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PRACTICE IN PRONUNCIATION
i
Practice in Pronunciation
Rifki Amin, M. Pd.
Sekolah Tinggi Bahasa Asing Pertiwi
ii
Human needs a language to communicate each others. Estimates of the number of languages in
the world vary between 6,000 and 7,000, but any precise estimate depends on a partly arbitrary
distinction between languages and dialects. It can be said that more than 7.000 variation of the
language in the world are differed by languages and dialects.
Moreover, language is systematically process human has. Language is a system of
communication consisting of sounds, words and grammar, or the system of communication used by
the people of a particular country or profession. It can be inferred that communication may be
happened if the people produce a sound, word and grammar, or system which exists in the country to
interact each others.
Also, language is very unique and creative. Every aspects of human life give a reason to want
to be curious about the nature and use of the language because in the different country has a different
nature of language. If there is a changing of the language, people must follow what the native
speakers say.
In Indonesia, the students find the problem how to pronounce English well. It is happened
because the variation of the language and dialects are influenced by many areas in Indonesia. Also, the
different nature of each language influences how to produce a good pronunciation of a particular
language. Pronunciation becomes important when the speaker wants to tell his ideas to the listener. If
the speaker makes a mistake in pronouncing the word, the listener may not understand what the
speaker means.
Pronunciation, is one of the textbooks containing course materials arranged by Mr. Rifki Amin
–who teach English at Sekolah Tinggi Bahasa Asing (STBA) Pertiwi Tangerang. The arrangements of
these course materials have been done as one of the attempts to fulfill the needs of the textbook
containing course materials which go along with the syllabus of the related course.
Tangerang, August 2015
The writer
PREFACE
iii
Preface ii
Contents iii
1. Phonemes 1
2. Segmental Phonemes 2
3. Vowels 3
A. The Contrastive of the Vowels 3
B. How to Produce the Vowels 5
C. Practice the English Vowels 9
4. Diphthongal Vowel Glides 22
A. The Contrastive of the Diphthong 22
B. Practice the English Diphthong 25
5. Consonants 35
A. The Contrastive of the Consonants 35
B. How to Produce the English Consonants 38
6. Word Contraction 64
A. Introduce Contraction 64
B. Teach Common Contractions 65
C. Dictate Sentences 66
7. Linking 67
A. Consonant to Vowel 67
B. Vowel to Vowel 68
8. Assimilation 69
A. Introductions 69
B. Assimilation Rules 70
1) Total and Partial 70
2) Progressive (or left-to-right) Assimilation 71
3) Regressive, or Anticipatory (or right-to-left) Assimilation 71
4) Double Assimilation 71
9. Elisions 72
A. introductions 72
B. The Nature of Reduced Articulation 72
10. Pronunciation in Practice 73
A. Poems 73
B. Short Stories 75
C. News 78
Bibliography 84
CONTENTS
1
1. Phoneme
Crystal explains that phoneme is the minimal unit in the sound of a
language.1
Stagebery adds phoneme is a speech sound that signals a difference
meaning.2
It can be inferred that the unit of the language sound differs a meaning
in human speech.
Whereas, Sudjana explains “fonem dapat dikatakan sebagai satuan bunyi
terkecil yang mampu menunjukkan kontras makna.” It means that the smallest
unit of the language sound which is used to contrast the meaning. For example,
/h/ is fonem because it differs the meaning of the words harus and arus; harus is
used to show that it is necessary or very important that something happens, but
arus means the movement of something in one direction.
Each language has a small relatively fixed set of these phonemes.
Phonemes and fonem have the same meaning, but different usage. Phonemes are
used in English study, but the fonem are used in Bahasa Indonesia study.
Phonemes and fonem are used to know how to produce the sound of both the
languages.
In this study, the writer focuses on comparing segmental phonemes
between phonemes in English and fonem in Bahasa Indonesia. It tries to find how
those of languages are pronounced referring to the place of articulation and the
manner of articulation. The writer has an assumption if the learners learn how to
pronounce foreign language; they can be easier to produce the word from other
language. However, they can find the difficulties to produce other language if
they do not know how to produce it.
1
David Crystal, Introducing Linguistics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 130.
2
Norman C. Stagebery, An Introductory English Grammar (New York: Holt, Renehart, and Winston,
1977), p. 11.
2
2. Segmental Phonemes
There are at least three groups of segmental phoneme: consonants,
vowels, and diphthongs. This division is viewed from the view point of whether
the flow of air through the mouth is stopped or not. The place of articulation and
the manner of articulation influence how the particular language is produced.
Both phoneme and fonem have the similarities and differences. The
similarities are (1) the symbols use slash (/…/) like /p/, /b/, etc; (2) they also have
vowels, consonants and diphthongs. The differences of fonem and phonemes are
explained in this study.
3. Vowels
A. The Contrastive of the Vowels
Vowels are syllabic sound made with free passage of air down the
mid-line of the vocal tract, usually with a convex tongue shape, and without
fiction.3
In this paper, the writer describes vowels in Indonesian and in
English. Both of them have the similarities and differences.
3
Richard Ogden, An Introduction to English Phonetics. (Edinburgh University Press, 2009), p.4.
3
No
Indonesian Vowels English Vowels
Fonem Word Phonemes Word
1 /ʌ/ (a)
anak
/anak/
kantor
/kantor/
kota
/kota/
/ʌ/
company
/ˈkʌmpəni/
among
/əˈmʌŋ/
month
/mʌntθ/
2 /ɑ:/ /ɑ:/
far
/fɑːr/
part
/pɑːrt/
half
/hɑːf/
3 /ɔ:/ /ɔ:/
pour
/pɔːr/
bought
/bɔːt/
talk
/tɔːk/
4 /i:/ /i:/
seek
/siːk/
weak
/wiːk/
seat
/siːt/
4
5 /ɪ/ (i)
ikan
/ikan/
pintu
/pintu/
api
/api/
/ɪ/
king
/kɪŋ/
symbol
/ˈsɪmb ə l/
become
/bɪˈkʌm/
6 /e/
ekor
/ekor/
nenek
/nenek/
sore
/sore/
/e/
pen
/pen/
red
/red/
fed
/fed/
7 /ə/
emas
/əmas/
ruwet
/ruwət/
tante
/tantə/
/ə/
collar
/ˈkɑː.lɚ/
over
/ˈoʊvɚ/
centre
/ˈsentər /
8 /ʊ/ (u)
ukir
/ukir/
tunda
/tunda/
pintu
/pintu/
/ʊ/
put
/pʊt/
full
/fʊl/
wool
/wʊl/
9 /u:/ /u:/ pool
/puːl/
cool
/kuːl/
5
zoo
/zuː/
10 /ɜ:/ /ɜ:/
bird
/bɜːd/
turn
/tɜːn/
world
/wɜːld/
11 /ɒ/ (o)
Obat
/obat/
kontan
/kontan/
toko
/took/
/ɒ/
not
/nɒt/
dog
/dɒg/
sorry
/ˈsɒri/
12
/æ/ /æ/
glad
/glæd/
bag
/bæg/
pad
/pæd/
B. How to produce the vowels
The twelve vowels as illustrated above are presented in the tables to
describe their detailed qualities. The diagram shows the part of mouth and
throat used in producing vowels. The dot on each diagram shows the height
of the tongue and part of the tongue which is raised.
6
/i:/
The FRONT of the tongue is raised to a height slightly below
and behind the front close position.
1. Height of tongue: nearly close
2. Part of the tongue which is heighest: the centre of the front
3. Position of lips: spread of neutral
4. Duration: long
/ɪ/
Pronounced with the part of the tongue nearer to CENTRE than
to FRONT raised just above the close-mid position.
1. Height of the tongue: nearly half-close
2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the hinder part of the
front
3. Position of lips: spread of neutral
4. Duration: short
/e/
The FRONT of the tongue raised btw the close-mid & open-
mid positions.
1. Height of the tongue: intermediate between half-close and
half-open
2. Part of the tongue which is heighest: the front
3. Position of lips: spread or neutral
4. Duration: short
/æ/
The FRONT of the tongue is raised to a position midway just
above open.
1. Height of the tongue: between half-open and open
2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the front
3. Position of lips: spread or neutral
4. Duration: short
7
/ʌ/
The CENTRE of the tongue is raised just above the fully
open position.
1. Height of the tongue: half open
2. Part of the tongue which is heighest: the fore part of
the back
3. Position of lips: spread
4. Duration: short
/ɑ:/
The part of the tongue btw the CENTRE and the BACK is in
the fully open position
1. Heighest of the tongue: fully open
2. Part of the tongue which is highest: a point somewhat in
advance of the centre of the back
3. Position of lips; neutral
4. Duration: long
/ɒ/
The BACK of the tongue is in the fully open position
1. Height of the tongue: nearly open
2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the back
3. Position of lips: open lip rounding
4. Duration: short
/ɔ:/
The BACK of the tongue is raised btw the open-mid and close-
mid positions.
1. Height of the tongue: between half-open and open
2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the back
3. Position of lips: between open and close lip rounding
4. Duration: long
-no contact side rims- upper molars
8
/u:/
A CLOSE BACK VOWEL, but the tongue-raising is relaxed
from the closest position and is somewhat centralized from the
back.
1. Height of tongue: nearly close
2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the back
3. Positionof lips: fairly close lip rounding
4. Duration: short
/ʊ/
A CLOSE BACK VOWEL, but the tongue-raising is relaxed
from the closest position and is somewhat centralized from the
back
1. Height of the tongue: just above half-close
2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the fore part of the back
3. Position of lips: fairly close lip rounding
4. Duration: short
/ə/
1. Height of the tongue: nearly half pen
2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the central part
3. Position of lips: spread or neutral
4. Duration: short
/ɜ:/
1. Height of the tongue: a half way between open and close
2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the central part,
culminating at the junction between front and back
3. Position of lips: spread
4. Duration: short
5.
9
In fonem (Bahasa Indonesia), there are 6 vowels like /ʌ/ (/a/ in fonem),
/ɪ/ (i in fonem), /e/, /ə/, /ʊ/ (u in fonem), and /ɒ/ (o in fonem). However, the
phonemes (English) vowels /ɑ:/, /ɔ:/, /i:/, /u:/, /æ/ and /ɜ:/ are not available in
fonem (Bahasa Indonesia). The totals of phonemes (English) vowels are 12
vowels. They are /iː/, /ɪ/, /e/, /æ/, /ɑː/, /ɒ/, /ɔː/, /ɜː/, /ə/, /ʊ/, /uː/, and /ʌ/. From
the data, the vowels /ɑ:/, /ɔ:/, /i:/, /u:/, /æ/ and /ɜ:/ are available in phonemes
(English). They can be found in phonemes (English) initial, middle, and final
phoneme, but in fonem (Bahasa Indonesia) they cannot be found. The
differences are fonem have 6 vowels /a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/, and /ə/, but phonemes
have 12 vowels /iː/, /ɪ/, /e/, /æ/, /ɑː/, /ɒ/, /ɔː/, /ɜː/, /ə/, /ʊ/, /uː/, and /ʌ/.
C. Practice the English Vowels
1) /iː/ and /ɪ/
a. Words
/iː/ /ɪ/
eager these we it imagine holy
… … … … … …
eel cheese be is Indian slowly
… … … … … …
even seed me if English busy
… … … … … …
evening feed she in hill crazy
… … … … … …
equal feel key ink trick lazy
… … … … … …
/iː/ /ɪ/ /ɪ/ /iː/ /iː/ /ɪ/
eel ill still steal bead beat
… … … … … …
keen kin fill feel seize cease
… … … … … …
10
seal sill pill peel leave leaf
… … … … … …
heel hill this these liege leach
… … … … … …
leave live bid bead Eden eaten
… … … … … …
b. Sentences
1) Where is Bill working now?
He‟s working in the steel mill.
2) D‟ you think she can fell it?
Well, she seems to feel she can fill it.
3) D‟ you feel a little ill?
Yes, it must be the heat. May I sit down on that seat for a while?
4) Isn‟t that field pretty?
Very, it‟s simply filled with flowers.
11
5) Don‟t those shoes fit your feet?
Yes, but the heels are still a bit too high
6) Will you please read it aloud?
Shall I include the beginning piece?
7) Is the fish sweet?
Yes, will you eat some?
8) Is his teacher‟s lecture interesting?
Yes, I believe he is pleased.
9) Did she have the prescription filled?
No, she didn‟t need it.
10) Did he feel ill?
Yes, I image that rich meal was too much for him.
12
2) /e/ and /æ/
a. Words
/e/ /æ/
end get men and ran stamp
… … … … … …
any hen send apple land matter
… … … … … …
egg said beg add catch bag
… … … … … …
many guess set action daddy wagon
… … … … …
went dead pen as candy bad
… … … … … …
/æ/ /e/ /e/ /æ/
bad bed head had
… … … …
sad said set sat
… … … …
pat pet beg bag
… … … …
sand send lend land
… … … …
man men pen pan
… … … …
b. Sentences
1) Where can I get a better definition of stress?
13
You can get it in Webster‟s Dictionary.
2) What is the best method of getting set in business?
I guess you‟d better ask an economist.
3) What else isn‟t here to tell?
There isn‟t any more. I‟ve given you very detail.
4) Which one is Etta Betty?
She‟s the one wearing the red dress.
5) Can anyone lend Ted a pen?
Yes, there are several extra pens in my desk.
6) Did you catch cold yesterday?
Yes, I forgot to wear a hat.
7) Have you any apples?
14
Yes, shall I pack a peck of apples for you?
8) Will Harry be back soon?
He plans to be back by Saturday.
9) Will you hand me a match?
Sorry, I haven‟t got any matches.
10) Where is your dad?
Dad is sitting in back of that fat man.
3) /ʌ/, /ɒ/ and /ɑː/
a. Words
/ʌ/ /ɑː/
up drum guns are car large
… … … … … …
under gull hung Archie far hard
… … … … … …
oven hum jump arm bar farm
… … … … … …
onion drugs fund Arthur jar calm
… … … … … …
umbrella punch just aunt star Charles
… … … … … …
15
/ɑː/ /ʌ/ / ɒ/ /ʌ/
cart cut cot cut
… … … …
barn bun fond fund
… … … …
march much wander wonder
… … … …
harm hum lock luck
… … … …
psalm some doll dull
… … … …
b. Sentences
1) Where does your aunt live, Arthur?
