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Prevention & Control of
Chronic Diseases
By:
1
2
is defined as “an impairment in body
function or structure that necessitates a
modification in person’s life-style or has
persisted for a long length of time.”
The chronic non-communicable
disease
3
Chronic Diseases
• Diabetes
• Congestive Heart Failure
• Hypertension
• Hyperlipidemia
• Asthma
4
Obesity
• Is a type of malnutrition that is
characterized by abnormal growth of
adipose tissue.
• This can occur due to increase in size
and! or number of the fat cells.
• BMI > 30 in males and 28.6 in females is
indicative of obesity.
5
Prevention and Control:
1. Diet: Reduction in fats and carbohydrates in the diet,
(especially refined foods, sweets, oils etc) is
recommended both for treatment as well as prevention.
Increase in consumption of dietary fibers is un-refined
foods the other side of the coin.
2. Physical Exercise: Regular physical exercise
like fast walking, playing out-door games like tennis, and
swimming are necessary adjuvant to diet.
3. Other Measures: These include use of drugs, removal
of excess fat by surgery, gastric bypass etc are tried, but
have limited value.
6
Coronary Heart Disease CHD/IHD
Definition:
impairment of the heart function due to
inadequate blood flow to the heart,
compared to its needs, caused by
obstructive changes in the coronary
Arterial circulation to the heart.
7
Prevention of CHD:
• CHD is preventable.
I. Primary prevention:
1. Control of risk factors among populations:
a) Dietary changes:
- Reduction of fat intake (saturated, cholesterol )
- Avoid alcohol consumption.
b) Smoke free society
c) Blood pressure:
d) Physical activity:
2. Identification of high risk groups: specific
advice.
8
Prevention of CHD:
II. Secondary prevention:
Prevent recurrence and regression of CHD:
a) Screening high risk groups & suitable Rx.
b) Drugs, coronary surgery, pace- makers.. etc.
c)Control of risk factors i.e. smoking, HTN, DM
diets, exercise... etc.
9
Prevention of CHD:
• III Tertiary prevention:
Rehabilitation irreversible limitations of cardiac
function through:
• changes in behavior, habits, life- styles, diets,
• use of drugs,
• occupational rehabilitation,
• control of risk factors
• psychological rehabilitation
10
Hypertension
Classification:
• Normal < 120/ < 80
• Prehypertension 120-139/80-89
• Hypertension ; stage -1 : 140-159/90-99
• Hypertension ; stage -2 : > 160+/ 100 +
11
Management Plan
• Establish Good patient relationship.
• Educate patient & family on the consequences
• Encourage Self monitoring.
• BP goal.
• Non pharmacological therapy.
• Pharmacological therapy.
• Simplify drug regimen.
• Elderly.
12
Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
• It is a chronic disease due to deficiency or
diminished effectiveness of insulin. The
disease affects the metabolism of
carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water and
electrolytes.
13
Prevention DM:
• I. Primary Prevention:
A) Identification of those at risk:
•
•
1. Individuals with positive family history
2. Those over 40 years of age.
3. Obese individuals.
4 Females with suggestive obstetric history
• 5. Cases with premature atherosclerosis.
B) Health education:
•
•
• I Maintenance of optimal body weight
2. Promotion of physical exercise.
3. Diet modification.
4.Avoidance of diabetogenic drugs. e.g. contraceptive pills, corticosteroids.
5.Family life education.
6. Prevention of complicated pregnancy.
47
Prevention DM:
• II. Secondary prevention:
a) Screening: The preventive significance of early detection is
two fold:
1.Discovery of the disease in its pre-symptomatic state if
followed by adequate treatment minimize the danger of
complications such as coma and infection.
2.Early therapy reduces the progress of disease and may
reverse the pathologic changes.
Chronic hyperglycemia exhausts the already weak islets of
Langerhans (insulin producing cell).
Diabetics with no or minimal complications at the time of
diagnosis have a death rate less than one third that of patients
with serious complications at time of diagnosis.
All risk groups should be screened periodically.
•
•
•
•
•
15
Prevention DM:
• II. Secondary prevention:
a) Screening:
Tests for screening:
Detection of glucose in urine two hours after a meal are
considered diabetics unless proved otherwise.
Mild cases may escape diagnosis when there is no glucostirea.
This lack of sensitivity may miss up to 50% of cases (false
negative).
Reliable results are obtained two hours after 75 grains oral
glucose. 180 rng/dl blood is threshold value for diagnosing
diabetes.
Any organized group of the community can be the target of a
screening program for diabetes. Example: Workers covered by
health insurance, mothers attending MCH centers, school
children, labourers in factories . . . etc.
