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VSC 504 PRINCIPLES OF
VEGETABLE BREEDING (3+0)
Speed Breeding – innovative approach for
present era of Crop breeding
Submitted by:
Janaharshini R
TNAU- CBE
Seeding new green revolution – Bottleneck’s
 Population raise , Climate Change , Urbanization and Land Degradation
 Pressure on Food Supply
 Development of improved crop varieties –limited by very long crop
duration.
 Decreased the genetic variability
Here comes , SPEED BREEDING!
Conventional and other Breeding Vs Speed Breeding
 Conventional breeding method – Time Consuming
 1990 s – Molecular markers have been introduced
for artificial selection of specific traits directly in crop
season decreased the time required for evaluation of
genotypes for particular traits - Expertise in
designing and handling markers and expensive
 OTHERS
- Winter Nursery- Expensive, difficult to manage
and donot assure quality seed production
- Usage of Double haploid – non – available for
many crops and require qualified personnel and
financial resources
- Genetic engineering and Genome editing - not
viable option because of Political legislation and
Societal Specimen
CONVENTIONAL BREEDING SPEED BREEDING
 Shorten breeding cycle
 Accelerate crop improvement through
Rapid generation cycle
Speeding up the Breeding Pipeline
Breeder’s Equation
 Inspired by NASA aiming to grow wheat and food crops in
Space.
 Started from University of Queensland, John Innes Centre and
University of Sydney in Australia by Dr. Lee Hickey and Co –
workers in Wheat and Peanut.
 1st Spring Wheat variety – DS Farady (2017, Australia)
Speed Breeding
SPEED BREEDING
A technique which involves extending photoperiod and controlled growing conditions in glasshouses,
enabling rapid generation advancement by shortening the breeding cycle.
Control of
Photoperiod
(Light quality
and duration )
Temperature
(Crop Specific)
CO2
surrounding
the crop
Accelerate Photosynthesis& early
flowering
Shortening the seed maturation and
harvesting time
•Reduces the crop generation time
•Increases no. of plant generation/ year
•More accurate Phenomics data compared to
Conventional methods
Speed Breeding
Speed Breeding
Speed Breeding
 Involves exposure of plants to scheduled light and dark regimes
to enhance growth, flowering and seed set which varies from crop
to crop.
 Ratio of R:FR is reported to play an important role in control of
flowering in plants.
 A Photoperiod of 22 h light and 2h darkness in diurnal cycle
of 24 hours  Ideal photoperiod for speed breeding.
 Achieved by LED , Sodium Vapour Lamp and halogen lamps –
different levels according to requirement of crops
Strategies of Speed Breeding
MANIPULATION OF PHOTOPERIOD (Light duration and Intensity)
TEMPERATURE REGULATION
 Altering air and soil temperature  Rapid growth, flowering,
seed set and maturity.
 Most require – 12 - 30o C – Seed Germination
25 – 30o C – Growth , Flowering, Seed Set
 High temperature @ Light Period and Fall in Temperature @
Dark
 Achieved by Fan and Pan Cooling system, Foggers, Solar air
power battery system
Strategies of Speed Breeding
CARBON DIOXIDE
 Regulating opening of Stomatal pores – Gas exchange
 High CO2 - 475-600 ppm – Increases Photosynthetic rates by 40%
 High CO2 – increases growth of plant and speeds up transition from
vegetative to reproductive phase.
 CO2 is altered by Growth chambers, CO2 Cylinders and
Regulators
HUMIDITY
 60-70 % RH - Ideal
PLANT HORMONES
 Plant in Vegetative Stage – When Cytokinin lower than Auxin
 When Cytokinin higher and Auxin lower – Reproductive Stage
 Gibberellin also involved in transition of Vegetative to Reproductive stage
DENSITY OF PLANT POPULATION
 High Plant density leads to tall plants due to light competition which
causes rapid transition from vegetative to reproductive stage.
Exerting the Physiological Stress
Flowering in Rhubarb
due to drought stress
Moisture Stress
Dense planting
Restriction of essential elements
Canopy thinning
Advances in Speed Breeding
Speed Breeding and SSD
 To create excellent inbreed lines to generate superior crop varieties – faster and cheaper than
dihaploids
 Platform for integrating – high throughput phenotyping , MAS, Genomic selection  accelerate
rate of crop improvement for increasing various nutritional components – protein production
and maximizing environmental benefits.