She lives in the farm in Arkansas.
2) Is it far from Arkansas to Ann Arbor?
Yes, it‟s quite far if you travel by car.
3) Who asked your father to bring the parcel?
Arthur did. His car was out of order so that he found it hard to bring.
4) Where did you park your car?
16
I parked it under the palm tree near the barn.
5) Did the sergeant ask the soldiers to march last week?
Yes, he did. He asked them to march for half an hour.
4) /ɒ/ and /ɔː/
a. Words
/ɒ/ /ɔː/
On song wrong awe saw draw
… … … … … …
Off rob shop awful store sword
… … … … … …
onto dock cost always George jaw
… … … … … …
offer doctor lock awkward stall norm
… … … … … …
octopus shocked rock autumn storm prawn
… … … … … …
/ʌ/ mull stuck cud putt done bucks shun Huck
… … … … … ... … …
/ɑː/ marl stark card part darn barks Shan hark
… … … … … ... … …
/ɒ/ moll stock cod pot don box shone hock
… … … … … ... … …
/ɔː/ maul stalk cord port dawn baulks shorn hawk
… … … … … ... … …
17
b. Sentences
1) What is that at the bottom of the pond?
I don‟t know. Is it a rock or a sock?
2) Have you got a copy of that novel?
Sorry, I haven‟t got it, but Don might have got it.
3) Isn‟t there a doctor near this cottage?
There is one, but he is gone for a holiday this moment.
4) Why did you go to the shop on such a wet day?
Because I needed some cotton, a pair of socks, and a hot water bottle.
5) Who won the song contest last August? Was it Tom?
Nonsense. Tom was having a holiday abroad.
5) /ʊ/ and /uː/
a. Words
/ʊ/ /uː/
good look butcher soon soup grew
18
… … … … … …
wood stood woolen tooth group crew
… … … … … …
would sugar push movie move chew
… … … … … …
took woman cushion food true toom
… … … … … …
cook bullet bush school blue through
… … … … … …
/ʊ/ /uː/ /ʊ/ /ɔː/
Pull pool wood ward
… … … …
Full fool foot fought
… … … …
could Coode pull pall
… … … …
foot food cook cork
… … … …
hood who‟d soot sort
… … … …
b. Sentences
1) Who took the cook book?
I think June took it.
2) Could we look at the bulletin before we decide?
19
We could. If we were put up in line.
3) Would you mind getting the Pullmans tickets?
Not at all. I could easily get them at noon.
4) Who is that good-looking women?
That is Mrs. Goodman, the butcher‟s wife.
5) Did you put the sugar in the pudding?
Not yet, the pudding must cook a little longer.
6) Could it do with more sugar?
Yes, I think it could.
7) Would you please help me? I can‟t pull the cork out.
Can‟t you? Let me help you pull it out then.
20
6) /ɜː/ and /ə/
a. Words
/ɜː/ /ə/
earn bird first ago permit fatigue
… … … … … …
Fern curt girl apply photography flower
… … … … … …
Turn learn burn admit present percent
… … … … … …
earth mirth search appear pigeon cement
… … … … … …
early church pearl adore Japan agent
… … … … … …
b. Sentences
1) Percy was the first to learn that the early bird catches the worm.
2) About a week ago Herbert went to Perth with his girl friend.
3) How did he earn a living?
He earned a living by selling birds and flowers.
4) Isn‟t the floor dirty?
Yes, I admit that the floor is dirty.
21
5) When did you make a journey around the world?
Not yet, the pudding must cook a little longer.
6) About a week ago Helen went to the Public Garden for a picnic.
7) Why didn‟t you join the cricket game last Thursday.
I felt very tired after I played table tennis just several day before.
8) Look at the garden. Isn‟t it pretty?
Yes, and there are many flower and pigeons there.
9) Why didn‟t you appear in the meeting five days ago?
Well, I didn‟t feel well then so my mother didn‟t permit me to go.
10) Why did she want to buy some potatoes and pepper?
She wanted to make mashed potatoes.
22
4. Diphthongal Vowel Glides
A. The Contrastive of the Diphthongs
Diphthongs are monosyllabic vowels which have two discernibly
different pints, one at the start and one at the end.4
The concept of diphthong
related with two vocal pieces that is the sound in one syllable. In this paper, the
writer describes diphthongs in Bahasa Indonesia and in English.
No
Indonesian Diphthongs English Diphthongs Characteristics
Fonem Word Phonemes Word
1 /eɪ/ (ei)
keindahan
keimanan
seimbang
/eɪ/
may
/meɪ/
made
/meɪd/
day
/deɪ/
front half
close with
spread lips
2
/ əʊ /
(eu)
neutron
leukemia
seuntai
/əʊ/
postponement
/pəʊstpəʊn.mənt/
poni
/ˈpəʊ.ni/
cony
/ˈkəʊ.ni/
front half
close with
rouned lips
3 / oʊ /
hole
/hoʊl/
go
/goʊ/
post
/poʊst/
back-half
close to close
with rounded
lips
4
/ai/ (ai)
terbaik
berair
melainkan
/ aɪ / lie
/laɪ/
fly
central open
with lips
neutral to
close front
4
ibid. p.64
23
/flaɪ/
buy
/baɪ/
with spread
lips
5
/ aʊ /
(au)
jauh
laut
bau
/ aʊ / cow
/kaʊ/
owl
/aʊl/
town
/taʊn/
central open
with lips
neutral to
close back
with rounded
lips
6
/ɔɪ/ (oi) boikot
koin
/ ɔɪ / boy
/bɔɪ/
toy
/tɔɪ/
coin
/kɔɪn/
back open
with rounded
lips to front
close with
spread lips
7
/ɪə/ /ɪə/ pier
/pɪə r /
beer
/bɪə r /
dear
/dɪə r /
front close
with spread
lips to central
half close with
lips neutral
8
/eə/
/eə/ air
/eə r /
care
/keə r /
tear
/teə r /
front half open
with spread
lips to central
half close with
lips neutral
9
/ʊə/
/ʊə/ tower
/taʊə r /
hour
/aʊə r/
back close
with rounded
lips to central
half close with
lips neutral
24
vowel
/vaʊəl/
10
/aɪə/ /aɪə/ central open
with lips
neutral via
front close
with spread
lips to central
half close with
lips neutral
11
/ aʊə / / aʊə / central open
with lips
neutral via
back close
with rounded
lips to central
half close with
lips neutral
12
/ɔɪə/ /ɔɪə/ back open
with rounded
lips via front
close with
spread lips to
central half
close with lips
neutral
13
ɪa (ia)
Indonesia
ɪa (ia)
front close
with spread
lips to central
open with lips
neutral
14
ʊa (ua)
Kemampuan ʊa (ua)
back close
with rounded
lips to central
open with lips
neutral
25
15
eo
Seorang
eo
front half open
with spread
lips to back
open with
rounded lips
Based on the table, it can be concluded fonem have 8 diphthongs /eɪ/, /əʊ/, /aɪ/,
/aʊ/, /ɔɪ/, /ɪa/, /eo/, and /ʊa /, but phonemes have 12 diphthongs /eɪ/, /əʊ/, /oʊ/, /aɪ/,
/aʊ/, /ɔɪ/, /ɪə/, /eə/, /ʊə/ /aɪə/, /aʊə/, and /ɔɪə/. The diphthongs /oʊ/, /ɪə/, /eə/, /ʊə/ /aɪə/,
/aʊə/, and /ɔɪə/ are not available in fonem, but they are available in phonemes
diphthong. Nevertheless, the diphthongs /ɪa/, /ʊa/, and /eo/ are not available in
phonemes (English).
B. Practice the English Diphthongs
1) /eɪ/
a. Words
/eɪ/
ache make grey
… … …
ace tame tray
… … …
aim claim say
… … …
April name day
… … …
acre table bay
… … …
/ɪ/ /eɪ/ /ɪ/ /i:/ /eɪ/
Mick make pill peel pale
… … … … …
26
tick Take still steal stale
Tim Tame ship sheep shape
… … … … …
ill Ail fill fell fail
… … … … …
sill Sale sin seen sane
… … … … …
b. Sentences
1) Can you stay and play another game?
Sorry, I‟m late already.
2) Is it still raining, Jane?
Yes, but it may clear soon.
3) How much did you pay for this apron?
I only paid a dollar and ninety eight for it in a sale.
4) Have you gained weight lately?
Yes, almost eight pounds.
27
5) Do you still go to the same vacation place?
Oh yes. We think it is a great place.
2) /aɪ/ and /eɪ/
a. Words
/aɪ/ /aɪ/ /eɪ/
I like My like lake
… … … … …
aisle high Try high hey
… … … … …
iron thigh Guy try tray
… … … … …
ice nice Try my may
… … … … …
island bite Cry die day
… … … … …
b. Sentences
1) Why did the child cry in the night?
The child cried in the night when it tried to lie on its side.
2) Which bike do you want to buy?
I want to buy the one beside the iron bar.
28
3) Is your ice cream nice?
Sure, try a bite of mine if you like.
4) Is it time for us to say „Good-bye‟?
No, it‟s only nine now, we still have plenty of time to enjoy ourselves.
5) What is the little of the story you are going to write?
The little is „All mines to give‟
3) /ɔɪ/
a. Words
/ɔɪ/
oil boil toy
… … …
ointment join joy
… … …
oyster choice enjoy
… … …
oily point employ
… … …
coin soil boy
… … …
29
b. Sentences
1) What annoys an oyster?
A noise annoys an oyster.
2) Did you enjoy playing with all those toys, Joyce?
Yes, I enjoyed playing with them very much.
3) Can you point to me the direction to the post office?
Oh, with joy!
4) What it that noise?
That‟s the employees‟ voice at that factory.
5) Will you join Joyce‟ study club?
Yes, I‟ll join it. There‟s no other choice.
4) /əʊ/and /ʌ/
a. Words
/əʊ/ /ʌ/ /əʊ/
ocean don‟t Go hum home
… … … … …
30
over wrote So nut note
… … … … …
open those show fun phone
… … … … …
only cold snow bun bone
… … … … …
omen both Low come comb
… … … … …
b. Sentences
1) Who wrote those poems?
I don‟t know.
2) Isn‟t it cold?
Yes, I‟m so frozen. I wish I were home.
3) Did you open the window?
Yes, but the door is closed, so there is no draught.
4) Did you vote in November?
No, I wasn‟t old enough.
31
5) Why must you go to the store with that cold?
I need potatoes, tomatoes, and cauliflowers.
5) /aʊ/
a. Words
/aʊ/
owl down how
… … …
ounce brown now
… … …
our sound eyebrow
… … …
out towel vow
… … …
hour sprout cow
… … …
b. Sentences
1) What did you buy in the shop yesterday?
I brought a towel, powder and a cone of ice cream.
2) How many pounds of sugar did you buy last week?
I bought two pounds and I also bought two ounces of tea.
32
3) Why could not I go out now?
Without a doubt you‟ll get soused by a shower if you go out now.
4) Why do you want to go down town?
I need some brown sugar and some bean sprouts.
5) How did she feel after the exams?
She felt very down-hearted.
6) /ɪə/and /eə/
a. Words
/ɪə/ /ɪə/ /eə/
ear here superior ear air
… … … … …
era fear near fear fare
… … … … …
earning weary theatre dear dare
… … … … …
earphone career queer mere mare
… … … … …
beer dear cafeteria rear rare
… … … … …
33
b. Sentences
1) Why do you burst into tears dear?
I feel so weary and dreary.
2) Why do you say that English is a queer language?
Because we have dear, fear, and ear but we also have pear, tear, swear,
and bear.
3) It appears that he got the queer idea that the beer was inferior.
4) Did you hear the queer sound of last night?
Yes, and I feared it was the sound of a bear.
5) Why don‟t you wear your earrings?
I don‟t like those earnings.
7) /ʊə/
a. Words
/ʊə/
tour moor poor
… … …
34
doer cruel fuel
… … …
pure sure cure
… … …
gourd jury brewer
… … …
fluency truer surely
… … …
b. Sentences
1) What had happened to that poor girl?
Those cruel men took all her valuable jewelry.
2) Why did the plane stop here and not continue its tour?
It ran out of fuel you know.
3) Did you tell me that he was poor?
4) Yes, aren‟t you sure about it?
5) During August there were fewer viewers.
6) The new foremen influenced the jury enormously.
35
5. Consonants
A. The Contrastive of the Consonants
Consonants are formed by interrupting, restricting, or diverting the air
flow in a variety of ways.5
There are two ways of describing the consonants
sounds. They are the manner of articulation and the place of articulation6
. All
of them have a different ways in describing the consonants. In manner
articulation refers to interaction between various articulators and the airstream.
For example, with plosive sounds, fricative sounds, nasal sounds, etc. In
describing the consonant sounds in term of the place articulation gives more
information about what the various articulators actually do. In this paper, the
writer describes the differences between Indonesian consonants and English
consonants.
1. Place of Articulation
a. Bilabials. These are sounds formed using both lips. They are
characterized by the total closure which is made using both lips and soft
palate is raised.
b. Labiodentals. These are sounds formed with the upper teeth and the
lower lip. They are characterized by the flight contact made by the
lower lip with the upper teeth; and the soft palate is raised.
c. Dentals/Interdentals. These are sounds formed with the tongue tip
behind the upper front teeth. They are characterized by the light contact
made by the tongue tip with the back of the top front the teeth: and the
soft palate is raised.
d. Alveolars. These are sounds formed with the front part of the tongue on
the alveolar ridge. They are characterized by the light contact made by
the front part of the tongue with the alveolar ridge: and the soft palate is
raised.
e. Palatals. These are sounds formed with the tongue at the very front of
the palate, near alveolar rridge. They are characterized by the light
5
Gerald Kelly. How to Teach Pronounciation. (Longman), p.47
6
Muhammad Farkhan, An Introduction to Linguistics (Jakarta, Universitas Islam Negri), p. 25-28
36
contact made by the tongue blade with alveolar ridge; and the soft
palate is raised.
f. Velars. These are sounds formed with the back of the tongue against the
soft palate. They are characterized by the closure made by the back of
the tongue against the soft palate; and the soft palate is lowered.
g. Glottal. This sound is formed in the area of glottis without the active use
of tongue and other parts of the mounth. It is characterized by the
audible friction made by the air that passes from the lungs through the
open glottis.
