SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 30
After this presentation, participants shall be able to:
 Define Menopause and its transitional stages.
 Identify risk factors related to Menopause.
 Enumerate its signs and symptoms.
 Identify treatments and its management related to
nursing.
After this presentation, participants shall be able to:
 Define Menopause and its transitional stages.
 Identify risk factors related to Menopause.
 Enumerate its signs and symptoms.
 Identify treatments and its management related to
nursing.
 Menopause is the cessation
of a woman's reproductive
ability, the opposite of
menarche. varies greatly
from person to person.
Introduction

Definition




 Menopause is the physiological and
permanent cessation of menstruation due to
failure of ovarian function.
 Menopause is diagnosed when
menstruation has ceased for at least 6 up to
12 months in a woman above the age of 40
and in absence of any pathogenic cause.
 Menopause is a manifestation of the
climectric which is a transitional phase
lasting about 5 years before and after
menopause (including perimenopause,
menopause, post menopause)
Menopause
• Menopause Age
• Median - 51.4, range of 48-55 yrs
• Median for perimenopause - 47.5 years, median length
of 4 years
• Premature menopause -caused by genetic abnormalities
on the long and short arm of X chromosome
• Earlier menopause:
– surgical causation (30%)
– family history of early menopause
– cigarette smoking, blindness
– abnormal chromosome karyotype
– precocious puberty
– left-handedness
• Later age :
– obesity
– higher socioeconomic class
Ovaries becomes
unresponsive to the
FSH
FSH increase to
stimulate ovaries
Estrogen decrease as
fewer follicles mature
Irregular menstrual
period
Corpus Luteum is
produced in varying
amounts
Progesterone levels
fluctuate
Ovaries continuously becomes
unresponsive to the FSH
Fewer and fewer follicles are recruited until
no follicles develop at all
FSH and LH levels become persistently
elevated
sharp fall in estrogen Amenorrhea
Ovarian Dysfunction
Women are born with about 1.5 million
ova
At menarche ↓400,000 ova
Most women menstruate about 400
times between menarche & menopause
With menopause, the ovary is no longer
capable of responding to pituitary
gonadotropins →↓ production of
estrogen &progesterone
Types of Menopause :
Normal or natural Menopause :
Occurring between the age of 40 and 55 years with an average of 50 years
2 Premature menopause :
Menstruation ceases before the age of 40. it occurs in about 1% of women below the
age of 40.
3 Delayed menopause :
Menstruation continues after the age of 55 . The cause are
(a)Constitutional (familiar or racial)
(b)Uterine fibroids .
(c)Diabetes mellitus, and. oestrogenic ovarintumors.
4 Artificial menopause:
Caused by surgical removal of both ovaries or their destruction by radium or deep
X-ray therapy
GENERAL
 Vasomotor symptoms( Hot flashes (aka hot flushes),
 Recurrent, transient episodes of flushing accompanied
by a sensation of warmth to intense heat sensation in chest,
neck , face, and head and may spread allover the body,
followed by cold flush) .dis appear after 2 years without
treatment.
 A trophy of glandular tissue of breast
 Gastro intestinal change decrease appetite or increase
leading to obesity. dyspepsia
 Tendency to develop menopausal hypertension a estrogen
protects against athero sclerosis.
 The level of cholesterol rise and risk of coronary heart



- Public hair becomes scantly, grey or white in color.
- Atrophy of vulva with loss of subcutaneous fat.
- The vagina become narrow, smooth, thin with little
or no glycogen.
- The vaginal acidity is reduced PH become alkaline.
this predispose for infection.
- The uterus becomes small and atrophic
- The ovaries become small and fibrotic
- genital prolapse. Due to atrophic cervical ligaments
-Atrophy of bladder and urethral mucosa this lead to
-urgency, incontinence and recurrent attacks of
cystitis and urethritis




