SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 36
ANTENATAL CARE
Objectives
At the end of this lecture, the students will be able to :
1. Identify the aim and components of antenatal care.
2. Determine the component of weight gain during pregnancy
3. Teaching advice for pregnant women during ANC
4. Recognize the danger signs during pregnancy
ANTENATAL CARE
 Antenatal care refers to the care that is given to the pregnant
woman from time of conception until the beginning of labor.
 It is periodic and regular supervision including examination
and advice of a woman during pregnancy.
 It is a preventative and cost effective service.
Goals of Antenatal Care
1. To reduce maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity rates.
2. To improve the physical and mental health of women and children.
3. To prepare the woman for labor, lactation, and care of her infant.
4. To detect early and treat properly complicated conditions that
could endanger the life or impair the health of the mother or the
fetus.
5. To Educate women on danger and emergency signs & symptoms.
6. To educate and counsel on family planning
Traditional Schedule for Antenatal care
Every four weeks up to 28 weeks gestation
Every 2 weeks from 29 weeks until 36 weeks of gestation
Every week from 37 weeks until delivery
More frequent visits may be required if
complications arise
First Antenatal Visit
• During the firs visit, assessment and physical
examination must be completed.
Including:
 History.
 Physical examination.
 Laboratory data.
 Psychological assessment.
 Nutritional assessment.
History
 Personal history
 Menstrual history
 Obstetrical history
 Family history
 Medical and surgicalhistory
 History of present pregnancy
Personal and social history
This include: woman's name, age, Education, occupation ,address ,
year of marriage, and phone number.
History Continued
 Menstrual history
A compete menstrual history is important to establish the estimated
date of delivery. It includes:
- 1-Last menstrual period (LMP).
- 2-Regularity and frequency of menstrual cycle.
- 3-Contraception method used .
- 4-Calculate expected date of delivery (EDD) Naegle's rule
As 1stday of LMP −3 months +7 days, and change the year.
Example: calculate EDD if LMP was August 30, 2021.=June 6, 2022.
History Continued
 Obstetrical history
This provides essential information about the previous
pregnancies that may alert the care provider to possible
problems in the present pregnancy. Which includes:
 Gravida, para, abortion, and living children.
 Weight of infant at birth & length of gestation.
 Labor experience, type of delivery, location of birth, and type
of anesthesia.
 Maternal or infant complications.
History Continued
 Family history
Family history provides valuable information about the general
health of the family, and it may reveal information about
patters of genetic or congenital anomalies.
Including:
- D.M.
- Hypertension.
- Heart disease.
- Cancer.
- Anemia.
History Continued
 Medical and SurgicalHistory
1. Chronic condition such as Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, and
Renal disease
2. Prior operation: as cesarean section, genital repair, and
cervical cerclag.
3. Allergies, and medications should be documented.
4. Accidents involving injury of the bony pelvis
History Continued
 History of present pregnancy
Ask the patient if she has any current problem, such as:
- Nausea & vomiting.
- Abdominal pain.
- Headache.
- Urinary complaints.
- Vaginal bleeding.
- Edema.
- Backache.
- Heartburn.
- Constipation.
Physical Examination
Physical Examination
Physical Examination
1. To detect previously undiagnosed physical problems that may
affect the pregnancy outcome.
2. To establish baseline levels that will guide the treatment of the
expectant mother and fetus throughout pregnancy
Vital signs Physical Examination
1. Blood pressure:
It is taken to ascertain normality and
provide a baseline reading for a
comparison throughout the
pregnancy.
2. Pulse:
The normal pulse rate = 60-90 BPM.
Tachycardia is associated with anxiety,
hyperthyrodism, or infection.
Vital signs Physical Examination
3. Respiratory rate:
The normal is 16-24 BPM.
Tachypnea may indicate respiratory infection, or cardiac disease.
3. Temperature:
normal temperature during pregnancy is 36.2C to 37.6C.
Increased temperature suggests infection
Cardiovascular system Physical Examination
 Venous congestion:
Which can develop into varicosities,
venous congestion most
commonly noted in the legs,
vulva, and rectum.
 Edema:
Edema of the extremities or face
necessitates further assessment
for signs of pregnancy-induced
hypertension.
Musculoskeletal system Physical Examination
 Posture and gait
Body mechanics and changes in posture
and gait should be addressed. Body
mechanics during pregnancy may
produce strain on the muscles of the
lower back and legs.
Height & weight Physical Examination
An initial weight is needed to establish a baseline for weight gain
throughout pregnancy.
 Maternal height and weight measurements to determine body
mass index(BMI).
Preconception:
 Wt. lower than 45kg, or Ht. under 150 cm is associated with
preterm labor, and low birth weight infant.
 Wt. higher than 90 kg is associated with increased incidence
of gestational diabetes, pregnancy induced hypertension,
cesarean birth, and postpartum infection.
weight Physical Examination
 Recommendation for weight gain during pregnancy
are often made based on the woman’s body mass
index.
Weight gain during pregnancy Physical Examination
Weight Gain (kg)
Pre-Pregnancy BM I
12.5- 18
Less than 18.5
11.5- 16.0
18.5- 24.9