2. Manner of Articulation
a. Stops. These sounds are produced by a complete blocking or stopping of
the air stream and then letting it go abruptly. When the air is suddenly
released a plosive is made. The block can be made by the two lips,
producing the bilabial plosive /p/ and /b/; it can be made by the tongue
pressing against the alveolar ridge.
b. Fricative. These sounds are the result of incomplete blocking or stopping
of the air stream and having the air to escape through a narrowed channel
with audible friction.
c. Affricatives. These sounds are produced through a combination of
sounds. Initially there is complete closure as for a stop. This is then
followed by a slow release with friction, as for a fricative.
d. Nasals. These sounds involve the complete closure of the mouth with
lowering the velum to let the air flow out through the nose. In English, the
vocal cords vibrate in the production of nasals and so English nasals are
voiced.
e. Liquids. There are two sounds included in liquids. The sound /l/ is formed
by letting the air stream flow around the sides of the tongue as it makes
contact with the alveolar ridge. The sound /r/ is produced by raising the
tongue tip and curling it back behind the alveolar ridge.
f. Glides/Semi-vowels. The sounds are produced with the tongue moving or
gliding to or from a position associated with neighboring vowel sounds.
37
To this extent, they are vowel-like which normally occur at the beginning
of a word or syllable and thus behave functionally like consonants.
Phonemes Fonem
POA
Bilabials
Labiodentals
Dentals
Alveolar
Palatals
Velars
Glottal
POA
Bilabials
Labiodentals
Dentals
Alveolar
Palatals
Velars
Glottal
MOA MOA
Stop
p t k
Stop
p t c k
b d g b d J g
Nasal
m n ŋ
Nasal
m n n' ŋ
Fricative
f θ s ʃ
Fricative
f
s
s‟ kh h
v ð z ʒ z
Affricative
t ʃ
Affricative
dʒ
Glide
w j h
Glide
w y
Liquid
l
Liquid
l
r r
Based on the table, it can be found there are 22 consonants7
/b/, /p/, /d/,
/t/, /g/, /k/, /f/, /z/, /s/, /s‟/, /kh/, /h/, /j/, /c/, /m/, /n/, /n‟/, /ŋ/, /r/, /l/, /w/, and /y/
in fonem, but phonemes have 24 consonants /b/, /p/, /d/, /t/, /g/, /k/, /f/, /v/, /z/,
/s/, /θ /, /ð/, /h/, /j/, /ʃ/, /m/, /n/, /tʃ/, /ŋ/, /ʒ/, /dʒ/,/r/, /l/, and /w/. From the data of
the consonants, fonem have /c/ and /j/ produced in palatals place and stop
manners, but phonemes have /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ produced in palatals place and
affricative manners. There is /n‟/ (ny) in fonem, but it which is produced in
palatals place and nasal manners does not exist in phonemes.
7
Erien Komarudin,Panduan Kreatif Bahasa Indonesia (Jakarta: Yudistira, 2007), p. 2-5
38
The differences of fricative manners are also found there. For example, in
place of labiodentals, it can be found phonemes have /f/ and /v/, but in fonem
just has /f/; in place of dentals, there is no available in fonem, but there are θ
and ð in phonemes; then, in place of palatals, phonemes have /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, but in
fonem has /s‟/ (sy) in Bahasa Indonesia; also, in the place of velars, there is no
available in phonemes, but fonem has /kh/.
The differences of glides manners are also found there. For example, in
the place of palatals, the difference between fonem and phonemes is just in the
symbol like fonem has a symbol /y/, but phoneme has a symbol /j/.
Nevertheless, in place of glottal, there is /h/ in phonemes, but there is no
consonant in fonem.
B. How to produce the English consonanats
1. Bilabial Plosives /p/ and /b/
a. Words
/p/ /b/
39
pen sharpen cup bed rubber lab
... ... ... ... ... ...
pound expect rope boy cuppboard robe
... ... ... ... ... ...
poor repeat lip baby harbour rub
... ... ... ... ... ...
post separate soap bad labour pub
... ... ... ... ... ...
pull copy deep bear table web
... ... ... ... ... ...
/b/ /p/ /b/ /p/
cub pup pig big
... ... ... ...
cab cap pear bear
... ... ... ...
tab lap pull bull
... ... ... ...
robe rope post boast
... ... ... ...
rib rip pround bound
... ... ... ...
b. Sentences
1) Miss brown is a timid person, but she is exceptionally patient with her
pupils.
2) Pasty poured the puding into pot and put some sugar in it.
40
3) I hope the postman will give me a parcel.
4) Don't put the cups in the soapy water.
5) Before the baby is put to bed, the mother sings him lullaby.
2. Alveolar Plosives /t/ and /d/
a. Words
/t/ /d/
Take waiter debt day sudden Lad
... ... ... ... ... ...
toy matter set doll under bad
... ... ... ... ... ...
tail sister get desk wider wide
... ... ... ... ... ...
town hunter right dog needle food
... ... ... ... ... ...
Test western float dull idea rude
... ... ... ... ... ...
/t/ /d/ /d/ /t/
time dime send sent
... ... ... ...
tale dale lend lent
... ... ... ...
town down spend spent
... ... ... ...
The die wed wet
41
... ... ... ...
tame dame wide white
... ... ... ...
b. Sentences
1) What time did you feed the dogs this morning?
I don't remember, but I think I fed it at ten past ten.
2) Did tom tell you and Ted about my sister?
No, he only told us a wonderful tale about a while cat that ate a dozen
pounds of mutton.
3) How desks does your daddy need?
He said he needed a dozen desks.
4) How many times has Diana taken a trip to Sydney?
She did not tell me how many times, but she said that she had been to
Sydney several times.
5) Why did you cut the tail of your cat?
I didn't cut it, it was Tom who cut it.
42
3. Velar Plosives /k/ and /g/
a. Words
/g/ /k/
go again beg cook baker book
... ... ... ... ... ...
goat ago bag cake acre make
... ... ... ... ... ...
girl beggar dog quick orchestra take
... ... ... ... ... ...
goose agree pig come bookish lake
... ... ... ... ... ...
Gate begin leg key rocky pick
... ... ... ... ... ...
/k/ /g/ /g/ /k/
came game pig pick
... ... ... ...
coat goat bag back
... ... ... ...
curl girl dog dock
... ... ... ...
Kate gate dug duck
... ... ... ...
Come gum log lock
... ... ... ...
b. Sentences
1) The girls are cooking in the kitchen.
43
2) Kate agrees to go to the lake.
3) The goat chased the geese and the ducks.
4) If you want to go for a picnic, don't forget to bring along some cakes.
5) The ship anchored near the rocky mountain.
4. Palato – Alveolar Affricatives /tʃ / and /dʒ/
a. Words
/tʃ / /dʒ/
chair actual sketch jail soldier wage
... ... ... ... ... ...
chief capture church judge subject page
... ... ... ... ... ...
chess nature couch joke reject damage
... ... ... ... ... ...
choice feature lunch joy urgent stage
... ... ... ... ... ...
cheap picture march jewel major image
... ... ... ... ... ...
/tʃ / /dʒ/ /tʃ / /dʒ/
cheap jeep richer ridger
... ... ... ...
choose jews larch large
... ... ... ...
44
chin gin beseech besiege
... ... ... ...
chest jest leech liege
... ... ... ...
choke joke perch purge
... ... ... ...
b. Sentences
1) How often do you go to church?
We go to church every Sunday.
2) Who is in charge of the shipping department?
Mr. Cheston is in charge of the shipping department.
3) How how many chapters have you read in your history book?
We have already finished eleven chapter.
4) What is the price of these handkerchiefs?
These hankerchiefs sell at two dollars each.
5) Does your watch keep good time?
No, my watch is not at all accurate, it needs repair.
6) What is that strange noise i hear?
45
The wind in the trees at this time of night always makes a very strange
noise.
7) Are you fond of orange – juice?
Yes, I drink oarang – juice every morning for breakfast.
8) Who arranged the flowers in this vase?
Aren't they lovely? Julia arranged them.
9) Have you read 'The Red Badge of Courage?
Yes, I read it in one of my collage English classes.
10) Did you enjoy the concert last night?
Yes, I enjoyed it immensely.
5. Labio – Dental Fricatives /f/ and /v/
a. Words
/f/ /v/
fine after belief vine evil love
... ... ... ... ... ...
fever fifteen leaf very advise leave
... ... ... ... ... ...
Flute coffee deaf vivid favour live
... ... ... ... ... ...
fond before loaf value never above
46
... ... ... ... ... ...
fussy effort cough vital flavour brave
... ... ... ... ... ...
/f/ /v/ /v/ /f/
fine vine believe belief
... ... ... ...
few view leave leaf
... ... ... ...
feel veal prove proof
... ... ... ...
ferry very service surface
... ... ... ...
fiigure vigour larva laugher
... ... ... ...
b. Sentences
1) Why do you never go to the movies?
I really don't like the movies.
2) For whom do you intend to vote in the election?
I shall probably vote Mr. Vale.
3) Do you plan to take a long vacation this summer?
No, we shall spend only a few weeks in Vermont.
4) Why did you leave school early yesterday?
47
Some friends were visiting us and we went to Radio city.
5) Why does John devote so much time to his English.
He wishes to enter the advertising business and to be able to write
advertising copy.
6. Dental Fricatives /θ/ and /ð/
a. Words
/θ/ /ð/
thin method both the mother with
... ... ... ... ... ...
thick author death there brother breath
... ... ... ... ... ...
thing weathy earth this neither smooth
... ... ... ... ... ...
thank healthy growth these whether breath
... ... ... ... ... ...
thumb birthday bath though brother teeth
... ... ... ... ... ...
/θ/ /t/ /ð/ /d/
Thin tin they day
... ... ... ...
thick tick there dare
... ... ... ...
thank tank though dough
... ... ... ...
thought taught then den
48
... ... ... ...
death debt southern sudden
... ... ... ...
/θ/ /s/ /ð/ /s/
thank sank forth force
... ... ... ...
thin sin myth miss
... ... ... ...
thick sick path pass
... ... ... ...
thumb some math mass
... ... ... ...
thing sing mouth mouse
... ... ... ...
1) Through thick and thin
2) Healthy wealthy and wise
3) The forth of the month
4) A truthful thought
5) The thunder of the earthquake.
6) The smooth leather
49
7) Without the southern army
8) Their father and mother
9) Either this one or the other
10) Bathing in the southing water
b. Sentences
1) Where did Thelma put the thermos bottle?
She threw it into the basket.
2) Did Ruth put the cloth on the table?
Yes, she did. She is a thoughtful girl.
3) Did Ethel find her thimble?
Yes, it was on her thumb.
4) Who is the author of this theme?
The author is Nathaniel Hawthorn.
5) Are you thirsty?
50
Yes, is there more lemonade in this thermos.
6) Where is that leather bag?
There, it is on the table..
7) Is this the way to the town?
Yes, go over that way.
8) Which tie shall I wear, this one or that one?
I think this one is better than that one.
9) Have you seen those brothers of mind?
No, but there is your mother. Ask her about them.
10) Would you rather have this one or that one?
Neither, thanks. I've had enough of both of them.
11) A thing, a tin, a tin thing, a thin tin thing.
12) They think this disciple did a sinful thing.
13) They thanked the singer for the things he sang
14) The youth thought that the theft was the third, though the Smiths
thought it was the thirteenth..
51
7. Alveolar Fricatives /s/ and /z/
a. Words
/s/ /z/
seat listen pass zebra razor as
... ... ... ... ... ...
seldom lesson ass zero museum buzz
... ... ... ... ... ...
sing mister bus zoo lazy nose
... ... ... ... ... ...
sell assist lace zone dizzy walls
... ... ... ... ... ...
smoke ask notes zinc result rise
... ... ... ... ... ...
/s/ /z/ /z/ /s/
loose lose eyes ice
... ... ... ...
bus buzz prize price
... ... ... ...
lice liez plays place
... ... ... ...
rice rise zinc sink
... ... ... ...
seal zeal zoo sue
... ... ... ...
b. Sentences
1) The music caused pleasant memories to arise.
52
2) The zoology class was required to spend the afternoon watching the
animals in the zoo.
3) It is always easy to criticize the work of others.
4) She teased her little cousin unreasonably.
5) The cause of the disaster was not easy to discover.
6) The quiz programme was easily the most interesting of all.
7) Do you sometimes visit the zoo?
Yes, we sometimes go to the zoo on Saturday afternoons.
8) Why didn't you call a physician after your accident?
I wasn't seriously enough hurt to call a physician.
9) Which do you prefer classical music or jazz?
Generally I prefer classical music more than jazz, but occationally I
like to listen to jazz.
10) Did you find this study of Latin easy or difficult?
Fortunately, I found Latin to be quite easy.
53
8. Palato – Alveolar Fricatives /ʃ / and /ʒ/
a. Words
/ʃ / /ʒ/
shop fashion wish pleasure treasure seizure
... ... ... ... ... ...
share ocean push leisure vision precision
... ... ... ... ... ...
she election bush decision usual parisian
... ... ... ... ... ...
shall delicious rush collision visual persuasion
... ... ... ... ... ...
shoulder mention irish measure occasion provision
... ... ... ... ... ...
b. Sentences
1) The report clearly showed the position of the ships before the battle.
2) Fushing roughly past us, the man dashed into the shop.
3) Several fish were to be seen splashing in the shallow water of the
stream.
4) The explosion was one of the usual force and completely wrecked the
garage.
5) The seazure of private properly gratly aided the regime.
6) He is casual acquaintance whom I meet occationally on the street.
54
7) The cause of the collision was finally traced to the poor vision of one
the drivers.
8) His position and prestige make his decision final.
9) Where did the collision take place?
It took place directly in front of the Treasury Building.
10) Do you think it correct for young girls to used rouge?
If rouge is used in moderation I see no objection to it.
11) What decision did you and Helen reach concerning your vacation?
We decided to take a bicycle trip trough Belgium.
12) What do you usually do on Saturday afternoon?
