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Rifki
Amin
and
Imtihan
Hanim
2015
Practice
in
Grammar
I
STBA Pertiwi
Jl. Beringin Raya 16, Perum
Karawaci
Rifki Amin &
Imtihan Hanim
Practice in Grammar I
i
Practice in Grammar I
Rifki Amin
Imtihan Hanim
Sekolah Tinggi Bahasa Asing Pertiwi
ii
Language is systematically process human has. Language is a system of
communication consisting of sounds, words and grammar, or the system of
communication used by the people of a particular country or profession. It can
be inferred that communication may be happened if the people produce a
sound, word and grammar, or system which exists in the country to interact
each others.
Practice in Grammar I, the book you are reading, is one of the textbooks
containing course materials arranged by Ms. Imtihan Hanim and Mr. Rifki Amin
–two lecturers who teach English at Sekolah Tinggi Bahasa Asing (STBA) Pertiwi
Tangerang. The arrangements of these course materials have been done as one
of the attempts to fulfill the needs of the textbook containing course materials
which go along with the syllabus of the related course.
Tangerang, August 2015
The writer
PREFACE
iii
Preface ii
Contents iii
Chart of Tenses vi
UNIT 1: Simple Present and Present Progressive
A.1 The Simple Present and Present Progressive 1
A.2 Form of the Simple Present and Present Progressive 1
A.3 Non Progressive Verb (1) 2
A.4 Simple Present and Present Progressive (Short answer question) 3
A.5 Non Progressive Verb (2) 6
A.6 Using the Present Progressive with Always 8
UNIT 2: Simple Past and Past Progressive
B.1 The Simple Past 10
B.2 The Past Progressive 10
B.3 Expressing Past Time: Using Time Clauses 14
B.4 Expressing Past Habit: Used to 16
UNIT 3: Some Special Verbs and Expressions
2.3 Stative Verbs 18
2.4 Am/is/are being + Adjectives 20
2.5 Regular and Irregular Verbs 22
2.6 Regular Verbs: Pronunciation of –Ed Endings 23
2.7 Irregular Verbs: an Alphabetical List 25
2.8 Troublesome Verbs: Raise/Rise, Set/Sit, Lay, Lie 29
UNIT 4: Nouns and Pronouns
1.1 Plural Forms of Nouns 30
1.2 Using Adjectives to Describe Nouns 31
1.3 Using Nouns as Adjectives 32
1.4 Personal Pronouns: Subjects and Objects 34
1.5 Possessive Nouns 35
1.6 Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives 36
1.7 A Friend of + Possessive 37
1.8 Reflexive Pronouns 37
1.9 Singular Forms of Other: Another vs The Other 38
1.10 Plural Forms of Other: Other(s) vs The Other(s) 39
1.11 Summary of Forms of Other 40
1.12 Personal Pronouns: Agreement with Nouns 41
1.13 Personal Pronouns: Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns 42
CONTENTS
iv
1.14 Personal Pronouns: Agreement with Collective Pronouns 43
1.15 Using Reflexive Pronouns 44
1.16 Using You and One as Impersonal Pronouns 45
1.17 Forms of Others 46
UNIT 5: Future Time
C.1 Expressing Future Time: Be Going To and Will 47
C.2 Forms with Will 47
C.3 Be Going To and Will 48
C.4 Expressing Future Time in Clauses and If Clauses 49
C.5 Using the Present Progressive to Express Future Time 52
C.6 Using the Simple Present to Express Future Time 54
C.7 Present Plans for Future Activities Using Intend, Plan, Hope 54
C.8 Immediate Future: Using be about to 54
C.9 Future Progressive 57
UNIT 6: Making Comparisons
1.1 Making Comparison with As … As 63
1.2 Comparative and Superlative 65
1.3 Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives and Adverbs 66
1.4 Using Comparatives 67
1.5 Using More with Nouns 68
1.6 Repeating a Comparative 69
1.7 Using Double Comparatives 69
1.8 Using Superlatives 70
1.9 Using the Same, Similar, Different, Like, Alike 72
UNIT 7: Modals
1.1 Introduction 73
1.2 Polite Request with “I” as the Subject 74
1.3 Polite Request with “You” as the Subject 74
1.4 Polite Request with Would You Mind 75
1.5 Expressing Necessity: Must, Have to, Have got to 76
1.6 Lack of Necessity and Prohibition: Have to and Must in the Negative 76
1.7 Advisability: Should, Ought to, Had better 77
1.8 The Past Form of Should 78
1.9 Making Suggestions: Could 78
1.10 Expressing Degrees of Certainty: Present Time 79
1.11 Degrees of Certainty: Present time negative 81
1.12 Degrees of Certainty: Past time 81
1.13 Degrees of Certainty: Future time 83
1.14 Progressive Forms of Modals 84
1.15 Using Can and Be able to 85
1.16 Past Ability: Could 86
1.17 Summary Chart of Modals and Similar Expressions 87
v
UNIT 8: Present Perfect and Present Perfect Progressive
D.1 Present Perfect 91
D.2 The Past Participle 92
D.3 Form of The Present Perfect 92
D.4 Meaning of The Present Perfect 93
D.5 Using the Simple Past vs the Present Perfect 95
D.6 Using Since and For 97
D.7 The Present Perfect Progressive 100
D.8 Using Already, Yet, Still, and Anymore 102
References 103
A. Stuplg PnrsENT AND Pngssttr PnocREsstvE
A. I THE SIMPLE PRESENT AND THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
A.2 FORM OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT AND PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
EXERCISE f . Complete the sentences. Use the words in parentheses.
Use the SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSM.
l. Shhh. The baby (sleep) is sleepins . The baby (sleep) sleeps nine
or ten hours every night.
2. Right now I'm in class. I ( sit ) at my desk. I usually (sit)
at the same desk in class everyday.
3. Ali ( speak ) Arabic. Arabic is his native language, but
THE SIMPLE PRESENT (a) Ann takes shower everyday.
(b) I usually erzl lunch at the
Cafeteria.
(c) Babies cry
(d) The earth revolves around
the suR.
(e) A square has four equal sides
(f) The sky rs blue.
The simple present expresses daily
habits or usuol activities as in (a)
and (b). The simple present
expresses general statenrenls of
facts u in (c) and (d). In sum, the
simple present is used for events
or situations that exist always,
usually, or habitually in the past,
present, and future.
THE PRESENT
PROGRESSIVE (g) Ann can't come to the phone
right now because she is
taking a shower.
(h) It's noon. I am eating lunch
at the cafeteria right now.
(i) Jimrny and Susie are babies.
They are crying. I can hear
them right now. May be they
are hungry.
The present progressive expresses
an activity that is in progress (is
occurring, is happening) right
noq.The even is in progress at the
time the speaker is saying the
sentence. The event began in the
past, is in progress now, and will
probably continue into the future.
Form : am, is, are * ing
SIMPLE PRESENT PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
STATEMENT
(l-You-We-They)work.
( He - She - It) works.
( I ) amworking
(You - We - They) are working
( He - She - It ) is working
NEGATIVE
( I - You - We - They ) do not work
( He - She - It ) doesn't work
( I ) om not working
(You - We - They) are not working
( He - She - It ) is not working
QUESTION
Do ( I - You - We-They ) work ?
Does ( He - She - It ) r.vork ?
Am I working ?
Are (You * We - They) working ?
Is ( He - She - It ) working ?
right now he ( speokl English.
7.
8.
4. Our teacher (.stand, ou{ )
on the corner ofher desk-
5. It's 6:00 P.M. Marl is at honre. She ( eat I
She alrval,s f earT
6.It ( roin, not t
up right now. She ( sit )
dinner,
with her farnily around six o,clock.
blue.
right now in southern California.
)
two cups of
to work.
and the sky ( be 1
It ( rain, it )
coffee every morning before he (go)
Look out the window. ( rain, it )
Should I take my umbrella ?
9.It's7:30 A.M. and the Wilson are in the kitchen. lvlrs. Wilson (sirl
at the breakfast table. She (read)
the morning paper.
She (read) the newspaper every morning. Mr. Wilson (pour)
a cup of coffee. He (drinkl
10. There is a cartoon on TV, but the children (watch, not)
They (play) with their toys instead. They usually
(watch) cartoons in the morning, but this morning
they (pay, not) any attention to the TV.
Mr. and Mrs. Moor fivatch, not) the TV either.
They (like, not) to watch cafioons.
A. 3 NON PROGRESSTVE VERBS (t)
* Sometime think and have are used in progressive tenses.
Compare :
I think that grammar is easy. (when think means believe, it is non progressive)
I om thinking about grammar right norv. (When think expresses thoughts that
are going through a person,s mind, it can be progressive)
Tom has a car. (When hsve expresses possession, it is not used in the present
progressive)
I am having a good time. (rn certain idiomatic expressions have a good time,
have can be used in the present progressive.
ir.
(a1I hetr a bird. It is singing.
(b) I'm hungry. I tuant a sandwich.
s to Jim.
Some rvords are not used in p.ogi-siuEGnse
Correct : I hear a bird lright now)
Incorrect: I am hearing a bird (right now)
NON PROGRESSIVE VERBS
Hear believe
See think*
underslctnd
know
need
wcltlt
prefer
EXERCISE 2. Complete the sentences with the rvord in parentheses. Use the
SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSM.
1. Right norv Yoko (read1 is reading an article in the newspaper, but she
(understand, not) doesn't undersl{tnd it. Some of the vocabulary (be) is
too difficult for her.
2. Right now' | ]ook) at the board. I (see1
some words on the board.
3. | (need1 to calI my parents today and tell them about my
new apartrnent. They can't call tne because they (know, not)
telephone number.
4. This tea is good. I (like) it. What kinds is it? I (pr*4-
tea to coffee. How aboLtt you?
5. Right norv the children /De7 at the beach. They (have)
-
a beach ball, and
a good tirne. They (hava)
they (play) catclr lvith it.They (like)
play catch. Their parents (strnbathe) . They Ary)
-
to get ten. Thct (li.t'tant to some music on transistor
the sound of sea gulls and
radio. They also ftenr)
the sound of the r,vaves.
A. 4 SIMPLE PRESENT AND PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
"Short Answer to Question"
my
to
* am, is, and are are not contracted
INCORRECT SHORT ANSWER
with pronouns in short answer.
: Yes, I'm. Yes, she's. Yes, theY're'
Ouestion Shorl Answer Long Answer
SIMPLE
PRESENT
Does Bob like tea? Yes, he does
No. he doesn't
Yes, he likes tea
No, he doesn't like tea
Do you like tea? Yes, I do
No, I don't
Yes, I like tea
No" I don't like tea
PRESENT
PROGRESSIVE
Are 1'ou studl,ing? Yes. I am
No. I am not
Yes, I am studYing
Is Yoko studl ing? Yes, she is
No, she is not. OR
No, she isn't
Yes, she is studying
No, she isn't studYing
Are thev studvins'7 Yes, they are
No, they're nat.OR
No. they aren't
Yes, they're studying
No, they aren't
studying
-.EXERCISE 3. Complete the sentences with the word in parentheses. Also give
short answer to the question as necessary. Use the SIMPLE
PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSM.
(Mary, have) Does MarY have a bicYcle?
Yes, she does . She (have) has a ten-speed bike'
(it, rain) right now?
No, . At least, | (think, not)
(you, like) sour oranges?
. | (ike) sweet ones.
t.A
B
2,A
B
3.A
B
4.A
B
5.A
B
6, A:
B
(yourfriends, write)
Yes,
time
.l ket)
a lot of letters?
lots of letters all the
a test in class right now?
an exercise.
(the students, take)
No,
(you, know)
.They (do)
--. EXERCISE 4. Complete the sentences with the word in parentheses. Use the
SIMPLE PRESENT oT the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE. SOME Of thE
sentences are negative. Some of the sentences are questions. Supply
the short answer to a question if necessary.
Tom Adams?
I've never met him.
No,
Where are the children ?
In the living room.
What are they doing ? (lheY, watch)
No, They (play)
Shhh. I (heor)
it, too ?
Yes,
My Sister (have)
(You, have)
LA
B
A
B
2.A
B
3.A
B
A
B
4.A
B
A
No, but I have ten-sPeed bike.
shhh.
TV?
a game.
a noise. (you, hear)
I wonder what it is.
a new car.she bought it last month.
acar2
?
No, Do you ?
Why? (the baby, sleeP)
Uh-huh. She (take) her afternoon naP.
B
5.A
B
6,A
B
A
B
A
.B
A
7, A
B
A
8.A
B
A
B
A
B
I (think, not)
I (think)
happened during the day. I (think, not)
problem.
(You, see)
Which man? The man in the brown jacket?
No,l (talk)
the blue skirt.
Oh, that man.
(You, know)
Okay, I'll talk softly. | (want, not)
What (you, think)
you fall a sleep ?
No, | (think, not)
I (know, not)
Ron, (be)
No,
to me. Maybe it ftelong)
to wake her up.
about every night befbre
about all ofthe pleasant things that
about my
that man over there?
about the man who (wear)
him ?
so.
him either.
this your hat?
.lt (belong, not)
to
Kevin. Why don'
Okay.
A penny for your
Huh?
What (you, think)
t you ask him about it?
thought.
I (believe, not)
But it's true.
about right now?
about anything else right now.
you!
her hair.
EXERCISE 5. Use either the SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT
PROGRESSIVE of the verbs in parentheses
1. Diane can't come to the phone because she (wash)
2. Diane (wash) her hair every other day or so.
3. Kathy (sit, usually) in the front rgw during class, but
today she (sit) in the last row.
to concentrate.
4. Please be quiet.l (try)
5. (Lock, you, altt,tty.s) the door to your apartment when
you leave?
6. Iwrotetomylriendlastli'eek.shehasn'tans*'eredmyletteryet.Iftuait,stilll
for a reply.
7. After three days of rain. I'm glad that the sun (shine) again today.
8. Every morning, the sun (shine) in my bedroom
window and fivake1
9. A: Look! It (snox,,)
B : It's beautiful! This is the first time I've ever seen snow. h. (snow, not)
tn my country
rne Llp.
10. Mike is a student, but he (go, not)
because it's summer. He bttendl
to school right now
college from
Septernber to May every year, but in the sumtller he (have, usually)
ajob at the post office.
A. s NON PROGRESSTVE VERBS (2)
* Verbs with an asterisk are also comtnonly used as progressive verbs, u,ith a diftbrence in meaning, as
in the following examples.
NON PROGRBSSIVE
(a). Ali knows this grammar
Sotne verbs are non progressive. They are not used in
any ofthe progressive tenses. These verbs describe states
(i.e., conditions that exists) activity that are in progress.
In (a) : "Ali knows" describes a mental state that exist.
PROGRESSIVE
(b) Kim is reading about these
gramlllar
COMPARE : In (b) : "Kirn is reading" is an activity in
progress. Progressive tenses can be used with the verb
read but not with the verb know.
COMMON NON PROGRESSIVE VERBS
Mental State
know believe lmaglne want
realize feel doubt need
understand SLIDOOSC remember orefer
recognlze think* forset mean
Emotional State
love hate fear mind
like dislike enw care
aonreciate
Possession possess have* own belong
Sense Perception
taste * hear see*
smel[* f,eel
Other Existing States
seem cost be* consist of
look* owe exist contain
aDpear weigh* include
NON PROGRESSIVE
(Existins State)
PROGRESSIVE
(ActiviN in progress)
think I think he is a kind man I am thinking about this grammar
have He hus a car I om having trouble / She is having a good time
taste This food tastes good The chef rs tasting the sauce.
smell These flowers smell good Tom ir smelling the roses
see I see butterfly. Do you see it? The Doctor b seeins the patient.
feel The cat's furfeels soft Sue is feelins the cat's fur
look She /oa*s cold. I om lookins out tlie window
appear He appears to be asleep The actor is appearing on the stage
weish A piano is heavy. lt weiglts a lot The grocer is-yeiglrins the bananas
be I amhungr) Tom rs Deiag foolish+*
** COMPARE :
(a) Bob is foolish : Foolishness is one of Bob's usual characteristic.
(b) Tom is being Foolish = right nolv, at the moment of speaking. Tom is doing something that the
speaker considers fool ish.
The verb'be (+ an adjective) is used in the progressive to describe a ternporary characteristic. Very few
adjectives are used with be in the progressive : some of the most common are : foolish, nice, kind, lazy,
careful, patient, silly, rude, polite, impolite.
EXERCISE 6. Use either the SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT
PROGRESSIVE of the verbs in parentheses
I can't afford that ring. lt (cost) costs too much.
Look! lt (begin) to rain. Unfortunately,l (have, not)
my umbrella with me. Tom is lucky. He (wear)
a raincoat.
3 I (own, coat) an umbrella .I (wear)
a waterproof hat on rainy days.
Right now, I (look) around the classroorn. Yoko
(write) in her book. Carlos ftite)
his pencil. Sam (scratch) his head.
lohn (stare) out the window. He (seem)
to be daydreaming, but perhaps he (think)
hard about verb tenses. What (think, you)
John (do)
There is a book on my desk, but it (belong, not) to me.
Dennis (fix) the roofofhis house today, and he (need)
some help. Can you help him ?
7 Barbara (tutor, often) other students in her math
1
2
5
6
assignments
they (work)
noa
on in
because she (unclerstand,
their class this week.
the material
8 Right now I (look)
right now.
Who is that woman who (stand)
at Janet. She (look)
angry. I wonder what's the matter. She (have)
a frown on her face. She certainly (have, not) any
fun
9A
B
A
B
Which woman? (talk, you)
(wear)
No,l (talk, not)
woman who (wear)
Oh. | (know, not)
next to the rvindow?
about the woman who
the blue and gold dress ?
about her. I (mean)-the
the blue suit.
| (recognize, not)
her.
A. 6 USING THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE WITH ALWAYS
* COMPARE :
- "Mary is always leaving her dirfy socks on the floor" (expresses annoyance)
- "Mary always leuves her dirty socks on the floor" is a statement of fact in which the speaker is
not necessarily expressing an attitude of annoyance. Annoyance may, however be included in
the speaker's tone voice.
EXERCISE 7. Supply the SIMPLE PRESENT or the SIMPLE PROGRESSM
form of the verb. In a few sentences either form may be used.
Examples :
a. The milk (taste) tastes sour
b. She (taste) is tasting the soup to see if it needs more salt.
c. The wind (blow) is blowing very hard outside.
l. The play (begin) now.
2. She (try) to finish her work earlY todaY.
colder and colder.
to see you again
3. lt (get)
(a) Mary always leaves for school at7:45
In sentences referring to the present time,
usually the simple present is used with
always to describe habitual or every day
activities. as in (a)
(a) Mary is always leaving her dirty socks
on the floor for me to pick up!
Who does she think I am ? Her maid ?
In special circumstances, a speaker may use
the present progressive with always to
complain, i.e., to express annoyance or
anger, as in (b)
(c) I am always /forever / constantly picking
up Mary's dirty socks!
In addition to always, the wordforever and
constantly are used with the present
Drogressive to express annoyance.
4. | (hope)
5.
6.
ll.I (see)
We (plan)
21. All the str,rdents (have)
22. At present he (ive)
23.You (waste)
24. Many people (e"joy)
25. American (ce le brate)
26. She always (interfere)
to buy a house soon.
faster when they are interested in
to the movie tonight.
a nap every afternoon.
some loud noise outside.
to the radio.
some children outside.
the children outside.
he will be here soon.
his father very much.
now why he was angry.
he can do it for you.
entering the university.
a book in Africa.
about?
of the new plan ?
a good time at the party.
in California.
your time doing it.
going to the beach.
independence Day on July 4.
in other people's affairs.
at a very luxurious hotel.
too much money on clothes.
to take my keys when I
the house.
in the east and (set)
Children (earn)
what they (study)
7. We (go)
9. I (hear)
8. She (take)
10. He (isten)
12.l (t,atch)
13.I (believe) _
14. He (admire)
15. We (understand)
18. He (write)
17. She (consider)
16.He (say)
27.He (stay)
19. What (you think)
20. What (you think)
28. She (spend)
29. I sometimes (forget)
(eave)
30. The sun (rise)
in the west.
B. Srupt-s Pnsr AND Pnsr PnocnssstvE
B. I SIMPLE PAST
8.2 PAST PROGRESSIVE
EXERCISE 1. All of the following sentences have inaccurafe information.
Correct them by :
a). writing a negative sentences, and
b) rvriting an affinnative statement with accurate information.
l. Thomas Edison invented the telephone.
(a) Thomas Edison didn't invenl the telephone
(b) Alexander Graham Bell invented tlte telenltone
2. Rocks float.
SIMPLE PAST
a) I wolked to school yesterday
b) He lived in Paris tbr ten years,
but norv he is living in Rome
c') | bougltt a nev car three days ago.
The simple past indicates
that an activitv' or
situation began and
ended ctt o particttlar
time in the past.
d) I stoorl under a tree when it begon
lo rain.
e) When I dropped my cup, the coffee
spilled on nry lap
Ifa sentence contains
wlten and has the simple
past in both clauses, the
action in the "wlren"
clause happen first.
Ind):
I'r : the rain began
2nd : I stood under a tree.
I studied last night
^.
PAST PROGRESSIVE
a) I was walking down the street
rvhen it began to rain.
b) ll/hile I was walking dou,n the
street it began to rain
c) I was standing under a tree
rvhen it began to rain.
d) At 8 o'clock Iast night, /wrs
studying.
e) Last year at this time, l wcs
0ttenlins school.
In (a) :
l": I rvas walking down the street
2nd : it began to rain.
In other rvords, both actions
occurred atthe same tinre, but
one octions began earlier and
was in progress v,lten the other
actiott occurred.
I was studylag when they
came
L-
x
tJ While I was studying in one
loom olour apartment, my
roommate was lraving aparly
in other room.
Sometimes the past progresslve
is used in both parts ofa
sentence when trvo actions are in
nrosress simultaneouslv.
g) ll rained this morning
h) It rr.,cs ruining this morning
In some cases, the simple past
and the past progressive give
almost the same meaning. As in
(s).(h)
(o)
(b)
3. Wood sinks
(a)
4. You took a taxi to school todav.
(a)
5. You're sitting on a soft, comfortable sofa
(a)
EXERCISE 2. IRREGULAR VERBS. Complete the sentences by using the
SIMPLE PAST of the given vertrs. Use each verb only one time.
begin = go read
cul hold = shake :
drink : keep = shut
eat lose : speak:
find : meet = spend :
(b)
(b)
(b)
l. Sue
2. We
3. When it
windows in the apartment.
4, I
me to Them.
5. Jack
a cup of coffee before class this morning.
a delicious dinner at a Mexican restaurant last night.
to rain yesterday. I all of the
Jennifer's parents when they visited her. She introduced
his pocketknife at the park yesterday. This morning he
back to the park to look for it. Finally, he
_it in the grass. He was glad to have it back.
6. I don't have any money in my pocket. I my last dime
yesterday. I'm flat broke.
7. Peter was nervous when he
time.
his baby in his arms for the first
8. When I introduced Tom to Ryan, they hands and smile
each other.
9. I an interesting article in the newspaper yesterday.
10. Jessica didn't throw her old shoes away. She them because they
were comfortable.
EXERCISE 3. IRREGULAR VERBS. Completes the sentences by using the
SIMPLE PAST of the given verbs. Use each verb only one time.
I dropped my favorite vase. [t fell on the floor and
hundred pieces.
When I went shopping yesterday, I a cooking pot.
Alex-hisbooktoclasswithhim.Hedidn,tforgetit'
The police
The sun
the bank robbers. They are in jailnow.
at 6:04 this rnorning.
My dog-- a hole in the yard and buried his bone.
Last night I had a good night's sleep. I nine hours.
Ms. Manning chernistry at the local high school last year.
My brother and his wife to our apartment for dinner last
night.
It was really cold yesterday. The temperature was three below zero. I nearly
to death rvhen I rvalked home!
Today Paul has on slacks and a sportjacket, but yesterday he
and sweatshirl to class.
Jeans
I l.
12.
13.
