-70 days from commencement of flowering. Spraying of 2, 4-D (2.5 ppm), 4 CPA (20ppm) and n-metatolylphthalamic acid (0.5%) promotes fruit-set in brinjal. NAA (60ppm) alone or in combination with BA (30ppm) applied on open flowers improved fruit set and their development and spraying of n-metatolylphthalamic acid at 250- 500ppm considerably increases the early yield. Root-dipping of one-month-old seedlings in ascorbic acid, GA3, IAA and thiourea advances the flowering by 4-5 days.  Highest yield was obtained from plants whose roots were dipped in GA3 + ascorbic acid each at 250ppm solution. Spray of Mixtalol (long chain C 24-C 34 aliphatic alcohols) on cv. Arka Navneet of brinjal has given beneficial effect, with single spray of 4ppm solution.
  • 44. PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDER Calyx Withering  Occurs between mid – February and mid- April Affected fruits – Reddish brown colour and lacking in normal luster and the marketability hampered. Affected fruit – Higher Ca and Nitrate content than healthy ones. Poor Fruit Set  Pseudo short and Short Styled flowers do not normally set fruit but their numbers in a plant are normally higher than long and medium styled of lower which produce fruits.  Flowers normally borne Solitarily as well as clusters, SOLITARILY – Long/ medium styled flowers CLUSTER – Mixtures of Shoer styled, pseudo short styled and medium/ long styled flowers. (Short styled : Long / Medium styled flowers – 3-4:1)  Natural drop – high as 50% in Medium styled , 30% in long styled flowers. CONTROL: 2 ppm 2,4-D at flowering stage when few flower cluster appears. 60 ppm NAA or 500 ppm PCPA at full bloom stage.
  • 45. HARVESTING AND YIELD Early crops - 20-30 tonnes/ha Long-duration- 35-40 tonnes/ha. F1 hybrids at high fertility level -40-80 tonnes/ha. Brinjal fruits are harvested when they have developed a good colour and marketable size, are still immature, tender and have not lost culinary qualities  The attractive bright, glossy appearance having freshness and optimum size of fruit are qualities for good market price. Variety NDB 25 have soft joint and is easy to harvest while others need help of sharp instrument.  Brinjal Variety Processing – More dry matter and less phenolics First Picking – 120-130 DAS Harvest Interval – 8-10 days YIELD
  • 46. PEST CONTROL MEASURES DISEASES CONTROL MEASURES Shoot and Fruit Borer (Loss upto 70%) Carbaryl 50% or Monocrotophos @ 1.25 ml per litre of water Early blight Spray with Bordeaux mixture 5:5:50 or Zineb 0.25% Epilachna Beetles Spray Malathion 0.16%@ 3ml per water Methyl Parathion 0.03% @ 1 ml per litre of water Little leaf (Thomas and Krishnaswamy reported In India ) Vector – Leaf hopper Mycoplasma.Rouge out diseased plants. Spray any insecticide to control the vector. Mealy bug Malathion 0.15% @ 3ml/litre of water Monocrotophos @ 0.4% -1.25 ml per litre of water Mosaic Virus Rouge out diseased plants. Spray any insecticide to control the vector. PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT
  • 47. PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT Little leaf Shoot and Fruit Borer(Loss upto 70%)
  • 48. BRIMATO – BRINJAL + TOMATO  Dual or Multiple Grafting – A new technological option , wherein , two or more than two scions of the same family are grafted together to harvest more than one vegetable from a single parent. Characters of Brimato:  Developed by: IIVR, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh  The Brinjal Hybrid –Kashi Sandesh and improved cultivar of Tomato-Kashi Aman were successfully grafted into brinjal rootstock –IC 111056
  • 49. Bt BRINJAL  STEPS IN MAKING Bt BRINJAL: a) Identification of particular character in any organism (Microorganism- Bacillus thuringiensis) b) Find the genes for desired character (toxic to shoot and fruit borers) c) Isolate gene d) Prepare gene construct (consists of promoter sequence, terminator sequence and marker genes for successful integration and expression in plant) e) gene transfer and establishment of introduced DNA by two means:- i. Agrobacterium tumifaciens ii. Genegun method  Bt. Brinjal is a transgenic brinjal created out of inserting a gene (cry 1 Ac) from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis in to brinjal.  The insertion of the gene into the cell has been done through Agrobacterium- mediated vector, along with other genes like promoters, makers etc.  When infested by the FSB larvae, the 'Bt protein is activated in the gut leading to lysis of cell wall and death of the larvae. Bt Brinjal banned in India in the year in 2010.