On Saturday afternoon, father and I usually take a walk through the
park.
13) What do you do with your leasure time?
I have very little leasure time because I both work and go to school.
14) How often do you shine your shoes?
I'm afraid that I don't shine them as often as I should.
55
15) Did you go to shopping yesterday?
Yes, but we started very late and many of the shops were closed.
16) Did you enjoy the refreshment at the party last night?
I thought the cake was quite delicious.
17) Why did she wish to leave so early?
She didn't feel well and wished to go home.
18) Why does the old man's hand shake so?
He was palsy and he can't control the shaking of his hand.
9. Glottal Fricative /h/
a. Words
/h/
here behold behave
... ... ...
hair ahead perhaps
... ... ...
hole somehow behind
... ... ...
haze manhood anyhow
... ... ...
hurricane abhor inhale
... ... ...
56
b. Sentences
1) Who said 'hello' to Mr. Hudson yesterday?
Henry the hat-maker said 'hello' to him yesterday.
2) How did Helen behave in that party?
Oh, she behaved very nicely.
3) Whose horse is here?
That must be Harry's horse.
4) Who is the man riding a horse ahead of us?
I don't know for sure, but perhaps he is Mr. Hamilton.
5) Whose house is standing on that hill?
I don't know. Ask Helen, perhaps she know whose house it is.
10. Bilabial Nasal /m/
a. Words
/m/
milk swimmer calm
... ... ...
mine dimple roam
... ... ...
miss remble mime
... ... ...
57
maybe common climb
... ... ...
mister almond dime
... ... ...
b. Sentences
1) Whom did you make the cake for?
I made it for Mary, Maggie and Max.
2) Is it comfortable to ride on a camel?
Maybe, I have never ridden an a camel before.
3) May I smoke here?
I am sorry, you have to go to the smoking compartment.
4) Will it be warm in Manchester in May?
I think so, Summer usually comes in June, so in May the weather will
be just fine.
5) Is Mount Everest the highest mountain in the world?
Yes, but many mointaineers have succeeded in climbing it.
58
11. Alveolar Nasal /n/
a. Words
/n/
near banner tan
... ... ...
no signature van
... ... ...
now penny garden
... ... ...
nose swanny down
... ... ...
nest dentist mourn
... ... ...
b. Sentences
1) Why are you standing under that tree?
Look here! There is a nest on the branches of this tree.
2) Do you think one hanger is enough?
No, one hanger's not enough.
3) I want to know how many women were present in that meeting.
There wasn't a single woman present.
4) When is uncle John coming?
Uncle John's coming in the morning.
59
5) What did the nurse want to do with the needle?
I don't know. She didn't tell me anything about that.
12. Velar Nasal /ŋ/
a. Words
/ŋ/
playing language wing
... ... ...
anxious tango thing
... ... ...
link twinkle swing
... ... ...
bring blink ring
... ... ...
wink mango rang
... ... ...
b. Sentences
1) Seeing is believing.
2) Watching the birds flying
3) Sleeping during class
4) Calling during working hours
5) Waiting for the singer to sing.
60
6) Bing was eating while Mary was pressing and brushing his clothing.
7) In the beginning he was looking forward to swimming.
8) They are asking for help during the coming street – cleaning
programme.
9) The wind was blowing hard and it was raining.
10) The sinking ship kept asking for help during the raging typhoon.
13. Lateral /l/
a. Words
/l/
live milk doll
... ... ...
look else hill
... ... ...
leave island fall
... ... ...
love million thrill
... ... ...
lamb silly bell
... ... ...
b. Sentences
1) Lazy Lucy likes to lull in the morning.
61
2) Leave the silly girl alone.
3) Helen likes to drink cold milk in the morning.
4) Don't lean your elbow on the glass counter.
5) Look at that ugly owl perching on the branch of that time.
14. Post – Alveolar Frictionless Continuant /r/
a. Words
/r/
roam arrow furious
... ... ...
roll carriage general
... ... ...
risk cathedral eyebrow
... ... ...
ruin narrow quarrel
... ... ...
Ralph dairy sparrow
... ... ...
b. Sentences
1) Where did Richard throw the arrow?
He threw it to the waste basket near the mirror.
2) Why was Ralph furious last night?
62
Because Ronald broke his mirror.
3) Where did Mary lose her umbrella?
She dropped it on the street when she was hurrying to the library.
4) Why is Terry crying?
I think she grows tired and is hungry.
5) What will you do as soon as you arrive in Paris?
I'll write down everything, I see in my diary
15. Unrounded Palatal Semi Vowel /j/
a. Words
/j/
young argue failure
... ... ...
yesterday nephew familiar
... ... ...
yard beautiful dune
... ... ...
university musical view
... ... ...
Europe new human
... ... ...
63
b. Sentences
1) The beautiful young lady argued with him yesterday
2) Her nephew studies music in that university.
3) Next year, we will go to Europe.
4) My nephew is a member of the local yachting Club.
5) She likes the beautiful new suit that her mother bought in Europe.
16. Labio – Velar Semi Vowel /w/
a. Words
/w/ /w/ /v/
West Weather Away West Vest
... ... ... ... ...
Way won Twenty Went Vent
... ... ... ... ...
Work Wise Awake Wine Vine
... ... ... ... ...
Wide Water Forward Worse Verse
... ... ... ... ...
warm went backward wane vane
... ... ... ... ...
b. Sentences
1) Are you willing to wait for William?
I don't want to but I will
64
2) Did that wool vest wash well?
Yes, very well, I washed it in warm water.
3) Isn't the weather warm for winter?
Yes, it is warm, but the wind is cool.
4) How long did you wait for your watch to be fixed?
I had to wait one week.
5) Was Howard on time?
No, we waited over one hour for him.
6. Word Contraction
A. Introduce Contractions
A contraction is two words that are made into one word. Say the word
contraction. “We call it a contraction because the words contract and become
smaller.”
“Here is an example.” Build the words he and is.
he is
Remove the i and replace it with the apostrophe. “Instead of two words, he is,
we now have one word, he’s.” This is called a contraction.
Point to the apostrophe tile. “I put an apostrophe in place of the letter that I
took out. Say the word apostrophe.
Build the words she and will.
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“I can say She will come over, or I can use a shortcut and say She‟ll come
over.”
Change she will into she’ll.
“She’ll is a contraction, a shorter way of saying she will.”
Remove the apostrophe.
“What happens if I forget to put in the apostrophe? What word do we have?”
Shell. “That‟s not the word we want. So you can see that it is important to put
in the apostrophe.” Replace the apostrophe.
B. Teach Common Contractions
Using the letter tiles, build the two words in the first column and then show
your student how to create the contraction using the apostrophe tile. Do the
first few together, and then let your student try it alone. Reading the sentences
with your student will help illustrate how contractions look and sound in a
sentence.
Two words Contraction Sentence
she is she‟s She‟s my sister.
he is he‟s He‟s fifteen years old.
that is that‟s That‟s an extra slice of pizza.
is not isn‟t Isn‟t this a friendly dog?
do not don‟t Don‟t knock the glass over!
cannot can‟t Jenny can‟t drive yet.
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did not didn‟t It didn‟t rain last night.
I will I‟ll I‟ll go with you to the park.
he will he‟ll He‟ll like this present.
she will she‟ll She‟ll need a winter coat.
we will we‟ll We‟ll keep you company.
you will you‟ll You‟ll enjoy the book.
I am I‟m I‟m very thirsty.
C. Dictate Sentences
Dictate several sentences each day.
You’ll be done soon.
I’ll call you later.
I’ll see you at my house.
Pam can’t come over today.
We’ll go sledding soon.
She didn’t clean her room.
I don’t have any more candy.
You’ll find the toy over there.
Isn’t that a priceless doll?
That’s a very good book!
She’s a fun girl!
I’m doing a math problem.
He’s got a song she’ll like.
He’ll sing all day and night!
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7. Linking
When we say a sentence in English, we join or "link" words to each other.
Because of this linking, the words in a sentence do not always sound the same as
when we say them individually. Linking is very important in English. If you
recognize and use linking, two things will happen:
1. you will understand other people more easily
2. other people will understand you more easily
There are basically two main types of linking:
A. consonant ⇔ vowel
We link words ending with a consonant sound to words beginning with a
vowel sound.
Linking Consonant to Vowel
When a word ends in a consonant sound, we often move the consonant sound
to the beginning of the next word if it starts with a vowel sound.
For example, in the phrase turn off...
we write it like this: turn off
we say it like this: tur-noff
Remember that it's the sound that matters.
In the next example sentence, have ends with...
 the letter e (which is a vowel)
 but the sound v (which is a consonant)
So we link the ending consonant sound of have to the beginning vowel sound
of the next word a.
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And in fact we have four consonant to vowel links in this sentence:
We write it like this: Can I have a bit of egg?
We say it like this: ca-ni-ha-va-bi-to-vegg?
B. vowel ⇔ vowel
We link words ending with a vowel sound to words beginning with a vowel
sound
Linking Vowel to Vowel
When one word ends with a vowel sound and the next word begins with a
vowel sound, we link the words with a sort of Y or Wsound. It depends on the
shape of our mouth at the end of the first word.
Lips wide
o o
|
—
When the first word ends in an a, e, i vowel sound [ eɪ / i: / aɪ ], our lips are
wide. Then we insert a Y sound at the beginning of the next word:
we write
first
word
ends
with we say
pay all /eɪ/ payyall
the end /i:/ theyend
lie on /aɪ/ lieyon
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8. Assimilation
A. Introductions
"Assimilation is the influence of a sound on a neighboring sound so that
the two become similar or the same. For example, the Latin prefix in- 'not, non-,
un-' appears in English as il-, im-. and ir- in the words illegal, immoral,
impossible (both m and p are bilabial consonants), and irresponsible as well as
the unassimilated original form in-in indecent and incompetent. Although the
assimilation of the n of in- to the following consonant in the preceding examples
was inherited from Latin, English examples that would be considered native are
also plentiful. In rapid speech native speakers of English tend to pronounce ten
bucks as though it was written tembucks, and in anticipation of the
voiceless s in son the final consonant of his in his son is not as fully voiced as
the s in his daughter, where it clearly is [z]."
However, assimilation is a linguistic process by which a sound becomes
similar to an adjacent sound. An interesting observation of assimilation rules is
evidenced in the formation of plurals and the past tense in English. When
pluralizing nouns, the last letter is pronounced as either [s], [z], or [ɪz]. When
forming past tenses of verbs, the -ed ending is pronounced as either [t], [d], [ɪd].
If you were to sort words into three columns, you would be able to tell why
certain words are followed by certain sounds:
Plural nouns
/s/ /z/ /ɪz/
cats dads churches
tips bibs kisses
laughs dogs judges
Past Tense
/t/ /d/ /ɪd/
kissed loved patted
washed jogged waded
coughed teased seeded
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Hopefully, you can determine which consonants produce which sounds. In the
nouns, /s/ is added after voiceless consonants, and /z/ is added after voiced
consonants. /iz/ is added after sibilants. For the verbs, /t/ is added after voiceless
consonants, and /d/ is added after voiced consonants. /ɪd/ is added after alveolar
stops. The great thing about this is that no one ever taught you this in school. But
thanks to linguistics, you now know why there are different sounds (because of
assimilation rules, the consonants become more like their neighboring
consonants.)
B. Assimilation Rules
1) Total and Partial
Assimilation may be partial or total. In the phrase ten bikes, for example, the
normal form in colloquial speech would be /tem baiks/, not /ten baiks/, which
would sound somewhat 'careful.' In this case, the assimilation has been
partial: the /n/ sound has fallen under the influence of the following /b/, and
has adopted its billability, becoming /m/. It has not, however, adopted its
plosiveness. The phrase /teb baiks/ would be likely only if one had a severe
cold! The assimilation is total in ten mice /tem mais/, where the /n/ sound is
now identical with the /m/ which influenced it."
Total Assimilation
 “winter” :
/t/  [n] / [n] __
(meaning that /t/ becomes [n] in the environment after [n]).
 “center” :
/t/  [n] / [n] __
(/t/ becomes [n] in the environment after [n]).
Partial Assimilation
 “stopped” :
/d/  [t] / [p] __
(i.e. /d/ becomes [t] in the environment after [p].)
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 “picked” :
/d/  [t] / [k] __
(i.e. /d/ becomes [t] in the environment after [k].)
2) Progressive (or left-to-right) Assimilation
If the phoneme changes to match the preceding phoneme, it is progressive
assimilation.
 “dogs” :
/s/  [z] / [g] __
( the ending [s] is assimilated to [z] by the influence of the preceding
voiced [g].)
 “pubs” :
/s/  [z] / [b] __
( the ending [s] is assimilated to [z] by the influence of the preceding
voiced [b].)
3) Regressive, or Anticipatory (or right-to-left) Assimilation
If the phoneme changes to match the following phoneme, it is regressive
assimilation.
 “miss you” :
[m'ISE]
/s/  [S] / __ [ j ] .
(the sound [s] in [mIs] is changed to [S] by the assimilation of the
following palatal glide [ j ].)
4) Double Assimilation
 “man” :
/A/  [A] / [m] __ [n]
(The [A] in /mAn/ is nasalized by its preceding
[m] and its following [n].)
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9. Elision
A. Introductions
"Elision of sounds can . . . be seen clearly in contracted forms like isn't(is
not), I'll (I shall/will), who's (who is/has), they'd (they had, they should, or
they would), haven't (have not) and so on. We see from these examples that
vowels or/and consonants can be elided. In the case of contractions or words
like library (pronounced in rapid speech as /laibri/), the whole syllable is
elided
B. The Nature of Reduced Articulation
"It is easy to find examples of elision, but very difficult to state rules that
govern which sounds may be elided and which may not. Elision of vowels in
English usually happens when a short, unstressed vowel occurs between
voiceless consonants, e.g. in the first syllable of perhaps, potato, the second
syllable of bicycle, or the third syllable of philosophy. . . .
"It is very important to note that sounds do not simple 'disappear' like a light
being switched off. A transcription such as /æks/ for acts implies that the
/t/phoneme has dropped out altogether, but detailed examination of speech
shows that such effects are more gradual: in slow speech the /t/ may be fully
pronounced, with an audible transition from the preceding /k/ and to the
following /s/, while in a more rapid style it may be articulated but not given
any audible realization, and in very rapid speech it may be observable, if at
all, only as a rather early movement of the tongue blade toward the /s/
position."