Last night around midnight, when I was sound sleep, the telephone
.lt me up
I about going to Florida for my vacation, but I finally
decided to go to Puerto Rico.
14. I
think =
wake:
evenrng.
a letter to my folks after I finished studying yesterday
EXERCISE 4. Complete the sentences with the words in parentheses. Use the
SIMPLE PAST or the PAST PROGRESSM.
1. At 6:00 P.M, Bob sat down at the table and began to eat. At 6:05, Bob (eat)
dinner.
2. While Bob (eat) dinner, Ann (come)
through the door.
3. In other words, when Ann (come) through the door. Bob (eat)
dinner.
4. While Bob (sleep) the phone (ring)
5.Inotherwords,whenthephone(ring)-Bob(sleep)-
6. Sally (eat) dinner last night when someone (knock)_
on the door.
7. I began study at seven last night. Fred (come)_ at seven-thirty.
I (study) when Fred (come)
8. While I (study) last night, Fred (drop by)_
to visit me.
9. My roommate's parents (call) him last night while we
(watch) ____ _ TV.
I0. Bob left his house at 8:00 A.M and (begin) to walk to class.
I 1. Bob went to bed at l0:30. At 1 I :00 (sleep)_
12. My mother called me around five. My husband came home a little after that.
When he (come) home, I (talk)
my mother on the phone.
to
B. 3 EXPRESSING PAST TIME : USING TIME CLAUSES
a) When I went to Chicago, I visited my uncle
b) I visited my uncle when I went to Chicago
- When I went to Chicago = a time
Clause
- I visited my uncle : a main
Clause
a and b have the same meaning.
c) After eating dinner, she went to the library.
d) Mary went to the library after she ate dinner
e) While I was watching TV, the phone rang.
f) The phone rang while I was watching TV
g) When the phone rang, I was watching TV
h) I was watching TV when the phone rang
Put a comma at the end of a time
clause when the time clause comes
first in first in a sentence (comes
in front of the main clause)
Time clause + comma * main clause
Main clause + No comma + time
clause
i) When the phone rang, I answered it.
In a sentence with a time clause
introduced by when, both the time
clause verb and the main verb can
be simple past. In this case, the
action happened first in i): First:
the phone rang. Then = I answered
it.
EXERCISB 5. Combine the fwo sentences into one sentence by using time clauses.
l. First : I got home
Then:latedinner
a)
b)
2. First : I
Then:
a)
b)
After I got ltome,I ote dinner
I nte dinner sfter I got home
washed dishes
I watched TV
After
ufter
3. First : I unplugged the coffee pot
Then : I left my apartment this morning.
a)
b)
4. First :
Then:
a)
Before
beforc
I was eating dinner
Jim came
While
b) while
EXERCISE 4. complete the sentences with the correct form of the word in
parentheses.
l. Last Friday was a holida),. It (be) Iir.Jependence day,
2. so, I didn't have to go to classes. I (sleep) _ - a little
3. Iater than usual. Around ten. my friend Larry (corre i
4. over to my apartrnent. we (pack)_---* a picnic basket and
5. then (take) the bLrs to Forest park.
6. We (spend)______ mcst olthe da-.,,there.
7. When we (get)___ , . tr-.1hr i-:ark-. 1,e (tlldi_
8. an empty picnic tabie r:r,lrr i.i !,;r;riri i iiere were some ducks on
9. the pond. so we (feed)_ , , ihcrri.
10. we (thro*i-_--_ srrali pieces of'bread on the water, and the
I 1. ducks (swim) r," ei i..: get them- One duck is very clever.
12. It (catch) __-_
13. ir (hir)_ _ -
I'r'
the bread before
the water. Another duck lvas a thief.
14. It (steal) bread from the beaks ofother ducks.
15. While we (feed) __ the dLrcks, Larry and I (rneet)_a
16. man who usuali,r,(come)-- to the park everyday to feed
17 . the duck. We (sit)_ on a park bench and (speak)_
18. to hiil ibr fifieen or twentv minutes.
19. After we (eat) our Iunch,
20. I (rake) a short nap under a tree,
21. While I (sleep)
22. a mosquito (bire) rnv arm.
23. When I (rvake) up, rxy arm itched, so I scratched it.
a noise in the tree above me.
24. Suddenl), I (hear)
25. I (look) up and
an orange and gray bir
26. (see) d
away.
many things.
27 . After a few moments, it (fly)
28. During the afternoon, we (do)
29.Then, we (take) a long walk.
back to our picnic table,
30. When lve (get)
31. I (read)
32. who (be)
33. (draw)
34.Later rve (play) _
35. Larry (rvin)
36. (win)
39.
40. We finally (find)
41. In the evening, we (oin)
42.the fireworks display. The fireworks (be)
43. Some of the explosions (be)
44. they (hurt) my ears.
45. When
46. We (le
a7. h (bie)
the display (be)
a book, andLarry,
an artist,
pictures.
a game of chess.
the first game, but i
tlre second one.
me how to play a new game, one
this new game, one of the dice (fall)
frorn the picnic table onto the ground.
it in some tall grass.
a huge crowd to watch
beautiful.
37. Then he (teach)
with dice
38. While rve (play)
very loud, however,
over,
ave)
8.4 EXPRESSING PAST HABIT : USED TO
EXERCISE 5. Make sentences with similar meaning by using used to, Some of the
' sentences are negatives, and some of them are question.
1. When I was a child, I was shy, now I'm not shy.
D I used to be shy, but now I'm not shy.
2. When I tive in my hometown, I went to the beach every weekend.
all in all.
a very enjoyable day.
a) I used to live with rny parents. Now I live
in my own apartment.
b) Ann used to be afraid of dogs, but norv she
like doss.
Used to expresses a past situation or habit.
Form:
Used to + the simple form of verb.
c) Did you use to live in Paris?
Question form :
Did + subiect+ use to
d) I didn't use to drink coffee at breakfast, but
now I always have coffee in the morning.
Negative form :
didn'l use to / never used lo
>I to be the beach every weekend, but now I
don't.
3. Rita worked in a law office for many years. Now she doesn't have a job.
) Rita in a low office, but now she doesn't.
4. When I was in high school, I wore a uniform to school.
>I a uniform to school, but now I didn't.
5. Sara has two cats that she enjoys. In the past, she hated cats. cats are her first
pets.
) Sara cats. She pets, but today she enjoys
her two cats.
EXERCISE 6. Complete the sentences. Each sentences should have a form of
used to. Add your own words.
l. I used to ride my bicycle to work, but now I take the bus.
2. What time did you use to go to bed when you were a child?
3. I didn't use to stav uo past midnight, but now I often go to bed very late.
4, I wild and reckless when I was younger, but now I'm not.
tennis after work everyday, but norv he doesn't.
6. I used to spend a lot of tdme with_, but now
7. When you were little kid, what after school ?
8. Ann most of her lunches and dinners at restaurants
before she got married.
9. What for fun when you were
10. I didn't use to , but
5. Tom
T]IIT II
NOUNS AND PRONOUNS
EXERCISE I-PRETEST: Idenrifo each italicized word in the sentences as a
r NOUN
. ADJECTIVE
e PREPOSITION or
o PRONOLIN
l. Eric is wearing a new shirt today- shirt noun
2. Algeria is in North Africa. in preposition
3. Steve is in Asia. I/e is traveling. he proBoun
4. l'mthirsty. thirstY adiective
5. We have class in this room every day. room
6. I know my wry to Joanna's house. way
7. T"he happy chrldren squealed with joy. happy
8. I walked to class withMaia. with
9. Hawaii has eight principal islands. islands
10. The hungry man stuffed his mouth with rice. hungry
Japan.
I l. Tokyo is the capital of JaPan.
12. Athens is a beautiful citY beautifrrl
13. My history book is under my desk. undeq
14. Do you like classical music? muslc
15. I don't eat sour oranges. I don't like them. them
I.I.PLURAL FORMS OF NOUNS
SINGT]LAR PLURAL
(a) one bird two birds
one street two streets
one rose two roses
To make rnost nouns plural, add-s.
(b) one dish two dishes
one match two matches
one class two classes
onebox twoboxes
Add-es to nouns ending in -sh, -ch, -ss,
and -x.
(c) one baby two babies
one city two cities
Ifa noun ends in a consonant * -y, change
the n to si'and --es.
(NOTE: If -y is preceded by a vowel, add
onlv-*: bovs. dovs. kevs.
(d) one knife two knives
one shelf two shelves
If a noun ends in -fe or -f, change the
ending -ves. (Exception: beliefs, chiefs,
roofs. cuffs.)
(e) one tomato two tomatoes
one zoo two zoos
one zero two zeroes /
zeros
The plural from of nouns that and in -o is
sometimes -oes and sometimes -og.
-06: lomalo6, pototoes, heroes, echoes,
mosquitoes
4s: zoos, radlos, studios, Dlanos, solos,
soptanos, photos, autos
4es or -rs.' zrroedzeros, volcanoes
rlo lc a no s, to r nado es/t o rn a do s
(0 one child two children
one foot two feet
one goose two geese
one man two men
one mouse two mice
one tooth two teeth
one woman two women
two oeoole
Some nouns have irregular plural forms.
(NOTE: The singular form of people can
be person, women, mon, child.. For
example, one man and one child : two
people.)
(g) one deer two deer
one fish two fish
one sheep two sheep
one offspring two offspring
one soecies r two soecies
The plural form of some nouns is the same
as the singular form.
(h) one bacterium two bacteria
one cactus two cacti
one crisis two crises
one two
ohenomenon ohenomena
Some nouns that English has borrowed
from other languages have foreign plurals.
EXERCISE 1: Write the plural forms ofthe nouns.
l. one potato, two notstoes
a_dormitory, many
3. ciiie ch(I4lwo
4. a leal a lot of
5. a wis[ many
6. one fis[ two
7. an opinion, many
8. a mouse, several
9. a sandwich, some
10. a mar4 many
I l. one woman, two
12. a flash, three
13. one tomalo, a few
14. one tooth, two
16. atax, a lot of
17. a possibility, several
18. a thief, many
19. a volcano, many
20. a goose, a lot of
21. anattorney, a few
22. a bulterfly, several
23. one category two
24. a mosquito, a lot of
25. one sheep, two
26. a wolf, some
27. one stitch, two
28. one foot, three
29. one piano, two
15. one half, two 30. a belief, many
1.2. USING ADJECTTVES TO DESCRIBE NOUNS
(a)Bob is reading u
o{N" . |!Sf
Words that describe nouns are called
adjectives. In (a): good is an adjective;
it describes the book.
(b) The tall womnn wore a new dress.
(c) The short woman wore an old
dress.
(d) The young womnn wore a short
dress.
We say that adjectives '.modifu,,
nouns. "Modifir" me&ns "change a
little." Ax adjective changes the
meaning of a noun by giving more
information about it.
(e) Roses are beaudful flowers.
INCORRECT: Roses are beautiful
flowers.
Adjectives are neither singular nor
plural. They do NOT have a plural
form.
(0 He wore a tthite shin.
INCORRECT: He wore a shirt
white.
(g) Roses ore beautiful.
(h) His shirt was white.
Adjectives can come immediately
before nouns, as in (f).
Adjectives can also follow main verb
be, as in (g) and (h).
EXERCISE 2: Find the ADJECTTVES (ADJ) in the sentences. AIso discuss
subjects, verb, and objects.
l. The students wrote ttig compositions.
2- Deserts are dry.
3. The audience laughed at the funnyjoke,
4. Sensible people wear comfortable shoes
5. Knives are sharp.
6. Crocodiles have big teeth.
7. Dark places frighten small children.
8. Steve cleaned the shelves of the refrigerator with soapy water.
9. The local police searched the stolEh car for illegal drugs.
10. Before the development of agriculture, primitive people gathered wild plants for
food.
I.3. USING NOUNS AS ADJECTTYES
(a) I have a flower garden.
(b) The shoe srore also sells socks.
(c) INCORRECT: a flowers garden.
INCORRECT: the shoes store.
Sometimes words that are usually used as
nouns are used as adjectives. For example,
flower is usually a noun, but in (a) it is
used as an adjective to modify garden.
When a noun is used as an adjective, it is
singular in fonn, NOT plural.
EXERCISE 3: Identi$ the nouns. Use a noun in the first sentence as an adjective
in the second sentence,
NOUN N(X'N NOUN NOUN
l. My earden has veeetable. It is a vesetable garden.*
2- The program is on television. It's a
3. He climbs mountains. He is a
program.
climber.
4.
5.
The lesson concerned history. It was a
Tom works for the goverrlment. He is a
8. Janet forecasts the weather. She's a
9. This book is about grammar- It's a
lesson.
worker
6. The soup has beans. It is soup
7. The factory makes automobiles. It's an factory
forecaster.
book
10. Flags fly from poles. Many government buildings have poles.
* When one noun modifies another nourq spoken stress is usually on the first noun: a vegetable
gsrden
EXERCISE 4: The following sentences have many mistakes in the use of nouns.
o Findeachnoun.
o Decide if the noun should be plural.
o Write the correct plural form as necessary.
Do not change any of the worlds in the sentences.
l. The mountain in Chile are beautiful.
-+ The mountains in Chile are beautiful
2. Cat hunt mouse.
3. Mosquito are small insect.
4. Everyone has eyelash.
5. Goose are larger than duck.
6. What are your favorite radio program?
7. Forest sometimes have fire. Forest fire endanger wild animal.
8. Sharp kitchen knife can be dangerous weapon.
9. There are many different kind of people in the world.
10. I applied to several foreign university because I want to study abroad next year.
I l. Ted lives with three other university student.
l2.The offspring of animal like horse, zebrq and deer can mn soon after they are
born.
13. I like to read book and magazine article about true personal experience.
14. tvlany modern device require battery to work. Flashlight, pocket calculator,
portable radio, tape recorder, and many kind of toy often need battery.
EXERCISE 5: Find the nouns. Make them plural if necessary.
Whales
(l) {flhsl€ look the fish, but they aren't. They are mammal. Mouse, tigeq
(2) andhuman being are other examples of mammal. Whale are intelligent
(3) animaf fike$og and chimpanzee. Evel though they live in sea, ocean, and
(+) rir.r, whaldare not fish. Fish lay eggfand do not feed their offspnng.
(5) Mammal give birth to live offspring and feed them.
(6) There are many kind of whale. Most whale are huge creature. The
(7) Iargest whale are called blue whale. They can grow to 100 foot (30 meter) in
(8) length and can weight 150 ton (135,000 kilogram). Blue whale are much
(9) larger than elephant and larger than any of the now extinct dinosaur. The
(10)heart of an adult blue whale is about the size of a compact car. It's main
(1l)blood vessel, the aorta is large enough for a person to crawl through.
( l2)Human being have hunted and killed whale since ancient times. Aside
(13)from people, whale have no natural enemy. Today many people are trying to
(I4)stop the hunting of whale.
1.4. PERSONAL PRONOUNS: SUBIECTS AND OBJECTS
SUBIECT PRONOIINS: I
OBTECT PRONOIINS: fic
they
them
we
lll
")*artsmt-1}Shehastwo
chi
)Mike has e nen, blue bicycle.
He bought it yesterday.
A pronoun refers to a noun. It is used in
place ofa noun. In (a): "she" is a pronoun.
It refers to 'Kate." It is used in place of the
noun
*Kate." [n (b): "hef is a pronoun. It
refers to *Kats." She is a subject pronoun;
her is an object pronoun. A pronoun is used
in the same ways as a noun: as a subject or
as an object of a verb or preposition. A
pronoun can refer to a single noun, as in (a)
and (b). A pronoun can also refer to a noun
phrase. In (c): "it" refers to the whole noun
" a new blue bicvcle."
s
(d) Eric and I are good friends.
o
(e) Ann met Eric ord me at tlrc
museum.
O ofPREP
Ann unalked between Eric ard me.
Sometimes nouns and pronouns are
connected by and. The choice ofa pronoun
after and can be troublesome.* If the
pronoun is used as Frt of the subjec! use a
subject pronoun (e.9., I), as in (d). If it is
part of the object, ltse an object pronoun,
e.s...rrul as in (e) and
you she, he it herr hinr; ts
Singular: one. Plural : more than one.
Singular pronouns refer to singular nouns,
plural pronouns to plural nouns. In (g):
"Mike" is singular (one person), so a
singular pronout (he) is used. In (h):
"students" is plural, so a plural pronoun
SINGT'LAR PRONOTINS: I
G) Mlke is in class. I{e is taking a
test.
(h) The sadct* are in class. Ift4y are
taking a test.
(i) Xote and Tom are married. fhey
have two children.
' Pronoun usage afrer urd can bc troublerome for native speakers, tool
3.
4.
EXERCISE
1. student
2. students
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
I0.
11.
12.
13.
daughter
daughters
man
woman
men
women
people
person
earth
elephant
teachers
teacher
enemy
16. enemies
Keith is a
Heidi is a
Keith and Jeremy are
Emily and Colette are
The
An
7: Use the correct possessive form of the noun in italics to complete
the sentence.
One sfudent asked several questions. I answered the student's
questions.
Many students had questions after the lecture. I answered the
studenfs' questions.
We have one child, a girl. Our --- bedroom is right next to'ours-
We have trvo children, both girls. They share a be&oom. Our
bedroom is next to ours.
It's important to be sensitive to other
--
feelings.
I always look straight into a eyes during a conversation.
name.
name.
names.
names.
surface is about seventy per cent water.
skin is gray and $rrinkled.
We have class in this building, but all of the
in anotherbuilding.
My grammar husband is an engineer.
Two soldiers, each faceless and nameless to the other, fought to the
death on the muddy river bank. At the end the winner could not help
but afuire his courage and wonder why he'd had to die.
Through the years in public office, he made many political enemies.
He made a list of his names so that he could get
offices are
14.
15.
revenge when he achieved political power.
1.6. POSSESSITE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTTYES
This pen belongs to me.
(a) lt's mine.
(b) It is my pen
(a) and (b) have the same
meaning; they both show
possession- "Mine" is a
possessive pronoun; "my" is a
oossessive adiective.
POSSESSTVE PRONOLTNS'POSSESSIVEADJECTTVES
(c) Ihave mine. I have mY PeL
(d) You ttave yours. You haveyouryen
iri St r has hirs She has lwahr
(0 He has ils. He has his Pen
(g) We tr,ve ot$. We have our Pens-
(h) You have yaars. You haveyour pens.
(i) They haie theiri. They have their pens.
A poasessive pronoun is used
alone, without a noun
following it.
A possessive adjective is used
only with a noun following it.
ln (i): the oossessive its is
EXERCISE 6: Choose the correct words in italics.
l. Ms. Lee wrote a note on my test paper. $fig Her wanted to talk tot;i, 4lgafter
class
2. Nick ate dinner tvith I, me.
3. Nick ate dinner with Betsy and I, me.
4. I, me had dinner with Nick last night .
5. Betsy and l, mehad dinner with Nick last night .
6. Nick ate dinner withwe ,us .
7. Nick ate dinner with the Robertsons andwe, us.
8. My brother drove Emily and I me to tbe store . He didn't aDme in He waited for
ll/e, Us in the cat we, zs hurried.
9. A: I want to get tickets for tlp soccer garne.
B: you'd better get rt, them ,',igblway. It, they is, are selling fast.
10. AIex bought a ticket to the soccer game. He put it, them in his pocket and forgot
about it, them. The next day, he put his shirt in the wash. The ticket came out of
the washing machine and dryer crumpled and nearly illegible. But when Alex
took il, them to the game, the ticket taker accepted it, them and let Alex in.
I l. Please take these food scraps and give it, them to the dog.
12. I talked to Jennifer and Mike. I told they, them about tlre surprise birthday party
to Lizzy. They, them won't tell she, her about it, them She, Her is going to be
surprised!
13. Ted invited I, me to go to the game with he, him.
14. Ted invited Adam and /, me,to go to the game with Tina and he, him.
15. Between you and I, me,I thi* Brian made a bad decision when he quit his job.
Brian and I, me see things differently.
I.5. POSSESSIYE NOUNS
SINGLILAR: (a) I know the student's name.
PLURAL: (b) I know the students 'names.
PLURAL: (c) I know the children's names.
I An apostrophe (') and an -.s are
used with nouns to show
possession. Notice.the patterns:
SINGULAR POSSESSIVE NOUN:
noun * apostrophe (') + -s
PLURAL POSSESSIVE NOUNS :
noun * -s + apostrophe (')
RREGUT,AR PI,URAI,*
,OSSESSIVE NOUN:
noun * aoostroohe (') + -s
&
J
D
o
z
v,
the student ----> the student 's name
mybaby ---> my baby's name
a man
-€
a man b name
I
,
)
J
l.
the sfudents -> the students 'names
my babies --> my babies 'names
men --=> men's ,utmes
the children ----> the childrea's'names
r An inegulu plural noun is a plural noun that does not erd in -s : chil&en, men, people, vomen.
fi) I sat by myself on the park bench. (l): Greg lives alone, without family
or roommates.
(k) I enjoyed myself attlre fair. Enloy and a few other verbs are
commonly followed by a reflexive
pronoun. See the list below.
VERBS AND PHN.ASES COMMONLY FOLLWE,D BY A RIF.LEXTVT
PRONOUN
believe in yourself hurt yourself take care ofyourself
blame yourself give yourself tolk to yourself
cut yourself (something) teach yourself
enjoy yourself introduce yourself tell yourself
feel sorryfor yourself kill yourself workfor yourself
help yourself pinch yourself wish yourself (luck)
be proud ofvourself
ANOTMR
(a) There is a large bowl of apples on the
table. Paul is going to eat one apple. If
he is still hungry after that, he can eat
lanotheA apple. There are rnany apples
to choose from.
Another mextns "one more out of a goup
of similar items, one in addition to the
one(s) I've already talked about."
Another is a combination of an + other,
written as one word.
TEE OTIIF.R
(b) There arc two apples on the table.
Paul is going to eat one of them. Sara
is soins to eat the other apole.
The other means " the last one in a
specific group, the only one that remains
from a siven number of similar items."
l(c) Paul ate one apple. Then he *e onothe,
I apple.
(d) Paul ate one apple. Then he ate
another one.
(e) Paul ate one apple. Then he ate
another.
(f) Paul ate one apple. Sara ate the other
apple.
(g) Paul ate one apple. Sara ate the other
one.
ft) Paul ate one aople. Sara ate the other.
Anolher and the other can be used as an
adjective in front of a noun (e.g., apple)
or in front of the word one.
Another and the other can also be used
alone as a pronoun, as in (e) and (h).
1.9. SINGULAR FORMS OF OTIfiR: ANOTIIER VS. TIIE
OTHER
EXERCISE 9: Complete the sentences with enother or the other.
l. There are many kinds of animals in the world. The elephant is one kind. The
tiger is-_-ggg!!gl_..*
2. There are two colors on this page. One is white. The other is black.
I have a book. 1rs
cover is black
with noun
that
no
a
note
has
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
it's : it rs (or it lra-r when used in the present perfect)
EXERCISE 8: Choose the correct words in italics.
l. Children should obey his, their parents.
2. A: Excuse me. Is this rny, mine dictionary or your, yours?
B: This one is my, mine. Your, Yours is onyour, yours desk.
The bird cleaned its, it's feathers with 4 ,, b beak.
A: What kind of bird is that?
B: It, It 's a crow.
Paula had to drive my car to work. Her.s, Her had a flat tire.
Julie fell offher bicycle and broke hers, her arm.
Fruit should be a prt of your, yours daily diet. It, They is, are good for yo4
them.
1.7, A FRIEND OF + POSSESSIVE
* He is myfrierd may give the idea that the speaker has only one friena speaker would normally
ny He is one of myfriends or He is afriend oJmine.
used only
following
possessive
' its: possessive adjective
(a)Do you know Greg Smith? He is a
friend of mine.*
(b)We ate dinner with afriend of Bill's.
INCORRECT'. a fi,iend of Bill
(c)The Smiths arefriends of mine.
