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GEMMA
A complete range of micro diet particles for marine fish hatcheries
Optimal Development
Hatchery production demands perfect harmonisation between the different dietary and biometric requirements of marine fish larvae and juveniles. Thanks to
Skretting’s Spectrum portfolio, marine hatcheries worldwide have a wide range of possibilities to meet their demanding nutritional needs. In order to answer all
these requirements, Skretting has dedicated a complete product range, backed up with a team of specialists for marine fish hatcheries.
Strong R&D efforts from Skretting coupled with customer feedback have led to the creation of our GEMMA range to distinguish more between weaning and
pre-growing phases. Weaning represents the switch from larval nutrition with enhanced live feeds e.g. ORI-GO or with pre-starters like GEMMA Micro to juve-
nile nutrition. Once the weaning phase has been completed, juveniles can be moved onto specialized fish nutrition during the pre-growing phase where the
high growth rate potential needs to be realised while ensuring optimal fry quality and vitality. At this stage, no risk should be taken with nutrition and every effort
is made to ensure the investment made up to that point is maximized.
GEMMA Micro has been
developed to replace Artemia in the hatchery
rearing of marine larvae.
GEMMA Wean has been
developed to co-feed and wean marine larvae
during the larval rearing phases. It is the
optimal diet to follow on from rotifers and co-
feed with minimal Artemia.
GEMMA Diamond has been
developed for marine fish juveniles for pre-
growing and thus is the ideal follow on after
GEMMA Wean.
Front cover photo:
Sea bream larva
weaned at 40dph
with GEMMA Micro
18dph 26dph 58dph
Sea bass larva weaned
on GEMMA Micro
page 2
Unique Technology
Process
All GEMMA diets are produced with a sophisticated technological pro-
cess based on low temperature/micro extrusion. This technology is a
gentle process allowing maximal nutrient retention and minimizing pro-
tein de-naturation. The high quality raw materials are mixed and pulve-
rised before they undergo a micro-extrusion process at a low tempera-
ture and pressure.
The production process, coupled with the raw material selection results
in a more digestible and softer feed compared to a traditional crumble or
mini pellet. The optimised digestive and metabolisable properties create
better growth and lower FCR. Moreover, thanks to the production tech-
nology, the physical properties of the feeds are improved: slow sinking
speed is achieved and diet stability is increased without compromising
attractability.
Special Feature
A carefully selected blend of marine micro algae gives the GEMMA diets a
striking natural green colour. Marine larvae in the wild eat a wide range of
organisms including marine algae: each particle of the GEMMA diets thus
mimics the nutritional profile of the natural diet. Moreover, the marine algae
deliver a positive probiotic effect that is good for larval health and efficient
digestion, providing a significant benefit in larval rearing.
The algae also work in matrix with the other ingredients to ensure a highly
stable feed exhibiting excellent physical properties in both spreading and
sinking speed while maintaining optimal water quality.
All GEMMA diets are based on the principles and formulation of PROTEC.
GEMMA Diamond
page 3
GEMMA Micro is a patented Artemia replacement diet which represents a re-
liable optimised nutrition to follow on from rotifers, improving growth rates and
reducing costs. GEMMA Micro is a perfect transition diet between live feeds and
dry feeds which ensures maximal digestion, growth and development.
GEMMA Micro is formulated with a high percentage of soluble hydrolysed
marine proteins, marine fatty acids and phospholipids as well as with optimum
levels of vitamins, minerals and micro ingredients. The multiple marine protein
content coupled with the unique production process results in a diet which
is extremely attractive to the larvae and easily digested. As a result, enriched
Artemia nauplii can be economically and successfully replaced.
GEMMA Micro is easy to use whether feeding by hand or by automated
micro-feeders as it spreads readily on the water surface and sinks slowly and
is available in 4 ranges. With GEMMA Micro, the weaning period is short and
fry are extremely vigorous and move readily onto the next feeding phase.