7.0 – 11.5
25 .0- 29.9
5.0 – 9.0
30 or grater
Check of Weight gain Physical Examination
 The average weight gain during pregnancy is 11-12 Kg. (normal =
0.5 kg/wk > 20 wks)
 Range of wt gain:
 0.5 - 1.5kg during the 1st trimester
 1.5 - 4 kg during the 2nd trimester
 4- 6 kg during the 3rd trimester
 Components of increased weight:
Fetus (3.5 k gm), placenta (0.5 k gm), uterine growth (0.5 k gm),
amniotic fluid (1 k gm ),breast growth (0 .5 k gm), blood volume(l.5
L), protein retention (2 k gm) and water retention (2kgm).
Pelvic measurement Physical examination
The bony pelvis is evaluated early in the pregnancy to determine
whether the diameters are adequate to permit vaginal delivery.
Abdomen Physical examination
 The size of the abdomen is inspected for:
The height of the fundus, which determines the period of the gestation.
 Fetal lie & position.
The abdomen is longer if the fetal lie is longitudinal as occurs in 99.5% of cases.
The abdomen is lower & broad if the lie is transverse.
Fetal heart rate is inspected as evidence of fetal life
Laboratory investigations Physical examination
Test Purpose
Blood group To determine blood type.
Hgb & Hct To detect anemia.
(RPR) rapid plasma reagin To screen for syphilis
Rubella To determine immunity
Urine analysis To detect infection or renal disease.
Papanicolaou (pap) test To screen for cervical cancer
Chlamydia To detect sexual transmitted disease.
Laboratory investigations Physical examination
TORCH
T: toxoplasmosis
O:other (hepatitis A & group B streptococcus
R: Rubella
C: Cytomegaloviruses
H: Herps
Health Teaching During
Pregnancy
• Hygiene
1. Daily all over wash is necessary because it is stimulating,
refreshing, and relaxing.
2. Warm shower or sponge baths is better than tub bath.
3. Hot bath should be avoided because they may cause fatigue.
4. Regular washing for genital area, axilla, and breast due to
increased discharge and sweating.
5. Vaginal douches should avoided except in case of excessive
secretion or infection.
Health Teaching During
Pregnancy
Breast care
• Wear firm, supportive bra with wide straps to spread weight
across the shoulder.
• Wash breasts with clean tap water (no soap, because that could be
drying).
• Daily to remove the colostrum & reduce the risk of infection.
• It is not recommended to massage the breast, this may stimulate
oxytocin hormone secretion and possibly lead to contraction.
Health Teaching During
Pregnancy
Dental care
• The teeth should be brushed carefully in the morning and after
every meal.
• Encourage the woman the to see her dentist regularly for routine
examination & cleaning.
• Encourage the woman to snack on nutritious foods, such as fresh
fruit & vegetables to avoid sugar coming in contact with the teeth.
• A tooth can be extracted during pregnancy, but local anesthesia is
recommended.
Health Teaching During
Pregnancy
Dressing
 Woman should avoid wearing tight
cloths such as belt or constricting bans
on the legs, because these could impede
lower extremity circulation.
 Suggest wearing shoes with a moderate
to low heel to minimize pelvic tilt &
possible backache.
 Loose, and light clothes are the most
comfortable
Health Teaching During
Pregnancy
Sexual activity
 Sexual intercourse is allowed with moderation, is absolutely
safe and normal unless specific problem exist such as: vaginal
bleeding or ruptured membranes,
 If a woman has a history of abortion, she should avoid sexual
intercourse in the early months of pregnancy.
Health Teaching During
Pregnancy
Exercises
 Exercise should be simple. Walking is ideal, but long period of walking should
be avoided.
 Stop exercising if you experience vaginal bleeding, dizziness, chest pain,
headache, muscle weakness, calf pain or swelling, uterine contractions, decreased
fetal movement, or fluid leaking from the vagina.
 The pregnant woman should avoid lifting heavy weights such as: mattresses
furniture, as it may lead to abortion.
 She should avoid long period of standing because it predisposes her to varicose
vein.
 She should avoid setting with legs crossed because it will impede circulation.
Health Teaching During
Pregnancy
Sleep
 The pregnant woman should lie down to relax or sleep for 1 or 2 hours during the
afternoon.
 At least 8 hours sleep should be obtained every night & increased towards term,
because the highest level of growth hormone secretion occurs at sleep.
 Advise woman to use natural sedatives such as: warm bath & glass of warm milk.
 Avoid lying on your back after the fourth month, which may compromise
circulation to the uterus.
 Avoid sharply bending your knees, which promotes venous stasis below the
knees.
 Keep anxieties and worries out of the bedroom
Health Teaching During
Pregnancy
Travel
 Early in normal pregnancy, there are no restrictions while Late in pregnancy,
travel plans should take into consideration the possibility of early labor.
 Bring along a copy of the prenatal record if your travel will be prolonged in
case there is a medical emergency away from home.
 Always wear a three-point seat belt, apply a non padded shoulder strap
properly; it should cross between the breasts and over the upper abdomen,
• above the uterus
Dangerous signs During
Pregnancy
1. Vaginal bleeding.
2. Generalized edema
3. Sharp abdominal pain or cramping
4. Leakage of fluid from the vagina.
5. Severe or prolonged nausea or vomiting.
6. Symptoms of UTI; Painful urination, dysuria, and severe
backache.
7. Frequent regular uterine contraction before 36weeks.
8. No movement of the fetus.
9. High fever over 37.7 degrees Celsius.
10. Blurred vision and severe headache.