•
•
•
16
Prevention DM:
II. Secondary prevention:
b) Treatment:
Aim is to maintain serum glucose within normal:
1.by diet modification alone,
2.diet and oral hypoglycemic drugs
3.or diet and insulin.
N.B. controlled diabetics life expectation is
approximating that of general
17
Prevention DM:
• II. Secondary prevention:
c) Health education:
as in counsellig individual patients or Group education in
organized session it should cover the following: .
1. Maintain the ideal body weight
2.Train diabetic for self care as it is crucial for good
prognosis.
to stick to treatment measures
to detect dangerous signs and symptoins.
The diabetic should be able to test his blood, choose his
diet, regulate his physical activities, administer his own
-and even adjust- his daily insulin dosage.
3.Health education should also stress the use of
diabetic cards.
•
•
•
•
•
18
Prevention DM:
III. Tertiary prevention:
Treat complications and rehabilitate patient to
lead a life as normal as possible.
• periodic checkups for visual acuity (retinopathy),
renal functions (nephropathy), and testing
peripheral nerves sensation (neuropathy
• Diabetics cards which provide information
needed for emergency situations as
hypoglycemic and ketoacidotic episodes.
19
Cancer
• Cancer emerges as a major public health
problem not only in developed countries,
but also in many developing countries.
20
Cancer
• Definition:
cancer can be regarded as a group of
diseases characterized by the following:
1. Abnormal growth of cells.
2.Ability to invade adjacent tissues and
even distant organs.
3.The eventual death of the affected
patient if the tumor has progressed
beyond that stage when it can be
successfully removed.
21
Cancer prevention
• a series of measures based on medical
knowledge in the fields of prevention,
detection, diagnosis, treatment, after care
and rehabilitation.
• This aimed at reducing the number of new
cases, increasing the number of cures and
reducing the invalidism due to cancer.
• It is estimated that at least one third of all
cancers are preventable.
Cancer prevention
22
• 1. Primary prevention:
• a) Health education: tobacco and alcohol ,
hygiene , immunization , detection and
treatment
• b) Industrial and occupational control:
• c) Environmental pollution:
23
Cancer prevention
• 2. Secondary prevention
• a) Early detection of cases
• b) Treatment
• 3. Tertiary prevention:
• a) Pain relief
b) Rehabilitation and psychological
support

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preventionandcontrolofchronicdiseases-140121035128-phpapp01.pptx

  • 1. Prevention & Control of Chronic Diseases By: 1
  • 2. 2 is defined as “an impairment in body function or structure that necessitates a modification in person’s life-style or has persisted for a long length of time.” The chronic non-communicable disease
  • 3. 3 Chronic Diseases • Diabetes • Congestive Heart Failure • Hypertension • Hyperlipidemia • Asthma
  • 4. 4 Obesity • Is a type of malnutrition that is characterized by abnormal growth of adipose tissue. • This can occur due to increase in size and! or number of the fat cells. • BMI > 30 in males and 28.6 in females is indicative of obesity.
  • 5. 5 Prevention and Control: 1. Diet: Reduction in fats and carbohydrates in the diet, (especially refined foods, sweets, oils etc) is recommended both for treatment as well as prevention. Increase in consumption of dietary fibers is un-refined foods the other side of the coin. 2. Physical Exercise: Regular physical exercise like fast walking, playing out-door games like tennis, and swimming are necessary adjuvant to diet. 3. Other Measures: These include use of drugs, removal of excess fat by surgery, gastric bypass etc are tried, but have limited value.
  • 6. 6 Coronary Heart Disease CHD/IHD Definition: impairment of the heart function due to inadequate blood flow to the heart, compared to its needs, caused by obstructive changes in the coronary Arterial circulation to the heart.
  • 7. 7 Prevention of CHD: • CHD is preventable. I. Primary prevention: 1. Control of risk factors among populations: a) Dietary changes: - Reduction of fat intake (saturated, cholesterol ) - Avoid alcohol consumption. b) Smoke free society c) Blood pressure: d) Physical activity: 2. Identification of high risk groups: specific advice.
  • 8. 8 Prevention of CHD: II. Secondary prevention: Prevent recurrence and regression of CHD: a) Screening high risk groups & suitable Rx. b) Drugs, coronary surgery, pace- makers.. etc. c)Control of risk factors i.e. smoking, HTN, DM diets, exercise... etc.