Local changes
Hormonal Changes :
-Oestrogen level is low due to absence of ovarian follicles.
-Increase in the level of follicles stimulating hormone (FSH) and
luteinizing hormone (L.H).
-Metabolic :
-Obesity, osteoporosis, joint pain and back ache and decreased
muscle strength
-sexual.
-Libido is unchanged in most cases but may increase or decrease
 Depression and/or anxiety
 Irritability
 Memory loss, and problems with
concentration
 Mood disturbance
 Sleep disturbances, poor or light sleep,
insomnia, and daytime sleepiness
Cardiovascular system changes
Genitourinary system changes
 Osteoporosis
Weight Gain
Sexual dysfunction
Cardiovascular system
changes
• Leading cause of death - twice as many women die
of cardiovascular disease than of cancer
• Incidence rates of coronary heart disease in both
men and women were similar 6-10 years after the
menopause
• Serum cholesterol increases significantly at 1-2
yrs or more after the menopause - marked by an
increase in triglycerides, an increase in LDL,
decrease in HDL - and are less cardio protective
• Atrophy of vaginal epithelium -> atrophic vaginitis (itching,
burning, discomfort, dyspareunia and vaginal bleeding)
• Urologic: 30% drop in urethral closure pressure at rest and
during stress in postmenopausal women because of atrophy of
the urethral mucosa, varying degrees of bladder and urethral
prolapsed and loss of UV angle
• Atrophic urethritis -> urgency, frequency, dysuria, suprapubic
pain, ø UTI
• Atrophic cystitis -> urge incontinence, frequency, dysuria, and
nocturia
• Descent of uterus due to decreased collagen in uterosacral
ligaments and cardinal ligament
Genitourinary system changes
Menopause &Osteoporosis
• 25% of women have radiological evidence of
osteoporosis by 60; by 80Y 1 in 4 have fractured a
hip; after age 65 1 in 3 have a vertebral fracture
• 15% of women with hip fracture after age 80 will die
of complications within 6 months
• Initial period of up to 4-5 years after the menopause
there is accelerated loss of bone at rate of 1-2% per
year; trabecular bone mainly
• Bone loss is mainly in the trabecular type while
cortical type occur later .
• Three most common fractures in postmenopausal
women - vertebrae, ultra distal radius and neck of
femur
Menopause &osteoporosis
• Risk factors:
– white or Asian
– reduced weight for height
– early spontaneous menopause or surgical menopause
– family history of osteoporosis
– low dietary calcium intake
– low vitamin D intake
– high caffeine intake
– high alcohol intake
– high protein intake
– cigarette smoking
– endocrine disorders - diabetes mellitus,
hyperthyroidism, Cushing disease
eneral (explanation & reasurance avoid factors like
erveousness, hot weather, hot bath , healthy life
yle as avoid excessive coffee or tea,
ormone Therapy(HRT with estrogen )
aginal Estrogen
ow-Dose Anti Depressant
edication to prevent or treat Osteoporesis
Management
 Complementary and alternative
medicine
Herbal preparations
Acupuncture
Hypnosis
Yoga
Management
 Encouraged regular exercise.
 Encourage family members to give
emotional support to prevent depression.
 Encouraged to take healthy and balance
diet.
 Encourage to practice relaxation
techniques and get enough sleep.
Health Education
 Instruct to get enough calcium, Vitamin
D or minerals and supplements if
recommended by the Doctor.
 Instruct to prevent smoking.
 Instruct to wear light and comfortable
clothes.
Health Education
Menopause
is a natural
biological
process.
It is not a
disease to be
treated.
Let us all
remember
….
10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx

More Related Content

Similar to 10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx (20)

Menopause
MenopauseMenopause
Menopause
 
pragya.pptx
pragya.pptxpragya.pptx
pragya.pptx
 
Menopause womens health
Menopause womens health Menopause womens health
Menopause womens health
 
menopause.pptx
menopause.pptxmenopause.pptx
menopause.pptx
 
Menopause overview
Menopause overviewMenopause overview
Menopause overview
 
Climacteric changes in males and females
Climacteric changes in males and femalesClimacteric changes in males and females
Climacteric changes in males and females
 
Menopause overview
Menopause overviewMenopause overview
Menopause overview
 
TBL 11 (AUB).pdf
TBL 11 (AUB).pdfTBL 11 (AUB).pdf
TBL 11 (AUB).pdf
 
Menopause
MenopauseMenopause
Menopause
 
Menopause
MenopauseMenopause
Menopause
 
menopause.pptxfor bscnursing students pdf.
menopause.pptxfor bscnursing students pdf.menopause.pptxfor bscnursing students pdf.
menopause.pptxfor bscnursing students pdf.
 