More Related Content

Similar to 4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx

Similar to 4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx (20)

Antenatalcare 161230151017
Antenatalcare 161230151017Antenatalcare 161230151017
Antenatalcare 161230151017
 
Antenatalcare 161230151017
Antenatalcare 161230151017Antenatalcare 161230151017
Antenatalcare 161230151017
 
Antenatalcare 161230151017
Antenatalcare 161230151017Antenatalcare 161230151017
Antenatalcare 161230151017
 
Antenatal care
Antenatal careAntenatal care
Antenatal care
 
Antenatal care
Antenatal careAntenatal care
Antenatal care
 
Anc
AncAnc
Anc
 
Antinatal care
Antinatal careAntinatal care
Antinatal care
 
Ante natal care-1
Ante natal care-1Ante natal care-1
Ante natal care-1
 
Safe Motherhood Part-1.pptx
Safe Motherhood Part-1.pptxSafe Motherhood Part-1.pptx
Safe Motherhood Part-1.pptx
 
Antenatal care
Antenatal careAntenatal care
Antenatal care
 
Antenatal care
Antenatal careAntenatal care
Antenatal care
 
antenatal care.ppt
antenatal care.pptantenatal care.ppt
antenatal care.ppt
 
Antenatal_Care_15-02-21.pptx
Antenatal_Care_15-02-21.pptxAntenatal_Care_15-02-21.pptx
Antenatal_Care_15-02-21.pptx
 
ANC- PRESENTATION OF ANC,PNC & DC.pptx
ANC- PRESENTATION OF ANC,PNC & DC.pptxANC- PRESENTATION OF ANC,PNC & DC.pptx
ANC- PRESENTATION OF ANC,PNC & DC.pptx
 
Lect.6 Maternal and child healthcar.pptx
Lect.6 Maternal and child healthcar.pptxLect.6 Maternal and child healthcar.pptx
Lect.6 Maternal and child healthcar.pptx
 
Lect.6 Maternal and child healthcar.pptx
Lect.6 Maternal and child healthcar.pptxLect.6 Maternal and child healthcar.pptx
Lect.6 Maternal and child healthcar.pptx
 
ANTENATAL CARE
ANTENATAL CARE ANTENATAL CARE
ANTENATAL CARE
 
Antenatal-Care-1.ppt
Antenatal-Care-1.pptAntenatal-Care-1.ppt
Antenatal-Care-1.ppt
 
Antenatal Care.ppt
Antenatal Care.pptAntenatal Care.ppt
Antenatal Care.ppt
 
Antenatal Chhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhare (1).ppt
Antenatal Chhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhare (1).pptAntenatal Chhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhare (1).ppt
Antenatal Chhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhare (1).ppt
 

More from AbdallahAlasal1

ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptx
ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptxACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptx
ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.pptAbdallahAlasal1
 
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptx
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptxPra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptx
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptx
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptxمقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptx
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.ppt
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.pptLower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.ppt
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.pptAbdallahAlasal1
 
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptx
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptxMethods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptx
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.ppt
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.pptdigestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.ppt
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.pptAbdallahAlasal1
 
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptx
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptxProtein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptx
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).ppt
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).pptlect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).ppt
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).pptAbdallahAlasal1
 