40dph sea bream larvae weaned
on GEMMA Micro
Improved
performance •
Reliable quality
of the dry feed •
GEMMA Micro
19
69
119
169
219
269
319
369
419
469
519
569
619
669
719
769
819
869
919
969
1019
1
3
5
7
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47
49
51
53
55
57
59
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Total Length (mm)
GEMMA Micro
Control
SEA BREAM LARVAL GROWTH
COD LARVAL GROWTH
GEMMA Micro
Control
Degree Days
Days post-hatch (d)
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
page 4
Total Length (mm)
Product overview*
Size (µm) Proteins (%) Lipids (%) Ash (%) Fibre (%) Phosphorous (%)
GEMMA Micro 75 50-100 59 14 8 0.2 1.8
GEMMA Micro 150 100-200 59 14 8 0.2 1.8
GEMMA Micro 300 200-500 59 14 8 0.2 1.8
GEMMA Micro 500 500-800 59 14 8 0.2 1.8
*For
detailed
product
information,
please
refer
to
product
label
Released staff
time for fish
production
compared
to live feed •
Greater
production
consistency &
growth rates •
More
vigorous fry •
Reduced risk
of introducing
pathogenic
bacteria &
viruses to the
rearing system •
page 5
GEMMA Micro
GEMMA Wean
GEMMA Wean is a high end larval co-feeding
and weaning diet aimed at Artemia optimisation
and is fortified with a high level of proteins and
phospholipids. GEMMA Wean provides the early
weaned juveniles with dedicated fish nutrition
and is an ideal follow on from GEMMA Micro or
Artemia. GEMMA Wean has an optimised nutri-
tional balance and physical quality so that it flows
more freely and spreads readily on the water
surface. The balance of phospholipid classes to-
gether with the production technology based on
a low temperature extrusion process improve the
physical aspect of the pellets while still retaining
the high phospholipid content. GEMMA Wean is
available in 0.1mm, 0.2mm and 0.3mm. There is
also a 0.5mm micro-pellet, GEMMA Wean Dia-
mond, which covers the early nursery stage from
post-weaning to pre-growing.
Product overview*
Size (µm) Proteins (%) Lipids (%) Ash (%) Fibre (%) Phosphorous (%)
GEMMA Wean 0.1 100-250 62 14 9 0.5 1.5
GEMMA Wean 0.2 250-400 62 14 9 0.5 1.5
GEMMA Wean 0.3 350-500 62 14 9 0.5 1.5
GEMMA Wean Diamond 0.5 500-800 62 14 9 0.5 1.5
GEMMA Wean
page 6
*For
detailed
product
information,
please
refer
to
product
label
Highly attractive
to the fry •
Excellent
floatability •
Helps
maintain good
water quality •
Excellent
larval growth •
High quality
of the fry •
page 7
Red tilapia fry weaned on GEMMA Wean
© Til-Aqua (www.til-aqua.com)
GEMMA Diamond
GEMMA Diamond has been designed to give juveniles the best start by as-
suring fast and efficient growth and low feed conversion under pre-growing
conditions. GEMMA Diamond contains a high level of multiple marine pro-
teins and has an improved attractability and protein/energy ration for fast-
track growth thanks to the low temperature extrusion production process.
Pre-growing economics are also improved.
GEMMA Diamond is based on the principles and formulation of PRO-
TEC which supports the juveniles in facing stressful events. Consequently,
GEMMA Diamond can also be offered prior to stress-induced events.
GEMMA Diamond comes in five pellet sizes – 0.8mm, 1.0mm, 1.2mm,
1.5mm and 1.8mm – to follow on from GEMMA Wean.