1) From Iced Tea to Ice Tea
"An elision is the omission of a sound for phonological reasons . .
.: 'cause (also spelled 'cos, cos, coz) from because; fo'c'sle from
forecastle; or ice tea from iced tea(in which -ed is pronounced /t/ but
omitted because of the immediately following /t/)."
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2) From Iced Cream to Ice Cream
"[Ice cream] is an extremely common term and no one these days, I
believe, would be tempted to describe the confection as iced cream--and
yet this was its original description. . . . With time, however, the -
ed ending eroded. In pronunciation, it would have been swallowed very
early and eventually this was reflected in the way it was written."
3) Wanna
"In North and South, Mr. [John] Jakes is careful to keep
his elisions within quotation marks: 'I'm sure, Cap'n,' says a farmer in his
novel, and a stevedore calls a young soldier a 'sojer boy.' . .
"Stephen Crane, in his Maggie, a Girl of the Streets, in 1896
pioneered wannain literature with 'I didn' wanna give 'im no stuff.' The
spelling is designed to recreate the way the spoken word pounds, shapes
and knocks about the original words."
10. Pronunciation in Practice
A. Poems
I take it you already know
/aɪ teɪk ɪt ju: ɔ:lˈredɪ nəʊ/
Of tough and bough and cough and dough?
/əv tʌf ənd bau ənd kɒf ənd dəʊ/
Others may stumble but not you
/ˈʌðə(r)z meɪ ˈstʌmbl bət nɒt ju:/
On hiccough, trorough, slough and through.
/ɒn ˈhIkɒf ˈɵʌrə slaʊ ənd ɵru:/
Well done! And now you wish perhaps,
/wel dʌn/ ənd nəʊ ju: wɪʃ pəˈhæps/
To learn of less familiar traps?
/tu: lɜ:n əv les fəˈmɪlə(r) træps/
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Beware of heard, a dreadful word
/bɪˈweə(r) əv hɜ:d ə ˈdredful wɜ:d/
That looks like beard and sounds like bird.
/ðæt lʊks laɪk bɪəd ənd saundz laɪk bɜ:d/
And dead, it‟s said like bed, not bead.
/ənd ded ɪts sed laɪk bed nɒt bi:d/
For goodness‟ sake don‟t call it „deed‟!
/fə(r) ˈgudnəs seɪk dəʊnt kɔ:l ɪt di:d/
Watch out for meat and great and threat
/wɒt∫ aʊt fə(r) mi:t ənd greɪt ənd ɵret/
(they rhyme with suite and straight and debt)
/ðeɪ raɪm wɪð swi:t ənd streɪt ənd det/
A moth is not a moth in mother,
/ə mɒɵ ɪz nɒt ə mɒɵ ɪn ˈmʌðə(r)/
Nor both in bother, broth, or brother,
/nɔ:(r) bəʊɵ ɪn ˈbɒðə(r) brɒɵ ɔ:(r) ˈbrʌðə(r)/
And here is not a match for there,
/ənd hɪə(r) ɪz nɒt ə mæt∫ fə(r) ðeə(r)/
Nor dear and fear for bear and pear,
/nɒ:(r) dɪə(r) ənd fɪə(r) fə(r) beə(r) ənd peə(r)/
And then there‟s doze and rose and lose
/ənd ðen ðeəz dəuz ənd rəuz ənd lu:z/
Just look them up and goose and choose,
/ʤʌst luk ðəm ʌp ənd gu:s ənd t∫u:z/
And cork and work and card and ward
/ənd kɔ:k ənd we:k ənd ka:d ənd wɔ:d/
And font and front and word and sword,
/ənd font ənd frʌnt ənd wɜ:d ənd sɔ:d
And do and go and thwart and cart,
/ənd du: ənd gəu ənd ɵwo:t ənd ka:t/
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Come, I‟ve hardly made a start!
/kʌm aɪv ˈha:dlɪ meɪd ə sta:t/
A dreadful language? Man alive!
/ə dredful ˈlæŋgwɪʤ/ mæn əˈlaɪv/
I‟d learned to speak it when I was five!
/aɪd lɜ:nd tu: spi:k ɪt wen aɪ wəz faɪv/
And yet to write it, the more I sigh,
/ənd jet tu: raɪt ɪt/ ðə mɔ:(r) aɪ saɪ/
I‟ll not learn how „til the day I die.
/aIl nɒt lɜ:n haʊ ˈtɪl ðə deɪ aɪ daɪ/
B. Short Stories
Eliza Riley
Return to Paradise
rɪˈtɜ:n tu: ˈpærədaɪs
Lisa gazed out over the Caribbean sea, feeling the faint breeze against her face–eyes shut,
/ˈli:sə geɪzd aʊt ˈəʊvə(r) ðə kærɪbi:ən si: ˈfi:lɪŋ ðə feɪnt bri:z əˈgenst hə(r) feɪs - aɪz ʃʌt
the white sand warm between her bare toes. The place was beautiful beyond belief, but it
ðə waɪt sænd wɔ:m bɪˈtwi:n hə(r) beə(r) təʊz / ðə pleɪs wəz ˈbju:tɪfl bɪˈjɒnd bɪˈli:f bət ɪt
was still unable to the grief she felt as she remembered the last time she had been here.
wəz stɪl ʌnˈeɪbl tu; ðə gri:f ʃi felt əz ʃi rɪˈmembə(r)d ðə lɑ:st taɪm ʃi həd bi:n hɪə(r) /
She had married James right here on this spot three years ago to the day. Dressed
/ʃi həd ˈmærid ʤeɪmz raɪt hɪə(r) ɒn ðɪs spɒt Ɵri: jɪə(r)z əˈgəʊ tu: ðə deɪ / drest
in a simple white shift dress, miniature white roses attemping to tame her long dark curls,
ɪn ə ˈsɪmpl waɪt ʃɪft dres ˈmɪnətʃə(r) waɪt rəʊzɪz əˈtemptɪŋ tu: teɪm hə(r) lɒŋ dɑ:k kɜ:lz
Lisa had been happier than she had ever thought possible. James was even less formal but
ˈli:sə həd bi:n ˈhæpiə(r) ðən ʃi həd ˈevə(r) Ɵɔ:t ˈpɒsəbl / ʤeɪmz wəz ˈi:vn les ˈfɔ:ml bət
utterly irresistible in creased summer trousers and a loose white cotton shirt. His dark hair
ˈʌtəlɪ ˌɪrɪˈzɪstəbl ɪn kri:st ˈsʌmə(r) ˈtraʊzəz ənd ə lu:s waɪt ˈkɒtn ʃɜ:t / hɪz dɑ:k heə(r)
slightly ruffled and his eyes full of adoration as his looked at his bride to be. The justice of
ˈslaɪtli ˈrʌfld ənd hɪz aɪz fʊl əv ˌædəˈreɪʃn əz hɪz lʊkt ət hɪz braɪd tu: bi: / ðə ˈʤʌstɪs əv
the peace had read their vows as they held hands and laughed at the sheer joy of being
ðə pi:s həd ri:d ðeə(r) vaʊz əz ðeɪ held hændz ənd lɑ:ft ət ðə ʃɪə(r) ʤɔɪ əv ˈbi:ɪŋ
young, in love and staying in a five star resort on the Caribbean island of the Dominican
jʌŋ , ɪn lʌv ənd steɪˈɪŋ ɪn ə faɪv stɑ:(r) rɪˈzɔ:t ɒn ðə kærɪˈbi:ən ˈaɪlənd əv ðə dəˈmɪnɪkən
Republic. They had seen the years blissfully stretching ahead of them, together forever.
rɪˈpʌblɪk / ðeɪ həd si:n ðə jɪə(r)z ˈblɪsfəli stretʃɪŋ əˈhed əv ðəm , təˈgeðə(r) fərˈevə(r) /
They planned their children, two she said, he said four so they compromised on three (two
ðeɪ plænd ðeə(r) ˈtʃɪldrən , tu: ʃi sed , hi: sed fɔ:(r) səʊ ðeɪ ˈkɒmprəmaɪzd ɒn Ɵri: (tu:
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girls and a boy of course); where they would live, the travelling they would do together – it
gɜ:lz ənd ə bɔɪ əv kɔ:s) ; weə(r) ðeɪ wəd laɪv , ðə ˈtrævlɪŋ ðeɪ wəd du: təˈgeðə(r) - ɪt
was all certain, so they had thought then.
wəz ɔ:l ˈsɜ:tn , səʊ ðeɪ həd Ɵɔ:t ðen /
But that seemed such a long time ago now. A it can change in just a few years – a
/bət ðæt si:md sʌtʃ ə lɒŋ taɪm əˈgəʊ naʊ / ə ɪt kən tʃeɪnʤ ɪn ʤʌst ə fju: jɪə(r) - ə
lot of heartache can change a person and drive a wedge through the strongest ties, break
lɒt əv hɑ:teɪk kən tʃeɪnʤ ə ˈpɜ:sn ənd draɪv ə weʤ Ɵru: ðə strɒŋɪst taɪz breɪk
even the deepest love. Three years to the day and they had returned, thought this time not
ˈi:vn ðə di:pɪst lʌv / Ɵri: jɪə(r)z tu: ðə deɪ ənd ðeɪ həd rɪˈtɜ:nd ðəʊ ðɪs taɪm nɒt
for the beachside marriages the island was famous for but for one of its equally
fə(r) ðə bi:tʃsaɪd ˈmærɪʤɪz ðə ˈaɪlənd wəz ˈfeɪməs fə(r) bət fə(r) wʌn itz ˈi:kwəli
popular quickie divorces.
ˈpɒpjələ(r) ˈkwɪki dɪ‟vɔ:sɪz /
Lisa let out a sigh that was filled with pain and regret. What could she do but move
/ˈli:sə let aʊt ə saɪ ðæt wəz fɪld wɪð peɪn ənd rɪˈgret / wɒt kəd ʃi du: bət mu:v
on, find a new life and new dreams? –the old one was beyond repair. How could this
ɒn , faɪnd ə nju: laɪf ənd nju: dri:mz ? - ðə əʊld wʌn wəz bɪˈjɒnd rɪˈpeə(r) / haʊ kəd ðɪs
beautiful place, with its lush green coastline, eternity of azure blue sea and endless sands
ˈbju:tɪfl pleɪs , wɪð ɪtz lʌʃ gri:n ˈkəʊstlaɪn ɪˈtɜ:nəti əv ˈæʒə(r) blu: si: ənd ˈendləs sændz
be a place for the agony she felt now?
bi: ə pleɪs fə(r) ðə ˈægəni ʃi felt naʊ/
The man stood watching from the edge of the palm trees. He couldn‟t take his eyes
/ðə mæn stʊd wɒtʃɪŋ frəm ðə eʤ əv ðə pɑ:m tri:z / hi: ˈkʊdnt teɪk hɪz aɪz
of the dark-haired woman he saw standing at the water‟s edge, gazing out to sea as though
əv ðə dɑ:k-heə(r)d ˈwʊmən hi: sɔ: ˈstændɪŋ ət ðə ˈwɔ:tə(r)z eʤ geɪzɪŋ aʊt tu: si: əz ðəʊ
she was waiting for something – or someone. She was beautiful, with her slim figure
ʃi wəz weɪtɪŋ fə(r) ˈsʌmƟɪŋ - ɔ:(r) ˈsʌmwʌn ˈ ʃi wəz ˈbju:tɪfl , wɪð hə(r) slɪm ˈfɪgə(r)
dressed in a loose flowing cotton dress, her crazy hair and bright blue eyes not far off the
drest ɪn ə lu:s fləʊɪŋ ˈkɒtn dres , hə(r) ˈkreɪzi heə(r) ənd braɪt blu: aɪz nɒt fɑ:(r) ɒf ðə
colour of the sea itself. It wasn‟t her looks that attracted him though; he came across
ˈkʌlə(r) əv ðə si: ɪtˈself / ɪt ˈwɒznt hə(r) lʊks ðæt əˈtræktɪd hɪm ðəʊ ; hi: keim əˈkrɒs
many beautiful-woman in his work as a freelance photographer. It was her loneliness and
ˈmeni ˈbju:tɪfl-ˈwʊmən ɪn hɪz wɜ:k əz ə ˈfri:lɑ:ns fəˈtɒgrəfə(r)/ɪt wəz hə(r) ˈləʊlɪnɪs ənd
intensity that lured him. Even at some distance he was aware that she was different from any
ɪn‟tensəti ðæt lʊə(r)d hɪm / i:vn ət sʌm ˈdɪstəns hi: wəz əˈweə(r) ðæt ʃi wəz ˈdɪfrənt frəm ˈeni
other woman he could meet.