26- Menopausal health.ppt
26- Menopausal health.ppt26- Menopausal health.ppt
26- Menopausal health.ppt
 
Menopause and-physical-therapy-role-for-its-related-disorders (1)
Menopause and-physical-therapy-role-for-its-related-disorders (1)Menopause and-physical-therapy-role-for-its-related-disorders (1)
Menopause and-physical-therapy-role-for-its-related-disorders (1)
 
management of menopause cpg.pptx
management of menopause cpg.pptxmanagement of menopause cpg.pptx
management of menopause cpg.pptx
 
Menopause nine by sanjana
Menopause nine by sanjana Menopause nine by sanjana
Menopause nine by sanjana
 
Menopause
Menopause Menopause
Menopause
 
28.Peri Menopausa
28.Peri Menopausa28.Peri Menopausa
28.Peri Menopausa
 
Menopause
MenopauseMenopause
Menopause
 
Menopause
MenopauseMenopause
Menopause
 
Menopause
Menopause Menopause
Menopause
 

More from AbdallahAlasal1

ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptx
ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptxACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptx
ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.pptAbdallahAlasal1
 
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptx
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptxPra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptx
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptx
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptxمقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptx
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.ppt
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.pptLower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.ppt
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.pptAbdallahAlasal1
 
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptx
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptxMethods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptx
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.ppt
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.pptdigestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.ppt
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.pptAbdallahAlasal1
 
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptx
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptxProtein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptx
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).ppt
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).pptlect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).ppt
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).pptAbdallahAlasal1
 
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptx
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptxChaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptx
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.ppt
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.pptweek 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.ppt
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.pptAbdallahAlasal1
 
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx
4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx
4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
4- Bacterial Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx
4- Bacterial  Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx4- Bacterial  Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx
4- Bacterial Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptx
10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptx10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptx
10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 

More from AbdallahAlasal1 (20)

ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptx
ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptxACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptx
ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptx
 
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt
 
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptx
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptxPra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptx
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptx
 
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptx
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptxمقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptx
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptx
 
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.ppt
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.pptLower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.ppt
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.ppt
 
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptx
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptxMethods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptx
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptx
 
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx
 
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.ppt
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.pptdigestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.ppt
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.ppt
 
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptx
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptxProtein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptx
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptx
 
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx
 
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).ppt
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).pptlect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).ppt
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).ppt
 
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx
 
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptx
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptxChaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptx
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptx
 
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.ppt
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.pptweek 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.ppt
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.ppt
 
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx
 
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx
 
4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx
4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx
4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx
 
4- Bacterial Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx
4- Bacterial  Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx4- Bacterial  Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx
4- Bacterial Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx
 
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx
 
10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptx
10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptx10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptx
10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Kathleen McBride Costume Design Resume.pdf
Kathleen McBride Costume Design Resume.pdfKathleen McBride Costume Design Resume.pdf
Kathleen McBride Costume Design Resume.pdfKathleenMcBride8
 
如何办理(CSU毕业证书)圣马科斯分校毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(CSU毕业证书)圣马科斯分校毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(CSU毕业证书)圣马科斯分校毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(CSU毕业证书)圣马科斯分校毕业证成绩单原件一模一样qyguxu
 
如何办理(CBU毕业证书)浸会大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(CBU毕业证书)浸会大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(CBU毕业证书)浸会大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(CBU毕业证书)浸会大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样qyguxu
 
HCE 5400 Practice Test: Key Concepts and Sample Questions
HCE 5400 Practice Test: Key Concepts and Sample QuestionsHCE 5400 Practice Test: Key Concepts and Sample Questions
HCE 5400 Practice Test: Key Concepts and Sample QuestionsNWEXAM
 
如何办理(Wintec毕业证书)怀卡托理工学院毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(Wintec毕业证书)怀卡托理工学院毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(Wintec毕业证书)怀卡托理工学院毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(Wintec毕业证书)怀卡托理工学院毕业证成绩单原件一模一样qyguxu
 