Product overview*
Size (mm) Proteins (%) Lipids (%) Ash (%) Fibre (%) Phosphorous (%)
GEMMA Diamond 0.8 0.8 57 15 10 0.2 1.5
GEMMA Diamond 1.0 1.0 57 15 10 0.2 1.5
GEMMA Diamond 1.2 1.2 57 15 10 0.2 1.5
GEMMA Diamond 1.5 1.5 57 15 10 0.2 1.5
GEMMA Diamond 1.8 1.8 57 15 10 0.2 1.5
GEMMA Diamond
page 8
*For
detailed
product
information,
please
refer
to
product
label
Fast
growth • Low FCR •
Better
hatchery
economics •
Improved
fish health •
More
uniform
growth
of fish
batches •
Helps
maintain
good
water
quality •
page 9
Sea bream juveniles (7g) fed on GEMMA Diamond
Feed size (mm) Fish size (g) Feed %
SEA BREAM
GEMMA Wean Diamond 0.5 0.4-0.6 0.3-0.8 6-5%
GEMMA Diamond 0.8 0.7-0.9 0.8-1.1 4.5-5.5%
GEMMA Diamond 1.0 0.9-1.0 1.0-3.0 3.5-4.5%
GEMMA Diamond 1.2 1.1-1.3 2.5-5.0 3-4%
GEMMA Diamond 1.5 1.4-1.6 4.0-12.0 2-4%
GEMMA Diamond 1.8 1.7-1.9 10.0-20.0 2-3%
			
SEA BASS
GEMMA Wean Diamond 0.5 0.4-0.6 0.3-0.8 6-5%
GEMMA Diamond 0.8 0.7-0.9 0.8-1.1 4.5-5.5%
GEMMA Diamond 1.0 0.9-1.0 1.0-3.0 3.5-4.5%
GEMMA Diamond 1.2 1.1-1.3 2.5-5.0 3-4%
GEMMA Diamond 1.5 1.4-1.6 4.0-12.0 2-4%
GEMMA Diamond 1.8 1.7-1.9 10.0-20.0 2-3%
FEEDING GUIDELINES / RECOMMENDATIONS
Use adequate flow rates to ensure proper water quality. Recommend 8-15
exchanges per day (0.5-7grams). Position feeders close to the water surface
to use temporary floatation to improve spread and feed availability. For optimal
performance, it is crucial to adjust feeding rate according to water temperature
and the fish’s appetite.
We strongly recommend using automatic feeders as well as handfeeding.
The number of automatic feeders per tank is also critical and we recommend:
· For a 1 cu.m. tank, 1 automatic feeder
· For a 2-3 cu.m. tank, 2 automatic feeders
· For a 3-5 cu.m. tank, 3 automatic feeders
· For a 5-20 cu.m. tank, 4 automatic feeders
Ensure that the feed is distributed as evenly as possible and that feed
is presented almost continuously. We strongly advise feeding 24hrs/day
in order to prevent cannibalism until the fry reach 1.5g. Hand-feeding
should also be practised 3-4 times per day to satiation in order to gauge
feeding activity. Feeding to satiation in this way will reduce size variation.
Although fry should be fed to satiation, care should be taken not to exces-
sively overfeed. Water quality should be carefully checked and dissolved
oxygen levels maintained at optimal levels at all times.
page 10
PACKAGING AND STORAGE
All GEMMA diets are packed in food grade oxy-
gen barrier polyethylene/aluminium bags under
controlled atmosphere conditions (nitrogen gas)
in order to conserve vitamins and other sensitive
nutrients for as long as possible.
Once the bag is opened, we recommend using
it within 30 days provided it has been stored in
cool, dark and dry conditions.
All GEMMA diets have a 24-month shelf-life.