A friend of + a possessive nouru/pronoun
is a special or idomatic expression. It is
used to identify another person as one
friend among many friends. In (a): q
friend of mine: one of my friends, but not
my only friend. In (b): a friend of Bill's :,
one of Bill's friends; Bill has other
friends. In (c): The expression can also be
used in the plural.
1.8. REF.LEXTYE PRONOUNS
myself (a)/ saw myself inthe minor.
yourself (b)You (one person) saw
herself yourself,
himself (c)She saw herself,
it,self (d)He saw /rgalefi
ourselves (e)./t (e.ii., the kitten) saw ltself,
yourselves (f)We saw ourselves,
themselves (g)You (plural) saw younelves,
hThev saw then selves.
Reflexive pronouns end in -self / -
selves. They are used when the
subject (e.g., I) and the object (e.g.,
myself) are the same person. The
action of the verb is pointed back to
the subject ofthe sentence.
INCORRECT: I saw me in the
mirror.
+ a reflexive pronoun: alone. In
3- Alex's bicycle was mn over by a truck and destroyed. He needs to get _ one.
4. The Smiths have two bicycles.One belongs to Mr. Smith
bike belong to Mn. Smith.
5. There are three books on my desk. Two of them are dictionaries _one
is a telephone directory.
6. The puppy chewed up my telephone directory, so I went to the telephone
company to get phone book,
7. Vietram is a country in Southeast Asia. Thailand is
8. It rained yesterday, and from the looks of those dark clouds, we're going to have
rainstorm today.
9. Nicole and Michelle are identical trrins. Tlrc only way you can tell them apart is
by looking at their ears. One of them has pierced ears and doesn't.
10. Of the fiffy states in the United States, fo4y-nine are located on the North
American continent. Where is located ?
is named Matt.
I l. I have two b,rothers. One is named Nick.
12. There are five name in this list. One is Adam.
is Nick.
is Greg.
one of the name is Eric.
ruune on the list (the last of the five) is Jessica.
1.10. PLURAL- FORMS Or OTIIER: OTHER (S) VS. THE
OTIIER
OTHER(S)
There are many apples in Paul's
kitchen. Paul is holding one apple.
(a) There are other apples in a bowl.
(adjectrve + trorm)
(b) There are other ones on a plate.
(adjective + ores)
(c) There are othen on a chair.
(pronom)
Other /^s/ (without the) means "sevsral
more out of a group of similar items,
several in addition to the one(s) I've
already talked about." The adjective
other without an -s) can be used with a
plural noun (e.g., apples) or with the
wordones.
Others (with an -s) is a plural pronoun;
it is not used with a noun.
In (c): others : other aooles.
THE OTHNR(S)
There are four apples on the table.
Paul is going to take one of them.
(d) Sara is going to takejjle#!!3r ywtes
(e) She is going to take the other ones.
(adjective + mres)
(0 She is going to take the otherc.
(Prorom)
The other(s) means "the last ones in a
specific group, the remains from a
glven number of similar items." The
other (without an -s) can be used as an
adjective in front of a noun or the word
ones, as in (d) and (e). The othcr.r (with
an -s) is a plural pronoun; it is not
used with a noun.
In (fl: the others : the other apples.
5.
6.
EXERCISE I0: Complete the sentence with other(s) or the other(s).
1. There are many kinds of animals in the world. The elephant is one kind. Some
others are tigers, horses, and whales.
Z There are many kinds of animals in the world. The elephant ts one kind. Some
other kinds are tigers, horses, and whaies
3 There are three colors in the U.S. flag. One of the colors is red. The others are
white and blue.
4. There are three colors in the U.S. flag. One of the colors is red. The qther colors
are white and blue.
There are four seasons. Spring and summer are two' are fall and winter.
seasons are
fall and winter.
7, There are many kinds of geometric figures. Some are circles'
figures are squares. Still are rectangular.
8. There are four geometric figures in the above drawing. One is a square.
figures are a rectangle, a circle and a triangle-
g. Of the four geometric figures in the drawing, only the circle has curved lines.
have straight lines.
10. Some ships are fueled by petroleurn are propelled by atomic power.
11. Some boats are used for pleasure. boats are used for
commercial fishing.
12. Many people like to get up very early in the morning.
sleep until noon.
13. Out of the twenty students in the class, eighteen passed the exam.
14. Out of the twenty studenls in the class, only two failed the exam.
students passed.
EXERCISE 1l: Complete the sentences with correct forms of other: another,
other, others, the other' the others.
l. Jake has only two suits, a blue one and a gray one. His wife wants him to buy
gothel one.
Jake has two suits. One is blue, and
Some suits are blue.
ls glay.
are gray.
suits have tkee buttons.
Spring and summer are two of the four seasons.
like to
2.
3.
4.
1.11. SUMMARY OF FORMS OF OTHER
Notice that the word others
(other +final -s) is used only as a
plural pronoun.
ADJECTIVE PRONOUN
SINGULAR another apple another
PLURAL other apples others
SINGULAR the other apple **he other
PLURAL the other apples the others
Some suits have two buttons
5. Our physical education class was divided into two groups. Half of the students
stayed inside and played basketball. students went outside
and played soccer.
6. If you really hate your job, why don't you look for
don't have to be a dishwasher all your life. There are lots of
jobs in the world.
7. An automobile consists of many parts. The motor is one, and the steering wheel
8. Some people keep dog and pets
parts are the brakes, the trunk, and the fuel tank.
have cats. Still
people have fish or birds as pets. Can you name
animals that people keep for pets?
9. When I was a ki{ I had two pets. One was a black dog.
orange cat.
10. When I walked into the classroom on the first day, the room was empty. I sat
down at a desk and wondered if I was in the right room. Soon
-_
student came and took a seat. Then a few
followed, and the room slowly began to fill.
I l- The students in our class had two choices:
students played basketball. played soccer.
12- Here, children. I have two coins. One is for you, Tommy.
for you, Jimmy.
13. My boyfriend gave me a ring. I fiied to put it on my ring finger, but it didn't fit.
So t had to put it on finger.
14. People have two thumbs. One is on the right hand. is on the left hand.
15. The telephone and the automobile are twentieth-century inventions.
are the computer, television, and the airplane.
Can you name twentieth-century inventionp?
is
one? You
kinds of
was an
basketball or soccer. Half of the
ts
1.12. PERSONAL PRONOUNS: AGREEMENT WITH NOUNS
(a) A student walked into the room. ,9fte
was looking for the teacher.
(b) A student walked into the room. He
was looking for the teacher.
(c) Some students walked into the room.
They were looking for the teacher.
A singular pronoun is used to
refer to a singular noun, as in (a)
and (b).
A plural pronoun is used to refer
to a olural nouL as in (c).'
A student should always do his
assignments.
A student should always do his.her
assignments.
A student should always do his or her
assignments.
d)
e)
With a "generic noun"i (e.g., in
(d): a student - onyone who is a
student) a singular masculine
pronoun has been used
traditionally, but many English
speakers now use both masculine
and feminine Dronouns. as in (e)
t LS
A generic noun does not referto Bnv person or thing in particular, rather, it represen goup
The following are indefinite pronouns: everyon€ .toneone anyone no one
everybody somebody anyboely nobady
hinp somethin hinp nathi
(f) Sonubody left iis book on the I A singular personal pronoun is used in
desk. I formal English to refer to an indefinite
(g) Everyone has tis or her olvn I pronoun, as in (f) and (g).
ideas. I In everyday informal English, a plural
(h) INFORMAL: I personal pronoun is often used to refer to an
funubody left their book on the I indefinite pronouq as in (h)
desk
has thdr own ideas.
I.13. PERSONAL PRONOUF.iS:
INDENMTE PRONOTINS
AGREEMEN?' WITH
EXERCISE l2:Complete the sentence with pronouns. In some of the blanks there
is more than one possibility. Choose the appropriate singular or
plural verb in parentheses where necessary.
1. when a student wants to study, s/he: he or she: he should try to find a quiet
place.
2. A citizen has trvo primary responsibilities. should vote in
every election, and should willingly serve on a jury
3. Each student in Biology l0l has to spend three hours per week in the
laboratory, where (does, do) various experiments by following the
direction in lab manual.
4. A pharmacist fills prescription, but (is, are) not allowed to
prescribe medicine. By law, only a doctor can prescribe medicine.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Anyone can learn how to dance if (wants, want) to.
I{mmm. Someone forgot umbrella. I wonder whose it is.
Everyone who came to the picnic brought . own food
A: Is that yournotebook?
B: No. It belongs to one of the other students.
A: Look on the inside cover. Did write name there?
9. A dog makes a good pet if (is, are; properffined.
10. Tom's cat is named Maybelle Alice. is very independent.
obeys Tom only if_ feels like it.*
AGREEMEN{?' WITH
rNote: When the collective noun refers to a collecfive of individuals, the verb may
be either singular or plural: ntyfamily is OR are loving and supportive. A singular
verb is generally preferred in American English. A plural verb is used more
frequently in British English, especially with the words government and pubtic.
(American: The goverrunent is planning many changes. British: The government are
planning tnany
EXERCISE 13: Complete the sentences with pronouns. In some of the sentences,
there is more than one possibility. Choose the appropriate
singular or plural verb in parentheses where necessary.
I. I have a wonderful family. I love themvery much, and thqt love (loves, love) me.
2. t looked up some information about the average American family. I found out that
(consists, consist) of 2.3 children.
3. The soccer team felt unhappy because
moments of the game
had lost in the closing
4. A basketball team is relatively small.
members as a baseball team.
(doesn't, don't) have as many
5. The audience clapped enthusiastically. Obviously
concert.
had enjoyed the
6. The audience filled the room to overflowing.
than I had expected.
(was, were) larger
7. The crowd became more and more excited as the premier's motorcade
approached began to shout and wave flags in the air.
8. The crowd dt the soccer game was huge. exceeded 100,000
people.
The office staffgave boss a gold watch when she retired.
The office staffisn't large.
clerk, and a receptionist.
The young couple finally
own house.
(consists, consist) of a secretary, a file
1.14. PERSONAL
COLLECTTYE
PRONOUNS:
NOTiNS
9.
10.
The following are examples of collective nouns:
audience couple
class crowd
committee facultv
fumily
governmenl
PTOUD
public
stoff
team
(a) My family is large. It is composed of
nine members.
When a collective noun refers to a single
impersonal unit, a singular pronoun (it,
it$) is used, as in (a).
(c) My family is loving and supportive.
They are always ready to help me.
When collective noun refers to a
collection of various individuals, a plural
pronoun (they, them, their) is used, as
in(b)*
IL saved enough money to make a downpayment on
12. The class is planning a parfy for the last day of school (is, are)
going to bring many different kinds of food and invite some of
friends to celebrate with
13. The class is too small. (is, are) gorng to be cancelled
EXERCISE 14: Complete the following by using appropriate reflexive pronouns.
l. I can't help you, Bob. You'll have to solve your problem by vourself.
2. Jane did not join the rest of us. She sat in the back of the room by
3. You may think Stan is telling the truth, but I
4. It is important for all of us to be honest with
5. Now that their children are grown, Mr. and Mrs. Grayson live by
6.You-havetomakethatdecision,Ann.Noonecanmakeitforyou.
7. I don't know what to tell yorl Sue and Jack. You will have to take care of that
problem
8. When everybody else forgot his birthday, Ralph decided to give a
birthday present. He bought new shirt for
--.
EXERCISE 15: Complete tle sentences by using a word or expression from the
glven list and an appropriate reflexive pronoun.
angry at intoduced promised
en1oy killed proudof
entertained laugh at talking to
feeling sorryfor pat
^lnught
l. Karen Williams never took lessons. She tauoht hersel.fhow to play the piano.
2. Did Hank have a good time at the prty? Did he ?
3. AIlof you did a good job. You should be
4. You did a good job, Barbara. You should
don't believe him.
1.I5. USING REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
The following are reflexive pronouns:
myself
yourself
himself, herself,
ourselves
yourselves
themselves
itself
(a) He looked athimsdf nthe mirror. A reflexive pronoun usually refers to the
subject of a sentence. [n (a): he and
himself refer to the same Derson.
(b) Ee htnrelf utswered the phone, not
his secretary.
kl He answered the phone htmvlf.
Sometimes reflexive pronouns are used
for emphasis, as in (b) and (c).
(d) She lives Dy henelf The expression 6y + a re/lexne pronoun
usuallv means "alone"- as in (d).
on the back.
5, A man down the street committed suicide.
that he had
---
The children played very rvell wrthout adult supervision. Thev
by playing school.
I had always wanted to meet Mr
night, I walked over and
We were all shocked by the news
Anderson. When I saw him
to him
at a party last
I.16. USING YOU AND ONE AS IMPERSONAL PRONOUNS
EXERCISE 16-ERROR ANALYSIS: All the following have errors. Make
the pronoun usage in the following consistent and correct.
l. One should always try to be friendly to your neighbors.
one should always try to be ftiendly to one,s neighbors (oR his or her
neighbors).
You should always try to be friendly to your neighbors.
People should alwoys try to befriendly to their neighbors.
A penon should always try to be friendly to his or her neighbors.
2. One can't know what he can actually do until you try.
3. It is important for a person to listen to your conscience.
4. You can get to the airport by taxi or by bus. People can catch the airport bus at
the hotel.
5. Self-esteem is important to one's mental health. It is important for you to like
yourself.
6. It is important for one to take care of their health. For example, you should not
smoke. Smoking has been shown to cause various life-threatening diseases.
One should also be careful to get plenty ol' exercise. Adequate rest is
important, too. People can't be their best if one is tired all the time. We also
need to eat a wide variety of food to make sure get all the nutrients your body
needs.
(a) One should always be polite.
(b) How does one get to 5ft Avenue
from here?
In (a) and (b): one means "any person,
people in general."
In (c) and (d): you means "any person,
people in general."
One is more formal than you.
Impersonal you, rather than one, is used
more frequentlv in evervdav Enslish.
(c) You should always be polite.
(d) How do you get to 5ft Avenue from
here?
(e) One should take care of one,s
health.
One should take care of his health.
One should take care of his or her
health.
In (e): Notice the pronouns that may be
used in the same sentence to refer back
to one.
I.17. FORMS OF OTHER
ADJECTTVE PRONOUN
Forms of other are used as either
adjectives or pronouns.
Notice. A final -s is used only for a
plural pronoun (others).
singular another book (is) another
(is)
plwal other books (are) other
singular the other book (is) the
o$er (is)
plwal the other books (are) thr
otlers (ere)
(a) The studsnts in the class come from
runy cormtries. One of the students is
from Mexicn. Another student is from
Ilarq. Another is from Japan. Other
students are from Brazil. Others are
from Aleeria
The meaning of another: one more in
addition to the one(s) already
mentioned.
The meaning of other/otherc (without
the). several more in addition to the
one(s) olreadv mentioned.
(b) I have three books. Two arc mine. The
other book is yours. (The other is
yours.)
(c) I have three books. One is mine. l"ie
other books are yowl (The others ore
yours.)
The meaning of the other(s): all that
remains from a given number; the rest
of a spec{ic group.
(d) We u.rite to each other every week.
(e) We write to one another every week.
Each other and one another indicate a
reciprocal relationship. In (d) and (e): I
write to him every week, and he writes
to me every week.
C. FuruRE Ttur
c. I EXPRESSING FUTURE T|ME : BE GotNG To AND wtLL
C.2 FORMS WITH ffILL
EXERCISE 1. Complete the sentences by using a pronoun * a form of be going to
L I ate lunch with Alan today, and I'm soing to eot lunch with him
tomorrow too.
2. Jason wasn't in class today, and He isn't going to be in class tomorrow.
3. The student took aquiz yesterday, and
today.
FUTURE
(a) I am going to leave at nine
tomorrow morning.
(b) I will leave at nine
tontorrow morning
(c) Marie is going to be atthe
meeting tonight.
(d) Marie ytill be at the
meetins tonislrt
Be going to and prZ are used
to express future time.
(a) and (b) have the same
meaning
(c) and (d) have the same
meaning.
(e) I sholl leave at nine tomorrow morning.
(f) We sholl leave at nine tomorrow morning.
The use of shall (with I or we)
to express future time is
infrequent and formal.
STATBMENT ( I-you-she-lre-it-we-the y) w i II c o nrc totnorrow .
NBGATIVE ( I-yoLr-she-he-it-we-they) will ttol (won,/) conrc totnorrow
QUESTION wyll ( l-y ou -sh e-he- it-we -they) c o me tomorrow ?
SHORT ANSWER
( I-you-she-he-it-we+hey) will
( I-you-she-he-it-we-they) won't
Yes
No
CONTRACTION
I'll, you'll, she'll, he'll, it'll, we'll,
they'll
Will is usually constracted with
pronouns in both speech and
informal writing.
Bob + will= Bob'll
The teacher will : the teacher'll
lhll is r.rsually constracted witlr
nouns in speech, but usually not in
writing.
another quiz
4. Margaret walked to school this morning, and
school tomorrow morning too.
5. It's raining today, and according to the weather report,
tomorrow eitl-rer.
6. We're in class today, and in class tomorrow too.
EXERCISE 2. Complete the sentences by using apronoun + wilUwon't. Use probably.
1. I went to the library last night, and I'll probably so there tonight too.
2. Arur didn't come to class today, and she probablv won't come tomorrow either.
' ' 3. I watched TV last night, and tonight too.
4. Greg rvent to bed early 1" at night, and
early tonight too.
to
to bed
5. I wasn't at home last night, and
tonight either.
6. Alice didn't ride her bike to school today, and
it to school tomorow either.
C. 3 BE GOING TO VS WILL
EXERCISE 3. Complete the sentences rvith be going to or will
1. A : Why did you buY this flour?
B : I am going to make some bread.
2. A : Could someone please open the window ?
at home
B:I
(a) Slre is goitrg to succeedbecause she r,vorks hard
(b) She will succeed because she works hard
Be going to and will are the same when they are
used to make predictions about the future. (a) and
(b) have the same meaning
(c) t bought some r,vood because I am going lo
buikl a bookcase for my apartmetrt.
Be going to (but not will) is used to express a
preconceived plan in (c) : the speaker is planning
to build a bookcase.
(d) This chair is too lteary for you to carry alone
I'll lrclp yott.
Will (but not going to) is used to volunteer or
express willingness. In (d) the speaker is happy to
helo.
3. A: Can I borrow this book ?
do it
return it to you tomorrow. Okay?
wear dark suit to the wedding reception.
How about you?
B : I'm not sure.
5. A : What are your vacation plans?
B:i spend two weeks on a Greek island.
C.4 EXPRESSING FUTURE TIME IN CLAUSES AND IF.CLAUSE
EXERCISE 4. Following is a revierv of time clauses anrJ if-clauses
Complete the sentences by using a form of the words in parentheses.
Read carefully for time expressions.
1. Before Tom (go) goes to bed, he always (brush) brushes
his teeth.
2. Before Tom (go) to bed later tonight,he (write)
a letter to his girifriend.
3. Before Tom (go)
a shower.
4. While Tom (rake)
to bed last night, he(take)
a shower last night, the phone (ring)
5. As soon as the phone (ring)
B:I
4. A:l
(a) Before I go to class tomorrow,l'trt
soius to eat breakfast.
The simple present is used in a future time
clause. Be going to and will are NOT used in a
future time clause,
(before, after, when, as soon as) + 5u$1s.1 ,r'16
verb * time clause.
In (a): the speaker talkirrg about two events:
going to class and eating breakfast. Both are in
the future. However, the speaker uses the
simple present (not be going to, will)to talk
about going to class because the verb occurs in
a tirne clause:
Before I so to class tomorrow... .....
(b) I'm going to eat dinner at 6:00 tonight.
After I eat dinner,l'm going to stLrdy
in my room.
(c) I'll give Mary your message when I see
her tomorrow.
(d) It's raining right now. As soon as the
rain stops,I'rn going to walk downtowu.
(e) Maybe it ,ill rair.r tomorrow. If it rsins
tonnrrow, I'm going to stay home.
When the rneanir.rg is future , the present not be
going to or will) is used in if clause
lf + 5v$1s.1 and verb - ifclause
out of the shower to answer it.
last night. Tom (jump)
6. Tom always ftrush)
_ up.
his teeth as soon ashe (get)
7. As soon asTom (get) up tomorrow morning,he (brush)
his teeth.
EXERCISE 5. Complete the sentences by using a form of the words in parentheses.
1. After I (get) home from school every afternoon,
a cup of tea.
home from school tomorrow morning,
I usually (drink)
2. After I (get)
I (drink) a cup oftea.
3. While I (drink) a cup of tea yesterday afternoon, my
neighbor (come) over, so I (offe4
a cup of tea, too.
4. My neighbor (drop) over again tomorrow. When she
(come) I (make) a cup oftea for her.
5. Jane (meet) me at the airport when my plane (arrive)
tomorrow.
6. If I (see) Mike tornorrow, I (tell)
him about the
7. IgotoNewY in New York, I
usually (see) Broadway play.
to the beach tomorrow if the
8. Cindy andl(go)
weather (be) warm and sunny.
9. Whenl (be) in New York next week, I (stay) _
at the Park Plaza Hotel
10. As soon as thetest (be) over in class yesterday, the
students (eave) the room.
a football game on TV right now.
1 l. Jack (watch)
As soon as the game (be)
the grass in back yard.
pafiy.
ork often. Whenl (be)
over, he (mow)
13. Mark is obsessed with video games. H
video games morning, noon, and night
class to play the games. Right now he
e (play)
. Sometimeshe (cut)
(do, not)
very well in school. If he (study, not)
harder and (go) to class everyday, he (flunk)
out of school.
14. Sometimes my daughter, Susie has temper tantrums. She (cry)
and (stamp) her feet when she (get)
angry. Yesterday whenshe (get)
on fire. When the smoke detector on the ceiling (start)
tobuzz, my roommate (run)
what was wrong. He (think)
up a toy car and (throw)
her little brother. Luckily, the car (hit, not)
(feel) very bad. She (apologize)
to her little brother and (kiss) him.
15. It's October now. The weather (begin)
It (begin)
12. While I (make)
the colors of fall.
16. It's getting late, but before I (So)
dinner last night, some grease (spill)
out of the frying pan and (catch)
into the kitchen to find out
that the house was on fire.
angry, she (pick) _
it at
him. Susie
to get colder.
to get cold every October. I (like, not) _
autumn is
nlce.
through the river valley and (enjoy)
winter butl (think)
beautiful. In a couple of weeks, my friend andl (take)
a weekend trip to the country if the weather (be)
We (drive)
to the bed, I (finish)
my homework and (write)
a couple of letters.
C. 5 USING THE PRESENT PROGRESSIYE TO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME
EXERCISE 6. Complete the sentences with appropriate pronouns * the Present Progressive
l. I met Jane after class yesterday, and I'm meeting
her after class again later today.
2. My friends came over last night, and
over this evening, too.
3. Susan didn't come to class today, and
to class tomorrow either.
4. We had meeting this morning, and
another meeting tomorrow morning.
5. I didn't eat lunch at the cafeteria this noon, and
lunch there tomorrow either.
a) Don is going to come to the party tomorrow night
b) Don is coning to the party tornorrow nighl
c) We're going to go to a ntovie tonight
d) We're going to a movie tonight
e) l'm going to stay horne tonight.
f) l'ru staying home tonight.
g) Ann is goittg to fly to Chicago next week
h) Arrn is flying to Clricago next week
i) Bob is going to toke a taxi to the airport tomorrow
j) Bob is taking a taxi to the airport tomorrow
Sornetimes the present progressive is
used to express future tirne, (a) and
(b) have the sarne rneaning. The
present progressive is used to express
future tirne tvhen the sentence
concerns a definite plan, a definite
intention, a delinite future activitv.
Verbs such as: come, go, stay, arrive,
leave are frequently used in the
present progressive to express future
time. Such, verbs express definite
plans. Verbs expressing planned
means of transportation in the future
are also frequently used in
progressive. For example : fly, walk,
ride, drive, take (a bus, taxi, etc)
k) A : You shouldn't buy that used car. It's in terrible
condition. It costs too much. You don't have
enough money. You'll have to get insurance,
and you can't afford the insurance. BLrying that
used car is crazy idea.