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptx
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptxChaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptx
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.ppt
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.pptweek 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.ppt
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.pptAbdallahAlasal1
 
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
4- Bacterial Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx
4- Bacterial  Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx4- Bacterial  Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx
4- Bacterial Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx
10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx
10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 
10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptx
10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptx10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptx
10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptxAbdallahAlasal1
 

More from AbdallahAlasal1 (20)

ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptx
ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptxACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptx
ACST 24.,/.,/,/,/.,,?</,/,/,/,/,2 lecture11.pptx
 
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt
11-Environmental ';l';l';l';l';Cleaning.ppt
 
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptx
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptxPra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptx
Pra;lk;lk;k;llk;lkjjk;';k';k'ctical Guide.pptx
 
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptx
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptxمقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptx
مقدمة في العلاج الطبيعي للإصابات الرياضية.pptx
 
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.ppt
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.pptLower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.ppt
Lower gastrointestinal disorders 2- week 12.ppt
 
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptx
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptxMethods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptx
Methods and Principle of sterilization (Filtration).pptx
 
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx
3 ethics in psyc;lm;l;lm;lmiuoyiuyiuhiatry.pptx
 
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.ppt
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.pptdigestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.ppt
digestion of كطمكطك"طكطكarbohydrates.ppt
 
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptx
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptxProtein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptx
Protein chemis;lk;lj;lkjtry_Lecture 1 and 2.pptx
 
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx
4_Autonomic_nervous_system_and_control_of_visceral_functions_lect.pptx
 
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).ppt
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).pptlect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).ppt
lect. 1 mental health and mental illness (2).ppt
 
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx
1-introduction to reproductive health .pptx
 
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptx
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptxChaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptx
Chaptl;k;lkl;k;lkk;lk;lk;lk;lk;lkl;ker 6.pptx
 
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.ppt
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.pptweek 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.ppt
week 9 Assessment and Management of Patients with Hypertension- crisis.ppt
 
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx
9- Introduction to Virology and Prions.pptx
 
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx
9 - sexual transmitted disease modified.pptx
 
4- Bacterial Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx
4- Bacterial  Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx4- Bacterial  Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx
4- Bacterial Stainكمنكمنكمنطكمطكنمing.pptx
 
10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx
10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx
10 - menop;kp;lk;lkkll;k'polp[o;lkause.pptx
 
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx
5- Normal lkjkljjlkjlkjMicrobial Flora.pptx
 
10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptx
10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptx10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptx
10-epilipsy and status epilipiticus 10.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Blinkit: Revolutionizing the On-Demand Grocery Delivery Service.pptx
Blinkit: Revolutionizing the On-Demand Grocery Delivery Service.pptxBlinkit: Revolutionizing the On-Demand Grocery Delivery Service.pptx
Blinkit: Revolutionizing the On-Demand Grocery Delivery Service.pptxSaksham Gupta
 
Elevate Your Online Presence with SEO Services
Elevate Your Online Presence with SEO ServicesElevate Your Online Presence with SEO Services
Elevate Your Online Presence with SEO ServicesHaseebBashir5
 
Hyundai capital 2024 1q Earnings release
Hyundai capital 2024 1q Earnings releaseHyundai capital 2024 1q Earnings release
Hyundai capital 2024 1q Earnings releaseirhcs
 
NFS- Operations Presentation - Recurrent
NFS- Operations Presentation - RecurrentNFS- Operations Presentation - Recurrent
NFS- Operations Presentation - Recurrenttoniquemcintosh1
 
Powerpoint showing results from tik tok metrics
Powerpoint showing results from tik tok metricsPowerpoint showing results from tik tok metrics
Powerpoint showing results from tik tok metricsCaitlinCummins3
 
Series A Fundraising Guide (Investing Individuals Improving Our World) by Accion
Series A Fundraising Guide (Investing Individuals Improving Our World) by AccionSeries A Fundraising Guide (Investing Individuals Improving Our World) by Accion
Series A Fundraising Guide (Investing Individuals Improving Our World) by AccionAlejandro Cremades
 
Your Work Matters to God RestorationChurch.pptx
Your Work Matters to God RestorationChurch.pptxYour Work Matters to God RestorationChurch.pptx
Your Work Matters to God RestorationChurch.pptxOs Hillman
 
Abortion pills in Muscut<Oman(+27737758557) Cytotec available.inn Kuwait City.
Abortion pills in Muscut<Oman(+27737758557) Cytotec available.inn Kuwait City.Abortion pills in Muscut<Oman(+27737758557) Cytotec available.inn Kuwait City.
Abortion pills in Muscut<Oman(+27737758557) Cytotec available.inn Kuwait City.daisycvs
 