PRODUCT SIZE PACKAGING
GEMMA Micro 75 50-100µ 1kg
GEMMA Micro 150 100-200µ 1kg
GEMMA Micro 300 200-500µ 2.5kg
GEMMA Micro 500 500-800µ 2.5kg
GEMMA Wean 0.1 100-250µ 1kg
GEMMA Wean 0.2 250-400µ 2.5kg
GEMMA Wean 0.3 350-500µ 10kg
GEMMA Wean Diamond 0.5 500-800µ 10kg
GEMMA Diamond 0.8 0.8mm 20kg
GEMMA Diamond 1.0 1.0mm 20kg
GEMMA Diamond 1.2 1.2mm 20kg
GEMMA Diamond 1.5 1.5mm 20kg
GEMMA Diamond 1.8 1.8mm 20kg
Flounder larva weaned at
24dph with GEMMA Micro
page 11
www.skretting.com/spectrum

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Gemma Wean- Nutritional solution for Artemia

  • 1. GEMMA A complete range of micro diet particles for marine fish hatcheries
  • 2. Optimal Development Hatchery production demands perfect harmonisation between the different dietary and biometric requirements of marine fish larvae and juveniles. Thanks to Skretting’s Spectrum portfolio, marine hatcheries worldwide have a wide range of possibilities to meet their demanding nutritional needs. In order to answer all these requirements, Skretting has dedicated a complete product range, backed up with a team of specialists for marine fish hatcheries. Strong R&D efforts from Skretting coupled with customer feedback have led to the creation of our GEMMA range to distinguish more between weaning and pre-growing phases. Weaning represents the switch from larval nutrition with enhanced live feeds e.g. ORI-GO or with pre-starters like GEMMA Micro to juve- nile nutrition. Once the weaning phase has been completed, juveniles can be moved onto specialized fish nutrition during the pre-growing phase where the high growth rate potential needs to be realised while ensuring optimal fry quality and vitality. At this stage, no risk should be taken with nutrition and every effort is made to ensure the investment made up to that point is maximized. GEMMA Micro has been developed to replace Artemia in the hatchery rearing of marine larvae. GEMMA Wean has been developed to co-feed and wean marine larvae during the larval rearing phases. It is the optimal diet to follow on from rotifers and co- feed with minimal Artemia. GEMMA Diamond has been developed for marine fish juveniles for pre- growing and thus is the ideal follow on after GEMMA Wean. Front cover photo: Sea bream larva weaned at 40dph with GEMMA Micro 18dph 26dph 58dph Sea bass larva weaned on GEMMA Micro page 2
  • 3. Unique Technology Process All GEMMA diets are produced with a sophisticated technological pro- cess based on low temperature/micro extrusion. This technology is a gentle process allowing maximal nutrient retention and minimizing pro- tein de-naturation. The high quality raw materials are mixed and pulve- rised before they undergo a micro-extrusion process at a low tempera- ture and pressure. The production process, coupled with the raw material selection results in a more digestible and softer feed compared to a traditional crumble or mini pellet. The optimised digestive and metabolisable properties create better growth and lower FCR. Moreover, thanks to the production tech- nology, the physical properties of the feeds are improved: slow sinking speed is achieved and diet stability is increased without compromising attractability. Special Feature A carefully selected blend of marine micro algae gives the GEMMA diets a striking natural green colour. Marine larvae in the wild eat a wide range of organisms including marine algae: each particle of the GEMMA diets thus mimics the nutritional profile of the natural diet. Moreover, the marine algae deliver a positive probiotic effect that is good for larval health and efficient digestion, providing a significant benefit in larval rearing. The algae also work in matrix with the other ingredients to ensure a highly stable feed exhibiting excellent physical properties in both spreading and sinking speed while maintaining optimal water quality. All GEMMA diets are based on the principles and formulation of PROTEC. GEMMA Diamond page 3