B : I aru buying that used car tomorrow ntorning.
My mind is made up. Nobody-not yoll, not my
nrother, not rny father-can't stop me. I'm buyittg
that car, and that's it ! I don't want to talk aboLrt
it anymore.
A : Oh, ell. It's yolrr rnoney.
Sometirnes a speaker will use the
present progressive when he or she
wants to make a very strong
stulement about a futLrre activity, as in
(k).
EXERCISE 7 : Practice using the Present Progressive to express future time by
completing the dialogues. Use the words in the list or your own
words. Are there any sentences in this exercise in which the present
Progressive express present, not future time?
call drive go meet
come fly make stay
t.
2.
).
B
A
B
A
A : What are you doing tomorrow afternoon ?
B : I am going downtown. I am going shopping. How about you?
What are
are you doi
doing tomorrowafternoon?
A:I to movie with Tom. After the movie, we
out of dinner. Would you like to come with us?
B:I
A : That should you keep busy.
A:I
B : Where
A : To San Francisco.
B : How are you getting there?
or
A:I
tomorrow morning.
B : Do you need a ride to the airport?
A :No, thanks. I
somewhere over vacation?
B :No, I
No, thanks. I can't. I
seafood restaurant or Fifth Street.
What courses
I
What courses
here.
yoLl this year?
English, biology, math, and psychology.
you next year?
English, literature, chemistry, and calculus.
on vacation tomorrow.
you
You
your car?
. I have to be at the airport by seven
Heidi at 6:30 at the new
a taxi. Are you planning to go
4. A : I am going to call a doctor. You have a fever, chills, and stomachache.
B : No, don't call a doctor. I'll be okay.
A : I'm worried. i the doctor! And that's it!
C.6 USING THE SIMPLE PRESENT TO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME
(a) My planes orrives at I : 35 tomorroy) evening
(b) Torn's new job sturs next yyeek
(c) The semester ends in two more weeks
(d) There r's a meeting at ten tomorroru morning
The sirlple present can express future
in, enrl, finish, ooen, close. be
tirne rvhere events are olt a definite
sclredule or tirnetable. Only a few
verbs are used in the simple present to
express future time. The most
corlu-non are arrive, leove, stnrl,
EXERCISE 8. Use the simple present of the verb in parentheses if possible.
Othenvise ) use be goittg to I the Present progressive.
l. (start) The game starts (also possible :is' starting / is going ro sturt) at one
tomorrow mornlng
(have) We are having / are going to have chicken and pasta for dinner tonight.
2.
J.
4.
5.
(walk) 1 to school tomorrow morning.
(eave) The bus at 8 : 15 tomorrow morning.
at 9 : 00 tomorrow morning and
(begin)The exam
(end)
6. (be)
at11:00.
a fliglit to Dallas at7:20 tomorrow
morning.
C.7 PRESENT PIANS FOR FUTURE ACTIYITIES USTNG INTEND, P[AN,
HOPE
There
(a)l' nt intending/l intend to go to Paris
(b) I'm planning / I plan to take a trip next montlr
c) I'm hoping / I hope to fly to Paris next rnonth.
Intend, plun, and hope are used in
present tenses to express present ideas
aborrI frrttrre activities.
Incorrect : I will intend to go to
Paris next nrcnth.
Intend, plan, and hope are follolved
bv an infinitive.
to + the simple form of a verb
intend to + tlte sintple fornt of o verb
(d) I intend to * go
I intend to r take
C. 8 IMMEDIATE FUTURE : USING BE ABOUT TO
(a) Ann's bags are packed, and she is wearing
coat. She is about to leave for the airport
(b) Shhh. The movie is nbout to begin.
The idiorn be obottt to clo sometlu'zg expresses
an activity that will happen in the immediate
future usually within five minutes. In (a) Ann
is going to leave sometir.ne in the next few
minutes
EXERCISE 9. Oral : What are people probably about to do ?
1. Jack is holding his camera to his eye. He has his finger on the button.
Y He is about to take a picture.
2. Sally has her hand on the door knob.
3. Ben is putting on his coat and heading for the door.
4. Eric is on the last question of the examination.
5. Rita is holding a fly swatter and staring at a fly on the kitchen tables.
EXERCISE 10. EXPRESSING PRJOR PLAN VS WILINGNESS
Use be going to if you think the speaker is expressing a prior plan.
If you think there is no prior plan, use wil/.
1. A : This letter is in French, and I don't speak word of French. Can you help me?
B : Sure, I (translate) will translate it for you.
: Do you want to go shopping with me ? I (go) am soing to eo to the shopping
2.A
B
3.A
B
4,A
B
5.A
B
A
6.A
B
A
7,A
B
A
mall downtown
Sure, What time do you want to leave ?
The light doesn't work. The bulb is probably burned out. Where are the new
light bulbs ?
I (ser) one for you.
Why do you have an eraser in your hand ?
I (erase)
It's cold in here.
I agree. I (turn)
That's good idea.
What do you want to be when you grow up?
Good for you!
I (enroll)
Oh? I didn't know you wanted to go back to school.
I need to sharpen my skills so I can get better job.I (take)
a course in word processing.
the board.
the heater on
an astronaut.
in the community college next spring
(be)
EXERCISE 11. Use will / be going to or the simple present (in the exercise, both will
and be going to are possible when a future tense necessary, with
a little or no difference in the meaning)
1. Peter is going to leave in half an hour. He (finish) will finish/is soine to finislt
all of his work beforehe Qeave) leaves
2. I am going to (eat)
I (take, probably) a nap
3. I'll get home around six. When I (get) home,
I (call) Sharon.
4.A
B
A
B
A
How long (stay, you) in this country?
What (do, you) after you (eave)
home and (get)
ajob. How about you ?
I (be) here for at least two more years before I
(return) home and (get)
I (plan)
I (hope)
to be here for about one more year.
to graduate a year from this June.
I (return)
ajob.
5. Right now I'm junior in college. After 1 (graduate)
withaB.A., I (intend) to enter graduate school and
work for an M.A. perhaps I (So) on for Ph.D. after I
@er) my Master degree.
6. I'm sure it will stop raining soon. As soon as the rain (stop)
I (walk) to the drugstore to get some medicine.
EXERCISE 12. Indicate the meaning expressed by italicized verbs by writing in the
future. now. or habitually in the blanks.
1. I am taking four courses next semester.
2. I am taking four courses this semester.
3. Students usually take four courses every semester
4. I'm tired. I am going to bed early tonight.
5. Tony will arrive at eight tomorrow morning.
6. I'm writing a letter to my friend.
7. Shh. The broadcaster is giving the latest news.
8. I usually go to school by bicycle.
In the future
Now
C. 9 FUTURE PROGRESSIVE
EXERCISE 13. use the FUTURE PROGRESSIVE or the sIMpLE PRESENT
1. Right now I am attending class. Yesterday at this time, I was attending class.
Tomorow at this time, I (attend) class.
2. Tomorow I arn going to leave for home. When (arrive)
airpoft, my whole family fitait) for me.
3. When I (ge] up tomoruorv moming, the sur (shine)
(sing) _, and my roonmate (ie, stitl)
at the
the birds
4. A : When do you leave for Florida ?
B : Tomorrow. Just think. Two days from nowl (ie)
beach in the sun.
A : Sonnds great ! I (think) about you.
5. A : How can I get in touch with you while you,re out of town ?
B : I (sray) at the pilgrim Hotel.
You can reach me there.
6. Next year at this time,I (do) exactly what I am doing now. I
(attend) school and (study) hard next year.
over, it (rain,
7. Look at those dark clouds. When class (be)
probably)
8. A : Are you going to be in town next Saturday ?
in bed fast asleep.
on the
(a) I wilt begin study ar seven.
You will come at eight.
I will be stutlying rvhen you
come.
(b) Right now I am sitting in
class.
At this same time tomorrow,
I will be sfulrg in class
The future progressive
expresses an activity that will
be in progress at a time in the
future.
(c) Don't call me at nine,
because I won't be home. I
am goirtg to be studying at
the library.
The progressive form of De
going to :
be going to + be + ing
(d) Don't get impatient. She will
be coming soon.
(e) Don't get impatient. She will
come soon.
Sometimes there is little or no
difference between the future
progressive and simple future,
especially when the future
event will occur at an
indefinite time in the future, as
in (d) and (e).
B :No, t (visir) my aunt in Chicago.
EXERCISE 14.
I. Choose the correct sentence, l) or 2), in each mini dialogue.
i. A : Can you corne dancing tomorow night ?
B : l) Sorry, I'llplay basketball.
2) Sorry. I'm playing basketball.
2. A : ,liat are your plans for the summer ?
B : 1) I'll spend month in the mourtains.
2) I'm going to spend month in the mountains.
3. A : What do you think about the weather ?
B : 1) It'll probably rain tomorrow.
2; It's raining tomorrow.
4. A: What about tomorrow at about 5 : 30 ?
B : 1) Ok, I'll see you then.
2) Ok,I'm seeing you then.
5. A : Mary is buying a dog next week.
B : l) Really ? What is she going to call it ?
2) Really ? What is she calling it ?
6. A : It would be nice to see you next week.
B : 1) Are you doing any,thing on Wednesday ?
2) Will you do anything on Wednesday ?
II. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains wilr or be going to.
L I plan study engineering in France.
I am goittg to sttdy engineerinq in France.
2. I've arranged a party for next Friday.
3. I predict a score of3 - 0
4. We've an appointment at the doctor's, so we can,t come.
5. Paula is likely to get the job
6. Maftin's wife is pregnant again.
Formation of
comparatives and
superlatives
Irregular forms
UNIT VII
MAKING COMPARISONS
Explanations
o Adjectives
Comparative adjectives with one syllable are normally
formed by adding -<r to the adjective. In one syllable
words ending with one consonant, the final consonant is
doubled. Words ending in consonant + -y change -y to -i.
Superlative adjectives are normalty formed by adding -esr
to the adjective.
long- longer big- bigger dry - drier
long - longest big - biggest dry - driest
o Comparative adjective with two or more syllables are
normally formed tvirth more. Superlative adjectives with
two or more syllables are normally formed with most.
There are some exceptions.
modern - more modern interesting- wrre lnteresdng
modern - rrpfl modcrn interesting- most lnteresting
o Some adjectives with two syllables can form in either way.
common commonericommonest mord.,'mostcommon
Others include: quiet, tiredand words ending *ow,-le,and-er
o Adverbs
Comparative adverbs are normally formed wrth more.
Superlative adverbs are normally formed with most.
Can you work more quickly?
Thefilm ended nost happlly.
o Adjectives
Irregular comparatives and superlatives:
good better
bad worse
best
worsl
fer
little
fanher/further farthest/furthest
less least
mucMmany more most
When we describe family members re can use:
old elder eldest
This is my elder brother. Jane is their eldest daughter.
o Adverbs '
Many commonly used adverbs have comparative and
superlative forms in -er and-esr. These include: early, far,
fast, hord, late. In informal speech loud, qttick, slow are also
formed in this way.
Could you drive more slowly, please')
Could you drive slower, please) (informal)
Meaning of comparatives are used to compare two separate things.
comparatives and Superlatives compare one thing in a group with all the other
suporlatives thrngs in that group.
Comparative . Mory is a be:iler ployer than Monica.
Superlative : Sarah is the best player in the team.
Note that the comes before a supertative if a noun follows.
Superlatives can be used without nouns. The is still used.
Sarah is the greatest!
Making o Than is used with comparatives.
comparisons Mary is be'tter than Monica.
Mary
.is
a better player than Monica.
o Note that when we compare actions, we use an auxiliary
instead ofrepeating the verb.
Mary plays better than Monica daes.
You've done more work than I have.
We can also say:
Mary plays better than Monica.
You've done more work lhan me.
o Just os ... es is used when the things compared are equal.
Mary is just as good as Catlty.
Mary is just as good a player os Cathy.
. not cts ... as is used when we compare things negatively.
Cathy is not N good as Mary.
Cathy is not as good a player as Mary.
o More and /ess than is used for longer adjectives.
This game is more tnterestlng than the last one.
I think this game is less interestlng than that one.
lntensifiers When we make comparisons the adjective is often strengthened
with an intensifier.
This howe is mucVa bt/for blgger than that one.
We can also use intensifiers with more/less
The ltolianfilm was mach mote interestlng than this one.
That film was far less frightenlng than this one.
I
Choose the correct
word or phrase
underlined in each
sentence.
2
Complete each
sentence with a
comparative or
superlative form of
the adjective
gtven. Include any
other necessary
words.
3.
Rewrite each
sentence beginning
as shown so that it
has a similar
meaning to the first
sentence
Practice
a) The fish was so tasw as fiiGilf,i]rhe meat
b) This book is the most intEestinilLe more interesting I,ve
ever read.
c) This temple is the eldesUoldest in Europe.
d) That dress is a lot longer than/that the other one.
e) Nothing is worse/worst than being stuck in a traffic jam.
f) That skyscraper is one of the taile/tallest buildings in the
world.
g) The test wasn't as hard as/hard al I thought.
h) Actually, today I feel more bad/worse than I did yesterday.
i) Our journey took lonser than/the longest we expected.
j) Could you work more quietlv/more quieter please?
a) The Nile is the.lp..rlSgq!.. river in the world.
Iong
b) I was disappointed as the film was . than I expected.
entertaining
c) Most planes go a lot ... trains.
fast
d) Yesterday was one of ..... .days of the year.
hot
e) I think this book is much ... ... . the other one.
good
0 The tr.vins are the same height. Tim is . ... ... Sue.
tall
g) The first exercise was easy but this one is ... ..
dillicult
h) The Mediterranean is not ..... the pacific Ocean.
large
i) This classroom is ... ... the one next door.
big
j) This is ... ... ... ... television programme I,ve ever watched.
bad
a) David is a befter nrnner than paul.
Paulisnot.as.gggd.g..ryUte..r.g_s..Dqyi.d..(i;)
b) Nobody in the class is taller than Carol.
Carol is the .
c) I haven't written as much as you.
You've written
d) We expected the
The play wasn't
play to be better.
e) Jane's hair isn't as long as Helen's.
Helen's hair is
0 No student in the school is noisier than I aml
I am the
g) This exhibition is much more interesting than ttre last one.
The last exhibition was not
h) This is as fast as the mr can go.
The car can't ..
i) This bike is not as expensive as the green one.
The green bike is
j) Kate ate much less than George did.
Kate didn't ......
a) Our team is jlqt..q; good fr.q your teem. They are both the
Put one suitable same.
word in each b) This is one of famous paintings in the world.
space. c) Everyone did ... ... .... work Flarry
d) You're not a safe driver! You should drive . slowly.
e) Ann is taller Mike but their son Dave is
tallest in the family.
f) What an awful book. It's one of ....... interesting
I've ever read.
g) It makes no difference, because this road is
bad ........ that one.
h) Today is ........ cold ....... yesterday, so I'm wearing my
shorts.
i) Nobody knows about electronics Tina ... ... .
j) I don't think that pet cats are ... ... friendly . pet dogs.
a) Could you not talk so fast, please?
Rewrite each slowly
sentenc€ sothatit ..Q.pu[d.yp.lt.tqlk.upre-g!..oy.ll, plpqe?.
has a similar b) The last film we saw was more frightening than this one.
meaning and as
contains the word
$ven c) Nobody in the class cooks beuer than Sam.
best
d) I havan't eaten as much as you.
more
e) Supermarkets are more convenient than small shops
as
l) Skating isn't as exciting as skiing
more
g) fuchard doesn't work harder than Alan.
just
h) Jack isn't as interested in football as his brother is.
more
i) Bill is the youngest in the family.
older
j) You ran a lot faster than I did.
fast
a) bigest b.isgep!. . i) hardder
Correct the b) greattest
spelling of these c) shorter
words where d) likeliest
necessary e) tallest
j) wettest
k) fitter
l) tighter
m)newest
f) fater .. n) heavier
g) smalest o) widder
h) longest
I.1. MAKING COMPARISONS WITHAS ...... AS
(a) Tina is 2l years old. Sam is also 21.
Tina is as old os Sam (is)
(b) Mike came cs qutckly as he could.
As .....as is used to say that the two
parts of a comparison are equal or the
same in some way.
In (a): as + adjective + as
In (b): as + adverb + as
c) Ted is 20. Tina is 21.
Ted is not as old as Tina
d) Ted isn'r qalte as old as Tina
e) Amy is 5. She isn't nearly cs old as
Tina
Negative form: not as ....as. " eriu
and nearly are often used with the
negative.
In (d): not quite ,ts ...af, : a small
difference.
In (e): not nearly os ...as = a big
difference.
Sam is/rsl as old as Tina
Ted is nearly/almost as old as Tina.
0
s)
Common modifiers of as....as are just
(Meanine "exastly") and nearlv/almost
fAlso possible: not so....tN: Ted is not so otd as Tina.
EXERCISE l: Using the given words, complete the sentences with as .. as Use a
negative verb if appropriate.
l. a house/ly/an ant Aq ant bn't hulte) as big as a hausgftv-
2. honey/ sugar Honev is (iusll os sweet as sugan
3. heohUmoney_important as
4. adult/children
5. alake/aseo
patrent as
big as
6. alion/atiger dangerous and wild as
7. a goloxy / a solor system large as
8. the Atlontic Ocean / the Pacrfic Ocean O*p *
9. monkeys /people _agrle ilAimb us
10. reading a novel / listening to music In my opinion,
as_
ll.a mother / a father I think that
children as
--
important in
relaxing
raising
r Maximum depths : Atlantic : approx. 3q0b0 fee0/9000 meters.
Pacific = approx. 36,000 fe€t/l1,000 met€rs.
EXERCISE 2: Complete the sentences by using as .......as
I I need you right away! Please come ...... as soon os possibte.
? _We
cgn't go any farther. This is asfar as we-can go.
3. I can't work any faster. I'm working ... ... ....
4. An orange is sweeter than a lemon. In other words, an orange is not.....
6- I had expected the test to be difficult, and it was. In other words, the test was
just.....
7. It's important to use your English every day. You should practice speaking English
8 You're only old if you feel old you are .... young... ....
9 You might think it's easy to do, but it,s not quite... ....
10. It takes an hour to drive to the airport. It takes an hour to fly to Chicago. In other
words, it takes... ... ..
EXERCISE 3: As.... as is used in many traditional phrases. These phrases are
generally spoken rather than written. See how many of these phrase
you're familiar with by completing the sentences with the given
words.
/ q beor the hills a pin
a beet a kite a rock
a bird a mule a wet hen
o bull / on ox
l. When wili dinner i-;e ready? l'in as hungry as a bear I
2. Did Bill really lift that heary box all by himself? He must be as strong as _
3. It was a lovely summ€r day. School r.ras out, and there rvas nothing in particular
that I had to do, I felt a-s free as
4. Jeremy rvon't change his mind. He's as stubborn as
5. Was shc angry? You'd better believe! She was as mad as
6. Of course I've heard that joke before! It's as
7. Nicole felt very embarrassed. She turned as red as
8. I tend to be a little messy, but my roommate is as neat as
9. When Erica received the good news, she felt as high as
10. How can anyone expect me to sleep in this bed? It's as had as
I.2. COMPARATIYE AND SUPERLATTYE
l) "A" is older lhan"B"
)) "A", "8", are older lhan"C" and "D"
:) Ed is more generous than his
brother.
The comparative compares
"this/these" to "that/those."
Ibrm.: -er ot morc.
NOTICE: A comparative is
followed bv than
l) "A", "8"r "C", and "D" are sisters,
"A" is the oldest of all four sisters.
:) A woman in Turkey claims to be the
oldest penon in the world.
) Ed is the mast generous percon inhis
familv.
The superlative compare one
part of a whole group to all the
rest of the goup. F0ra ' -est or
mosL
NOTICE: A superlative begins
.:u/].th the.
EXERCISE 4: - ERROR ANALYSIS: All of the following sentences contain
errors. Find and correct the mistakes.
l. Alaska is large than Texas.
-- Alaska is larger than Tuas
2. Alaska is largest state in the United State.
3. Texas is the larger from France in land area.
4. Old shoes are usually more comfortable that 4ew shoes.
5. My running shoes are the more comfortable as shoes I own.
6. My running shoes are more comfortable as my boots .
7. M r. Molina writes the most clearly than Mr York.
8. English is the most widely used language from the world.
9. I have one sister and one brother. My sister is.younger in the family.
10. Mark's knife was as sharper from a razor blade
I l. I like Chinese food more beuer than French food.
16. clearly
17. happy
18. confusing
19. courageous
20. common
21. friendly
22. red
23. wrld
24. dangerous
1.4. USII{G COMPARATIVES
I I'm older than my brother (is).
r.l'm older than he is.
;.I'm older than him.(informa[)
In formal English, a subject pronoun
(e.g., he) follows than, as in (b). tn
everyday, informal spoken English, an
object pronoun (e.9., him) often
follows than. as in (c).
l.He works harder than I do.
:.I arrived earlier than theY did.
Frequently an auxiliary verb follows
the subject after than. In (d): than I do
: than I work.
L Tom is mucVa lot of/tar older than I am.
INCORRECT: Tom is very older than I am
3.Ann drives much / o lot of / far more
carefully than she used to.
r.Ben is a llttle (blt) older than me.
Very often modifies adjectives and
adverbs: e.g., Tom is very old. He
drives very care/ully. However, very is
NOT used to modifu comparative
adjectives and adverbs. Instead, they
are often modified by much, a lot, or
far, as in (f) and (g). Another corlmon
modifier is a liulda little bit. as in (h).
i. A pen is less expensive than a book.
i. A pen is not as expensive a,s book.
<.A pen is not as lorge os a book.
INCORRECT: A pen is less large than a
book.
The opposite of <r/more is expressec
by less ot not as ....4s. (I) and (f) have
the same meaning. Less (not as ..... as)
is used with adjectives and adverbs ol
more than one syllable. Only not u
.., {rr (NOT /ess) is used with one-
svllable adiectives or adverbs. as in &).
EXERCISE 6: Complete the following. Use pronouns in the completions.
l. My sister is only six. She's much younger than I am OIl: (informallil ne.
2. Peggy is thirteen, and she feels sad. She thinks most of the other girls in
school arefar more popularthan
3. The children can't lift that heavy box, but Mr. Ford can. He's stronger than
Jim isn't a very good typist. I can type much faster than
I was on time. Jake was late. I got there earlier than
Ted is out of shape. I can run a lot of faster and farther than
EXf,RCISE 7: Complete the following with comparative by using more/ - er or
less, as appropriate. Use the words in parentheses plus your own
words.
L This test wasn't hard. It was a lot (drffcult) less dllficult tllqn the last test.
2. Dr. Lee's tests are far (dfficult) nure *ffflcttlt than Dr. BtrtpL's test.
4.
5.
6.
3.
4.
5
6.
7.
8.
9.
I0.
A piano is a lot (heouy')
To me, science is much (interesting/
Saltnater is (dense)
People are far (intelligeru)
Fish are considerably (intel I ige nr)
She rarely comes to see us. She visit us much (frequently)
When you're hot and tired nothingis (refreshing)
ln my life. I have always tired to help those who are (fortunate)
EXERCISE 8:Use 4r or mt te and the words in the list to complete the following.
Discuss whether the words are nouns, adjectives, or adverbs and
:. review how comparatives are formed with each of these parts of
speech. When do you use -sr and when do you vse mare?
{ bright happiness people
{ brightly happy quick
doctors information responsibilities
hoppily mistakes responsible
responsibly
salt
I trafic
t.
2.
3.
5.
6.
7.
8.
A city has more traffic thap a small town.
Sunligtt is much brlshtet then moonlight.
Did you know that a laser burns billions of times nwre bliqhttv than the light at
the sun's surface?
4. There is about geography in an encyclopedia than (there is) in
dictionary.
I used to be sad, but now I'm a lot about my life (than I used to be).
Unhappy roommates or spouses can live together if they learn
to respecl each other's differences.
She's had a miserable life. I hope she finds
I made on the last test thsn (I did) on the first one, so I got a
wors€ grade.