(( wa 0851/7541/5434 )) Jual Obat Aborsi Di Surabaya - Cytotec Misoprostol 20...
(( wa 0851/7541/5434 )) Jual Obat Aborsi Di Surabaya - Cytotec Misoprostol 20...(( wa 0851/7541/5434 )) Jual Obat Aborsi Di Surabaya - Cytotec Misoprostol 20...
(( wa 0851/7541/5434 )) Jual Obat Aborsi Di Surabaya - Cytotec Misoprostol 20...Spesiialis Kandungan BPOM
 
Future of Trade 2024 - Decoupled and Reconfigured - Snapshot Report
Future of Trade 2024 - Decoupled and Reconfigured - Snapshot ReportFuture of Trade 2024 - Decoupled and Reconfigured - Snapshot Report
Future of Trade 2024 - Decoupled and Reconfigured - Snapshot ReportDubai Multi Commodity Centre
 
How Do Venture Capitalists Make Decisions?
How Do Venture Capitalists Make Decisions?How Do Venture Capitalists Make Decisions?
How Do Venture Capitalists Make Decisions?Alejandro Cremades
 
stock price prediction using machine learning
stock price prediction using machine learningstock price prediction using machine learning
stock price prediction using machine learninggauravwankar27
 
RATINGS OF EACH VIDEO FOR UNI PROJECT IWDSFODF
RATINGS OF EACH VIDEO FOR UNI PROJECT IWDSFODFRATINGS OF EACH VIDEO FOR UNI PROJECT IWDSFODF
RATINGS OF EACH VIDEO FOR UNI PROJECT IWDSFODFCaitlinCummins3
 
Global Internal Audit Standards 2024.pdf
Global Internal Audit Standards 2024.pdfGlobal Internal Audit Standards 2024.pdf
Global Internal Audit Standards 2024.pdfAmer Morgan
 
How to refresh to be fit for the future world
How to refresh to be fit for the future worldHow to refresh to be fit for the future world
How to refresh to be fit for the future worldChris Skinner
 
Creative Ideas for Interactive Team Presentations
Creative Ideas for Interactive Team PresentationsCreative Ideas for Interactive Team Presentations
Creative Ideas for Interactive Team PresentationsSlidesAI
 
Guide to Networking Essentials 8th Edition by Greg Tomsho solution manual.doc
Guide to Networking Essentials 8th Edition by Greg Tomsho solution manual.docGuide to Networking Essentials 8th Edition by Greg Tomsho solution manual.doc
Guide to Networking Essentials 8th Edition by Greg Tomsho solution manual.docssuserf63bd7
 
NewBase 17 May 2024 Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase   17 May  2024  Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...NewBase   17 May  2024  Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase 17 May 2024 Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...Khaled Al Awadi
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Blinkit: Revolutionizing the On-Demand Grocery Delivery Service.pptx
Blinkit: Revolutionizing the On-Demand Grocery Delivery Service.pptxBlinkit: Revolutionizing the On-Demand Grocery Delivery Service.pptx
Blinkit: Revolutionizing the On-Demand Grocery Delivery Service.pptx
 
Elevate Your Online Presence with SEO Services
Elevate Your Online Presence with SEO ServicesElevate Your Online Presence with SEO Services
Elevate Your Online Presence with SEO Services
 
Hyundai capital 2024 1q Earnings release
Hyundai capital 2024 1q Earnings releaseHyundai capital 2024 1q Earnings release
Hyundai capital 2024 1q Earnings release
 
NFS- Operations Presentation - Recurrent
NFS- Operations Presentation - RecurrentNFS- Operations Presentation - Recurrent
NFS- Operations Presentation - Recurrent
 
Powerpoint showing results from tik tok metrics
Powerpoint showing results from tik tok metricsPowerpoint showing results from tik tok metrics
Powerpoint showing results from tik tok metrics
 
Series A Fundraising Guide (Investing Individuals Improving Our World) by Accion
Series A Fundraising Guide (Investing Individuals Improving Our World) by AccionSeries A Fundraising Guide (Investing Individuals Improving Our World) by Accion
Series A Fundraising Guide (Investing Individuals Improving Our World) by Accion
 
Your Work Matters to God RestorationChurch.pptx
Your Work Matters to God RestorationChurch.pptxYour Work Matters to God RestorationChurch.pptx
Your Work Matters to God RestorationChurch.pptx
 
Abortion pills in Muscut<Oman(+27737758557) Cytotec available.inn Kuwait City.
Abortion pills in Muscut<Oman(+27737758557) Cytotec available.inn Kuwait City.Abortion pills in Muscut<Oman(+27737758557) Cytotec available.inn Kuwait City.
Abortion pills in Muscut<Oman(+27737758557) Cytotec available.inn Kuwait City.
 