如何办理(Galway毕业证书)爱尔兰高威大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(Galway毕业证书)爱尔兰高威大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(Galway毕业证书)爱尔兰高威大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(Galway毕业证书)爱尔兰高威大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样qyguxu
 
如何办理(UdeM毕业证书)蒙特利尔大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(UdeM毕业证书)蒙特利尔大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(UdeM毕业证书)蒙特利尔大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(UdeM毕业证书)蒙特利尔大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样muwyto
 
如何办理(UW毕业证书)西雅图华盛顿大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(UW毕业证书)西雅图华盛顿大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(UW毕业证书)西雅图华盛顿大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(UW毕业证书)西雅图华盛顿大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样muwyto
 
如何办理(UW毕业证书)滑铁卢大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(UW毕业证书)滑铁卢大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(UW毕业证书)滑铁卢大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(UW毕业证书)滑铁卢大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样qyguxu
 
ℂall Girls Baljit Nagar ℂall Now Chhaya ☎ 9899900591 WhatsApp Number 24/7
ℂall Girls Baljit Nagar ℂall Now Chhaya ☎ 9899900591 WhatsApp  Number 24/7ℂall Girls Baljit Nagar ℂall Now Chhaya ☎ 9899900591 WhatsApp  Number 24/7
ℂall Girls Baljit Nagar ℂall Now Chhaya ☎ 9899900591 WhatsApp Number 24/7gragkhusi
 
BLAHALIFHKSDFOILEWKHJSFDNLDSKFN,DLFKNFMELKFJAERPIOAL
BLAHALIFHKSDFOILEWKHJSFDNLDSKFN,DLFKNFMELKFJAERPIOALBLAHALIFHKSDFOILEWKHJSFDNLDSKFN,DLFKNFMELKFJAERPIOAL
BLAHALIFHKSDFOILEWKHJSFDNLDSKFN,DLFKNFMELKFJAERPIOALCaitlinCummins3
 
如何办理(CQU毕业证书)中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(CQU毕业证书)中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(CQU毕业证书)中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(CQU毕业证书)中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样muwyto
 
如何办理(PITT毕业证书)匹兹堡大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(PITT毕业证书)匹兹堡大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(PITT毕业证书)匹兹堡大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(PITT毕业证书)匹兹堡大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样qyguxu
 
Job Hunting - pick over this fishbone for telephone interviews!.pptx
Job Hunting - pick over this fishbone for telephone interviews!.pptxJob Hunting - pick over this fishbone for telephone interviews!.pptx
Job Hunting - pick over this fishbone for telephone interviews!.pptxJon Stephenson
 
unit-5-final-cn-unit-5-notes-important-questions.pdf
unit-5-final-cn-unit-5-notes-important-questions.pdfunit-5-final-cn-unit-5-notes-important-questions.pdf
unit-5-final-cn-unit-5-notes-important-questions.pdfradheeshyam1176
 
DOH 5S ENHANCED DENGUE PROTOCOL (1).pptx
DOH 5S ENHANCED DENGUE PROTOCOL (1).pptxDOH 5S ENHANCED DENGUE PROTOCOL (1).pptx
DOH 5S ENHANCED DENGUE PROTOCOL (1).pptxSamCuevas4
 
一比一原版(UQ毕业证书)澳大利亚昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单学位证
一比一原版(UQ毕业证书)澳大利亚昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单学位证一比一原版(UQ毕业证书)澳大利亚昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单学位证
一比一原版(UQ毕业证书)澳大利亚昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单学位证B
 
如何办理纽约大学毕业证(NYU毕业证)成绩单硕士学位证原版一比一
如何办理纽约大学毕业证(NYU毕业证)成绩单硕士学位证原版一比一如何办理纽约大学毕业证(NYU毕业证)成绩单硕士学位证原版一比一
如何办理纽约大学毕业证(NYU毕业证)成绩单硕士学位证原版一比一ovxelckll
 