9. My daughter Annie is trustworthy and mature. She behaves much
than my nephew Lquie
in the future.
I.5. USING MORE WITH NOTINS
a). Would you like wme mt rc cotfe?
b). Not everyone is here. I expect
more peoDle to come later.
In (a): "coffee" is a noun. When more is
used with nouns, it often has the meaning ol
additional.It is not necessarv to use than.
c). There are mare Wople in China
than there are in United States.
More is dlso used with nouns to make
complete comparisons by using tftaa
d). Do you have enough coffee, or
would you like some more?
When the meaning is clear, the noun may
be omitted andmore used by itself.
10. A twelve-year-old has at home and in school than a nine--year-old.
I l. My son is
12 A rabbit is
about doing his homework than hrs older sister is.
than a turtle.
13. This soup doe$n't taste quite nght. I think it needs just a Iittle
14. Health care in rural areas is poor We need to treat people
in rural areas.
15. At present, approximately two-fifths of the world's population can speak English.
English is taught to _ in the world than any other language
is or ever has been.
EXERCISE 9: Using the words in the following list or your own words, complete
the sentences. Repeat the comparative.
angry enthusiastic long
big good laud
discouraged hat
l. Her English is improving.It is getting befrer and better
2.Theyjusthadtheirsixthchild.Theirfamilyisgetting
3. The line of people waiting to get into the theater got
4. As the soccer game progesse{ the ctowd became
5. The weather is getting with each passing day.
6. I've been looking for a job for a month and still haven 't been able to find one .I'm
7. As the ambulance came closer to us, the siren became
8. She sat there quietly, but during all that time she was getting _
Finally she exploded.
1.6. REPEATING A COMPARATIVE
a). Because he was afrai4 he walked
laster andfaster.
). Life in the modern world is
becomins more and more
Repeating a comparative gives the idea
that something becomes progressively
greater, i.e., it increases in intensity,
itv. or
1.7. USING DOUBLE COMPARATTVES
a). The hardq you study, the more you will
learn.
).The olderhe go the quleur he became.
c). The more she studie4 the more she
leamed.
double comparative has two parts;
parts begin tvith the, as in the
The second part of the
parison is the result of the first
In (a): If you study harder, the
', the bettcr are two cotrrmon
).Tru wamar the weather (is), the beder I will be that you will learn
like it. _
e). A: Should we ask Jenny and Jim to the
party too?
B: Why not? The morg the nerrler.
0. A: When should we leave?
morc, the nerrler and the
ions. In (e): It is good to have
B'. The sooner, the better
people at the party. In (f): It is
if we leave as soon as we can.
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Practice grammar i

  • 2. Rifki Amin & Imtihan Hanim Practice in Grammar I
  • 3. i Practice in Grammar I Rifki Amin Imtihan Hanim Sekolah Tinggi Bahasa Asing Pertiwi
  • 4. ii Language is systematically process human has. Language is a system of communication consisting of sounds, words and grammar, or the system of communication used by the people of a particular country or profession. It can be inferred that communication may be happened if the people produce a sound, word and grammar, or system which exists in the country to interact each others. Practice in Grammar I, the book you are reading, is one of the textbooks containing course materials arranged by Ms. Imtihan Hanim and Mr. Rifki Amin –two lecturers who teach English at Sekolah Tinggi Bahasa Asing (STBA) Pertiwi Tangerang. The arrangements of these course materials have been done as one of the attempts to fulfill the needs of the textbook containing course materials which go along with the syllabus of the related course. Tangerang, August 2015 The writer PREFACE
  • 5. iii Preface ii Contents iii Chart of Tenses vi UNIT 1: Simple Present and Present Progressive A.1 The Simple Present and Present Progressive 1 A.2 Form of the Simple Present and Present Progressive 1 A.3 Non Progressive Verb (1) 2 A.4 Simple Present and Present Progressive (Short answer question) 3 A.5 Non Progressive Verb (2) 6 A.6 Using the Present Progressive with Always 8 UNIT 2: Simple Past and Past Progressive B.1 The Simple Past 10 B.2 The Past Progressive 10 B.3 Expressing Past Time: Using Time Clauses 14 B.4 Expressing Past Habit: Used to 16 UNIT 3: Some Special Verbs and Expressions 2.3 Stative Verbs 18 2.4 Am/is/are being + Adjectives 20 2.5 Regular and Irregular Verbs 22 2.6 Regular Verbs: Pronunciation of –Ed Endings 23 2.7 Irregular Verbs: an Alphabetical List 25 2.8 Troublesome Verbs: Raise/Rise, Set/Sit, Lay, Lie 29 UNIT 4: Nouns and Pronouns 1.1 Plural Forms of Nouns 30 1.2 Using Adjectives to Describe Nouns 31 1.3 Using Nouns as Adjectives 32 1.4 Personal Pronouns: Subjects and Objects 34 1.5 Possessive Nouns 35 1.6 Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives 36 1.7 A Friend of + Possessive 37 1.8 Reflexive Pronouns 37 1.9 Singular Forms of Other: Another vs The Other 38 1.10 Plural Forms of Other: Other(s) vs The Other(s) 39 1.11 Summary of Forms of Other 40 1.12 Personal Pronouns: Agreement with Nouns 41 1.13 Personal Pronouns: Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns 42 CONTENTS
  • 6. iv 1.14 Personal Pronouns: Agreement with Collective Pronouns 43 1.15 Using Reflexive Pronouns 44 1.16 Using You and One as Impersonal Pronouns 45 1.17 Forms of Others 46 UNIT 5: Future Time C.1 Expressing Future Time: Be Going To and Will 47 C.2 Forms with Will 47 C.3 Be Going To and Will 48 C.4 Expressing Future Time in Clauses and If Clauses 49 C.5 Using the Present Progressive to Express Future Time 52 C.6 Using the Simple Present to Express Future Time 54 C.7 Present Plans for Future Activities Using Intend, Plan, Hope 54 C.8 Immediate Future: Using be about to 54 C.9 Future Progressive 57 UNIT 6: Making Comparisons 1.1 Making Comparison with As … As 63 1.2 Comparative and Superlative 65 1.3 Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives and Adverbs 66 1.4 Using Comparatives 67 1.5 Using More with Nouns 68 1.6 Repeating a Comparative 69 1.7 Using Double Comparatives 69 1.8 Using Superlatives 70 1.9 Using the Same, Similar, Different, Like, Alike 72 UNIT 7: Modals 1.1 Introduction 73 1.2 Polite Request with “I” as the Subject 74 1.3 Polite Request with “You” as the Subject 74 1.4 Polite Request with Would You Mind 75 1.5 Expressing Necessity: Must, Have to, Have got to 76 1.6 Lack of Necessity and Prohibition: Have to and Must in the Negative 76 1.7 Advisability: Should, Ought to, Had better 77 1.8 The Past Form of Should 78 1.9 Making Suggestions: Could 78 1.10 Expressing Degrees of Certainty: Present Time 79 1.11 Degrees of Certainty: Present time negative 81 1.12 Degrees of Certainty: Past time 81 1.13 Degrees of Certainty: Future time 83 1.14 Progressive Forms of Modals 84 1.15 Using Can and Be able to 85 1.16 Past Ability: Could 86 1.17 Summary Chart of Modals and Similar Expressions 87
  • 7. v UNIT 8: Present Perfect and Present Perfect Progressive D.1 Present Perfect 91 D.2 The Past Participle 92 D.3 Form of The Present Perfect 92 D.4 Meaning of The Present Perfect 93 D.5 Using the Simple Past vs the Present Perfect 95 D.6 Using Since and For 97 D.7 The Present Perfect Progressive 100 D.8 Using Already, Yet, Still, and Anymore 102 References 103
  • 8. A. Stuplg PnrsENT AND Pngssttr PnocREsstvE A. I THE SIMPLE PRESENT AND THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE A.2 FORM OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT AND PRESENT PROGRESSIVE EXERCISE f . Complete the sentences. Use the words in parentheses. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSM. l. Shhh. The baby (sleep) is sleepins . The baby (sleep) sleeps nine or ten hours every night. 2. Right now I'm in class. I ( sit ) at my desk. I usually (sit) at the same desk in class everyday. 3. Ali ( speak ) Arabic. Arabic is his native language, but THE SIMPLE PRESENT (a) Ann takes shower everyday. (b) I usually erzl lunch at the Cafeteria. (c) Babies cry (d) The earth revolves around the suR. (e) A square has four equal sides (f) The sky rs blue. The simple present expresses daily habits or usuol activities as in (a) and (b). The simple present expresses general statenrenls of facts u in (c) and (d). In sum, the simple present is used for events or situations that exist always, usually, or habitually in the past, present, and future. THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (g) Ann can't come to the phone right now because she is taking a shower. (h) It's noon. I am eating lunch at the cafeteria right now. (i) Jimrny and Susie are babies. They are crying. I can hear them right now. May be they are hungry. The present progressive expresses an activity that is in progress (is occurring, is happening) right noq.The even is in progress at the time the speaker is saying the sentence. The event began in the past, is in progress now, and will probably continue into the future. Form : am, is, are * ing SIMPLE PRESENT PRESENT PROGRESSIVE STATEMENT (l-You-We-They)work. ( He - She - It) works. ( I ) amworking (You - We - They) are working ( He - She - It ) is working NEGATIVE ( I - You - We - They ) do not work ( He - She - It ) doesn't work ( I ) om not working (You - We - They) are not working ( He - She - It ) is not working QUESTION Do ( I - You - We-They ) work ? Does ( He - She - It ) r.vork ? Am I working ? Are (You * We - They) working ? Is ( He - She - It ) working ? right now he ( speokl English.
  • 9. 7. 8. 4. Our teacher (.stand, ou{ ) on the corner ofher desk- 5. It's 6:00 P.M. Marl is at honre. She ( eat I She alrval,s f earT 6.It ( roin, not t up right now. She ( sit ) dinner, with her farnily around six o,clock. blue. right now in southern California. ) two cups of to work. and the sky ( be 1 It ( rain, it ) coffee every morning before he (go) Look out the window. ( rain, it ) Should I take my umbrella ? 9.It's7:30 A.M. and the Wilson are in the kitchen. lvlrs. Wilson (sirl at the breakfast table. She (read) the morning paper. She (read) the newspaper every morning. Mr. Wilson (pour) a cup of coffee. He (drinkl 10. There is a cartoon on TV, but the children (watch, not) They (play) with their toys instead. They usually (watch) cartoons in the morning, but this morning they (pay, not) any attention to the TV. Mr. and Mrs. Moor fivatch, not) the TV either. They (like, not) to watch cafioons. A. 3 NON PROGRESSTVE VERBS (t) * Sometime think and have are used in progressive tenses. Compare : I think that grammar is easy. (when think means believe, it is non progressive) I om thinking about grammar right norv. (When think expresses thoughts that are going through a person,s mind, it can be progressive) Tom has a car. (When hsve expresses possession, it is not used in the present progressive) I am having a good time. (rn certain idiomatic expressions have a good time, have can be used in the present progressive. ir. (a1I hetr a bird. It is singing. (b) I'm hungry. I tuant a sandwich. s to Jim. Some rvords are not used in p.ogi-siuEGnse Correct : I hear a bird lright now) Incorrect: I am hearing a bird (right now) NON PROGRESSIVE VERBS Hear believe See think* underslctnd know need wcltlt prefer
  • 10. EXERCISE 2. Complete the sentences with the rvord in parentheses. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSM. 1. Right norv Yoko (read1 is reading an article in the newspaper, but she (understand, not) doesn't undersl{tnd it. Some of the vocabulary (be) is too difficult for her. 2. Right now' | ]ook) at the board. I (see1 some words on the board. 3. | (need1 to calI my parents today and tell them about my new apartrnent. They can't call tne because they (know, not) telephone number. 4. This tea is good. I (like) it. What kinds is it? I (pr*4- tea to coffee. How aboLtt you? 5. Right norv the children /De7 at the beach. They (have) - a beach ball, and a good tirne. They (hava) they (play) catclr lvith it.They (like) play catch. Their parents (strnbathe) . They Ary) - to get ten. Thct (li.t'tant to some music on transistor the sound of sea gulls and radio. They also ftenr) the sound of the r,vaves. A. 4 SIMPLE PRESENT AND PRESENT PROGRESSIVE "Short Answer to Question" my to * am, is, and are are not contracted INCORRECT SHORT ANSWER with pronouns in short answer. : Yes, I'm. Yes, she's. Yes, theY're' Ouestion Shorl Answer Long Answer SIMPLE PRESENT Does Bob like tea? Yes, he does No. he doesn't Yes, he likes tea No, he doesn't like tea Do you like tea? Yes, I do No, I don't Yes, I like tea No" I don't like tea PRESENT PROGRESSIVE Are 1'ou studl,ing? Yes. I am No. I am not Yes, I am studYing Is Yoko studl ing? Yes, she is No, she is not. OR No, she isn't Yes, she is studying No, she isn't studYing Are thev studvins'7 Yes, they are No, they're nat.OR No. they aren't Yes, they're studying No, they aren't studying
  • 11. -.EXERCISE 3. Complete the sentences with the word in parentheses. Also give short answer to the question as necessary. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSM. (Mary, have) Does MarY have a bicYcle? Yes, she does . She (have) has a ten-speed bike' (it, rain) right now? No, . At least, | (think, not) (you, like) sour oranges? . | (ike) sweet ones. t.A B 2,A B 3.A B 4.A B 5.A B 6, A: B (yourfriends, write) Yes, time .l ket) a lot of letters? lots of letters all the a test in class right now? an exercise. (the students, take) No, (you, know) .They (do) --. EXERCISE 4. Complete the sentences with the word in parentheses. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT oT the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE. SOME Of thE sentences are negative. Some of the sentences are questions. Supply the short answer to a question if necessary. Tom Adams? I've never met him. No, Where are the children ? In the living room. What are they doing ? (lheY, watch) No, They (play) Shhh. I (heor) it, too ? Yes, My Sister (have) (You, have) LA B A B 2.A B 3.A B A B 4.A B A No, but I have ten-sPeed bike. shhh. TV? a game. a noise. (you, hear) I wonder what it is. a new car.she bought it last month. acar2 ? No, Do you ? Why? (the baby, sleeP) Uh-huh. She (take) her afternoon naP.
  • 12. B 5.A B 6,A B A B A .B A 7, A B A 8.A B A B A B I (think, not) I (think) happened during the day. I (think, not) problem. (You, see) Which man? The man in the brown jacket? No,l (talk) the blue skirt. Oh, that man. (You, know) Okay, I'll talk softly. | (want, not) What (you, think) you fall a sleep ? No, | (think, not) I (know, not) Ron, (be) No, to me. Maybe it ftelong) to wake her up. about every night befbre about all ofthe pleasant things that about my that man over there? about the man who (wear) him ? so. him either. this your hat? .lt (belong, not) to Kevin. Why don' Okay. A penny for your Huh? What (you, think) t you ask him about it? thought. I (believe, not) But it's true. about right now? about anything else right now. you! her hair. EXERCISE 5. Use either the SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE of the verbs in parentheses 1. Diane can't come to the phone because she (wash) 2. Diane (wash) her hair every other day or so. 3. Kathy (sit, usually) in the front rgw during class, but today she (sit) in the last row. to concentrate. 4. Please be quiet.l (try)
  • 13. 5. (Lock, you, altt,tty.s) the door to your apartment when you leave? 6. Iwrotetomylriendlastli'eek.shehasn'tans*'eredmyletteryet.Iftuait,stilll for a reply. 7. After three days of rain. I'm glad that the sun (shine) again today. 8. Every morning, the sun (shine) in my bedroom window and fivake1 9. A: Look! It (snox,,) B : It's beautiful! This is the first time I've ever seen snow. h. (snow, not) tn my country rne Llp. 10. Mike is a student, but he (go, not) because it's summer. He bttendl to school right now college from Septernber to May every year, but in the sumtller he (have, usually) ajob at the post office. A. s NON PROGRESSTVE VERBS (2) * Verbs with an asterisk are also comtnonly used as progressive verbs, u,ith a diftbrence in meaning, as in the following examples. NON PROGRBSSIVE (a). Ali knows this grammar Sotne verbs are non progressive. They are not used in any ofthe progressive tenses. These verbs describe states (i.e., conditions that exists) activity that are in progress. In (a) : "Ali knows" describes a mental state that exist. PROGRESSIVE (b) Kim is reading about these gramlllar COMPARE : In (b) : "Kirn is reading" is an activity in progress. Progressive tenses can be used with the verb read but not with the verb know. COMMON NON PROGRESSIVE VERBS Mental State know believe lmaglne want realize feel doubt need understand SLIDOOSC remember orefer recognlze think* forset mean Emotional State love hate fear mind like dislike enw care aonreciate Possession possess have* own belong Sense Perception taste * hear see* smel[* f,eel Other Existing States seem cost be* consist of look* owe exist contain aDpear weigh* include
  • 14. NON PROGRESSIVE (Existins State) PROGRESSIVE (ActiviN in progress) think I think he is a kind man I am thinking about this grammar have He hus a car I om having trouble / She is having a good time taste This food tastes good The chef rs tasting the sauce. smell These flowers smell good Tom ir smelling the roses see I see butterfly. Do you see it? The Doctor b seeins the patient. feel The cat's furfeels soft Sue is feelins the cat's fur look She /oa*s cold. I om lookins out tlie window appear He appears to be asleep The actor is appearing on the stage weish A piano is heavy. lt weiglts a lot The grocer is-yeiglrins the bananas be I amhungr) Tom rs Deiag foolish+* ** COMPARE : (a) Bob is foolish : Foolishness is one of Bob's usual characteristic. (b) Tom is being Foolish = right nolv, at the moment of speaking. Tom is doing something that the speaker considers fool ish. The verb'be (+ an adjective) is used in the progressive to describe a ternporary characteristic. Very few adjectives are used with be in the progressive : some of the most common are : foolish, nice, kind, lazy, careful, patient, silly, rude, polite, impolite. EXERCISE 6. Use either the SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE of the verbs in parentheses I can't afford that ring. lt (cost) costs too much. Look! lt (begin) to rain. Unfortunately,l (have, not) my umbrella with me. Tom is lucky. He (wear) a raincoat. 3 I (own, coat) an umbrella .I (wear) a waterproof hat on rainy days. Right now, I (look) around the classroorn. Yoko (write) in her book. Carlos ftite) his pencil. Sam (scratch) his head. lohn (stare) out the window. He (seem) to be daydreaming, but perhaps he (think) hard about verb tenses. What (think, you) John (do) There is a book on my desk, but it (belong, not) to me. Dennis (fix) the roofofhis house today, and he (need) some help. Can you help him ? 7 Barbara (tutor, often) other students in her math 1 2 5 6 assignments they (work) noa on in because she (unclerstand, their class this week. the material
  • 15. 8 Right now I (look) right now. Who is that woman who (stand) at Janet. She (look) angry. I wonder what's the matter. She (have) a frown on her face. She certainly (have, not) any fun 9A B A B Which woman? (talk, you) (wear) No,l (talk, not) woman who (wear) Oh. | (know, not) next to the rvindow? about the woman who the blue and gold dress ? about her. I (mean)-the the blue suit. | (recognize, not) her. A. 6 USING THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE WITH ALWAYS * COMPARE : - "Mary is always leaving her dirfy socks on the floor" (expresses annoyance) - "Mary always leuves her dirty socks on the floor" is a statement of fact in which the speaker is not necessarily expressing an attitude of annoyance. Annoyance may, however be included in the speaker's tone voice. EXERCISE 7. Supply the SIMPLE PRESENT or the SIMPLE PROGRESSM form of the verb. In a few sentences either form may be used. Examples : a. The milk (taste) tastes sour b. She (taste) is tasting the soup to see if it needs more salt. c. The wind (blow) is blowing very hard outside. l. The play (begin) now. 2. She (try) to finish her work earlY todaY. colder and colder. to see you again 3. lt (get) (a) Mary always leaves for school at7:45 In sentences referring to the present time, usually the simple present is used with always to describe habitual or every day activities. as in (a) (a) Mary is always leaving her dirty socks on the floor for me to pick up! Who does she think I am ? Her maid ? In special circumstances, a speaker may use the present progressive with always to complain, i.e., to express annoyance or anger, as in (b) (c) I am always /forever / constantly picking up Mary's dirty socks! In addition to always, the wordforever and constantly are used with the present Drogressive to express annoyance. 4. | (hope)
  • 16. 5. 6. ll.I (see) We (plan) 21. All the str,rdents (have) 22. At present he (ive) 23.You (waste) 24. Many people (e"joy) 25. American (ce le brate) 26. She always (interfere) to buy a house soon. faster when they are interested in to the movie tonight. a nap every afternoon. some loud noise outside. to the radio. some children outside. the children outside. he will be here soon. his father very much. now why he was angry. he can do it for you. entering the university. a book in Africa. about? of the new plan ? a good time at the party. in California. your time doing it. going to the beach. independence Day on July 4. in other people's affairs. at a very luxurious hotel. too much money on clothes. to take my keys when I the house. in the east and (set) Children (earn) what they (study) 7. We (go) 9. I (hear) 8. She (take) 10. He (isten) 12.l (t,atch) 13.I (believe) _ 14. He (admire) 15. We (understand) 18. He (write) 17. She (consider) 16.He (say) 27.He (stay) 19. What (you think) 20. What (you think) 28. She (spend) 29. I sometimes (forget) (eave) 30. The sun (rise) in the west.