  • 9. 9 Prevention of CHD: • III Tertiary prevention: Rehabilitation irreversible limitations of cardiac function through: • changes in behavior, habits, life- styles, diets, • use of drugs, • occupational rehabilitation, • control of risk factors • psychological rehabilitation
  • 10. 10 Hypertension Classification: • Normal < 120/ < 80 • Prehypertension 120-139/80-89 • Hypertension ; stage -1 : 140-159/90-99 • Hypertension ; stage -2 : > 160+/ 100 +
  • 11. 11 Management Plan • Establish Good patient relationship. • Educate patient & family on the consequences • Encourage Self monitoring. • BP goal. • Non pharmacological therapy. • Pharmacological therapy. • Simplify drug regimen. • Elderly.
  • 12. 12 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) • It is a chronic disease due to deficiency or diminished effectiveness of insulin. The disease affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water and electrolytes.
  • 13. 13 Prevention DM: • I. Primary Prevention: A) Identification of those at risk: • • 1. Individuals with positive family history 2. Those over 40 years of age. 3. Obese individuals. 4 Females with suggestive obstetric history • 5. Cases with premature atherosclerosis. B) Health education: • • • I Maintenance of optimal body weight 2. Promotion of physical exercise. 3. Diet modification. 4.Avoidance of diabetogenic drugs. e.g. contraceptive pills, corticosteroids. 5.Family life education. 6. Prevention of complicated pregnancy.
  • 14. 47 Prevention DM: • II. Secondary prevention: a) Screening: The preventive significance of early detection is two fold: 1.Discovery of the disease in its pre-symptomatic state if followed by adequate treatment minimize the danger of complications such as coma and infection. 2.Early therapy reduces the progress of disease and may reverse the pathologic changes. Chronic hyperglycemia exhausts the already weak islets of Langerhans (insulin producing cell). Diabetics with no or minimal complications at the time of diagnosis have a death rate less than one third that of patients with serious complications at time of diagnosis. All risk groups should be screened periodically. • • • • •
  • 15. 15 Prevention DM: • II. Secondary prevention: a) Screening: Tests for screening: Detection of glucose in urine two hours after a meal are considered diabetics unless proved otherwise. Mild cases may escape diagnosis when there is no glucostirea. This lack of sensitivity may miss up to 50% of cases (false negative). Reliable results are obtained two hours after 75 grains oral glucose. 180 rng/dl blood is threshold value for diagnosing diabetes. Any organized group of the community can be the target of a screening program for diabetes. Example: Workers covered by health insurance, mothers attending MCH centers, school children, labourers in factories . . . etc. • • •
  • 16. 16 Prevention DM: II. Secondary prevention: b) Treatment: Aim is to maintain serum glucose within normal: 1.by diet modification alone, 2.diet and oral hypoglycemic drugs 3.or diet and insulin. N.B. controlled diabetics life expectation is approximating that of general
  • 17. 17 Prevention DM: • II. Secondary prevention: c) Health education: as in counsellig individual patients or Group education in organized session it should cover the following: . 1. Maintain the ideal body weight 2.Train diabetic for self care as it is crucial for good prognosis. to stick to treatment measures to detect dangerous signs and symptoins. The diabetic should be able to test his blood, choose his diet, regulate his physical activities, administer his own -and even adjust- his daily insulin dosage. 3.Health education should also stress the use of diabetic cards. • • • • •
  • 18. 18 Prevention DM: III. Tertiary prevention: Treat complications and rehabilitate patient to lead a life as normal as possible. • periodic checkups for visual acuity (retinopathy), renal functions (nephropathy), and testing peripheral nerves sensation (neuropathy • Diabetics cards which provide information needed for emergency situations as hypoglycemic and ketoacidotic episodes.
  • 19. 19 Cancer • Cancer emerges as a major public health problem not only in developed countries, but also in many developing countries.
  • 20. 20 Cancer • Definition: cancer can be regarded as a group of diseases characterized by the following: 1. Abnormal growth of cells. 2.Ability to invade adjacent tissues and even distant organs. 3.The eventual death of the affected patient if the tumor has progressed beyond that stage when it can be successfully removed.
  • 21. 21 Cancer prevention • a series of measures based on medical knowledge in the fields of prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, after care and rehabilitation. • This aimed at reducing the number of new cases, increasing the number of cures and reducing the invalidism due to cancer. • It is estimated that at least one third of all cancers are preventable.
  • 22. Cancer prevention 22 • 1. Primary prevention: • a) Health education: tobacco and alcohol , hygiene , immunization , detection and treatment • b) Industrial and occupational control: • c) Environmental pollution:
  • 23. 23 Cancer prevention • 2. Secondary prevention • a) Early detection of cases • b) Treatment • 3. Tertiary prevention: • a) Pain relief b) Rehabilitation and psychological support