如何办理(laurentian毕业证书)劳伦森大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(laurentian毕业证书)劳伦森大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(laurentian毕业证书)劳伦森大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(laurentian毕业证书)劳伦森大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样muwyto
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Kathleen McBride Costume Design Resume.pdf
Kathleen McBride Costume Design Resume.pdfKathleen McBride Costume Design Resume.pdf
Kathleen McBride Costume Design Resume.pdf
 
如何办理(CSU毕业证书)圣马科斯分校毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(CSU毕业证书)圣马科斯分校毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(CSU毕业证书)圣马科斯分校毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(CSU毕业证书)圣马科斯分校毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
 
如何办理(CBU毕业证书)浸会大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(CBU毕业证书)浸会大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(CBU毕业证书)浸会大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(CBU毕业证书)浸会大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
 
HCE 5400 Practice Test: Key Concepts and Sample Questions
HCE 5400 Practice Test: Key Concepts and Sample QuestionsHCE 5400 Practice Test: Key Concepts and Sample Questions
HCE 5400 Practice Test: Key Concepts and Sample Questions
 
如何办理(Wintec毕业证书)怀卡托理工学院毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(Wintec毕业证书)怀卡托理工学院毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(Wintec毕业证书)怀卡托理工学院毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(Wintec毕业证书)怀卡托理工学院毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
 
如何办理(Galway毕业证书)爱尔兰高威大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(Galway毕业证书)爱尔兰高威大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(Galway毕业证书)爱尔兰高威大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(Galway毕业证书)爱尔兰高威大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
 
如何办理(UdeM毕业证书)蒙特利尔大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(UdeM毕业证书)蒙特利尔大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(UdeM毕业证书)蒙特利尔大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(UdeM毕业证书)蒙特利尔大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
 
如何办理(UW毕业证书)西雅图华盛顿大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(UW毕业证书)西雅图华盛顿大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(UW毕业证书)西雅图华盛顿大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(UW毕业证书)西雅图华盛顿大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
 
如何办理(UW毕业证书)滑铁卢大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(UW毕业证书)滑铁卢大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(UW毕业证书)滑铁卢大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(UW毕业证书)滑铁卢大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
 
ℂall Girls Baljit Nagar ℂall Now Chhaya ☎ 9899900591 WhatsApp Number 24/7
ℂall Girls Baljit Nagar ℂall Now Chhaya ☎ 9899900591 WhatsApp  Number 24/7ℂall Girls Baljit Nagar ℂall Now Chhaya ☎ 9899900591 WhatsApp  Number 24/7
ℂall Girls Baljit Nagar ℂall Now Chhaya ☎ 9899900591 WhatsApp Number 24/7
 
BLAHALIFHKSDFOILEWKHJSFDNLDSKFN,DLFKNFMELKFJAERPIOAL
BLAHALIFHKSDFOILEWKHJSFDNLDSKFN,DLFKNFMELKFJAERPIOALBLAHALIFHKSDFOILEWKHJSFDNLDSKFN,DLFKNFMELKFJAERPIOAL
BLAHALIFHKSDFOILEWKHJSFDNLDSKFN,DLFKNFMELKFJAERPIOAL
 
如何办理(CQU毕业证书)中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(CQU毕业证书)中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(CQU毕业证书)中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(CQU毕业证书)中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
 
如何办理(PITT毕业证书)匹兹堡大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(PITT毕业证书)匹兹堡大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(PITT毕业证书)匹兹堡大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(PITT毕业证书)匹兹堡大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
 
Job Hunting - pick over this fishbone for telephone interviews!.pptx
Job Hunting - pick over this fishbone for telephone interviews!.pptxJob Hunting - pick over this fishbone for telephone interviews!.pptx
Job Hunting - pick over this fishbone for telephone interviews!.pptx
 
unit-5-final-cn-unit-5-notes-important-questions.pdf
unit-5-final-cn-unit-5-notes-important-questions.pdfunit-5-final-cn-unit-5-notes-important-questions.pdf
unit-5-final-cn-unit-5-notes-important-questions.pdf
 
DOH 5S ENHANCED DENGUE PROTOCOL (1).pptx
DOH 5S ENHANCED DENGUE PROTOCOL (1).pptxDOH 5S ENHANCED DENGUE PROTOCOL (1).pptx
DOH 5S ENHANCED DENGUE PROTOCOL (1).pptx
 