(( wa 0851/7541/5434 )) Jual Obat Aborsi Di Surabaya - Cytotec Misoprostol 20...
(( wa 0851/7541/5434 )) Jual Obat Aborsi Di Surabaya - Cytotec Misoprostol 20...(( wa 0851/7541/5434 )) Jual Obat Aborsi Di Surabaya - Cytotec Misoprostol 20...
(( wa 0851/7541/5434 )) Jual Obat Aborsi Di Surabaya - Cytotec Misoprostol 20...
 
WAM Corporate Presentation May 2024_w.pdf
WAM Corporate Presentation May 2024_w.pdfWAM Corporate Presentation May 2024_w.pdf
WAM Corporate Presentation May 2024_w.pdf
 
Future of Trade 2024 - Decoupled and Reconfigured - Snapshot Report
Future of Trade 2024 - Decoupled and Reconfigured - Snapshot ReportFuture of Trade 2024 - Decoupled and Reconfigured - Snapshot Report
Future of Trade 2024 - Decoupled and Reconfigured - Snapshot Report
 
How Do Venture Capitalists Make Decisions?
How Do Venture Capitalists Make Decisions?How Do Venture Capitalists Make Decisions?
How Do Venture Capitalists Make Decisions?
 
stock price prediction using machine learning
stock price prediction using machine learningstock price prediction using machine learning
stock price prediction using machine learning
 
RATINGS OF EACH VIDEO FOR UNI PROJECT IWDSFODF
RATINGS OF EACH VIDEO FOR UNI PROJECT IWDSFODFRATINGS OF EACH VIDEO FOR UNI PROJECT IWDSFODF
RATINGS OF EACH VIDEO FOR UNI PROJECT IWDSFODF
 
Global Internal Audit Standards 2024.pdf
Global Internal Audit Standards 2024.pdfGlobal Internal Audit Standards 2024.pdf
Global Internal Audit Standards 2024.pdf
 
How to refresh to be fit for the future world
How to refresh to be fit for the future worldHow to refresh to be fit for the future world
How to refresh to be fit for the future world
 
(推特)Twitter账号批发(自助购买网址🎉top233.com🎉)
(推特)Twitter账号批发(自助购买网址🎉top233.com🎉)(推特)Twitter账号批发(自助购买网址🎉top233.com🎉)
(推特)Twitter账号批发(自助购买网址🎉top233.com🎉)
 
Creative Ideas for Interactive Team Presentations
Creative Ideas for Interactive Team PresentationsCreative Ideas for Interactive Team Presentations
Creative Ideas for Interactive Team Presentations
 
Guide to Networking Essentials 8th Edition by Greg Tomsho solution manual.doc
Guide to Networking Essentials 8th Edition by Greg Tomsho solution manual.docGuide to Networking Essentials 8th Edition by Greg Tomsho solution manual.doc
Guide to Networking Essentials 8th Edition by Greg Tomsho solution manual.doc
 
NewBase 17 May 2024 Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase   17 May  2024  Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...NewBase   17 May  2024  Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase 17 May 2024 Energy News issue - 1725 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
 