  • 4. GEMMA Micro is a patented Artemia replacement diet which represents a re- liable optimised nutrition to follow on from rotifers, improving growth rates and reducing costs. GEMMA Micro is a perfect transition diet between live feeds and dry feeds which ensures maximal digestion, growth and development. GEMMA Micro is formulated with a high percentage of soluble hydrolysed marine proteins, marine fatty acids and phospholipids as well as with optimum levels of vitamins, minerals and micro ingredients. The multiple marine protein content coupled with the unique production process results in a diet which is extremely attractive to the larvae and easily digested. As a result, enriched Artemia nauplii can be economically and successfully replaced. GEMMA Micro is easy to use whether feeding by hand or by automated micro-feeders as it spreads readily on the water surface and sinks slowly and is available in 4 ranges. With GEMMA Micro, the weaning period is short and fry are extremely vigorous and move readily onto the next feeding phase. 40dph sea bream larvae weaned on GEMMA Micro Improved performance • Reliable quality of the dry feed • GEMMA Micro 19 69 119 169 219 269 319 369 419 469 519 569 619 669 719 769 819 869 919 969 1019 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Total Length (mm) GEMMA Micro Control SEA BREAM LARVAL GROWTH COD LARVAL GROWTH GEMMA Micro Control Degree Days Days post-hatch (d) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 page 4 Total Length (mm)
  • 5. Product overview* Size (µm) Proteins (%) Lipids (%) Ash (%) Fibre (%) Phosphorous (%) GEMMA Micro 75 50-100 59 14 8 0.2 1.8 GEMMA Micro 150 100-200 59 14 8 0.2 1.8 GEMMA Micro 300 200-500 59 14 8 0.2 1.8 GEMMA Micro 500 500-800 59 14 8 0.2 1.8 *For detailed product information, please refer to product label Released staff time for fish production compared to live feed • Greater production consistency & growth rates • More vigorous fry • Reduced risk of introducing pathogenic bacteria & viruses to the rearing system • page 5 GEMMA Micro
  • 6. GEMMA Wean GEMMA Wean is a high end larval co-feeding and weaning diet aimed at Artemia optimisation and is fortified with a high level of proteins and phospholipids. GEMMA Wean provides the early weaned juveniles with dedicated fish nutrition and is an ideal follow on from GEMMA Micro or Artemia. GEMMA Wean has an optimised nutri- tional balance and physical quality so that it flows more freely and spreads readily on the water surface. The balance of phospholipid classes to- gether with the production technology based on a low temperature extrusion process improve the physical aspect of the pellets while still retaining the high phospholipid content. GEMMA Wean is available in 0.1mm, 0.2mm and 0.3mm. There is also a 0.5mm micro-pellet, GEMMA Wean Dia- mond, which covers the early nursery stage from post-weaning to pre-growing. Product overview* Size (µm) Proteins (%) Lipids (%) Ash (%) Fibre (%) Phosphorous (%) GEMMA Wean 0.1 100-250 62 14 9 0.5 1.5 GEMMA Wean 0.2 250-400 62 14 9 0.5 1.5 GEMMA Wean 0.3 350-500 62 14 9 0.5 1.5 GEMMA Wean Diamond 0.5 500-800 62 14 9 0.5 1.5 GEMMA Wean page 6 *For detailed product information, please refer to product label
  • 7. Highly attractive to the fry • Excellent floatability • Helps maintain good water quality • Excellent larval growth • High quality of the fry • page 7 Red tilapia fry weaned on GEMMA Wean © Til-Aqua (www.til-aqua.com)