Speed Breeding coupled with other breeding methodologies
 Sequencing, tagging, mapping and introgression of genes for desired
trait at low cost – TIME CONSUMING
 Speed Breeding + Other Techniques – RAPID GENETIC GAIN
Ex: Tomato – SENSITIVE TO CONSTANT LIGHT
But gene CAB -13 identified that make them tolerate constant long photoperiod when transferred into
tomato cultivar under speed breeding
 Speed breeding + genome editing/ Marker Assisted Backcross / Transgenic approach
/ Cost effective genotypics and Phenotypics
Develop homozygous inbred line –> Crossing will facilitate rapid cycling, genetic gain
and develop improved cultivars
Advances in Speed Breeding
Speed Breeding Capsules
Controlled environment chamber
Conviron BDW Chamber Temperature controlled Glasshouse
High pressure sodium vapour lamp
Homemade growth
room design for low-cost
 22o C temp – 22 hrs Photoperiod
 17o C temp – 2 hrs dark period
 Light intensity – 360-380 μmol
m-2 s-1
 Wheat, Barley, Amaranthus and
pea
 22 hrs Photoperiod
 17/22o C temp – 12 hours turnover
 Light intensity – 440-650 μmol m-2
s-1
 Room of 3m x 3m x3m
with insulated sandwich
panelling fitted with seven
LB-8 LED light boxes.
 Lightning – set run a 12
hrs Photoperiod (4 weeks)
then increased to an 18
hours
 1.5 horsepower inverter
split system domestic air
conditioner (18o C in
darkness and 21o C when
LED lights on)
 Automatic watering was
achieved with irrigation
controller
Advances in Speed Breeding
Speed breeding I-
Controlled-environment chamber
speed breeding
Speed breeding II-
Glasshouse speeding conditions
Protocols – Speed Breeding in Vegetables
FAVA BEAN (Vicia faba)
 6 BAP @ 10-5 M – 4 days after
flowering  Increases seed
set at lower nodes
 Cold treatment @ 8o C during
day and 4o C during night for 2
days after flowering  Early
Pod set
 Days to flower – 29 to 32 days
after sowing
 7 generation in a year.
PEA (Pisum sativum)
 4 generation in a year (in vitro
in vivo system)
 Hydroponics
 22 hr Photoperiod – Fluroscent
tube – temperature -20 +/- 2o
C with flue primidol.
 Anti – Gibberellin spray –
early grain harvest.
CHILLI
 4 generation in a year
 Bloom at 39 DAS under
Photosynthetic Photon Flux
Density (PPFD) - 420 μmol
m-2 s-1 & 12 hr photoperiod
helps to produce seed with
accelerates germination at 82
DAS.
 R/FR  2.1- accelerates
ripening of fruits and seed
gerrmination
AMARANTHUS
 Based on LED – modify light
quality.
 Photoperiod – 10 hr , using
blue light enriched with far red
deprived light spectrum
facilitate growth.
 Flowering – 35 DAS (10 days
before normal)
 6 generation in a year
BRASSICA
 Brassica oleraceae – 22 hrs
Photoperiod , 108 days to
flowering.
 Brassica napus and Brassica
rapa – 22 hrs Photoperiod and
87 days to flowering.
Protocols – Speed Breeding in Crops
Advantages & Disadvantages – Speed Breeding
ADVANTAGES
 Multiple generation in a year
 Fast way to obtain fixed homozygous lines
through SSD
 Phenotypic selection possible in early
segregating population.
 Rapid introgression of genes into elite
lines by employing MAS
 Integrated with genomic selection and
genome editing tools
 High throughput phenotypic screens for
multiple traits
 Useful to exploit gene bank accessions
and mutant collection for rapid discovery
of particular gene
DISADVANTAGES
 Lack of Trained plant breeders
 Inadequate infrastructure
 Lack of standard protocols
 High initial investments
 Early seed harvest interferes with
phenotyping of different seed traits
 Differential responses of plant species to
extended photoperiodic conditions
 Disease outbreak in controlled
environment conditions.
 Incorporation of relatively inherited traits.