4 - Anten';l';l';l';\][]\[\][\][\][]\atal care.pptx

  • 2. Objectives At the end of this lecture, the students will be able to : 1. Identify the aim and components of antenatal care. 2. Determine the component of weight gain during pregnancy 3. Teaching advice for pregnant women during ANC 4. Recognize the danger signs during pregnancy
  • 3. ANTENATAL CARE  Antenatal care refers to the care that is given to the pregnant woman from time of conception until the beginning of labor.  It is periodic and regular supervision including examination and advice of a woman during pregnancy.  It is a preventative and cost effective service.
  • 4. Goals of Antenatal Care 1. To reduce maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity rates. 2. To improve the physical and mental health of women and children. 3. To prepare the woman for labor, lactation, and care of her infant. 4. To detect early and treat properly complicated conditions that could endanger the life or impair the health of the mother or the fetus. 5. To Educate women on danger and emergency signs & symptoms. 6. To educate and counsel on family planning
  • 5. Traditional Schedule for Antenatal care Every four weeks up to 28 weeks gestation Every 2 weeks from 29 weeks until 36 weeks of gestation Every week from 37 weeks until delivery More frequent visits may be required if complications arise
  • 6. First Antenatal Visit • During the firs visit, assessment and physical examination must be completed. Including:  History.  Physical examination.  Laboratory data.  Psychological assessment.  Nutritional assessment.
  • 7. History  Personal history  Menstrual history  Obstetrical history  Family history  Medical and surgicalhistory  History of present pregnancy Personal and social history This include: woman's name, age, Education, occupation ,address , year of marriage, and phone number.
  • 8. History Continued  Menstrual history A compete menstrual history is important to establish the estimated date of delivery. It includes: - 1-Last menstrual period (LMP). - 2-Regularity and frequency of menstrual cycle. - 3-Contraception method used . - 4-Calculate expected date of delivery (EDD) Naegle's rule As 1stday of LMP −3 months +7 days, and change the year. Example: calculate EDD if LMP was August 30, 2021.=June 6, 2022.
  • 9. History Continued  Obstetrical history This provides essential information about the previous pregnancies that may alert the care provider to possible problems in the present pregnancy. Which includes:  Gravida, para, abortion, and living children.  Weight of infant at birth & length of gestation.  Labor experience, type of delivery, location of birth, and type of anesthesia.  Maternal or infant complications.
  • 10. History Continued  Family history Family history provides valuable information about the general health of the family, and it may reveal information about patters of genetic or congenital anomalies. Including: - D.M. - Hypertension. - Heart disease. - Cancer. - Anemia.
  • 11. History Continued  Medical and SurgicalHistory 1. Chronic condition such as Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, and Renal disease 2. Prior operation: as cesarean section, genital repair, and cervical cerclag. 3. Allergies, and medications should be documented. 4. Accidents involving injury of the bony pelvis
  • 12. History Continued  History of present pregnancy Ask the patient if she has any current problem, such as: - Nausea & vomiting. - Abdominal pain. - Headache. - Urinary complaints. - Vaginal bleeding. - Edema. - Backache. - Heartburn. - Constipation.
  • 15. Physical Examination 1. To detect previously undiagnosed physical problems that may affect the pregnancy outcome. 2. To establish baseline levels that will guide the treatment of the expectant mother and fetus throughout pregnancy
  • 16. Vital signs Physical Examination 1. Blood pressure: It is taken to ascertain normality and provide a baseline reading for a comparison throughout the pregnancy. 2. Pulse: The normal pulse rate = 60-90 BPM. Tachycardia is associated with anxiety, hyperthyrodism, or infection.
  • 17. Vital signs Physical Examination 3. Respiratory rate: The normal is 16-24 BPM. Tachypnea may indicate respiratory infection, or cardiac disease. 3. Temperature: normal temperature during pregnancy is 36.2C to 37.6C. Increased temperature suggests infection
  • 18. Cardiovascular system Physical Examination  Venous congestion: Which can develop into varicosities, venous congestion most commonly noted in the legs, vulva, and rectum.  Edema: Edema of the extremities or face necessitates further assessment for signs of pregnancy-induced hypertension.
  • 19. Musculoskeletal system Physical Examination  Posture and gait Body mechanics and changes in posture and gait should be addressed. Body mechanics during pregnancy may produce strain on the muscles of the lower back and legs.
  • 20. Height & weight Physical Examination An initial weight is needed to establish a baseline for weight gain throughout pregnancy.  Maternal height and weight measurements to determine body mass index(BMI). Preconception:  Wt. lower than 45kg, or Ht. under 150 cm is associated with preterm labor, and low birth weight infant.  Wt. higher than 90 kg is associated with increased incidence of gestational diabetes, pregnancy induced hypertension, cesarean birth, and postpartum infection.
  • 21. weight Physical Examination  Recommendation for weight gain during pregnancy are often made based on the woman’s body mass index.
  • 22. Weight gain during pregnancy Physical Examination Weight Gain (kg) Pre-Pregnancy BM I 12.5- 18 Less than 18.5 11.5- 16.0 18.5- 24.9 7.0 – 11.5 25 .0- 29.9 5.0 – 9.0 30 or grater