ˈʌðə(r) ˈwʊmən hi: kəd mi:t /
Lisa sensed the man approaching even before she turned around. She had been
/ˈli:sə senst ðə mæn əˈprəʊtʃɪŋ ˈi:vn bɪˈfɔ:(r) ʃi tɜ:nd əˈraʊnd / ʃi həd bi:n
aware of him standing there staring at her and had felt strangely calm about being
əˈweə(r) əv hɪm ˈstændɪŋ ðeə(r) stɑ:(r)ɪŋ ət hə(r) ənd həd felt ˈstreɪnʤli kɑ:m əˈbaʊt ˈbi:ɪŋ
observed. She looked at him and felt the instant spark of connection she had only
əb‟zɜ:vd /ʃi lʊkt ət hɪm ənd felt ðə ˈɪnstənt spɑ:k əv kəˈnekʃn ʃi həd ˈəʊnli
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experience once before. He walked slowly towards her and they held each other‟s gaze. It
ɪkˈspɪəriənst wʌns bɪˈfɔ:(r) / hi: wɔ:kt ˈsləʊli təˈwɔ:dz hə(r) ənd ðeɪ held i:tʃ ˈʌðə(r)z geɪz / ɪt
felt like meeting a long lost friend – not a stranger on a strange beach.
felt laɪk mi:tɪŋ ə lɒŋ lɒst frend - nɒt ə ˈstreɪnʤə(r) ɒn ə streɪnʤ bi:tʃ /
Later, sitting at one of the many bars on the resort, sipping the local cocktails they
/ˈleɪtə(r) sɪtɪŋ ət wʌn əv ðə ˈmeni bɑ:(r)z ɒn ðə riˈzɔ:t , sɪpɪŋ ðə ˈləʊkl ˈkɒkteɪl ðeɪ
began to talk. First pleasantries, their hotels, the quality of the food and friendliness of the
bɪˈgæn tu: tɔ:k / fɜ:st ˈplezntrɪz ðeə(r) həʊˈtelz ðə ˈkwɒləti əv ðə fu:d ənd frendlɪnɪs əv ðə
locals. Their conversation was strangely hesistant considering the naturalness and
ˈləʊklz / ðeə(r) ˌkɒnvəˈseɪʃn wəz ˈstreɪʤli ˈhezɪtənt kənˈsɪdə(r)ɪŋ ðə ˈnætʃrəlnəs ənd
confidence of their earlier meeting. Onlookers, however, would have detected the subtle
ˈkɒnfɪdəns əv ðeə(r) ˈɜ:liə(r) mi:tɪŋ / „ɒnlʊkə(r)z haʊ‟evə(r) wəd həv dɪˈtektɪd ðə ˈsʌtl
flirtation as they mirrored each other‟s actions and spoke directly into each other‟s eyes.
flɜ:ˈteɪʃn əz ðəɪ ˈmɪrə(r)d i:tʃ ˈʌðə(r)z ˈækʃn ənd spəʊk dəˈrektli ˈɪntə i:tʃ ˈʌðə(r)z aɪz /
Only later, after the alcohol had had its loosening effect, did the conversation deepen.
ˈəʊnli ˈleɪtə(r) ˈɑ:ftə(r) ðə ˈælkəhɒl həd həd ɪts lu:snɪŋ ɪ‟fekt dɪd ðə ˌkɒnvəˈseɪʃn ˈdi:pən
They talked of why they were here and finally, against her judgement, Lisa opened up
ðeɪ tɔ:kt əv waɪ ðeɪ wə(r) hɪə(r) ənd ˈfaɪnəli , əˈgenst hə(r) ˈʤʌʤmənt , ˈli:sə ˈəʊpənd ʌp
about her heartache of the past year and how events had led her back to the place where
əˈbaʊt hə(r) ˈhɑ:teɪk əv ðə pɑ:st jɪə(r) ənd haʊ ɪˈvent həd led hə(r) bæk tu: ðə pleɪs weə(r)
she had married the only man she believed she could ever love. She told him how she had
ʃi həd ˈmærid ðə ˈəʊnli mæn ʃi bɪˈli:vd ʃi kəd ˈevə(r) lʌv / ʃi təʊld hɪm haʊ ʃi həd
felt after she had lost her baby.
felt ˈɑ:ftə(r) ʃi həd lɒst hə(r) ˈbeɪbi/
She was six months pregnant and the happiest she had ever been when the pains
/ʃi wəz sɪks mʌnƟs ˈpegnənt ənd ðə ˈhæpiɪst ʃi həd ˈevə(r) bi:n wen ðə peɪnz
had started. She was staying with her mother as james was working out of town. He hadn‟t
həd stɑ:tɪd/ ʃi wəz steɪɪŋ wɪð hə(r) ˈmʌðə(r) əz ʤeɪmz wəz wɔ:kɪŋ aʊt əv taʊn/ hi: ˈhædnt
made it back in time. The doctor had said it was just one of those things,that they could
meɪd ɪt bæk ɪn taɪm/ ðə ˈdɒktə(r) həd sed ɪt wəz ʤʌst wʌn əv ðəʊz Ɵɪŋz , ðæt ðeɪ kəd
try again. But how could she when she couldn‟t even look James in the eye. She hated him
traɪ əˈgen / bət haʊ kəd ʃi wen ʃi ˈkʊdnt ˈi:vn lʊk ʤeɪmz ɪn ðʊ aɪ / ʃi heɪtɪd hɪm
then, for not being there, for not hurting as much as her but most of all for looking so
ðen , fə(r) nɒt ˈbi:ɪŋ ðeə(r), fə(r) hɜ:tɪŋ əz mʌtʃ əz hə(r) bət məʊst əv ɔ:l f(r) lʊkɪŋ səʊ
much like the tiny baby boy that she held for just three hours before the took him away.
mʌtʃ laɪk ðə ˈtaɪni ˈbeɪbi bɔɪ ðæt ʃi held fə(r) ʤʌst Ɵri: ˈaʊə(r)z bɪˈfɔ(r) ðə tʊk hɪm əˈweɪ/
All through the following months she had withdrawn from her husband, family, friends. Not
ɔ:l Ɵru: ðə ˈfɒləʊɪŋ mʌnƟs ʃi həd wɪðdrɔ:n frəm hə(r) ˈhʌzbənd , ˈfæməli , frendz / nɒt
wanting to recover form the pain she felt – that would have been a betrayal of her son. At
wɒntɪŋ tu: rɪˈkʌvə(r) fɔ:m ðə peɪn ʃi felt – ðæt wəd həv bi:n ə bɪˈtreɪəl əv hə(r) sʌn / ət
the funeral she had refused to stand next to her husband and the next day she had left him.
ðə ˈfju:nərəl ʃi həd rɪˈfju:zd tu: stænd nekst tu: ˈhʌzbənd ənd ðə nekst deɪ ʃi həd left hɪm /
78
C. News
Obama to tackle economy 'head-on'
US President-elect Barack Obama has pledged to confront the economic crisis
"head-on" immediately after taking office in January.
In his first official appearance since his election win, he said a stimulus package to
boost the economy was long overdue and would be his top priority.
He pledged to create jobs and help middle class families.
Looking up, Lisa could see her pain reflected in the man‟s eyes. For the first time in
/lʊkɪŋ ʌp , ˈli:sə kəd si: hə(r) peɪn rɪˈflektɪd ɪn ðə mænz aɪz / fə(r) ðə fɜ:st taɪm ɪn
months she didn‟t feel alone, she felt the unbearable burden begin to lift from her, only a bit
mʌnƟs ʃi ˈdɪdnt fi:l əˈləʊn , ʃi felt ðə ʌnˈbreərəbl ˈbɜ:dn bɪˈgɪn tu: lɪft frəm hə(r), ˈəʊnli ə bɪt
but it was a start. She began to believe that maybe she had a future after all and maybe
bət ɪt wəz ə stɑ:t/ ʃi bɪˈgæn tu: bɪˈli:v ðæt ˈmeɪbi ʃi həd ə ˈfju:tʃə(r) ˈɑ:ftə(r) ɔ:l ənd ˈmeɪbi
it could be with this man, with his kind hazel eyes, wet with their shared tears.
ɪt kəd bi: wɪð ðɪs mæn , wɪð hɪz kaɪnd ˈheɪzl aɪz , wet wɪð ðeə(r) ʃeə(r) teə(r)z/
They had come here to dissolve their marriage but maybe there was hope. Lisa
/ðeɪ həd kʌm hɪə(r) tu: dɪˈzɒlv ðeə(r) ˈmærɪʤ bət ˈmeɪbi ðeə(r) wəz həʊp / ˈli:sə
stood up and took james by the hand and led him away from the bar towards the beech
stʊd ʌp ənd tʊk ʤeɪmz baɪ ðə hænd ənd led hɪm əˈweɪ frəm ðə bɑ:(r) təˈwɔ:dz ðə bi:tʃ
where they had made their vows to each other three years ago. Tomorrow she would cancel
weə(r) ðeɪ həd meɪd ðeə(r) vəʊz tu: i:tʃ ˈʌðə(r) Ɵri: jɪə(r)z əˈgəʊ / təˈmɒrəʊ ʃi wəd ˈkænsl
the divorce; tonight they would work on renewing their promises.
ðə dɪˈvɔ:s ; təˈnaɪt ðeɪ wəd wɔ:k ɒn rɪˈnju:ɪŋ ðeə(r) ˈprɒmɪsɪz/
79
"It's not going to be quick and it's not going to be easy to dig ourselves out of the
hole we are in," he said.
"But America is a strong and resilient country and I know that we will succeed if we
put aside partisanship and politics to work together."
The news conference at a Chicago hotel was his first since he convincingly beat
Republican John McCain in Tuesday's election to become America's first black
president.
The 47-year-old Democrat, who takes office on 20 January, was careful not to step
on the toes of the outgoing administration of President George W Bush, saying
America only had one president at a time.
He promised to initiate a rescue plan to provide tax relief for those struggling to pay
their bills. He said an economic stimulus package needed to be passed before or
immediately after his inauguration.
80
The president-elect also said he would extend unemployment benefits and help local
governments so they did not have to lay off staff.
It was a high priority, he said, to work on policies to help the stricken US car
industry adjust to the economic crisis.
He made no new personnel announcements but noted calls for him to pick a treasury
secretary quickly.
Mr Obama stressed it was important to make the right appointment, saying: "I want
to move with all deliberate haste but I want to emphasise deliberate as well as haste."
He referred to Friday's US labour department figures, which revealed the economy
had shed 240,000 jobs in October, bringing job losses so far this year to 1.2 million.
The US was facing the greatest economic crisis in memory, he said.
Mr Obama was asked about a letter of congratulations on his election victory from
Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
It is the first time Iran has offered such wishes to an American president-elect since
the 1979 Islamic Revolution.
81
Mr Obama said he would review Mr Ahmadinejad's letter and "respond
appropriately".
"Iran's development of a nuclear weapon, I believe is unacceptable," the president-
elect added. "Iran's support of terrorist organisations, I think is something that has to
cease."
But he also said the US approach to Iran could not be done in a "knee-jerk" fashion.
'A mutt like me'
There was laughter when Mr Obama said his election night promise to find his
daughters a dog for the family's move to the White House was "a major issue".
He did not mention any specific breed, but said the family's preference was to adopt
a dog from a shelter, "a mutt - like me", he added. Mr Obama said they had to find a
pet that would not trigger an allergy of his eldest, Malia.
He also added that his wife Michelle was looking at schools in Washington DC for
their two children for when the family moved to the capital from Chicago next year.
82
There was laughter when he asked a journalist asking a question why she had her
arm in a sling, and she explained she had injured herself while running to his election
victory speech.
Earlier, Mr Obama and Mr Biden met economic advisers including Clinton-era
Treasury Secretary Larry Summers and his predecessor, Robert Rubin, as well as
Paul Volcker, who was chairman of the Federal Reserve under presidents Jimmy
Carter and Ronald Reagan.
Google chief executive Eric Schmidt and billionaire investor Warren Buffett joined
the talks.
For treasury secretary, Mr Obama is said to be considering Mr Summers, Mr
Volcker, and Timothy Geithner, president of the New York Federal Reserve Bank.
The president-elect was joined at Friday's news conference by his new chief-of-staff,
Rahm Emanuel, who was once an adviser to President Bill Clinton.
Obama campaign strategist David Axelrod is expected to become senior White
House adviser - a post previously held by Karl Rove under President Bush.
83
Another aide, Robert Gibbs, is expected to become White House press secretary.
Mr Obama is due to discuss the economy with President Bush at the White House on
Monday. He will not, however, attend the G20 economic summit to be held in
Washington next weekend, senior officials have said.
For treasury secretary, Mr Obama is said to be considering Mr Summers, Mr
Volcker, and Timothy Geithner, president of the New York Federal Reserve Bank.
The president-elect was joined at Friday's news conference by his new chief-of-staff,
Rahm Emanuel, who was once an adviser to President Bill Clinton.
Obama campaign strategist David Axelrod is expected to become senior White
House adviser - a post previously held by Karl Rove under President Bush.
Another aide, Robert Gibbs, is expected to become White House press secretary.
Mr Obama is due to discuss the economy with President Bush at the White House on
Monday. He will not, however, attend the G20 economic summit to be held in
Washington next weekend, senior officials have said.
84
Bibliography
Algeo, John. "Vocabulary," in The Cambridge History of the English Language,
Volume IV, ed. by Suzanne Romaine. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999.
Burridge, Kate. Gift of the Gob: Morsels of English Language History.
HarperCollins Australia, 2011
Cambride dictionary
Crystal, David. Introducing Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996
Farkhan, Muhammad. An Introduction to Linguistics. Jakarta, Universitas Islam
Negri.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_language
Jones, Daniel. English Pronouncing Dictionary, 17th ed. Cambridge University
Press, 2006
Kansakar, Tej R. A Course in English Phonetics. Orient Blackswan, 1998
Kelly, Gerald. How to Teach Pronounciation. Longman
Komarudin, Erien. Panduan Kreatif Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Yudistira, 2007.
Ogden, Richard. An Introduction to English Phonetics. Edinburgh University Press,
2009.
Safire, William "The Elision Fields." The New York Times Magazine, August 13,
1989)
Stagebery, Norman C. An Introductory English Grammar. New York: Holt,
Renehart, and Winston, 1977.