  • 17. B. Srupt-s Pnsr AND Pnsr PnocnssstvE B. I SIMPLE PAST 8.2 PAST PROGRESSIVE EXERCISE 1. All of the following sentences have inaccurafe information. Correct them by : a). writing a negative sentences, and b) rvriting an affinnative statement with accurate information. l. Thomas Edison invented the telephone. (a) Thomas Edison didn't invenl the telephone (b) Alexander Graham Bell invented tlte telenltone 2. Rocks float. SIMPLE PAST a) I wolked to school yesterday b) He lived in Paris tbr ten years, but norv he is living in Rome c') | bougltt a nev car three days ago. The simple past indicates that an activitv' or situation began and ended ctt o particttlar time in the past. d) I stoorl under a tree when it begon lo rain. e) When I dropped my cup, the coffee spilled on nry lap Ifa sentence contains wlten and has the simple past in both clauses, the action in the "wlren" clause happen first. Ind): I'r : the rain began 2nd : I stood under a tree. I studied last night ^. PAST PROGRESSIVE a) I was walking down the street rvhen it began to rain. b) ll/hile I was walking dou,n the street it began to rain c) I was standing under a tree rvhen it began to rain. d) At 8 o'clock Iast night, /wrs studying. e) Last year at this time, l wcs 0ttenlins school. In (a) : l": I rvas walking down the street 2nd : it began to rain. In other rvords, both actions occurred atthe same tinre, but one octions began earlier and was in progress v,lten the other actiott occurred. I was studylag when they came L- x tJ While I was studying in one loom olour apartment, my roommate was lraving aparly in other room. Sometimes the past progresslve is used in both parts ofa sentence when trvo actions are in nrosress simultaneouslv. g) ll rained this morning h) It rr.,cs ruining this morning In some cases, the simple past and the past progressive give almost the same meaning. As in (s).(h)
  • 18. (o) (b) 3. Wood sinks (a) 4. You took a taxi to school todav. (a) 5. You're sitting on a soft, comfortable sofa (a) EXERCISE 2. IRREGULAR VERBS. Complete the sentences by using the SIMPLE PAST of the given vertrs. Use each verb only one time. begin = go read cul hold = shake : drink : keep = shut eat lose : speak: find : meet = spend : (b) (b) (b) l. Sue 2. We 3. When it windows in the apartment. 4, I me to Them. 5. Jack a cup of coffee before class this morning. a delicious dinner at a Mexican restaurant last night. to rain yesterday. I all of the Jennifer's parents when they visited her. She introduced his pocketknife at the park yesterday. This morning he back to the park to look for it. Finally, he _it in the grass. He was glad to have it back. 6. I don't have any money in my pocket. I my last dime yesterday. I'm flat broke. 7. Peter was nervous when he time. his baby in his arms for the first
  • 19. 8. When I introduced Tom to Ryan, they hands and smile each other. 9. I an interesting article in the newspaper yesterday. 10. Jessica didn't throw her old shoes away. She them because they were comfortable. EXERCISE 3. IRREGULAR VERBS. Completes the sentences by using the SIMPLE PAST of the given verbs. Use each verb only one time. I dropped my favorite vase. [t fell on the floor and hundred pieces. When I went shopping yesterday, I a cooking pot. Alex-hisbooktoclasswithhim.Hedidn,tforgetit' The police The sun the bank robbers. They are in jailnow. at 6:04 this rnorning. My dog-- a hole in the yard and buried his bone. Last night I had a good night's sleep. I nine hours. Ms. Manning chernistry at the local high school last year. My brother and his wife to our apartment for dinner last night. It was really cold yesterday. The temperature was three below zero. I nearly to death rvhen I rvalked home! Today Paul has on slacks and a sportjacket, but yesterday he and sweatshirl to class. Jeans I l. 12. 13. Last night around midnight, when I was sound sleep, the telephone .lt me up I about going to Florida for my vacation, but I finally decided to go to Puerto Rico. 14. I think = wake: evenrng. a letter to my folks after I finished studying yesterday
  • 20. EXERCISE 4. Complete the sentences with the words in parentheses. Use the SIMPLE PAST or the PAST PROGRESSM. 1. At 6:00 P.M, Bob sat down at the table and began to eat. At 6:05, Bob (eat) dinner. 2. While Bob (eat) dinner, Ann (come) through the door. 3. In other words, when Ann (come) through the door. Bob (eat) dinner. 4. While Bob (sleep) the phone (ring) 5.Inotherwords,whenthephone(ring)-Bob(sleep)- 6. Sally (eat) dinner last night when someone (knock)_ on the door. 7. I began study at seven last night. Fred (come)_ at seven-thirty. I (study) when Fred (come) 8. While I (study) last night, Fred (drop by)_ to visit me. 9. My roommate's parents (call) him last night while we (watch) ____ _ TV. I0. Bob left his house at 8:00 A.M and (begin) to walk to class. I 1. Bob went to bed at l0:30. At 1 I :00 (sleep)_ 12. My mother called me around five. My husband came home a little after that. When he (come) home, I (talk) my mother on the phone. to
  • 21. B. 3 EXPRESSING PAST TIME : USING TIME CLAUSES a) When I went to Chicago, I visited my uncle b) I visited my uncle when I went to Chicago - When I went to Chicago = a time Clause - I visited my uncle : a main Clause a and b have the same meaning. c) After eating dinner, she went to the library. d) Mary went to the library after she ate dinner e) While I was watching TV, the phone rang. f) The phone rang while I was watching TV g) When the phone rang, I was watching TV h) I was watching TV when the phone rang Put a comma at the end of a time clause when the time clause comes first in first in a sentence (comes in front of the main clause) Time clause + comma * main clause Main clause + No comma + time clause i) When the phone rang, I answered it. In a sentence with a time clause introduced by when, both the time clause verb and the main verb can be simple past. In this case, the action happened first in i): First: the phone rang. Then = I answered it. EXERCISB 5. Combine the fwo sentences into one sentence by using time clauses. l. First : I got home Then:latedinner a) b) 2. First : I Then: a) b) After I got ltome,I ote dinner I nte dinner sfter I got home washed dishes I watched TV After ufter 3. First : I unplugged the coffee pot Then : I left my apartment this morning. a) b) 4. First : Then: a) Before beforc I was eating dinner Jim came While b) while
  • 22. EXERCISE 4. complete the sentences with the correct form of the word in parentheses. l. Last Friday was a holida),. It (be) Iir.Jependence day, 2. so, I didn't have to go to classes. I (sleep) _ - a little 3. Iater than usual. Around ten. my friend Larry (corre i 4. over to my apartrnent. we (pack)_---* a picnic basket and 5. then (take) the bLrs to Forest park. 6. We (spend)______ mcst olthe da-.,,there. 7. When we (get)___ , . tr-.1hr i-:ark-. 1,e (tlldi_ 8. an empty picnic tabie r:r,lrr i.i !,;r;riri i iiere were some ducks on 9. the pond. so we (feed)_ , , ihcrri. 10. we (thro*i-_--_ srrali pieces of'bread on the water, and the I 1. ducks (swim) r," ei i..: get them- One duck is very clever. 12. It (catch) __-_ 13. ir (hir)_ _ - I'r' the bread before the water. Another duck lvas a thief. 14. It (steal) bread from the beaks ofother ducks. 15. While we (feed) __ the dLrcks, Larry and I (rneet)_a 16. man who usuali,r,(come)-- to the park everyday to feed 17 . the duck. We (sit)_ on a park bench and (speak)_ 18. to hiil ibr fifieen or twentv minutes. 19. After we (eat) our Iunch, 20. I (rake) a short nap under a tree, 21. While I (sleep) 22. a mosquito (bire) rnv arm. 23. When I (rvake) up, rxy arm itched, so I scratched it. a noise in the tree above me. 24. Suddenl), I (hear) 25. I (look) up and an orange and gray bir 26. (see) d away. many things. 27 . After a few moments, it (fly) 28. During the afternoon, we (do) 29.Then, we (take) a long walk. back to our picnic table, 30. When lve (get)
  • 23. 31. I (read) 32. who (be) 33. (draw) 34.Later rve (play) _ 35. Larry (rvin) 36. (win) 39. 40. We finally (find) 41. In the evening, we (oin) 42.the fireworks display. The fireworks (be) 43. Some of the explosions (be) 44. they (hurt) my ears. 45. When 46. We (le a7. h (bie) the display (be) a book, andLarry, an artist, pictures. a game of chess. the first game, but i tlre second one. me how to play a new game, one this new game, one of the dice (fall) frorn the picnic table onto the ground. it in some tall grass. a huge crowd to watch beautiful. 37. Then he (teach) with dice 38. While rve (play) very loud, however, over, ave) 8.4 EXPRESSING PAST HABIT : USED TO EXERCISE 5. Make sentences with similar meaning by using used to, Some of the ' sentences are negatives, and some of them are question. 1. When I was a child, I was shy, now I'm not shy. D I used to be shy, but now I'm not shy. 2. When I tive in my hometown, I went to the beach every weekend. all in all. a very enjoyable day. a) I used to live with rny parents. Now I live in my own apartment. b) Ann used to be afraid of dogs, but norv she like doss. Used to expresses a past situation or habit. Form: Used to + the simple form of verb. c) Did you use to live in Paris? Question form : Did + subiect+ use to d) I didn't use to drink coffee at breakfast, but now I always have coffee in the morning. Negative form : didn'l use to / never used lo
  • 24. >I to be the beach every weekend, but now I don't. 3. Rita worked in a law office for many years. Now she doesn't have a job. ) Rita in a low office, but now she doesn't. 4. When I was in high school, I wore a uniform to school. >I a uniform to school, but now I didn't. 5. Sara has two cats that she enjoys. In the past, she hated cats. cats are her first pets. ) Sara cats. She pets, but today she enjoys her two cats. EXERCISE 6. Complete the sentences. Each sentences should have a form of used to. Add your own words. l. I used to ride my bicycle to work, but now I take the bus. 2. What time did you use to go to bed when you were a child? 3. I didn't use to stav uo past midnight, but now I often go to bed very late. 4, I wild and reckless when I was younger, but now I'm not. tennis after work everyday, but norv he doesn't. 6. I used to spend a lot of tdme with_, but now 7. When you were little kid, what after school ? 8. Ann most of her lunches and dinners at restaurants before she got married. 9. What for fun when you were 10. I didn't use to , but 5. Tom
  • 25. T]IIT II NOUNS AND PRONOUNS EXERCISE I-PRETEST: Idenrifo each italicized word in the sentences as a r NOUN . ADJECTIVE e PREPOSITION or o PRONOLIN l. Eric is wearing a new shirt today- shirt noun 2. Algeria is in North Africa. in preposition 3. Steve is in Asia. I/e is traveling. he proBoun 4. l'mthirsty. thirstY adiective 5. We have class in this room every day. room 6. I know my wry to Joanna's house. way 7. T"he happy chrldren squealed with joy. happy 8. I walked to class withMaia. with 9. Hawaii has eight principal islands. islands 10. The hungry man stuffed his mouth with rice. hungry Japan. I l. Tokyo is the capital of JaPan. 12. Athens is a beautiful citY beautifrrl 13. My history book is under my desk. undeq 14. Do you like classical music? muslc 15. I don't eat sour oranges. I don't like them. them I.I.PLURAL FORMS OF NOUNS SINGT]LAR PLURAL (a) one bird two birds one street two streets one rose two roses To make rnost nouns plural, add-s. (b) one dish two dishes one match two matches one class two classes onebox twoboxes Add-es to nouns ending in -sh, -ch, -ss, and -x. (c) one baby two babies one city two cities Ifa noun ends in a consonant * -y, change the n to si'and --es. (NOTE: If -y is preceded by a vowel, add onlv-*: bovs. dovs. kevs. (d) one knife two knives one shelf two shelves If a noun ends in -fe or -f, change the ending -ves. (Exception: beliefs, chiefs, roofs. cuffs.) (e) one tomato two tomatoes one zoo two zoos one zero two zeroes / zeros The plural from of nouns that and in -o is sometimes -oes and sometimes -og. -06: lomalo6, pototoes, heroes, echoes, mosquitoes 4s: zoos, radlos, studios, Dlanos, solos,
  • 26. soptanos, photos, autos 4es or -rs.' zrroedzeros, volcanoes rlo lc a no s, to r nado es/t o rn a do s (0 one child two children one foot two feet one goose two geese one man two men one mouse two mice one tooth two teeth one woman two women two oeoole Some nouns have irregular plural forms. (NOTE: The singular form of people can be person, women, mon, child.. For example, one man and one child : two people.) (g) one deer two deer one fish two fish one sheep two sheep one offspring two offspring one soecies r two soecies The plural form of some nouns is the same as the singular form. (h) one bacterium two bacteria one cactus two cacti one crisis two crises one two ohenomenon ohenomena Some nouns that English has borrowed from other languages have foreign plurals. EXERCISE 1: Write the plural forms ofthe nouns. l. one potato, two notstoes a_dormitory, many 3. ciiie ch(I4lwo 4. a leal a lot of 5. a wis[ many 6. one fis[ two 7. an opinion, many 8. a mouse, several 9. a sandwich, some 10. a mar4 many I l. one woman, two 12. a flash, three 13. one tomalo, a few 14. one tooth, two 16. atax, a lot of 17. a possibility, several 18. a thief, many 19. a volcano, many 20. a goose, a lot of 21. anattorney, a few 22. a bulterfly, several 23. one category two 24. a mosquito, a lot of 25. one sheep, two 26. a wolf, some 27. one stitch, two 28. one foot, three 29. one piano, two 15. one half, two 30. a belief, many 1.2. USING ADJECTTVES TO DESCRIBE NOUNS (a)Bob is reading u o{N" . |!Sf Words that describe nouns are called adjectives. In (a): good is an adjective; it describes the book.
  • 27. (b) The tall womnn wore a new dress. (c) The short woman wore an old dress. (d) The young womnn wore a short dress. We say that adjectives '.modifu,, nouns. "Modifir" me&ns "change a little." Ax adjective changes the meaning of a noun by giving more information about it. (e) Roses are beaudful flowers. INCORRECT: Roses are beautiful flowers. Adjectives are neither singular nor plural. They do NOT have a plural form. (0 He wore a tthite shin. INCORRECT: He wore a shirt white. (g) Roses ore beautiful. (h) His shirt was white. Adjectives can come immediately before nouns, as in (f). Adjectives can also follow main verb be, as in (g) and (h). EXERCISE 2: Find the ADJECTTVES (ADJ) in the sentences. AIso discuss subjects, verb, and objects. l. The students wrote ttig compositions. 2- Deserts are dry. 3. The audience laughed at the funnyjoke, 4. Sensible people wear comfortable shoes 5. Knives are sharp. 6. Crocodiles have big teeth. 7. Dark places frighten small children. 8. Steve cleaned the shelves of the refrigerator with soapy water. 9. The local police searched the stolEh car for illegal drugs. 10. Before the development of agriculture, primitive people gathered wild plants for food. I.3. USING NOUNS AS ADJECTTYES (a) I have a flower garden. (b) The shoe srore also sells socks. (c) INCORRECT: a flowers garden. INCORRECT: the shoes store. Sometimes words that are usually used as nouns are used as adjectives. For example, flower is usually a noun, but in (a) it is used as an adjective to modify garden. When a noun is used as an adjective, it is singular in fonn, NOT plural. EXERCISE 3: Identi$ the nouns. Use a noun in the first sentence as an adjective in the second sentence, NOUN N(X'N NOUN NOUN l. My earden has veeetable. It is a vesetable garden.* 2- The program is on television. It's a 3. He climbs mountains. He is a program. climber.
  • 28. 4. 5. The lesson concerned history. It was a Tom works for the goverrlment. He is a 8. Janet forecasts the weather. She's a 9. This book is about grammar- It's a lesson. worker 6. The soup has beans. It is soup 7. The factory makes automobiles. It's an factory forecaster. book 10. Flags fly from poles. Many government buildings have poles. * When one noun modifies another nourq spoken stress is usually on the first noun: a vegetable gsrden EXERCISE 4: The following sentences have many mistakes in the use of nouns. o Findeachnoun. o Decide if the noun should be plural. o Write the correct plural form as necessary. Do not change any of the worlds in the sentences. l. The mountain in Chile are beautiful. -+ The mountains in Chile are beautiful 2. Cat hunt mouse. 3. Mosquito are small insect. 4. Everyone has eyelash. 5. Goose are larger than duck. 6. What are your favorite radio program? 7. Forest sometimes have fire. Forest fire endanger wild animal. 8. Sharp kitchen knife can be dangerous weapon. 9. There are many different kind of people in the world. 10. I applied to several foreign university because I want to study abroad next year. I l. Ted lives with three other university student. l2.The offspring of animal like horse, zebrq and deer can mn soon after they are born. 13. I like to read book and magazine article about true personal experience. 14. tvlany modern device require battery to work. Flashlight, pocket calculator, portable radio, tape recorder, and many kind of toy often need battery. EXERCISE 5: Find the nouns. Make them plural if necessary. Whales (l) {flhsl€ look the fish, but they aren't. They are mammal. Mouse, tigeq (2) andhuman being are other examples of mammal. Whale are intelligent (3) animaf fike$og and chimpanzee. Evel though they live in sea, ocean, and (+) rir.r, whaldare not fish. Fish lay eggfand do not feed their offspnng. (5) Mammal give birth to live offspring and feed them. (6) There are many kind of whale. Most whale are huge creature. The (7) Iargest whale are called blue whale. They can grow to 100 foot (30 meter) in
  • 29. (8) length and can weight 150 ton (135,000 kilogram). Blue whale are much (9) larger than elephant and larger than any of the now extinct dinosaur. The (10)heart of an adult blue whale is about the size of a compact car. It's main (1l)blood vessel, the aorta is large enough for a person to crawl through. ( l2)Human being have hunted and killed whale since ancient times. Aside (13)from people, whale have no natural enemy. Today many people are trying to (I4)stop the hunting of whale. 1.4. PERSONAL PRONOUNS: SUBIECTS AND OBJECTS SUBIECT PRONOIINS: I OBTECT PRONOIINS: fic they them we lll ")*artsmt-1}Shehastwo chi )Mike has e nen, blue bicycle. He bought it yesterday. A pronoun refers to a noun. It is used in place ofa noun. In (a): "she" is a pronoun. It refers to 'Kate." It is used in place of the noun *Kate." [n (b): "hef is a pronoun. It refers to *Kats." She is a subject pronoun; her is an object pronoun. A pronoun is used in the same ways as a noun: as a subject or as an object of a verb or preposition. A pronoun can refer to a single noun, as in (a) and (b). A pronoun can also refer to a noun phrase. In (c): "it" refers to the whole noun " a new blue bicvcle." s (d) Eric and I are good friends. o (e) Ann met Eric ord me at tlrc museum. O ofPREP Ann unalked between Eric ard me. Sometimes nouns and pronouns are connected by and. The choice ofa pronoun after and can be troublesome.* If the pronoun is used as Frt of the subjec! use a subject pronoun (e.9., I), as in (d). If it is part of the object, ltse an object pronoun, e.s...rrul as in (e) and you she, he it herr hinr; ts Singular: one. Plural : more than one. Singular pronouns refer to singular nouns, plural pronouns to plural nouns. In (g): "Mike" is singular (one person), so a singular pronout (he) is used. In (h): "students" is plural, so a plural pronoun SINGT'LAR PRONOTINS: I G) Mlke is in class. I{e is taking a test. (h) The sadct* are in class. Ift4y are taking a test. (i) Xote and Tom are married. fhey have two children. ' Pronoun usage afrer urd can bc troublerome for native speakers, tool
  • 30. 3. 4. EXERCISE 1. student 2. students 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. I0. 11. 12. 13. daughter daughters man woman men women people person earth elephant teachers teacher enemy 16. enemies Keith is a Heidi is a Keith and Jeremy are Emily and Colette are The An 7: Use the correct possessive form of the noun in italics to complete the sentence. One sfudent asked several questions. I answered the student's questions. Many students had questions after the lecture. I answered the studenfs' questions. We have one child, a girl. Our --- bedroom is right next to'ours- We have trvo children, both girls. They share a be&oom. Our bedroom is next to ours. It's important to be sensitive to other -- feelings. I always look straight into a eyes during a conversation. name. name. names. names. surface is about seventy per cent water. skin is gray and $rrinkled. We have class in this building, but all of the in anotherbuilding. My grammar husband is an engineer. Two soldiers, each faceless and nameless to the other, fought to the death on the muddy river bank. At the end the winner could not help but afuire his courage and wonder why he'd had to die. Through the years in public office, he made many political enemies. He made a list of his names so that he could get offices are 14. 15. revenge when he achieved political power. 1.6. POSSESSITE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTTYES This pen belongs to me. (a) lt's mine. (b) It is my pen (a) and (b) have the same meaning; they both show possession- "Mine" is a possessive pronoun; "my" is a oossessive adiective. POSSESSTVE PRONOLTNS'POSSESSIVEADJECTTVES (c) Ihave mine. I have mY PeL (d) You ttave yours. You haveyouryen iri St r has hirs She has lwahr (0 He has ils. He has his Pen (g) We tr,ve ot$. We have our Pens- (h) You have yaars. You haveyour pens. (i) They haie theiri. They have their pens. A poasessive pronoun is used alone, without a noun following it. A possessive adjective is used only with a noun following it. ln (i): the oossessive its is
  • 31. EXERCISE 6: Choose the correct words in italics. l. Ms. Lee wrote a note on my test paper. $fig Her wanted to talk tot;i, 4lgafter class 2. Nick ate dinner tvith I, me. 3. Nick ate dinner with Betsy and I, me. 4. I, me had dinner with Nick last night . 5. Betsy and l, mehad dinner with Nick last night . 6. Nick ate dinner withwe ,us . 7. Nick ate dinner with the Robertsons andwe, us. 8. My brother drove Emily and I me to tbe store . He didn't aDme in He waited for ll/e, Us in the cat we, zs hurried. 9. A: I want to get tickets for tlp soccer garne. B: you'd better get rt, them ,',igblway. It, they is, are selling fast. 10. AIex bought a ticket to the soccer game. He put it, them in his pocket and forgot about it, them. The next day, he put his shirt in the wash. The ticket came out of the washing machine and dryer crumpled and nearly illegible. But when Alex took il, them to the game, the ticket taker accepted it, them and let Alex in. I l. Please take these food scraps and give it, them to the dog. 12. I talked to Jennifer and Mike. I told they, them about tlre surprise birthday party to Lizzy. They, them won't tell she, her about it, them She, Her is going to be surprised! 13. Ted invited I, me to go to the game with he, him. 14. Ted invited Adam and /, me,to go to the game with Tina and he, him. 15. Between you and I, me,I thi* Brian made a bad decision when he quit his job. Brian and I, me see things differently. I.5. POSSESSIYE NOUNS SINGLILAR: (a) I know the student's name. PLURAL: (b) I know the students 'names. PLURAL: (c) I know the children's names. I An apostrophe (') and an -.s are used with nouns to show possession. Notice.the patterns: SINGULAR POSSESSIVE NOUN: noun * apostrophe (') + -s PLURAL POSSESSIVE NOUNS : noun * -s + apostrophe (') RREGUT,AR PI,URAI,* ,OSSESSIVE NOUN: noun * aoostroohe (') + -s & J D o z v, the student ----> the student 's name mybaby ---> my baby's name a man -€ a man b name I , ) J l. the sfudents -> the students 'names my babies --> my babies 'names men --=> men's ,utmes the children ----> the childrea's'names r An inegulu plural noun is a plural noun that does not erd in -s : chil&en, men, people, vomen.
  • 32. fi) I sat by myself on the park bench. (l): Greg lives alone, without family or roommates. (k) I enjoyed myself attlre fair. Enloy and a few other verbs are commonly followed by a reflexive pronoun. See the list below. VERBS AND PHN.ASES COMMONLY FOLLWE,D BY A RIF.LEXTVT PRONOUN believe in yourself hurt yourself take care ofyourself blame yourself give yourself tolk to yourself cut yourself (something) teach yourself enjoy yourself introduce yourself tell yourself feel sorryfor yourself kill yourself workfor yourself help yourself pinch yourself wish yourself (luck) be proud ofvourself ANOTMR (a) There is a large bowl of apples on the table. Paul is going to eat one apple. If he is still hungry after that, he can eat lanotheA apple. There are rnany apples to choose from. Another mextns "one more out of a goup of similar items, one in addition to the one(s) I've already talked about." Another is a combination of an + other, written as one word. TEE OTIIF.R (b) There arc two apples on the table. Paul is going to eat one of them. Sara is soins to eat the other apole. The other means " the last one in a specific group, the only one that remains from a siven number of similar items." l(c) Paul ate one apple. Then he *e onothe, I apple. (d) Paul ate one apple. Then he ate another one. (e) Paul ate one apple. Then he ate another. (f) Paul ate one apple. Sara ate the other apple. (g) Paul ate one apple. Sara ate the other one. ft) Paul ate one aople. Sara ate the other. Anolher and the other can be used as an adjective in front of a noun (e.g., apple) or in front of the word one. Another and the other can also be used alone as a pronoun, as in (e) and (h). 1.9. SINGULAR FORMS OF OTIfiR: ANOTIIER VS. TIIE OTHER EXERCISE 9: Complete the sentences with enother or the other. l. There are many kinds of animals in the world. The elephant is one kind. The tiger is-_-ggg!!gl_..* 2. There are two colors on this page. One is white. The other is black.