• https://justagriculture.in/files/newsletter/2021/august/53.%20Speed%20Br
eeding%20innovative%20approach%20for%20present%20era%20of%20
crop%20breeding.pdf
• https://www.ijcmas.com/9-12
2020/Ch.%20Sai%20Nayan%20Raju%20and%20C.%20Kalyan%20Saga
r.pdf
• https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/161182v1.full.pdf
• https://seedworld.com/new-breeding-techniques-could-change-vegetable-
breeding/
• https://www.mdpi.com/2079-7737/11/2/275/pdf?version=1644482236
References
THANK YOU …

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Speed Breeding in Vegetable Crops- innovative approach for present era of crop breeding

  • 1. VSC 504 PRINCIPLES OF VEGETABLE BREEDING (3+0) Speed Breeding – innovative approach for present era of Crop breeding Submitted by: Janaharshini R TNAU- CBE
  • 2. Seeding new green revolution – Bottleneck’s  Population raise , Climate Change , Urbanization and Land Degradation  Pressure on Food Supply  Development of improved crop varieties –limited by very long crop duration.  Decreased the genetic variability Here comes , SPEED BREEDING!
  • 3. Conventional and other Breeding Vs Speed Breeding  Conventional breeding method – Time Consuming  1990 s – Molecular markers have been introduced for artificial selection of specific traits directly in crop season decreased the time required for evaluation of genotypes for particular traits - Expertise in designing and handling markers and expensive  OTHERS - Winter Nursery- Expensive, difficult to manage and donot assure quality seed production - Usage of Double haploid – non – available for many crops and require qualified personnel and financial resources - Genetic engineering and Genome editing - not viable option because of Political legislation and Societal Specimen CONVENTIONAL BREEDING SPEED BREEDING  Shorten breeding cycle  Accelerate crop improvement through Rapid generation cycle
  • 4. Speeding up the Breeding Pipeline
  • 6.  Inspired by NASA aiming to grow wheat and food crops in Space.  Started from University of Queensland, John Innes Centre and University of Sydney in Australia by Dr. Lee Hickey and Co – workers in Wheat and Peanut.  1st Spring Wheat variety – DS Farady (2017, Australia) Speed Breeding SPEED BREEDING A technique which involves extending photoperiod and controlled growing conditions in glasshouses, enabling rapid generation advancement by shortening the breeding cycle. Control of Photoperiod (Light quality and duration ) Temperature (Crop Specific) CO2 surrounding the crop Accelerate Photosynthesis& early flowering Shortening the seed maturation and harvesting time •Reduces the crop generation time •Increases no. of plant generation/ year •More accurate Phenomics data compared to Conventional methods
  • 10.
  • 11.  Involves exposure of plants to scheduled light and dark regimes to enhance growth, flowering and seed set which varies from crop to crop.  Ratio of R:FR is reported to play an important role in control of flowering in plants.  A Photoperiod of 22 h light and 2h darkness in diurnal cycle of 24 hours  Ideal photoperiod for speed breeding.  Achieved by LED , Sodium Vapour Lamp and halogen lamps – different levels according to requirement of crops Strategies of Speed Breeding MANIPULATION OF PHOTOPERIOD (Light duration and Intensity) TEMPERATURE REGULATION  Altering air and soil temperature  Rapid growth, flowering, seed set and maturity.  Most require – 12 - 30o C – Seed Germination 25 – 30o C – Growth , Flowering, Seed Set  High temperature @ Light Period and Fall in Temperature @ Dark  Achieved by Fan and Pan Cooling system, Foggers, Solar air power battery system
  • 12. Strategies of Speed Breeding CARBON DIOXIDE  Regulating opening of Stomatal pores – Gas exchange  High CO2 - 475-600 ppm – Increases Photosynthetic rates by 40%  High CO2 – increases growth of plant and speeds up transition from vegetative to reproductive phase.  CO2 is altered by Growth chambers, CO2 Cylinders and Regulators HUMIDITY  60-70 % RH - Ideal PLANT HORMONES  Plant in Vegetative Stage – When Cytokinin lower than Auxin  When Cytokinin higher and Auxin lower – Reproductive Stage  Gibberellin also involved in transition of Vegetative to Reproductive stage DENSITY OF PLANT POPULATION  High Plant density leads to tall plants due to light competition which causes rapid transition from vegetative to reproductive stage.