STBA Pertiwi
Jl. Beringin Raya 16, Perum
Karawaci
2015
JADWAL PERKULIAHAN STBA PERTIWI KAMPUS TANGERANG
SEMESTER II TERM 1 TA. 2015-2016
KELAS KARYAWAN
TERM 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
12,03 18,03 19,03 02,04 09,04 10,04 16,04 23,04 24,04 30,04 01,05 14,05 15,05 21,05
1 08,00 - 09,30 Pancasila MFJ * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
2 09,30 - 11,00 Grammar 2 RAM * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
3 11,00 - 12,30 Vocabulary 2 DHW * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
4 13,30 - 15,00 Comp. App. PAN * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
5 15,00 - 16,30 Composition 2 MIF * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
6 16,30 - 18,00 Reading 2 AHM * * * * * * * * * * * * * FINAL
kelas tambahan dapat disesuaikan sesuai kesepakatan antara dosen dan mahasiswa
JADWAL PERKULIAHAN STBA PERTIWI KAMPUS TANGERANG
SEMESTER IV TERM 1 TA. 2015-2016
KELAS KARYAWAN `
TERM 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
12,03 18,03 19,03 02,04 09,04 10,04 16,04 23,04 24,04 30,04 01,05 14,05 15,05 21,05
1 08,00 - 09,30 Morphology SEP * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
2 09,30 - 11,00 Grammar 4 DHW * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
3 11,00 - 12,30 Composition 4 RAM * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
4 13,30 - 15,00 CCU MAR * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
5 15,00 - 16,30 Reading 4 AHM * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
6 16,30 - 18,00 TOEIC Prep. MIF * * * * * * * * * * * * * FINAL
kelas tambahan dapat disesuaikan sesuai kesepakatan antara dosen dan mahasiswa
ISTIRAHAT
ISTIRAHAT
No Waktu Mata Kuliah DS ROOM
Pertemuan ke/ Tanggal
No Waktu Mata Kuliah DS ROOM
Pertemuan ke/ Tanggal
JADWAL PERKULIAHAN STBA PERTIWI KAMPUS TANGERANG
SEMESTER VI TERM 1 TA. 2015-2016
KELAS KARYAWAN `
TERM 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
12,03 18,03 19,03 02,04 09,04 10,04 16,04 23,04 24,04 30,04 01,05 14,05 15,05 21,05
1 08,00 - 09,30 Micro Teaching RAM * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
2 09,30 - 11,00 Sociolingusitics SEP * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
3 11,00 - 12,30 Public Speaking PAN * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
4 13,30 - 15,00 Literary Criticism ANJ * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
5 15,00 - 16,30 Literary Criticism ANJ * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
6 16,30 - 18,00 Lang Teach Meth MAR * * * * * * * * * * * * * FINAL
kelas tambahan dapat disesuaikan sesuai kesepakatan antara dosen dan mahasiswa
TANGERANG, 7 MARET 2016
MAR = Muhammad Ariyudha Rio, S.Pd. ANJ = Akhmad Nurjanna, M. Pd.
SEP = Sundaru Eko Putro, S.S. PAN = Priska Aprilianty N.F., S. Pd.
RAM = Rifki Amin, M. Pd. MFJ = Mas Fierna Janvierna, S. Pd.
AHM = Ahmad Muftihadi, S. Ag. DHW = Dedi Herawadi, S.Pd., MM.
MIF = Mohammad Iqbal F., M.Hum
ISTIRAHAT
M. Ariyudha Rio S., S.Pd.
No Waktu Mata Kuliah DS ROOM
Pertemuan ke/ Tanggal
JADWAL PERKULIAHAN STBA PERTIWI KAMPUS TANGERANG
SEMESTER II TERM 2 TA. 2015-2016
KELAS KARYAWAN
TERM 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
11,06 18,06 19,06 25,06 23,07 24,07 30,07 31,07 06,08 07,08 13,08 14,08 20,08 27,08
1 08,00 - 09,30 Hislet* SEP * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
2 09,30 - 11,00 Conversation PAN/RAM * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
3 11,00 - 12,30 Phonology MIF * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
4 13,30 - 15,00 Indonesian Culture DHW * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
5 15,00 - 16,30 Bahasa Indonesia DHW * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
6 16,30 - 18,00 * * * * * * * * * * * * * FINAL
* Hislet = History of English Literature
kelas tambahan dapat disesuaikan sesuai kesepakatan antara dosen dan mahasiswa
JADWAL PERKULIAHAN STBA PERTIWI KAMPUS TANGERANG
SEMESTER IV TERM 2 TA. 2015-2016
KELAS KARYAWAN `
TERM 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
11,06 18,06 19,06 25,06 23,07 24,07 30,07 31,07 06,08 07,08 13,08 14,08 20,08 27,08
1 08,00 - 09,30 Listening 3 RAM09,00 - 10,00
09,00 - 10,00
09,00 - 10,00
09,00 - 10,00 * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
2 09,30 - 11,00 Translation 2 MIF10,00 - 11,00
10,00 - 11,00
10,00 - 11,00
10,00 - 11,00 * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
3 11,00 - 12,30 Drama PAN11,00 - 12,00
11,00 - 12,00
11,00 - 12,00
11,00 - 12,00 * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
4 13,30 - 15,00 Business English 1 ANJ12,30 - 13,30
12,30 - 13,30
12,30 - 13,30
12,30 - 13,30 * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
5 15,00 - 16,30 Conversation 4 MAR13,30 - 14,30
13,30 - 14,30
13,30 - 14,30
13,30 - 14,30 * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
6 16,30 - 18,00 * * * * * * * * * * * * * FINAL
ISTIRAHAT
ISTIRAHAT
No Waktu Mata Kuliah DS ROOM
Pertemuan ke/ Tanggal
No Waktu Mata Kuliah DS ROOM
Pertemuan ke/ Tanggal
JADWAL PERKULIAHAN STBA PERTIWI KAMPUS TANGERANG
SEMESTER VI TERM 2 TA. 2015-2016
KELAS KARYAWAN `
TERM 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
11,06 18,06 19,06 25,06 23,07 24,07 30,07 31,07 06,08 07,08 13,08 14,08 20,08 27,08
1 08,00 - 09,30 Semantics MIF * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
2 09,30 - 11,00 American Cult. Std. SEP * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
3 11,00 - 12,30 Interpreting RAM * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
4 13,30 - 15,00 Reading 6 MAR * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
5 15,00 - 16,30 Hist. of Modrn. Phil. ANJ * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL
6 16,30 - 18,00 * * * * * * * * * * * * * FINAL
kelas tambahan dapat disesuaikan sesuai kesepakatan antara dosen dan mahasiswa
TANGERANG, 1 MEI 2016
MAR = Muhammad Ariyudha Rio, S.Pd. ANJ = Akhmad Nurjanna, M. Pd.
SEP = Sundaru Eko Putro, S.S. PAN = Priska Aprilianty N.F., S. Pd.
RAM = Rifki Amin, M. Pd. MIF = Mohammad Iqbal F., M.Hum
DHW = Dedi Herawadi, S.Pd., MM.
ISTIRAHAT
M. Ariyudha Rio S., S.Pd.
No Waktu Mata Kuliah DS ROOM
Pertemuan ke/ Tanggal
Pronunciation practices

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Pronunciation practices

  • 2. i Practice in Pronunciation Rifki Amin, M. Pd. Sekolah Tinggi Bahasa Asing Pertiwi
  • 3. ii Human needs a language to communicate each others. Estimates of the number of languages in the world vary between 6,000 and 7,000, but any precise estimate depends on a partly arbitrary distinction between languages and dialects. It can be said that more than 7.000 variation of the language in the world are differed by languages and dialects. Moreover, language is systematically process human has. Language is a system of communication consisting of sounds, words and grammar, or the system of communication used by the people of a particular country or profession. It can be inferred that communication may be happened if the people produce a sound, word and grammar, or system which exists in the country to interact each others. Also, language is very unique and creative. Every aspects of human life give a reason to want to be curious about the nature and use of the language because in the different country has a different nature of language. If there is a changing of the language, people must follow what the native speakers say. In Indonesia, the students find the problem how to pronounce English well. It is happened because the variation of the language and dialects are influenced by many areas in Indonesia. Also, the different nature of each language influences how to produce a good pronunciation of a particular language. Pronunciation becomes important when the speaker wants to tell his ideas to the listener. If the speaker makes a mistake in pronouncing the word, the listener may not understand what the speaker means. Pronunciation, is one of the textbooks containing course materials arranged by Mr. Rifki Amin –who teach English at Sekolah Tinggi Bahasa Asing (STBA) Pertiwi Tangerang. The arrangements of these course materials have been done as one of the attempts to fulfill the needs of the textbook containing course materials which go along with the syllabus of the related course. Tangerang, August 2015 The writer PREFACE
  • 4. iii Preface ii Contents iii 1. Phonemes 1 2. Segmental Phonemes 2 3. Vowels 3 A. The Contrastive of the Vowels 3 B. How to Produce the Vowels 5 C. Practice the English Vowels 9 4. Diphthongal Vowel Glides 22 A. The Contrastive of the Diphthong 22 B. Practice the English Diphthong 25 5. Consonants 35 A. The Contrastive of the Consonants 35 B. How to Produce the English Consonants 38 6. Word Contraction 64 A. Introduce Contraction 64 B. Teach Common Contractions 65 C. Dictate Sentences 66 7. Linking 67 A. Consonant to Vowel 67 B. Vowel to Vowel 68 8. Assimilation 69 A. Introductions 69 B. Assimilation Rules 70 1) Total and Partial 70 2) Progressive (or left-to-right) Assimilation 71 3) Regressive, or Anticipatory (or right-to-left) Assimilation 71 4) Double Assimilation 71 9. Elisions 72 A. introductions 72 B. The Nature of Reduced Articulation 72 10. Pronunciation in Practice 73 A. Poems 73 B. Short Stories 75 C. News 78 Bibliography 84 CONTENTS
  • 5. 1 1. Phoneme Crystal explains that phoneme is the minimal unit in the sound of a language.1 Stagebery adds phoneme is a speech sound that signals a difference meaning.2 It can be inferred that the unit of the language sound differs a meaning in human speech. Whereas, Sudjana explains “fonem dapat dikatakan sebagai satuan bunyi terkecil yang mampu menunjukkan kontras makna.” It means that the smallest unit of the language sound which is used to contrast the meaning. For example, /h/ is fonem because it differs the meaning of the words harus and arus; harus is used to show that it is necessary or very important that something happens, but arus means the movement of something in one direction. Each language has a small relatively fixed set of these phonemes. Phonemes and fonem have the same meaning, but different usage. Phonemes are used in English study, but the fonem are used in Bahasa Indonesia study. Phonemes and fonem are used to know how to produce the sound of both the languages. In this study, the writer focuses on comparing segmental phonemes between phonemes in English and fonem in Bahasa Indonesia. It tries to find how those of languages are pronounced referring to the place of articulation and the manner of articulation. The writer has an assumption if the learners learn how to pronounce foreign language; they can be easier to produce the word from other language. However, they can find the difficulties to produce other language if they do not know how to produce it. 1 David Crystal, Introducing Linguistics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 130. 2 Norman C. Stagebery, An Introductory English Grammar (New York: Holt, Renehart, and Winston, 1977), p. 11.
  • 6. 2 2. Segmental Phonemes There are at least three groups of segmental phoneme: consonants, vowels, and diphthongs. This division is viewed from the view point of whether the flow of air through the mouth is stopped or not. The place of articulation and the manner of articulation influence how the particular language is produced. Both phoneme and fonem have the similarities and differences. The similarities are (1) the symbols use slash (/…/) like /p/, /b/, etc; (2) they also have vowels, consonants and diphthongs. The differences of fonem and phonemes are explained in this study. 3. Vowels A. The Contrastive of the Vowels Vowels are syllabic sound made with free passage of air down the mid-line of the vocal tract, usually with a convex tongue shape, and without fiction.3 In this paper, the writer describes vowels in Indonesian and in English. Both of them have the similarities and differences. 3 Richard Ogden, An Introduction to English Phonetics. (Edinburgh University Press, 2009), p.4.
  • 7. 3 No Indonesian Vowels English Vowels Fonem Word Phonemes Word 1 /ʌ/ (a) anak /anak/ kantor /kantor/ kota /kota/ /ʌ/ company /ˈkʌmpəni/ among /əˈmʌŋ/ month /mʌntθ/ 2 /ɑ:/ /ɑ:/ far /fɑːr/ part /pɑːrt/ half /hɑːf/ 3 /ɔ:/ /ɔ:/ pour /pɔːr/ bought /bɔːt/ talk /tɔːk/ 4 /i:/ /i:/ seek /siːk/ weak /wiːk/ seat /siːt/
  • 8. 4 5 /ɪ/ (i) ikan /ikan/ pintu /pintu/ api /api/ /ɪ/ king /kɪŋ/ symbol /ˈsɪmb ə l/ become /bɪˈkʌm/ 6 /e/ ekor /ekor/ nenek /nenek/ sore /sore/ /e/ pen /pen/ red /red/ fed /fed/ 7 /ə/ emas /əmas/ ruwet /ruwət/ tante /tantə/ /ə/ collar /ˈkɑː.lɚ/ over /ˈoʊvɚ/ centre /ˈsentər / 8 /ʊ/ (u) ukir /ukir/ tunda /tunda/ pintu /pintu/ /ʊ/ put /pʊt/ full /fʊl/ wool /wʊl/ 9 /u:/ /u:/ pool /puːl/ cool /kuːl/
  • 9. 5 zoo /zuː/ 10 /ɜ:/ /ɜ:/ bird /bɜːd/ turn /tɜːn/ world /wɜːld/ 11 /ɒ/ (o) Obat /obat/ kontan /kontan/ toko /took/ /ɒ/ not /nɒt/ dog /dɒg/ sorry /ˈsɒri/ 12 /æ/ /æ/ glad /glæd/ bag /bæg/ pad /pæd/ B. How to produce the vowels The twelve vowels as illustrated above are presented in the tables to describe their detailed qualities. The diagram shows the part of mouth and throat used in producing vowels. The dot on each diagram shows the height of the tongue and part of the tongue which is raised.