The Best VFX Course with Job Placement near Dunlop
The Best VFX Course with Job Placement near DunlopThe Best VFX Course with Job Placement near Dunlop
The Best VFX Course with Job Placement near Dunlop
 
一比一原版(UQ毕业证书)澳大利亚昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单学位证
一比一原版(UQ毕业证书)澳大利亚昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单学位证一比一原版(UQ毕业证书)澳大利亚昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单学位证
一比一原版(UQ毕业证书)澳大利亚昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单学位证
 
如何办理纽约大学毕业证(NYU毕业证)成绩单硕士学位证原版一比一
如何办理纽约大学毕业证(NYU毕业证)成绩单硕士学位证原版一比一如何办理纽约大学毕业证(NYU毕业证)成绩单硕士学位证原版一比一
如何办理纽约大学毕业证(NYU毕业证)成绩单硕士学位证原版一比一
 
如何办理(laurentian毕业证书)劳伦森大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(laurentian毕业证书)劳伦森大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样如何办理(laurentian毕业证书)劳伦森大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
如何办理(laurentian毕业证书)劳伦森大学毕业证成绩单原件一模一样
 

10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx

  • 1.
  • 2. After this presentation, participants shall be able to:  Define Menopause and its transitional stages.  Identify risk factors related to Menopause.  Enumerate its signs and symptoms.  Identify treatments and its management related to nursing. After this presentation, participants shall be able to:  Define Menopause and its transitional stages.  Identify risk factors related to Menopause.  Enumerate its signs and symptoms.  Identify treatments and its management related to nursing.
  • 3.  Menopause is the cessation of a woman's reproductive ability, the opposite of menarche. varies greatly from person to person. Introduction
  • 4.  Definition      Menopause is the physiological and permanent cessation of menstruation due to failure of ovarian function.  Menopause is diagnosed when menstruation has ceased for at least 6 up to 12 months in a woman above the age of 40 and in absence of any pathogenic cause.  Menopause is a manifestation of the climectric which is a transitional phase lasting about 5 years before and after menopause (including perimenopause, menopause, post menopause)
  • 5. Menopause • Menopause Age • Median - 51.4, range of 48-55 yrs • Median for perimenopause - 47.5 years, median length of 4 years • Premature menopause -caused by genetic abnormalities on the long and short arm of X chromosome • Earlier menopause: – surgical causation (30%) – family history of early menopause – cigarette smoking, blindness – abnormal chromosome karyotype – precocious puberty – left-handedness • Later age : – obesity – higher socioeconomic class
  • 6. Ovaries becomes unresponsive to the FSH FSH increase to stimulate ovaries Estrogen decrease as fewer follicles mature Irregular menstrual period Corpus Luteum is produced in varying amounts Progesterone levels fluctuate
  • 7. Ovaries continuously becomes unresponsive to the FSH Fewer and fewer follicles are recruited until no follicles develop at all FSH and LH levels become persistently elevated sharp fall in estrogen Amenorrhea
  • 8. Ovarian Dysfunction Women are born with about 1.5 million ova At menarche ↓400,000 ova Most women menstruate about 400 times between menarche & menopause With menopause, the ovary is no longer capable of responding to pituitary gonadotropins →↓ production of estrogen &progesterone
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. Types of Menopause : Normal or natural Menopause : Occurring between the age of 40 and 55 years with an average of 50 years 2 Premature menopause : Menstruation ceases before the age of 40. it occurs in about 1% of women below the age of 40. 3 Delayed menopause : Menstruation continues after the age of 55 . The cause are (a)Constitutional (familiar or racial) (b)Uterine fibroids . (c)Diabetes mellitus, and. oestrogenic ovarintumors. 4 Artificial menopause: Caused by surgical removal of both ovaries or their destruction by radium or deep X-ray therapy
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14. GENERAL  Vasomotor symptoms( Hot flashes (aka hot flushes),  Recurrent, transient episodes of flushing accompanied by a sensation of warmth to intense heat sensation in chest, neck , face, and head and may spread allover the body, followed by cold flush) .dis appear after 2 years without treatment.  A trophy of glandular tissue of breast  Gastro intestinal change decrease appetite or increase leading to obesity. dyspepsia  Tendency to develop menopausal hypertension a estrogen protects against athero sclerosis.  The level of cholesterol rise and risk of coronary heart