  • 33. I have a book. 1rs cover is black with noun that no a note has 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. it's : it rs (or it lra-r when used in the present perfect) EXERCISE 8: Choose the correct words in italics. l. Children should obey his, their parents. 2. A: Excuse me. Is this rny, mine dictionary or your, yours? B: This one is my, mine. Your, Yours is onyour, yours desk. The bird cleaned its, it's feathers with 4 ,, b beak. A: What kind of bird is that? B: It, It 's a crow. Paula had to drive my car to work. Her.s, Her had a flat tire. Julie fell offher bicycle and broke hers, her arm. Fruit should be a prt of your, yours daily diet. It, They is, are good for yo4 them. 1.7, A FRIEND OF + POSSESSIVE * He is myfrierd may give the idea that the speaker has only one friena speaker would normally ny He is one of myfriends or He is afriend oJmine. used only following possessive ' its: possessive adjective (a)Do you know Greg Smith? He is a friend of mine.* (b)We ate dinner with afriend of Bill's. INCORRECT'. a fi,iend of Bill (c)The Smiths arefriends of mine. A friend of + a possessive nouru/pronoun is a special or idomatic expression. It is used to identify another person as one friend among many friends. In (a): q friend of mine: one of my friends, but not my only friend. In (b): a friend of Bill's :, one of Bill's friends; Bill has other friends. In (c): The expression can also be used in the plural. 1.8. REF.LEXTYE PRONOUNS myself (a)/ saw myself inthe minor. yourself (b)You (one person) saw herself yourself, himself (c)She saw herself, it,self (d)He saw /rgalefi ourselves (e)./t (e.ii., the kitten) saw ltself, yourselves (f)We saw ourselves, themselves (g)You (plural) saw younelves, hThev saw then selves. Reflexive pronouns end in -self / - selves. They are used when the subject (e.g., I) and the object (e.g., myself) are the same person. The action of the verb is pointed back to the subject ofthe sentence. INCORRECT: I saw me in the mirror. + a reflexive pronoun: alone. In
  • 34. 3- Alex's bicycle was mn over by a truck and destroyed. He needs to get _ one. 4. The Smiths have two bicycles.One belongs to Mr. Smith bike belong to Mn. Smith. 5. There are three books on my desk. Two of them are dictionaries _one is a telephone directory. 6. The puppy chewed up my telephone directory, so I went to the telephone company to get phone book, 7. Vietram is a country in Southeast Asia. Thailand is 8. It rained yesterday, and from the looks of those dark clouds, we're going to have rainstorm today. 9. Nicole and Michelle are identical trrins. Tlrc only way you can tell them apart is by looking at their ears. One of them has pierced ears and doesn't. 10. Of the fiffy states in the United States, fo4y-nine are located on the North American continent. Where is located ? is named Matt. I l. I have two b,rothers. One is named Nick. 12. There are five name in this list. One is Adam. is Nick. is Greg. one of the name is Eric. ruune on the list (the last of the five) is Jessica. 1.10. PLURAL- FORMS Or OTIIER: OTHER (S) VS. THE OTIIER OTHER(S) There are many apples in Paul's kitchen. Paul is holding one apple. (a) There are other apples in a bowl. (adjectrve + trorm) (b) There are other ones on a plate. (adjective + ores) (c) There are othen on a chair. (pronom) Other /^s/ (without the) means "sevsral more out of a group of similar items, several in addition to the one(s) I've already talked about." The adjective other without an -s) can be used with a plural noun (e.g., apples) or with the wordones. Others (with an -s) is a plural pronoun; it is not used with a noun. In (c): others : other aooles. THE OTHNR(S) There are four apples on the table. Paul is going to take one of them. (d) Sara is going to takejjle#!!3r ywtes (e) She is going to take the other ones. (adjective + mres) (0 She is going to take the otherc. (Prorom) The other(s) means "the last ones in a specific group, the remains from a glven number of similar items." The other (without an -s) can be used as an adjective in front of a noun or the word ones, as in (d) and (e). The othcr.r (with an -s) is a plural pronoun; it is not used with a noun. In (fl: the others : the other apples.
  • 35. 5. 6. EXERCISE I0: Complete the sentence with other(s) or the other(s). 1. There are many kinds of animals in the world. The elephant is one kind. Some others are tigers, horses, and whales. Z There are many kinds of animals in the world. The elephant ts one kind. Some other kinds are tigers, horses, and whaies 3 There are three colors in the U.S. flag. One of the colors is red. The others are white and blue. 4. There are three colors in the U.S. flag. One of the colors is red. The qther colors are white and blue. There are four seasons. Spring and summer are two' are fall and winter. seasons are fall and winter. 7, There are many kinds of geometric figures. Some are circles' figures are squares. Still are rectangular. 8. There are four geometric figures in the above drawing. One is a square. figures are a rectangle, a circle and a triangle- g. Of the four geometric figures in the drawing, only the circle has curved lines. have straight lines. 10. Some ships are fueled by petroleurn are propelled by atomic power. 11. Some boats are used for pleasure. boats are used for commercial fishing. 12. Many people like to get up very early in the morning. sleep until noon. 13. Out of the twenty students in the class, eighteen passed the exam. 14. Out of the twenty studenls in the class, only two failed the exam. students passed. EXERCISE 1l: Complete the sentences with correct forms of other: another, other, others, the other' the others. l. Jake has only two suits, a blue one and a gray one. His wife wants him to buy gothel one. Jake has two suits. One is blue, and Some suits are blue. ls glay. are gray. suits have tkee buttons. Spring and summer are two of the four seasons. like to 2. 3. 4. 1.11. SUMMARY OF FORMS OF OTHER Notice that the word others (other +final -s) is used only as a plural pronoun. ADJECTIVE PRONOUN SINGULAR another apple another PLURAL other apples others SINGULAR the other apple **he other PLURAL the other apples the others Some suits have two buttons
  • 36. 5. Our physical education class was divided into two groups. Half of the students stayed inside and played basketball. students went outside and played soccer. 6. If you really hate your job, why don't you look for don't have to be a dishwasher all your life. There are lots of jobs in the world. 7. An automobile consists of many parts. The motor is one, and the steering wheel 8. Some people keep dog and pets parts are the brakes, the trunk, and the fuel tank. have cats. Still people have fish or birds as pets. Can you name animals that people keep for pets? 9. When I was a ki{ I had two pets. One was a black dog. orange cat. 10. When I walked into the classroom on the first day, the room was empty. I sat down at a desk and wondered if I was in the right room. Soon -_ student came and took a seat. Then a few followed, and the room slowly began to fill. I l- The students in our class had two choices: students played basketball. played soccer. 12- Here, children. I have two coins. One is for you, Tommy. for you, Jimmy. 13. My boyfriend gave me a ring. I fiied to put it on my ring finger, but it didn't fit. So t had to put it on finger. 14. People have two thumbs. One is on the right hand. is on the left hand. 15. The telephone and the automobile are twentieth-century inventions. are the computer, television, and the airplane. Can you name twentieth-century inventionp? is one? You kinds of was an basketball or soccer. Half of the ts 1.12. PERSONAL PRONOUNS: AGREEMENT WITH NOUNS (a) A student walked into the room. ,9fte was looking for the teacher. (b) A student walked into the room. He was looking for the teacher. (c) Some students walked into the room. They were looking for the teacher. A singular pronoun is used to refer to a singular noun, as in (a) and (b). A plural pronoun is used to refer to a olural nouL as in (c).' A student should always do his assignments. A student should always do his.her assignments. A student should always do his or her assignments. d) e) With a "generic noun"i (e.g., in (d): a student - onyone who is a student) a singular masculine pronoun has been used traditionally, but many English speakers now use both masculine and feminine Dronouns. as in (e) t LS A generic noun does not referto Bnv person or thing in particular, rather, it represen goup
  • 37. The following are indefinite pronouns: everyon€ .toneone anyone no one everybody somebody anyboely nobady hinp somethin hinp nathi (f) Sonubody left iis book on the I A singular personal pronoun is used in desk. I formal English to refer to an indefinite (g) Everyone has tis or her olvn I pronoun, as in (f) and (g). ideas. I In everyday informal English, a plural (h) INFORMAL: I personal pronoun is often used to refer to an funubody left their book on the I indefinite pronouq as in (h) desk has thdr own ideas. I.13. PERSONAL PRONOUF.iS: INDENMTE PRONOTINS AGREEMEN?' WITH EXERCISE l2:Complete the sentence with pronouns. In some of the blanks there is more than one possibility. Choose the appropriate singular or plural verb in parentheses where necessary. 1. when a student wants to study, s/he: he or she: he should try to find a quiet place. 2. A citizen has trvo primary responsibilities. should vote in every election, and should willingly serve on a jury 3. Each student in Biology l0l has to spend three hours per week in the laboratory, where (does, do) various experiments by following the direction in lab manual. 4. A pharmacist fills prescription, but (is, are) not allowed to prescribe medicine. By law, only a doctor can prescribe medicine. 5. 6. 7. 8. Anyone can learn how to dance if (wants, want) to. I{mmm. Someone forgot umbrella. I wonder whose it is. Everyone who came to the picnic brought . own food A: Is that yournotebook? B: No. It belongs to one of the other students. A: Look on the inside cover. Did write name there? 9. A dog makes a good pet if (is, are; properffined. 10. Tom's cat is named Maybelle Alice. is very independent. obeys Tom only if_ feels like it.*
  • 38. AGREEMEN{?' WITH rNote: When the collective noun refers to a collecfive of individuals, the verb may be either singular or plural: ntyfamily is OR are loving and supportive. A singular verb is generally preferred in American English. A plural verb is used more frequently in British English, especially with the words government and pubtic. (American: The goverrunent is planning many changes. British: The government are planning tnany EXERCISE 13: Complete the sentences with pronouns. In some of the sentences, there is more than one possibility. Choose the appropriate singular or plural verb in parentheses where necessary. I. I have a wonderful family. I love themvery much, and thqt love (loves, love) me. 2. t looked up some information about the average American family. I found out that (consists, consist) of 2.3 children. 3. The soccer team felt unhappy because moments of the game had lost in the closing 4. A basketball team is relatively small. members as a baseball team. (doesn't, don't) have as many 5. The audience clapped enthusiastically. Obviously concert. had enjoyed the 6. The audience filled the room to overflowing. than I had expected. (was, were) larger 7. The crowd became more and more excited as the premier's motorcade approached began to shout and wave flags in the air. 8. The crowd dt the soccer game was huge. exceeded 100,000 people. The office staffgave boss a gold watch when she retired. The office staffisn't large. clerk, and a receptionist. The young couple finally own house. (consists, consist) of a secretary, a file 1.14. PERSONAL COLLECTTYE PRONOUNS: NOTiNS 9. 10. The following are examples of collective nouns: audience couple class crowd committee facultv fumily governmenl PTOUD public stoff team (a) My family is large. It is composed of nine members. When a collective noun refers to a single impersonal unit, a singular pronoun (it, it$) is used, as in (a). (c) My family is loving and supportive. They are always ready to help me. When collective noun refers to a collection of various individuals, a plural pronoun (they, them, their) is used, as in(b)* IL saved enough money to make a downpayment on
  • 39. 12. The class is planning a parfy for the last day of school (is, are) going to bring many different kinds of food and invite some of friends to celebrate with 13. The class is too small. (is, are) gorng to be cancelled EXERCISE 14: Complete the following by using appropriate reflexive pronouns. l. I can't help you, Bob. You'll have to solve your problem by vourself. 2. Jane did not join the rest of us. She sat in the back of the room by 3. You may think Stan is telling the truth, but I 4. It is important for all of us to be honest with 5. Now that their children are grown, Mr. and Mrs. Grayson live by 6.You-havetomakethatdecision,Ann.Noonecanmakeitforyou. 7. I don't know what to tell yorl Sue and Jack. You will have to take care of that problem 8. When everybody else forgot his birthday, Ralph decided to give a birthday present. He bought new shirt for --. EXERCISE 15: Complete tle sentences by using a word or expression from the glven list and an appropriate reflexive pronoun. angry at intoduced promised en1oy killed proudof entertained laugh at talking to feeling sorryfor pat ^lnught l. Karen Williams never took lessons. She tauoht hersel.fhow to play the piano. 2. Did Hank have a good time at the prty? Did he ? 3. AIlof you did a good job. You should be 4. You did a good job, Barbara. You should don't believe him. 1.I5. USING REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS The following are reflexive pronouns: myself yourself himself, herself, ourselves yourselves themselves itself (a) He looked athimsdf nthe mirror. A reflexive pronoun usually refers to the subject of a sentence. [n (a): he and himself refer to the same Derson. (b) Ee htnrelf utswered the phone, not his secretary. kl He answered the phone htmvlf. Sometimes reflexive pronouns are used for emphasis, as in (b) and (c). (d) She lives Dy henelf The expression 6y + a re/lexne pronoun usuallv means "alone"- as in (d). on the back.
  • 40. 5, A man down the street committed suicide. that he had --- The children played very rvell wrthout adult supervision. Thev by playing school. I had always wanted to meet Mr night, I walked over and We were all shocked by the news Anderson. When I saw him to him at a party last I.16. USING YOU AND ONE AS IMPERSONAL PRONOUNS EXERCISE 16-ERROR ANALYSIS: All the following have errors. Make the pronoun usage in the following consistent and correct. l. One should always try to be friendly to your neighbors. one should always try to be ftiendly to one,s neighbors (oR his or her neighbors). You should always try to be friendly to your neighbors. People should alwoys try to befriendly to their neighbors. A penon should always try to be friendly to his or her neighbors. 2. One can't know what he can actually do until you try. 3. It is important for a person to listen to your conscience. 4. You can get to the airport by taxi or by bus. People can catch the airport bus at the hotel. 5. Self-esteem is important to one's mental health. It is important for you to like yourself. 6. It is important for one to take care of their health. For example, you should not smoke. Smoking has been shown to cause various life-threatening diseases. One should also be careful to get plenty ol' exercise. Adequate rest is important, too. People can't be their best if one is tired all the time. We also need to eat a wide variety of food to make sure get all the nutrients your body needs. (a) One should always be polite. (b) How does one get to 5ft Avenue from here? In (a) and (b): one means "any person, people in general." In (c) and (d): you means "any person, people in general." One is more formal than you. Impersonal you, rather than one, is used more frequentlv in evervdav Enslish. (c) You should always be polite. (d) How do you get to 5ft Avenue from here? (e) One should take care of one,s health. One should take care of his health. One should take care of his or her health. In (e): Notice the pronouns that may be used in the same sentence to refer back to one.
  • 41. I.17. FORMS OF OTHER ADJECTTVE PRONOUN Forms of other are used as either adjectives or pronouns. Notice. A final -s is used only for a plural pronoun (others). singular another book (is) another (is) plwal other books (are) other singular the other book (is) the o$er (is) plwal the other books (are) thr otlers (ere) (a) The studsnts in the class come from runy cormtries. One of the students is from Mexicn. Another student is from Ilarq. Another is from Japan. Other students are from Brazil. Others are from Aleeria The meaning of another: one more in addition to the one(s) already mentioned. The meaning of other/otherc (without the). several more in addition to the one(s) olreadv mentioned. (b) I have three books. Two arc mine. The other book is yours. (The other is yours.) (c) I have three books. One is mine. l"ie other books are yowl (The others ore yours.) The meaning of the other(s): all that remains from a given number; the rest of a spec{ic group. (d) We u.rite to each other every week. (e) We write to one another every week. Each other and one another indicate a reciprocal relationship. In (d) and (e): I write to him every week, and he writes to me every week.
  • 42. C. FuruRE Ttur c. I EXPRESSING FUTURE T|ME : BE GotNG To AND wtLL C.2 FORMS WITH ffILL EXERCISE 1. Complete the sentences by using a pronoun * a form of be going to L I ate lunch with Alan today, and I'm soing to eot lunch with him tomorrow too. 2. Jason wasn't in class today, and He isn't going to be in class tomorrow. 3. The student took aquiz yesterday, and today. FUTURE (a) I am going to leave at nine tomorrow morning. (b) I will leave at nine tontorrow morning (c) Marie is going to be atthe meeting tonight. (d) Marie ytill be at the meetins tonislrt Be going to and prZ are used to express future time. (a) and (b) have the same meaning (c) and (d) have the same meaning. (e) I sholl leave at nine tomorrow morning. (f) We sholl leave at nine tomorrow morning. The use of shall (with I or we) to express future time is infrequent and formal. STATBMENT ( I-you-she-lre-it-we-the y) w i II c o nrc totnorrow . NBGATIVE ( I-yoLr-she-he-it-we-they) will ttol (won,/) conrc totnorrow QUESTION wyll ( l-y ou -sh e-he- it-we -they) c o me tomorrow ? SHORT ANSWER ( I-you-she-he-it-we+hey) will ( I-you-she-he-it-we-they) won't Yes No CONTRACTION I'll, you'll, she'll, he'll, it'll, we'll, they'll Will is usually constracted with pronouns in both speech and informal writing. Bob + will= Bob'll The teacher will : the teacher'll lhll is r.rsually constracted witlr nouns in speech, but usually not in writing. another quiz
  • 43. 4. Margaret walked to school this morning, and school tomorrow morning too. 5. It's raining today, and according to the weather report, tomorrow eitl-rer. 6. We're in class today, and in class tomorrow too. EXERCISE 2. Complete the sentences by using apronoun + wilUwon't. Use probably. 1. I went to the library last night, and I'll probably so there tonight too. 2. Arur didn't come to class today, and she probablv won't come tomorrow either. ' ' 3. I watched TV last night, and tonight too. 4. Greg rvent to bed early 1" at night, and early tonight too. to to bed 5. I wasn't at home last night, and tonight either. 6. Alice didn't ride her bike to school today, and it to school tomorow either. C. 3 BE GOING TO VS WILL EXERCISE 3. Complete the sentences rvith be going to or will 1. A : Why did you buY this flour? B : I am going to make some bread. 2. A : Could someone please open the window ? at home B:I (a) Slre is goitrg to succeedbecause she r,vorks hard (b) She will succeed because she works hard Be going to and will are the same when they are used to make predictions about the future. (a) and (b) have the same meaning (c) t bought some r,vood because I am going lo buikl a bookcase for my apartmetrt. Be going to (but not will) is used to express a preconceived plan in (c) : the speaker is planning to build a bookcase. (d) This chair is too lteary for you to carry alone I'll lrclp yott. Will (but not going to) is used to volunteer or express willingness. In (d) the speaker is happy to helo. 3. A: Can I borrow this book ? do it
  • 44. return it to you tomorrow. Okay? wear dark suit to the wedding reception. How about you? B : I'm not sure. 5. A : What are your vacation plans? B:i spend two weeks on a Greek island. C.4 EXPRESSING FUTURE TIME IN CLAUSES AND IF.CLAUSE EXERCISE 4. Following is a revierv of time clauses anrJ if-clauses Complete the sentences by using a form of the words in parentheses. Read carefully for time expressions. 1. Before Tom (go) goes to bed, he always (brush) brushes his teeth. 2. Before Tom (go) to bed later tonight,he (write) a letter to his girifriend. 3. Before Tom (go) a shower. 4. While Tom (rake) to bed last night, he(take) a shower last night, the phone (ring) 5. As soon as the phone (ring) B:I 4. A:l (a) Before I go to class tomorrow,l'trt soius to eat breakfast. The simple present is used in a future time clause. Be going to and will are NOT used in a future time clause, (before, after, when, as soon as) + 5u$1s.1 ,r'16 verb * time clause. In (a): the speaker talkirrg about two events: going to class and eating breakfast. Both are in the future. However, the speaker uses the simple present (not be going to, will)to talk about going to class because the verb occurs in a tirne clause: Before I so to class tomorrow... ..... (b) I'm going to eat dinner at 6:00 tonight. After I eat dinner,l'm going to stLrdy in my room. (c) I'll give Mary your message when I see her tomorrow. (d) It's raining right now. As soon as the rain stops,I'rn going to walk downtowu. (e) Maybe it ,ill rair.r tomorrow. If it rsins tonnrrow, I'm going to stay home. When the rneanir.rg is future , the present not be going to or will) is used in if clause lf + 5v$1s.1 and verb - ifclause out of the shower to answer it. last night. Tom (jump)
  • 45. 6. Tom always ftrush) _ up. his teeth as soon ashe (get) 7. As soon asTom (get) up tomorrow morning,he (brush) his teeth. EXERCISE 5. Complete the sentences by using a form of the words in parentheses. 1. After I (get) home from school every afternoon, a cup of tea. home from school tomorrow morning, I usually (drink) 2. After I (get) I (drink) a cup oftea. 3. While I (drink) a cup of tea yesterday afternoon, my neighbor (come) over, so I (offe4 a cup of tea, too. 4. My neighbor (drop) over again tomorrow. When she (come) I (make) a cup oftea for her. 5. Jane (meet) me at the airport when my plane (arrive) tomorrow. 6. If I (see) Mike tornorrow, I (tell) him about the 7. IgotoNewY in New York, I usually (see) Broadway play. to the beach tomorrow if the 8. Cindy andl(go) weather (be) warm and sunny. 9. Whenl (be) in New York next week, I (stay) _ at the Park Plaza Hotel 10. As soon as thetest (be) over in class yesterday, the students (eave) the room. a football game on TV right now. 1 l. Jack (watch) As soon as the game (be) the grass in back yard. pafiy. ork often. Whenl (be) over, he (mow)
  • 46. 13. Mark is obsessed with video games. H video games morning, noon, and night class to play the games. Right now he e (play) . Sometimeshe (cut) (do, not) very well in school. If he (study, not) harder and (go) to class everyday, he (flunk) out of school. 14. Sometimes my daughter, Susie has temper tantrums. She (cry) and (stamp) her feet when she (get) angry. Yesterday whenshe (get) on fire. When the smoke detector on the ceiling (start) tobuzz, my roommate (run) what was wrong. He (think) up a toy car and (throw) her little brother. Luckily, the car (hit, not) (feel) very bad. She (apologize) to her little brother and (kiss) him. 15. It's October now. The weather (begin) It (begin) 12. While I (make) the colors of fall. 16. It's getting late, but before I (So) dinner last night, some grease (spill) out of the frying pan and (catch) into the kitchen to find out that the house was on fire. angry, she (pick) _ it at him. Susie to get colder. to get cold every October. I (like, not) _ autumn is nlce. through the river valley and (enjoy) winter butl (think) beautiful. In a couple of weeks, my friend andl (take) a weekend trip to the country if the weather (be) We (drive) to the bed, I (finish) my homework and (write) a couple of letters.
  • 47. C. 5 USING THE PRESENT PROGRESSIYE TO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME EXERCISE 6. Complete the sentences with appropriate pronouns * the Present Progressive l. I met Jane after class yesterday, and I'm meeting her after class again later today. 2. My friends came over last night, and over this evening, too. 3. Susan didn't come to class today, and to class tomorrow either. 4. We had meeting this morning, and another meeting tomorrow morning. 5. I didn't eat lunch at the cafeteria this noon, and lunch there tomorrow either. a) Don is going to come to the party tomorrow night b) Don is coning to the party tornorrow nighl c) We're going to go to a ntovie tonight d) We're going to a movie tonight e) l'm going to stay horne tonight. f) l'ru staying home tonight. g) Ann is goittg to fly to Chicago next week h) Arrn is flying to Clricago next week i) Bob is going to toke a taxi to the airport tomorrow j) Bob is taking a taxi to the airport tomorrow Sornetimes the present progressive is used to express future tirne, (a) and (b) have the sarne rneaning. The present progressive is used to express future tirne tvhen the sentence concerns a definite plan, a definite intention, a delinite future activitv. Verbs such as: come, go, stay, arrive, leave are frequently used in the present progressive to express future time. Such, verbs express definite plans. Verbs expressing planned means of transportation in the future are also frequently used in progressive. For example : fly, walk, ride, drive, take (a bus, taxi, etc) k) A : You shouldn't buy that used car. It's in terrible condition. It costs too much. You don't have enough money. You'll have to get insurance, and you can't afford the insurance. BLrying that used car is crazy idea. B : I aru buying that used car tomorrow ntorning. My mind is made up. Nobody-not yoll, not my nrother, not rny father-can't stop me. I'm buyittg that car, and that's it ! I don't want to talk aboLrt it anymore. A : Oh, ell. It's yolrr rnoney. Sometirnes a speaker will use the present progressive when he or she wants to make a very strong stulement about a futLrre activity, as in (k).
  • 48. EXERCISE 7 : Practice using the Present Progressive to express future time by completing the dialogues. Use the words in the list or your own words. Are there any sentences in this exercise in which the present Progressive express present, not future time? call drive go meet come fly make stay t. 2. ). B A B A A : What are you doing tomorrow afternoon ? B : I am going downtown. I am going shopping. How about you? What are are you doi doing tomorrowafternoon? A:I to movie with Tom. After the movie, we out of dinner. Would you like to come with us? B:I A : That should you keep busy. A:I B : Where A : To San Francisco. B : How are you getting there? or A:I tomorrow morning. B : Do you need a ride to the airport? A :No, thanks. I somewhere over vacation? B :No, I No, thanks. I can't. I seafood restaurant or Fifth Street. What courses I What courses here. yoLl this year? English, biology, math, and psychology. you next year? English, literature, chemistry, and calculus. on vacation tomorrow. you You your car? . I have to be at the airport by seven Heidi at 6:30 at the new a taxi. Are you planning to go 4. A : I am going to call a doctor. You have a fever, chills, and stomachache. B : No, don't call a doctor. I'll be okay. A : I'm worried. i the doctor! And that's it!