  • 23. Check of Weight gain Physical Examination  The average weight gain during pregnancy is 11-12 Kg. (normal = 0.5 kg/wk > 20 wks)  Range of wt gain:  0.5 - 1.5kg during the 1st trimester  1.5 - 4 kg during the 2nd trimester  4- 6 kg during the 3rd trimester  Components of increased weight: Fetus (3.5 k gm), placenta (0.5 k gm), uterine growth (0.5 k gm), amniotic fluid (1 k gm ),breast growth (0 .5 k gm), blood volume(l.5 L), protein retention (2 k gm) and water retention (2kgm).
  • 24. Pelvic measurement Physical examination The bony pelvis is evaluated early in the pregnancy to determine whether the diameters are adequate to permit vaginal delivery.
  • 25. Abdomen Physical examination  The size of the abdomen is inspected for: The height of the fundus, which determines the period of the gestation.  Fetal lie & position. The abdomen is longer if the fetal lie is longitudinal as occurs in 99.5% of cases. The abdomen is lower & broad if the lie is transverse. Fetal heart rate is inspected as evidence of fetal life
  • 26. Laboratory investigations Physical examination Test Purpose Blood group To determine blood type. Hgb & Hct To detect anemia. (RPR) rapid plasma reagin To screen for syphilis Rubella To determine immunity Urine analysis To detect infection or renal disease. Papanicolaou (pap) test To screen for cervical cancer Chlamydia To detect sexual transmitted disease.
  • 27. Laboratory investigations Physical examination TORCH T: toxoplasmosis O:other (hepatitis A & group B streptococcus R: Rubella C: Cytomegaloviruses H: Herps
  • 28. Health Teaching During Pregnancy • Hygiene 1. Daily all over wash is necessary because it is stimulating, refreshing, and relaxing. 2. Warm shower or sponge baths is better than tub bath. 3. Hot bath should be avoided because they may cause fatigue. 4. Regular washing for genital area, axilla, and breast due to increased discharge and sweating. 5. Vaginal douches should avoided except in case of excessive secretion or infection.
  • 29. Health Teaching During Pregnancy Breast care • Wear firm, supportive bra with wide straps to spread weight across the shoulder. • Wash breasts with clean tap water (no soap, because that could be drying). • Daily to remove the colostrum & reduce the risk of infection. • It is not recommended to massage the breast, this may stimulate oxytocin hormone secretion and possibly lead to contraction.
  • 30. Health Teaching During Pregnancy Dental care • The teeth should be brushed carefully in the morning and after every meal. • Encourage the woman the to see her dentist regularly for routine examination & cleaning. • Encourage the woman to snack on nutritious foods, such as fresh fruit & vegetables to avoid sugar coming in contact with the teeth. • A tooth can be extracted during pregnancy, but local anesthesia is recommended.
  • 31. Health Teaching During Pregnancy Dressing  Woman should avoid wearing tight cloths such as belt or constricting bans on the legs, because these could impede lower extremity circulation.  Suggest wearing shoes with a moderate to low heel to minimize pelvic tilt & possible backache.  Loose, and light clothes are the most comfortable
  • 32. Health Teaching During Pregnancy Sexual activity  Sexual intercourse is allowed with moderation, is absolutely safe and normal unless specific problem exist such as: vaginal bleeding or ruptured membranes,  If a woman has a history of abortion, she should avoid sexual intercourse in the early months of pregnancy.
  • 33. Health Teaching During Pregnancy Exercises  Exercise should be simple. Walking is ideal, but long period of walking should be avoided.  Stop exercising if you experience vaginal bleeding, dizziness, chest pain, headache, muscle weakness, calf pain or swelling, uterine contractions, decreased fetal movement, or fluid leaking from the vagina.  The pregnant woman should avoid lifting heavy weights such as: mattresses furniture, as it may lead to abortion.  She should avoid long period of standing because it predisposes her to varicose vein.  She should avoid setting with legs crossed because it will impede circulation.
  • 34. Health Teaching During Pregnancy Sleep  The pregnant woman should lie down to relax or sleep for 1 or 2 hours during the afternoon.  At least 8 hours sleep should be obtained every night & increased towards term, because the highest level of growth hormone secretion occurs at sleep.  Advise woman to use natural sedatives such as: warm bath & glass of warm milk.  Avoid lying on your back after the fourth month, which may compromise circulation to the uterus.  Avoid sharply bending your knees, which promotes venous stasis below the knees.  Keep anxieties and worries out of the bedroom
  • 35. Health Teaching During Pregnancy Travel  Early in normal pregnancy, there are no restrictions while Late in pregnancy, travel plans should take into consideration the possibility of early labor.  Bring along a copy of the prenatal record if your travel will be prolonged in case there is a medical emergency away from home.  Always wear a three-point seat belt, apply a non padded shoulder strap properly; it should cross between the breasts and over the upper abdomen, • above the uterus
  • 36. Dangerous signs During Pregnancy 1. Vaginal bleeding. 2. Generalized edema 3. Sharp abdominal pain or cramping 4. Leakage of fluid from the vagina. 5. Severe or prolonged nausea or vomiting. 6. Symptoms of UTI; Painful urination, dysuria, and severe backache. 7. Frequent regular uterine contraction before 36weeks. 8. No movement of the fetus. 9. High fever over 37.7 degrees Celsius. 10. Blurred vision and severe headache.