  • 15.    - Public hair becomes scantly, grey or white in color. - Atrophy of vulva with loss of subcutaneous fat. - The vagina become narrow, smooth, thin with little or no glycogen. - The vaginal acidity is reduced PH become alkaline. this predispose for infection. - The uterus becomes small and atrophic - The ovaries become small and fibrotic - genital prolapse. Due to atrophic cervical ligaments -Atrophy of bladder and urethral mucosa this lead to -urgency, incontinence and recurrent attacks of cystitis and urethritis     Local changes
  • 16. Hormonal Changes : -Oestrogen level is low due to absence of ovarian follicles. -Increase in the level of follicles stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (L.H). -Metabolic : -Obesity, osteoporosis, joint pain and back ache and decreased muscle strength -sexual. -Libido is unchanged in most cases but may increase or decrease
  • 17.
  • 18.  Depression and/or anxiety  Irritability  Memory loss, and problems with concentration  Mood disturbance  Sleep disturbances, poor or light sleep, insomnia, and daytime sleepiness
  • 19. Cardiovascular system changes Genitourinary system changes  Osteoporosis Weight Gain Sexual dysfunction
  • 20. Cardiovascular system changes • Leading cause of death - twice as many women die of cardiovascular disease than of cancer • Incidence rates of coronary heart disease in both men and women were similar 6-10 years after the menopause • Serum cholesterol increases significantly at 1-2 yrs or more after the menopause - marked by an increase in triglycerides, an increase in LDL, decrease in HDL - and are less cardio protective
  • 21. • Atrophy of vaginal epithelium -> atrophic vaginitis (itching, burning, discomfort, dyspareunia and vaginal bleeding) • Urologic: 30% drop in urethral closure pressure at rest and during stress in postmenopausal women because of atrophy of the urethral mucosa, varying degrees of bladder and urethral prolapsed and loss of UV angle • Atrophic urethritis -> urgency, frequency, dysuria, suprapubic pain, ø UTI • Atrophic cystitis -> urge incontinence, frequency, dysuria, and nocturia • Descent of uterus due to decreased collagen in uterosacral ligaments and cardinal ligament Genitourinary system changes
  • 22. Menopause &Osteoporosis • 25% of women have radiological evidence of osteoporosis by 60; by 80Y 1 in 4 have fractured a hip; after age 65 1 in 3 have a vertebral fracture • 15% of women with hip fracture after age 80 will die of complications within 6 months • Initial period of up to 4-5 years after the menopause there is accelerated loss of bone at rate of 1-2% per year; trabecular bone mainly • Bone loss is mainly in the trabecular type while cortical type occur later . • Three most common fractures in postmenopausal women - vertebrae, ultra distal radius and neck of femur
  • 23. Menopause &osteoporosis • Risk factors: – white or Asian – reduced weight for height – early spontaneous menopause or surgical menopause – family history of osteoporosis – low dietary calcium intake – low vitamin D intake – high caffeine intake – high alcohol intake – high protein intake – cigarette smoking – endocrine disorders - diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, Cushing disease
  • 24.
  • 25. eneral (explanation & reasurance avoid factors like erveousness, hot weather, hot bath , healthy life yle as avoid excessive coffee or tea, ormone Therapy(HRT with estrogen ) aginal Estrogen ow-Dose Anti Depressant edication to prevent or treat Osteoporesis Management
  • 26.  Complementary and alternative medicine Herbal preparations Acupuncture Hypnosis Yoga Management
  • 27.  Encouraged regular exercise.  Encourage family members to give emotional support to prevent depression.  Encouraged to take healthy and balance diet.  Encourage to practice relaxation techniques and get enough sleep. Health Education
  • 28.  Instruct to get enough calcium, Vitamin D or minerals and supplements if recommended by the Doctor.  Instruct to prevent smoking.  Instruct to wear light and comfortable clothes. Health Education
  • 29. Menopause is a natural biological process. It is not a disease to be treated. Let us all remember ….

Editor's Notes

  1. Has occurred