  • 13. Exerting the Physiological Stress Flowering in Rhubarb due to drought stress Moisture Stress Dense planting Restriction of essential elements Canopy thinning
  • 14. Advances in Speed Breeding Speed Breeding and SSD  To create excellent inbreed lines to generate superior crop varieties – faster and cheaper than dihaploids  Platform for integrating – high throughput phenotyping , MAS, Genomic selection  accelerate rate of crop improvement for increasing various nutritional components – protein production and maximizing environmental benefits. Speed Breeding coupled with other breeding methodologies  Sequencing, tagging, mapping and introgression of genes for desired trait at low cost – TIME CONSUMING  Speed Breeding + Other Techniques – RAPID GENETIC GAIN Ex: Tomato – SENSITIVE TO CONSTANT LIGHT But gene CAB -13 identified that make them tolerate constant long photoperiod when transferred into tomato cultivar under speed breeding  Speed breeding + genome editing/ Marker Assisted Backcross / Transgenic approach / Cost effective genotypics and Phenotypics Develop homozygous inbred line –> Crossing will facilitate rapid cycling, genetic gain and develop improved cultivars
  • 15. Advances in Speed Breeding Speed Breeding Capsules Controlled environment chamber Conviron BDW Chamber Temperature controlled Glasshouse High pressure sodium vapour lamp Homemade growth room design for low-cost  22o C temp – 22 hrs Photoperiod  17o C temp – 2 hrs dark period  Light intensity – 360-380 μmol m-2 s-1  Wheat, Barley, Amaranthus and pea  22 hrs Photoperiod  17/22o C temp – 12 hours turnover  Light intensity – 440-650 μmol m-2 s-1  Room of 3m x 3m x3m with insulated sandwich panelling fitted with seven LB-8 LED light boxes.  Lightning – set run a 12 hrs Photoperiod (4 weeks) then increased to an 18 hours  1.5 horsepower inverter split system domestic air conditioner (18o C in darkness and 21o C when LED lights on)  Automatic watering was achieved with irrigation controller
  • 16. Advances in Speed Breeding Speed breeding I- Controlled-environment chamber speed breeding Speed breeding II- Glasshouse speeding conditions
  • 17. Protocols – Speed Breeding in Vegetables FAVA BEAN (Vicia faba)  6 BAP @ 10-5 M – 4 days after flowering  Increases seed set at lower nodes  Cold treatment @ 8o C during day and 4o C during night for 2 days after flowering  Early Pod set  Days to flower – 29 to 32 days after sowing  7 generation in a year. PEA (Pisum sativum)  4 generation in a year (in vitro in vivo system)  Hydroponics  22 hr Photoperiod – Fluroscent tube – temperature -20 +/- 2o C with flue primidol.  Anti – Gibberellin spray – early grain harvest. CHILLI  4 generation in a year  Bloom at 39 DAS under Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) - 420 μmol m-2 s-1 & 12 hr photoperiod helps to produce seed with accelerates germination at 82 DAS.  R/FR  2.1- accelerates ripening of fruits and seed gerrmination AMARANTHUS  Based on LED – modify light quality.  Photoperiod – 10 hr , using blue light enriched with far red deprived light spectrum facilitate growth.  Flowering – 35 DAS (10 days before normal)  6 generation in a year BRASSICA  Brassica oleraceae – 22 hrs Photoperiod , 108 days to flowering.  Brassica napus and Brassica rapa – 22 hrs Photoperiod and 87 days to flowering.
  • 18. Protocols – Speed Breeding in Crops
  • 19. Advantages & Disadvantages – Speed Breeding ADVANTAGES  Multiple generation in a year  Fast way to obtain fixed homozygous lines through SSD  Phenotypic selection possible in early segregating population.  Rapid introgression of genes into elite lines by employing MAS  Integrated with genomic selection and genome editing tools  High throughput phenotypic screens for multiple traits  Useful to exploit gene bank accessions and mutant collection for rapid discovery of particular gene DISADVANTAGES  Lack of Trained plant breeders  Inadequate infrastructure  Lack of standard protocols  High initial investments  Early seed harvest interferes with phenotyping of different seed traits  Differential responses of plant species to extended photoperiodic conditions  Disease outbreak in controlled environment conditions.  Incorporation of relatively inherited traits.
  • 20.
  • 21. • https://justagriculture.in/files/newsletter/2021/august/53.%20Speed%20Br eeding%20innovative%20approach%20for%20present%20era%20of%20 crop%20breeding.pdf • https://www.ijcmas.com/9-12 2020/Ch.%20Sai%20Nayan%20Raju%20and%20C.%20Kalyan%20Saga r.pdf • https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/161182v1.full.pdf • https://seedworld.com/new-breeding-techniques-could-change-vegetable- breeding/ • https://www.mdpi.com/2079-7737/11/2/275/pdf?version=1644482236 References THANK YOU …