  • 49. C.6 USING THE SIMPLE PRESENT TO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME (a) My planes orrives at I : 35 tomorroy) evening (b) Torn's new job sturs next yyeek (c) The semester ends in two more weeks (d) There r's a meeting at ten tomorroru morning The sirlple present can express future in, enrl, finish, ooen, close. be tirne rvhere events are olt a definite sclredule or tirnetable. Only a few verbs are used in the simple present to express future time. The most corlu-non are arrive, leove, stnrl, EXERCISE 8. Use the simple present of the verb in parentheses if possible. Othenvise ) use be goittg to I the Present progressive. l. (start) The game starts (also possible :is' starting / is going ro sturt) at one tomorrow mornlng (have) We are having / are going to have chicken and pasta for dinner tonight. 2. J. 4. 5. (walk) 1 to school tomorrow morning. (eave) The bus at 8 : 15 tomorrow morning. at 9 : 00 tomorrow morning and (begin)The exam (end) 6. (be) at11:00. a fliglit to Dallas at7:20 tomorrow morning. C.7 PRESENT PIANS FOR FUTURE ACTIYITIES USTNG INTEND, P[AN, HOPE There (a)l' nt intending/l intend to go to Paris (b) I'm planning / I plan to take a trip next montlr c) I'm hoping / I hope to fly to Paris next rnonth. Intend, plun, and hope are used in present tenses to express present ideas aborrI frrttrre activities. Incorrect : I will intend to go to Paris next nrcnth. Intend, plan, and hope are follolved bv an infinitive. to + the simple form of a verb intend to + tlte sintple fornt of o verb (d) I intend to * go I intend to r take C. 8 IMMEDIATE FUTURE : USING BE ABOUT TO (a) Ann's bags are packed, and she is wearing coat. She is about to leave for the airport (b) Shhh. The movie is nbout to begin. The idiorn be obottt to clo sometlu'zg expresses an activity that will happen in the immediate future usually within five minutes. In (a) Ann is going to leave sometir.ne in the next few minutes
  • 50. EXERCISE 9. Oral : What are people probably about to do ? 1. Jack is holding his camera to his eye. He has his finger on the button. Y He is about to take a picture. 2. Sally has her hand on the door knob. 3. Ben is putting on his coat and heading for the door. 4. Eric is on the last question of the examination. 5. Rita is holding a fly swatter and staring at a fly on the kitchen tables. EXERCISE 10. EXPRESSING PRJOR PLAN VS WILINGNESS Use be going to if you think the speaker is expressing a prior plan. If you think there is no prior plan, use wil/. 1. A : This letter is in French, and I don't speak word of French. Can you help me? B : Sure, I (translate) will translate it for you. : Do you want to go shopping with me ? I (go) am soing to eo to the shopping 2.A B 3.A B 4,A B 5.A B A 6.A B A 7,A B A mall downtown Sure, What time do you want to leave ? The light doesn't work. The bulb is probably burned out. Where are the new light bulbs ? I (ser) one for you. Why do you have an eraser in your hand ? I (erase) It's cold in here. I agree. I (turn) That's good idea. What do you want to be when you grow up? Good for you! I (enroll) Oh? I didn't know you wanted to go back to school. I need to sharpen my skills so I can get better job.I (take) a course in word processing. the board. the heater on an astronaut. in the community college next spring (be)
  • 51. EXERCISE 11. Use will / be going to or the simple present (in the exercise, both will and be going to are possible when a future tense necessary, with a little or no difference in the meaning) 1. Peter is going to leave in half an hour. He (finish) will finish/is soine to finislt all of his work beforehe Qeave) leaves 2. I am going to (eat) I (take, probably) a nap 3. I'll get home around six. When I (get) home, I (call) Sharon. 4.A B A B A How long (stay, you) in this country? What (do, you) after you (eave) home and (get) ajob. How about you ? I (be) here for at least two more years before I (return) home and (get) I (plan) I (hope) to be here for about one more year. to graduate a year from this June. I (return) ajob. 5. Right now I'm junior in college. After 1 (graduate) withaB.A., I (intend) to enter graduate school and work for an M.A. perhaps I (So) on for Ph.D. after I @er) my Master degree. 6. I'm sure it will stop raining soon. As soon as the rain (stop) I (walk) to the drugstore to get some medicine. EXERCISE 12. Indicate the meaning expressed by italicized verbs by writing in the future. now. or habitually in the blanks. 1. I am taking four courses next semester. 2. I am taking four courses this semester. 3. Students usually take four courses every semester 4. I'm tired. I am going to bed early tonight. 5. Tony will arrive at eight tomorrow morning. 6. I'm writing a letter to my friend. 7. Shh. The broadcaster is giving the latest news. 8. I usually go to school by bicycle. In the future Now
  • 52. C. 9 FUTURE PROGRESSIVE EXERCISE 13. use the FUTURE PROGRESSIVE or the sIMpLE PRESENT 1. Right now I am attending class. Yesterday at this time, I was attending class. Tomorow at this time, I (attend) class. 2. Tomorow I arn going to leave for home. When (arrive) airpoft, my whole family fitait) for me. 3. When I (ge] up tomoruorv moming, the sur (shine) (sing) _, and my roonmate (ie, stitl) at the the birds 4. A : When do you leave for Florida ? B : Tomorrow. Just think. Two days from nowl (ie) beach in the sun. A : Sonnds great ! I (think) about you. 5. A : How can I get in touch with you while you,re out of town ? B : I (sray) at the pilgrim Hotel. You can reach me there. 6. Next year at this time,I (do) exactly what I am doing now. I (attend) school and (study) hard next year. over, it (rain, 7. Look at those dark clouds. When class (be) probably) 8. A : Are you going to be in town next Saturday ? in bed fast asleep. on the (a) I wilt begin study ar seven. You will come at eight. I will be stutlying rvhen you come. (b) Right now I am sitting in class. At this same time tomorrow, I will be sfulrg in class The future progressive expresses an activity that will be in progress at a time in the future. (c) Don't call me at nine, because I won't be home. I am goirtg to be studying at the library. The progressive form of De going to : be going to + be + ing (d) Don't get impatient. She will be coming soon. (e) Don't get impatient. She will come soon. Sometimes there is little or no difference between the future progressive and simple future, especially when the future event will occur at an indefinite time in the future, as in (d) and (e). B :No, t (visir) my aunt in Chicago.
  • 53. EXERCISE 14. I. Choose the correct sentence, l) or 2), in each mini dialogue. i. A : Can you corne dancing tomorow night ? B : l) Sorry, I'llplay basketball. 2) Sorry. I'm playing basketball. 2. A : ,liat are your plans for the summer ? B : 1) I'll spend month in the mourtains. 2) I'm going to spend month in the mountains. 3. A : What do you think about the weather ? B : 1) It'll probably rain tomorrow. 2; It's raining tomorrow. 4. A: What about tomorrow at about 5 : 30 ? B : 1) Ok, I'll see you then. 2) Ok,I'm seeing you then. 5. A : Mary is buying a dog next week. B : l) Really ? What is she going to call it ? 2) Really ? What is she calling it ? 6. A : It would be nice to see you next week. B : 1) Are you doing any,thing on Wednesday ? 2) Will you do anything on Wednesday ? II. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains wilr or be going to. L I plan study engineering in France. I am goittg to sttdy engineerinq in France. 2. I've arranged a party for next Friday. 3. I predict a score of3 - 0 4. We've an appointment at the doctor's, so we can,t come. 5. Paula is likely to get the job 6. Maftin's wife is pregnant again.
  • 54. Formation of comparatives and superlatives Irregular forms UNIT VII MAKING COMPARISONS Explanations o Adjectives Comparative adjectives with one syllable are normally formed by adding -<r to the adjective. In one syllable words ending with one consonant, the final consonant is doubled. Words ending in consonant + -y change -y to -i. Superlative adjectives are normalty formed by adding -esr to the adjective. long- longer big- bigger dry - drier long - longest big - biggest dry - driest o Comparative adjective with two or more syllables are normally formed tvirth more. Superlative adjectives with two or more syllables are normally formed with most. There are some exceptions. modern - more modern interesting- wrre lnteresdng modern - rrpfl modcrn interesting- most lnteresting o Some adjectives with two syllables can form in either way. common commonericommonest mord.,'mostcommon Others include: quiet, tiredand words ending *ow,-le,and-er o Adverbs Comparative adverbs are normally formed wrth more. Superlative adverbs are normally formed with most. Can you work more quickly? Thefilm ended nost happlly. o Adjectives Irregular comparatives and superlatives: good better bad worse best worsl fer little fanher/further farthest/furthest less least mucMmany more most When we describe family members re can use: old elder eldest This is my elder brother. Jane is their eldest daughter. o Adverbs ' Many commonly used adverbs have comparative and superlative forms in -er and-esr. These include: early, far,
  • 55. fast, hord, late. In informal speech loud, qttick, slow are also formed in this way. Could you drive more slowly, please') Could you drive slower, please) (informal) Meaning of comparatives are used to compare two separate things. comparatives and Superlatives compare one thing in a group with all the other suporlatives thrngs in that group. Comparative . Mory is a be:iler ployer than Monica. Superlative : Sarah is the best player in the team. Note that the comes before a supertative if a noun follows. Superlatives can be used without nouns. The is still used. Sarah is the greatest! Making o Than is used with comparatives. comparisons Mary is be'tter than Monica. Mary .is a better player than Monica. o Note that when we compare actions, we use an auxiliary instead ofrepeating the verb. Mary plays better than Monica daes. You've done more work than I have. We can also say: Mary plays better than Monica. You've done more work lhan me. o Just os ... es is used when the things compared are equal. Mary is just as good as Catlty. Mary is just as good a player os Cathy. . not cts ... as is used when we compare things negatively. Cathy is not N good as Mary. Cathy is not as good a player as Mary. o More and /ess than is used for longer adjectives. This game is more tnterestlng than the last one. I think this game is less interestlng than that one. lntensifiers When we make comparisons the adjective is often strengthened with an intensifier. This howe is mucVa bt/for blgger than that one. We can also use intensifiers with more/less The ltolianfilm was mach mote interestlng than this one. That film was far less frightenlng than this one.
  • 56. I Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence. 2 Complete each sentence with a comparative or superlative form of the adjective gtven. Include any other necessary words. 3. Rewrite each sentence beginning as shown so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence Practice a) The fish was so tasw as fiiGilf,i]rhe meat b) This book is the most intEestinilLe more interesting I,ve ever read. c) This temple is the eldesUoldest in Europe. d) That dress is a lot longer than/that the other one. e) Nothing is worse/worst than being stuck in a traffic jam. f) That skyscraper is one of the taile/tallest buildings in the world. g) The test wasn't as hard as/hard al I thought. h) Actually, today I feel more bad/worse than I did yesterday. i) Our journey took lonser than/the longest we expected. j) Could you work more quietlv/more quieter please? a) The Nile is the.lp..rlSgq!.. river in the world. Iong b) I was disappointed as the film was . than I expected. entertaining c) Most planes go a lot ... trains. fast d) Yesterday was one of ..... .days of the year. hot e) I think this book is much ... ... . the other one. good 0 The tr.vins are the same height. Tim is . ... ... Sue. tall g) The first exercise was easy but this one is ... .. dillicult h) The Mediterranean is not ..... the pacific Ocean. large i) This classroom is ... ... the one next door. big j) This is ... ... ... ... television programme I,ve ever watched. bad a) David is a befter nrnner than paul. Paulisnot.as.gggd.g..ryUte..r.g_s..Dqyi.d..(i;) b) Nobody in the class is taller than Carol. Carol is the . c) I haven't written as much as you. You've written d) We expected the The play wasn't play to be better.
  • 57. e) Jane's hair isn't as long as Helen's. Helen's hair is 0 No student in the school is noisier than I aml I am the g) This exhibition is much more interesting than ttre last one. The last exhibition was not h) This is as fast as the mr can go. The car can't .. i) This bike is not as expensive as the green one. The green bike is j) Kate ate much less than George did. Kate didn't ...... a) Our team is jlqt..q; good fr.q your teem. They are both the Put one suitable same. word in each b) This is one of famous paintings in the world. space. c) Everyone did ... ... .... work Flarry d) You're not a safe driver! You should drive . slowly. e) Ann is taller Mike but their son Dave is tallest in the family. f) What an awful book. It's one of ....... interesting I've ever read. g) It makes no difference, because this road is bad ........ that one. h) Today is ........ cold ....... yesterday, so I'm wearing my shorts. i) Nobody knows about electronics Tina ... ... . j) I don't think that pet cats are ... ... friendly . pet dogs. a) Could you not talk so fast, please? Rewrite each slowly sentenc€ sothatit ..Q.pu[d.yp.lt.tqlk.upre-g!..oy.ll, plpqe?. has a similar b) The last film we saw was more frightening than this one. meaning and as contains the word $ven c) Nobody in the class cooks beuer than Sam. best d) I havan't eaten as much as you. more
  • 58. e) Supermarkets are more convenient than small shops as l) Skating isn't as exciting as skiing more g) fuchard doesn't work harder than Alan. just h) Jack isn't as interested in football as his brother is. more i) Bill is the youngest in the family. older j) You ran a lot faster than I did. fast a) bigest b.isgep!. . i) hardder Correct the b) greattest spelling of these c) shorter words where d) likeliest necessary e) tallest j) wettest k) fitter l) tighter m)newest f) fater .. n) heavier g) smalest o) widder h) longest I.1. MAKING COMPARISONS WITHAS ...... AS (a) Tina is 2l years old. Sam is also 21. Tina is as old os Sam (is) (b) Mike came cs qutckly as he could. As .....as is used to say that the two parts of a comparison are equal or the same in some way. In (a): as + adjective + as In (b): as + adverb + as c) Ted is 20. Tina is 21. Ted is not as old as Tina d) Ted isn'r qalte as old as Tina e) Amy is 5. She isn't nearly cs old as Tina Negative form: not as ....as. " eriu and nearly are often used with the negative. In (d): not quite ,ts ...af, : a small difference. In (e): not nearly os ...as = a big difference. Sam is/rsl as old as Tina Ted is nearly/almost as old as Tina. 0 s) Common modifiers of as....as are just (Meanine "exastly") and nearlv/almost fAlso possible: not so....tN: Ted is not so otd as Tina.
  • 59. EXERCISE l: Using the given words, complete the sentences with as .. as Use a negative verb if appropriate. l. a house/ly/an ant Aq ant bn't hulte) as big as a hausgftv- 2. honey/ sugar Honev is (iusll os sweet as sugan 3. heohUmoney_important as 4. adult/children 5. alake/aseo patrent as big as 6. alion/atiger dangerous and wild as 7. a goloxy / a solor system large as 8. the Atlontic Ocean / the Pacrfic Ocean O*p * 9. monkeys /people _agrle ilAimb us 10. reading a novel / listening to music In my opinion, as_ ll.a mother / a father I think that children as -- important in relaxing raising r Maximum depths : Atlantic : approx. 3q0b0 fee0/9000 meters. Pacific = approx. 36,000 fe€t/l1,000 met€rs. EXERCISE 2: Complete the sentences by using as .......as I I need you right away! Please come ...... as soon os possibte. ? _We cgn't go any farther. This is asfar as we-can go. 3. I can't work any faster. I'm working ... ... .... 4. An orange is sweeter than a lemon. In other words, an orange is not..... 6- I had expected the test to be difficult, and it was. In other words, the test was just..... 7. It's important to use your English every day. You should practice speaking English 8 You're only old if you feel old you are .... young... .... 9 You might think it's easy to do, but it,s not quite... .... 10. It takes an hour to drive to the airport. It takes an hour to fly to Chicago. In other words, it takes... ... .. EXERCISE 3: As.... as is used in many traditional phrases. These phrases are generally spoken rather than written. See how many of these phrase you're familiar with by completing the sentences with the given words. / q beor the hills a pin a beet a kite a rock a bird a mule a wet hen o bull / on ox
  • 60. l. When wili dinner i-;e ready? l'in as hungry as a bear I 2. Did Bill really lift that heary box all by himself? He must be as strong as _ 3. It was a lovely summ€r day. School r.ras out, and there rvas nothing in particular that I had to do, I felt a-s free as 4. Jeremy rvon't change his mind. He's as stubborn as 5. Was shc angry? You'd better believe! She was as mad as 6. Of course I've heard that joke before! It's as 7. Nicole felt very embarrassed. She turned as red as 8. I tend to be a little messy, but my roommate is as neat as 9. When Erica received the good news, she felt as high as 10. How can anyone expect me to sleep in this bed? It's as had as I.2. COMPARATIYE AND SUPERLATTYE l) "A" is older lhan"B" )) "A", "8", are older lhan"C" and "D" :) Ed is more generous than his brother. The comparative compares "this/these" to "that/those." Ibrm.: -er ot morc. NOTICE: A comparative is followed bv than l) "A", "8"r "C", and "D" are sisters, "A" is the oldest of all four sisters. :) A woman in Turkey claims to be the oldest penon in the world. ) Ed is the mast generous percon inhis familv. The superlative compare one part of a whole group to all the rest of the goup. F0ra ' -est or mosL NOTICE: A superlative begins .:u/].th the. EXERCISE 4: - ERROR ANALYSIS: All of the following sentences contain errors. Find and correct the mistakes. l. Alaska is large than Texas. -- Alaska is larger than Tuas 2. Alaska is largest state in the United State. 3. Texas is the larger from France in land area. 4. Old shoes are usually more comfortable that 4ew shoes. 5. My running shoes are the more comfortable as shoes I own. 6. My running shoes are more comfortable as my boots . 7. M r. Molina writes the most clearly than Mr York. 8. English is the most widely used language from the world. 9. I have one sister and one brother. My sister is.younger in the family. 10. Mark's knife was as sharper from a razor blade I l. I like Chinese food more beuer than French food.
  • 61. 16. clearly 17. happy 18. confusing 19. courageous 20. common 21. friendly 22. red 23. wrld 24. dangerous 1.4. USII{G COMPARATIVES I I'm older than my brother (is). r.l'm older than he is. ;.I'm older than him.(informa[) In formal English, a subject pronoun (e.g., he) follows than, as in (b). tn everyday, informal spoken English, an object pronoun (e.9., him) often follows than. as in (c). l.He works harder than I do. :.I arrived earlier than theY did. Frequently an auxiliary verb follows the subject after than. In (d): than I do : than I work. L Tom is mucVa lot of/tar older than I am. INCORRECT: Tom is very older than I am 3.Ann drives much / o lot of / far more carefully than she used to. r.Ben is a llttle (blt) older than me. Very often modifies adjectives and adverbs: e.g., Tom is very old. He drives very care/ully. However, very is NOT used to modifu comparative adjectives and adverbs. Instead, they are often modified by much, a lot, or far, as in (f) and (g). Another corlmon modifier is a liulda little bit. as in (h). i. A pen is less expensive than a book. i. A pen is not as expensive a,s book. <.A pen is not as lorge os a book. INCORRECT: A pen is less large than a book. The opposite of <r/more is expressec by less ot not as ....4s. (I) and (f) have the same meaning. Less (not as ..... as) is used with adjectives and adverbs ol more than one syllable. Only not u .., {rr (NOT /ess) is used with one- svllable adiectives or adverbs. as in &). EXERCISE 6: Complete the following. Use pronouns in the completions. l. My sister is only six. She's much younger than I am OIl: (informallil ne. 2. Peggy is thirteen, and she feels sad. She thinks most of the other girls in school arefar more popularthan 3. The children can't lift that heavy box, but Mr. Ford can. He's stronger than Jim isn't a very good typist. I can type much faster than I was on time. Jake was late. I got there earlier than Ted is out of shape. I can run a lot of faster and farther than EXf,RCISE 7: Complete the following with comparative by using more/ - er or less, as appropriate. Use the words in parentheses plus your own words. L This test wasn't hard. It was a lot (drffcult) less dllficult tllqn the last test. 2. Dr. Lee's tests are far (dfficult) nure *ffflcttlt than Dr. BtrtpL's test. 4. 5. 6.
  • 62. 3. 4. 5 6. 7. 8. 9. I0. A piano is a lot (heouy') To me, science is much (interesting/ Saltnater is (dense) People are far (intelligeru) Fish are considerably (intel I ige nr) She rarely comes to see us. She visit us much (frequently) When you're hot and tired nothingis (refreshing) ln my life. I have always tired to help those who are (fortunate) EXERCISE 8:Use 4r or mt te and the words in the list to complete the following. Discuss whether the words are nouns, adjectives, or adverbs and :. review how comparatives are formed with each of these parts of speech. When do you use -sr and when do you vse mare? { bright happiness people { brightly happy quick doctors information responsibilities hoppily mistakes responsible responsibly salt I trafic t. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8. A city has more traffic thap a small town. Sunligtt is much brlshtet then moonlight. Did you know that a laser burns billions of times nwre bliqhttv than the light at the sun's surface? 4. There is about geography in an encyclopedia than (there is) in dictionary. I used to be sad, but now I'm a lot about my life (than I used to be). Unhappy roommates or spouses can live together if they learn to respecl each other's differences. She's had a miserable life. I hope she finds I made on the last test thsn (I did) on the first one, so I got a wors€ grade. 9. My daughter Annie is trustworthy and mature. She behaves much than my nephew Lquie in the future. I.5. USING MORE WITH NOTINS a). Would you like wme mt rc cotfe? b). Not everyone is here. I expect more peoDle to come later. In (a): "coffee" is a noun. When more is used with nouns, it often has the meaning ol additional.It is not necessarv to use than. c). There are mare Wople in China than there are in United States. More is dlso used with nouns to make complete comparisons by using tftaa d). Do you have enough coffee, or would you like some more? When the meaning is clear, the noun may be omitted andmore used by itself. 10. A twelve-year-old has at home and in school than a nine--year-old.
  • 63. I l. My son is 12 A rabbit is about doing his homework than hrs older sister is. than a turtle. 13. This soup doe$n't taste quite nght. I think it needs just a Iittle 14. Health care in rural areas is poor We need to treat people in rural areas. 15. At present, approximately two-fifths of the world's population can speak English. English is taught to _ in the world than any other language is or ever has been. EXERCISE 9: Using the words in the following list or your own words, complete the sentences. Repeat the comparative. angry enthusiastic long big good laud discouraged hat l. Her English is improving.It is getting befrer and better 2.Theyjusthadtheirsixthchild.Theirfamilyisgetting 3. The line of people waiting to get into the theater got 4. As the soccer game progesse{ the ctowd became 5. The weather is getting with each passing day. 6. I've been looking for a job for a month and still haven 't been able to find one .I'm 7. As the ambulance came closer to us, the siren became 8. She sat there quietly, but during all that time she was getting _ Finally she exploded. 1.6. REPEATING A COMPARATIVE a). Because he was afrai4 he walked laster andfaster. ). Life in the modern world is becomins more and more Repeating a comparative gives the idea that something becomes progressively greater, i.e., it increases in intensity, itv. or 1.7. USING DOUBLE COMPARATTVES a). The hardq you study, the more you will learn. ).The olderhe go the quleur he became. c). The more she studie4 the more she leamed. double comparative has two parts; parts begin tvith the, as in the The second part of the parison is the result of the first In (a): If you study harder, the ', the bettcr are two cotrrmon ).Tru wamar the weather (is), the beder I will be that you will learn like it. _ e). A: Should we ask Jenny and Jim to the party too? B: Why not? The morg the nerrler. 0. A: When should we leave? morc, the nerrler and the ions. In (e): It is good to have B'. The sooner, the better people at the party. In (f): It is if we leave as soon as we can.