  • 8. GEMMA Diamond GEMMA Diamond has been designed to give juveniles the best start by as- suring fast and efficient growth and low feed conversion under pre-growing conditions. GEMMA Diamond contains a high level of multiple marine pro- teins and has an improved attractability and protein/energy ration for fast- track growth thanks to the low temperature extrusion production process. Pre-growing economics are also improved. GEMMA Diamond is based on the principles and formulation of PRO- TEC which supports the juveniles in facing stressful events. Consequently, GEMMA Diamond can also be offered prior to stress-induced events. GEMMA Diamond comes in five pellet sizes – 0.8mm, 1.0mm, 1.2mm, 1.5mm and 1.8mm – to follow on from GEMMA Wean. Product overview* Size (mm) Proteins (%) Lipids (%) Ash (%) Fibre (%) Phosphorous (%) GEMMA Diamond 0.8 0.8 57 15 10 0.2 1.5 GEMMA Diamond 1.0 1.0 57 15 10 0.2 1.5 GEMMA Diamond 1.2 1.2 57 15 10 0.2 1.5 GEMMA Diamond 1.5 1.5 57 15 10 0.2 1.5 GEMMA Diamond 1.8 1.8 57 15 10 0.2 1.5 GEMMA Diamond page 8 *For detailed product information, please refer to product label
  • 9. Fast growth • Low FCR • Better hatchery economics • Improved fish health • More uniform growth of fish batches • Helps maintain good water quality • page 9 Sea bream juveniles (7g) fed on GEMMA Diamond
  • 10. Feed size (mm) Fish size (g) Feed % SEA BREAM GEMMA Wean Diamond 0.5 0.4-0.6 0.3-0.8 6-5% GEMMA Diamond 0.8 0.7-0.9 0.8-1.1 4.5-5.5% GEMMA Diamond 1.0 0.9-1.0 1.0-3.0 3.5-4.5% GEMMA Diamond 1.2 1.1-1.3 2.5-5.0 3-4% GEMMA Diamond 1.5 1.4-1.6 4.0-12.0 2-4% GEMMA Diamond 1.8 1.7-1.9 10.0-20.0 2-3% SEA BASS GEMMA Wean Diamond 0.5 0.4-0.6 0.3-0.8 6-5% GEMMA Diamond 0.8 0.7-0.9 0.8-1.1 4.5-5.5% GEMMA Diamond 1.0 0.9-1.0 1.0-3.0 3.5-4.5% GEMMA Diamond 1.2 1.1-1.3 2.5-5.0 3-4% GEMMA Diamond 1.5 1.4-1.6 4.0-12.0 2-4% GEMMA Diamond 1.8 1.7-1.9 10.0-20.0 2-3% FEEDING GUIDELINES / RECOMMENDATIONS Use adequate flow rates to ensure proper water quality. Recommend 8-15 exchanges per day (0.5-7grams). Position feeders close to the water surface to use temporary floatation to improve spread and feed availability. For optimal performance, it is crucial to adjust feeding rate according to water temperature and the fish’s appetite. We strongly recommend using automatic feeders as well as handfeeding. The number of automatic feeders per tank is also critical and we recommend: · For a 1 cu.m. tank, 1 automatic feeder · For a 2-3 cu.m. tank, 2 automatic feeders · For a 3-5 cu.m. tank, 3 automatic feeders · For a 5-20 cu.m. tank, 4 automatic feeders Ensure that the feed is distributed as evenly as possible and that feed is presented almost continuously. We strongly advise feeding 24hrs/day in order to prevent cannibalism until the fry reach 1.5g. Hand-feeding should also be practised 3-4 times per day to satiation in order to gauge feeding activity. Feeding to satiation in this way will reduce size variation. Although fry should be fed to satiation, care should be taken not to exces- sively overfeed. Water quality should be carefully checked and dissolved oxygen levels maintained at optimal levels at all times. page 10
  • 11. PACKAGING AND STORAGE All GEMMA diets are packed in food grade oxy- gen barrier polyethylene/aluminium bags under controlled atmosphere conditions (nitrogen gas) in order to conserve vitamins and other sensitive nutrients for as long as possible. Once the bag is opened, we recommend using it within 30 days provided it has been stored in cool, dark and dry conditions. All GEMMA diets have a 24-month shelf-life. PRODUCT SIZE PACKAGING GEMMA Micro 75 50-100µ 1kg GEMMA Micro 150 100-200µ 1kg GEMMA Micro 300 200-500µ 2.5kg GEMMA Micro 500 500-800µ 2.5kg GEMMA Wean 0.1 100-250µ 1kg GEMMA Wean 0.2 250-400µ 2.5kg GEMMA Wean 0.3 350-500µ 10kg GEMMA Wean Diamond 0.5 500-800µ 10kg GEMMA Diamond 0.8 0.8mm 20kg GEMMA Diamond 1.0 1.0mm 20kg GEMMA Diamond 1.2 1.2mm 20kg GEMMA Diamond 1.5 1.5mm 20kg GEMMA Diamond 1.8 1.8mm 20kg Flounder larva weaned at 24dph with GEMMA Micro page 11