  • 50. Ndereyimana Assinapol, S Praneetha and V Rajasree (2017) Performance of grafted brinjal (Solanum melongena L) under different spacing and fertigation levels. J Pharmacogn Phytochem;6(2):307-311 MATERIALS: Scion -COBH 2 Brinjal Rootstock- Solanum torvum TREATMENT DETAILS • Strip Plot design • Four levels of Spacing -1 m x 1 m, 2 m x 1 m, 1.5 m x 1.5 m and 0.6 m x 0.6 m •Three levels of Fertigation - 75, 100 and 125 % RDF •Replication – 4 •200:150: 100 kg of N: P: K Kg/ h – RDF •After six months the plants were pruned to obtain ratoon crop which was maintained four 4 months RESULTS: 1 m x 1 m spaced plants applied with 100 per cent RDF can be adopted for commercial cultivation. DISCUSSION: Widest spaced plants -lowest competition for soil nutrients and light, they would produce more and bigger sized fruits (Sanches et al. 1993) The superiority of 100 over 125 per cent RDF could be attributed to the fact that that excess fertilizer application, mainly N, is associated with vigorous vegetative growth and extended duration for flower bud appearance, leading to the reduction in potential number of fruits per plant. Batal et al. (1994) and Everaarts (1994) opined that excessive N may increase pests, diseases.
  • 51. Ndereyimana, Assinapol & Athanase, Hategekimana. (2013). Effect of Spacing and Fertigation on Incidence of Shoot and Fruit Borer (Leucinodes Orbonalis Guenee) in Eggplant (Solanum Melongena L) Grafts. Journal of Renewable Agriculture. 1. 102. 10.12966/jra.08.05.2013. •The lowest shoot borer (8.61 and 7.86 per cent) and fruit borer (9.66 and 8.20 per cent) infestations were recorded under widest plant spacing as compared to the closest; •while the lowest fertigation level (75 per cent RDF) recorded the lowest shoot borer (7.74 and 7.01 per cent) and fruit borer (8.91 and 8.21 per cent) incidence in main and ratoon crops, respectively. •It can be concluded that the shoot and fruit borer infestation reduces with increased spacing and with decreased nutrition level. MATERIALS: Scion -COBH 2 Brinjal Rootstock- Solanum torvum RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: TREATMENT DETAILS • Strip Plot design • Four levels of Spacing -1 m x 1 m, 2 m x 1 m, 1.5 m x 1.5 m and 0.6 m x 0.6 m •Three levels of Fertigation - 75, 100 and 125 % RDF •Replication – 4 •200:150: 100 kg of N: P: K Kg/ h – RDF •After six months the plants were pruned to obtain ratoon crop which was maintained four 4 months
  • 52. 3. Yield performance of eggplant as influenced by different cutting heights of ratooning Salomes, F. M., Geromo, F. B., Ambabang, P. L., Comamao, J. G., & Comamao, J. (2011). Philippine Journal of Crop Science (Philippines). The study was conducted to verify and recommend appropriate cutting height in ratooning eggplant to prolong production and extended farmers' income. The different cutting heights of ratooning varies from 10,15,20,25 and 30 cm, which was arranged in a randomized complete block design(RCBD) replicated four times.  The data collected were percentage of rejuvenated plants, fruit circumference,length and weight of marketable and non-marketable fruits. Cost and return analysis were computed on a hectare basis. Results of the study showed that different ratooning heights exhibited no significant differences on percentage of rejuvenated plants and yield of the ratooned eggplants. On fruit length, plants ratooned at 10 cm significantly gave the longest fruit compared to ratooning height of 25 and 30 cm. Plants ratooned at 15 cm gave the highest ROC of 253% due to highest percentage of eggplant that figurative rejuvenated.