  • 10. 6 /i:/ The FRONT of the tongue is raised to a height slightly below and behind the front close position. 1. Height of tongue: nearly close 2. Part of the tongue which is heighest: the centre of the front 3. Position of lips: spread of neutral 4. Duration: long /ɪ/ Pronounced with the part of the tongue nearer to CENTRE than to FRONT raised just above the close-mid position. 1. Height of the tongue: nearly half-close 2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the hinder part of the front 3. Position of lips: spread of neutral 4. Duration: short /e/ The FRONT of the tongue raised btw the close-mid & open- mid positions. 1. Height of the tongue: intermediate between half-close and half-open 2. Part of the tongue which is heighest: the front 3. Position of lips: spread or neutral 4. Duration: short /æ/ The FRONT of the tongue is raised to a position midway just above open. 1. Height of the tongue: between half-open and open 2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the front 3. Position of lips: spread or neutral 4. Duration: short
  • 11. 7 /ʌ/ The CENTRE of the tongue is raised just above the fully open position. 1. Height of the tongue: half open 2. Part of the tongue which is heighest: the fore part of the back 3. Position of lips: spread 4. Duration: short /ɑ:/ The part of the tongue btw the CENTRE and the BACK is in the fully open position 1. Heighest of the tongue: fully open 2. Part of the tongue which is highest: a point somewhat in advance of the centre of the back 3. Position of lips; neutral 4. Duration: long /ɒ/ The BACK of the tongue is in the fully open position 1. Height of the tongue: nearly open 2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the back 3. Position of lips: open lip rounding 4. Duration: short /ɔ:/ The BACK of the tongue is raised btw the open-mid and close- mid positions. 1. Height of the tongue: between half-open and open 2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the back 3. Position of lips: between open and close lip rounding 4. Duration: long -no contact side rims- upper molars
  • 12. 8 /u:/ A CLOSE BACK VOWEL, but the tongue-raising is relaxed from the closest position and is somewhat centralized from the back. 1. Height of tongue: nearly close 2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the back 3. Positionof lips: fairly close lip rounding 4. Duration: short /ʊ/ A CLOSE BACK VOWEL, but the tongue-raising is relaxed from the closest position and is somewhat centralized from the back 1. Height of the tongue: just above half-close 2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the fore part of the back 3. Position of lips: fairly close lip rounding 4. Duration: short /ə/ 1. Height of the tongue: nearly half pen 2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the central part 3. Position of lips: spread or neutral 4. Duration: short /ɜ:/ 1. Height of the tongue: a half way between open and close 2. Part of the tongue which is highest: the central part, culminating at the junction between front and back 3. Position of lips: spread 4. Duration: short 5.
  • 13. 9 In fonem (Bahasa Indonesia), there are 6 vowels like /ʌ/ (/a/ in fonem), /ɪ/ (i in fonem), /e/, /ə/, /ʊ/ (u in fonem), and /ɒ/ (o in fonem). However, the phonemes (English) vowels /ɑ:/, /ɔ:/, /i:/, /u:/, /æ/ and /ɜ:/ are not available in fonem (Bahasa Indonesia). The totals of phonemes (English) vowels are 12 vowels. They are /iː/, /ɪ/, /e/, /æ/, /ɑː/, /ɒ/, /ɔː/, /ɜː/, /ə/, /ʊ/, /uː/, and /ʌ/. From the data, the vowels /ɑ:/, /ɔ:/, /i:/, /u:/, /æ/ and /ɜ:/ are available in phonemes (English). They can be found in phonemes (English) initial, middle, and final phoneme, but in fonem (Bahasa Indonesia) they cannot be found. The differences are fonem have 6 vowels /a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/, and /ə/, but phonemes have 12 vowels /iː/, /ɪ/, /e/, /æ/, /ɑː/, /ɒ/, /ɔː/, /ɜː/, /ə/, /ʊ/, /uː/, and /ʌ/. C. Practice the English Vowels 1) /iː/ and /ɪ/ a. Words /iː/ /ɪ/ eager these we it imagine holy … … … … … … eel cheese be is Indian slowly … … … … … … even seed me if English busy … … … … … … evening feed she in hill crazy … … … … … … equal feel key ink trick lazy … … … … … … /iː/ /ɪ/ /ɪ/ /iː/ /iː/ /ɪ/ eel ill still steal bead beat … … … … … … keen kin fill feel seize cease … … … … … …
  • 14. 10 seal sill pill peel leave leaf … … … … … … heel hill this these liege leach … … … … … … leave live bid bead Eden eaten … … … … … … b. Sentences 1) Where is Bill working now? He‟s working in the steel mill. 2) D‟ you think she can fell it? Well, she seems to feel she can fill it. 3) D‟ you feel a little ill? Yes, it must be the heat. May I sit down on that seat for a while? 4) Isn‟t that field pretty? Very, it‟s simply filled with flowers.
  • 15. 11 5) Don‟t those shoes fit your feet? Yes, but the heels are still a bit too high 6) Will you please read it aloud? Shall I include the beginning piece? 7) Is the fish sweet? Yes, will you eat some? 8) Is his teacher‟s lecture interesting? Yes, I believe he is pleased. 9) Did she have the prescription filled? No, she didn‟t need it. 10) Did he feel ill? Yes, I image that rich meal was too much for him.
  • 16. 12 2) /e/ and /æ/ a. Words /e/ /æ/ end get men and ran stamp … … … … … … any hen send apple land matter … … … … … … egg said beg add catch bag … … … … … … many guess set action daddy wagon … … … … … went dead pen as candy bad … … … … … … /æ/ /e/ /e/ /æ/ bad bed head had … … … … sad said set sat … … … … pat pet beg bag … … … … sand send lend land … … … … man men pen pan … … … … b. Sentences 1) Where can I get a better definition of stress?
  • 17. 13 You can get it in Webster‟s Dictionary. 2) What is the best method of getting set in business? I guess you‟d better ask an economist. 3) What else isn‟t here to tell? There isn‟t any more. I‟ve given you very detail. 4) Which one is Etta Betty? She‟s the one wearing the red dress. 5) Can anyone lend Ted a pen? Yes, there are several extra pens in my desk. 6) Did you catch cold yesterday? Yes, I forgot to wear a hat. 7) Have you any apples?
  • 18. 14 Yes, shall I pack a peck of apples for you? 8) Will Harry be back soon? He plans to be back by Saturday. 9) Will you hand me a match? Sorry, I haven‟t got any matches. 10) Where is your dad? Dad is sitting in back of that fat man. 3) /ʌ/, /ɒ/ and /ɑː/ a. Words /ʌ/ /ɑː/ up drum guns are car large … … … … … … under gull hung Archie far hard … … … … … … oven hum jump arm bar farm … … … … … … onion drugs fund Arthur jar calm … … … … … … umbrella punch just aunt star Charles … … … … … …
  • 19. 15 /ɑː/ /ʌ/ / ɒ/ /ʌ/ cart cut cot cut … … … … barn bun fond fund … … … … march much wander wonder … … … … harm hum lock luck … … … … psalm some doll dull … … … … b. Sentences 1) Where does your aunt live, Arthur? She lives in the farm in Arkansas. 2) Is it far from Arkansas to Ann Arbor? Yes, it‟s quite far if you travel by car. 3) Who asked your father to bring the parcel? Arthur did. His car was out of order so that he found it hard to bring. 4) Where did you park your car?
  • 20. 16 I parked it under the palm tree near the barn. 5) Did the sergeant ask the soldiers to march last week? Yes, he did. He asked them to march for half an hour. 4) /ɒ/ and /ɔː/ a. Words /ɒ/ /ɔː/ On song wrong awe saw draw … … … … … … Off rob shop awful store sword … … … … … … onto dock cost always George jaw … … … … … … offer doctor lock awkward stall norm … … … … … … octopus shocked rock autumn storm prawn … … … … … … /ʌ/ mull stuck cud putt done bucks shun Huck … … … … … ... … … /ɑː/ marl stark card part darn barks Shan hark … … … … … ... … … /ɒ/ moll stock cod pot don box shone hock … … … … … ... … … /ɔː/ maul stalk cord port dawn baulks shorn hawk … … … … … ... … …
  • 21. 17 b. Sentences 1) What is that at the bottom of the pond? I don‟t know. Is it a rock or a sock? 2) Have you got a copy of that novel? Sorry, I haven‟t got it, but Don might have got it. 3) Isn‟t there a doctor near this cottage? There is one, but he is gone for a holiday this moment. 4) Why did you go to the shop on such a wet day? Because I needed some cotton, a pair of socks, and a hot water bottle. 5) Who won the song contest last August? Was it Tom? Nonsense. Tom was having a holiday abroad. 5) /ʊ/ and /uː/ a. Words /ʊ/ /uː/ good look butcher soon soup grew
  • 22. 18 … … … … … … wood stood woolen tooth group crew … … … … … … would sugar push movie move chew … … … … … … took woman cushion food true toom … … … … … … cook bullet bush school blue through … … … … … … /ʊ/ /uː/ /ʊ/ /ɔː/ Pull pool wood ward … … … … Full fool foot fought … … … … could Coode pull pall … … … … foot food cook cork … … … … hood who‟d soot sort … … … … b. Sentences 1) Who took the cook book? I think June took it. 2) Could we look at the bulletin before we decide?
  • 23. 19 We could. If we were put up in line. 3) Would you mind getting the Pullmans tickets? Not at all. I could easily get them at noon. 4) Who is that good-looking women? That is Mrs. Goodman, the butcher‟s wife. 5) Did you put the sugar in the pudding? Not yet, the pudding must cook a little longer. 6) Could it do with more sugar? Yes, I think it could. 7) Would you please help me? I can‟t pull the cork out. Can‟t you? Let me help you pull it out then.
  • 24. 20 6) /ɜː/ and /ə/ a. Words /ɜː/ /ə/ earn bird first ago permit fatigue … … … … … … Fern curt girl apply photography flower … … … … … … Turn learn burn admit present percent … … … … … … earth mirth search appear pigeon cement … … … … … … early church pearl adore Japan agent … … … … … … b. Sentences 1) Percy was the first to learn that the early bird catches the worm. 2) About a week ago Herbert went to Perth with his girl friend. 3) How did he earn a living? He earned a living by selling birds and flowers. 4) Isn‟t the floor dirty? Yes, I admit that the floor is dirty.
  • 25. 21 5) When did you make a journey around the world? Not yet, the pudding must cook a little longer. 6) About a week ago Helen went to the Public Garden for a picnic. 7) Why didn‟t you join the cricket game last Thursday. I felt very tired after I played table tennis just several day before. 8) Look at the garden. Isn‟t it pretty? Yes, and there are many flower and pigeons there. 9) Why didn‟t you appear in the meeting five days ago? Well, I didn‟t feel well then so my mother didn‟t permit me to go. 10) Why did she want to buy some potatoes and pepper? She wanted to make mashed potatoes.
  • 26. 22 4. Diphthongal Vowel Glides A. The Contrastive of the Diphthongs Diphthongs are monosyllabic vowels which have two discernibly different pints, one at the start and one at the end.4 The concept of diphthong related with two vocal pieces that is the sound in one syllable. In this paper, the writer describes diphthongs in Bahasa Indonesia and in English. No Indonesian Diphthongs English Diphthongs Characteristics Fonem Word Phonemes Word 1 /eɪ/ (ei) keindahan keimanan seimbang /eɪ/ may /meɪ/ made /meɪd/ day /deɪ/ front half close with spread lips 2 / əʊ / (eu) neutron leukemia seuntai /əʊ/ postponement /pəʊstpəʊn.mənt/ poni /ˈpəʊ.ni/ cony /ˈkəʊ.ni/ front half close with rouned lips 3 / oʊ / hole /hoʊl/ go /goʊ/ post /poʊst/ back-half close to close with rounded lips 4 /ai/ (ai) terbaik berair melainkan / aɪ / lie /laɪ/ fly central open with lips neutral to close front 4 ibid. p.64
  • 27. 23 /flaɪ/ buy /baɪ/ with spread lips 5 / aʊ / (au) jauh laut bau / aʊ / cow /kaʊ/ owl /aʊl/ town /taʊn/ central open with lips neutral to close back with rounded lips 6 /ɔɪ/ (oi) boikot koin / ɔɪ / boy /bɔɪ/ toy /tɔɪ/ coin /kɔɪn/ back open with rounded lips to front close with spread lips 7 /ɪə/ /ɪə/ pier /pɪə r / beer /bɪə r / dear /dɪə r / front close with spread lips to central half close with lips neutral 8 /eə/ /eə/ air /eə r / care /keə r / tear /teə r / front half open with spread lips to central half close with lips neutral 9 /ʊə/ /ʊə/ tower /taʊə r / hour /aʊə r/ back close with rounded lips to central half close with lips neutral
  • 28. 24 vowel /vaʊəl/ 10 /aɪə/ /aɪə/ central open with lips neutral via front close with spread lips to central half close with lips neutral 11 / aʊə / / aʊə / central open with lips neutral via back close with rounded lips to central half close with lips neutral 12 /ɔɪə/ /ɔɪə/ back open with rounded lips via front close with spread lips to central half close with lips neutral 13 ɪa (ia) Indonesia ɪa (ia) front close with spread lips to central open with lips neutral 14 ʊa (ua) Kemampuan ʊa (ua) back close with rounded lips to central open with lips neutral
  • 29. 25 15 eo Seorang eo front half open with spread lips to back open with rounded lips Based on the table, it can be concluded fonem have 8 diphthongs /eɪ/, /əʊ/, /aɪ/, /aʊ/, /ɔɪ/, /ɪa/, /eo/, and /ʊa /, but phonemes have 12 diphthongs /eɪ/, /əʊ/, /oʊ/, /aɪ/, /aʊ/, /ɔɪ/, /ɪə/, /eə/, /ʊə/ /aɪə/, /aʊə/, and /ɔɪə/. The diphthongs /oʊ/, /ɪə/, /eə/, /ʊə/ /aɪə/, /aʊə/, and /ɔɪə/ are not available in fonem, but they are available in phonemes diphthong. Nevertheless, the diphthongs /ɪa/, /ʊa/, and /eo/ are not available in phonemes (English). B. Practice the English Diphthongs 1) /eɪ/ a. Words /eɪ/ ache make grey … … … ace tame tray … … … aim claim say … … … April name day … … … acre table bay … … … /ɪ/ /eɪ/ /ɪ/ /i:/ /eɪ/ Mick make pill peel pale … … … … …
  • 30. 26 tick Take still steal stale Tim Tame ship sheep shape … … … … … ill Ail fill fell fail … … … … … sill Sale sin seen sane … … … … … b. Sentences 1) Can you stay and play another game? Sorry, I‟m late already. 2) Is it still raining, Jane? Yes, but it may clear soon. 3) How much did you pay for this apron? I only paid a dollar and ninety eight for it in a sale. 4) Have you gained weight lately? Yes, almost eight pounds.
  • 31. 27 5) Do you still go to the same vacation place? Oh yes. We think it is a great place. 2) /aɪ/ and /eɪ/ a. Words /aɪ/ /aɪ/ /eɪ/ I like My like lake … … … … … aisle high Try high hey … … … … … iron thigh Guy try tray … … … … … ice nice Try my may … … … … … island bite Cry die day … … … … … b. Sentences 1) Why did the child cry in the night? The child cried in the night when it tried to lie on its side. 2) Which bike do you want to buy? I want to buy the one beside the iron bar.
  • 32. 28 3) Is your ice cream nice? Sure, try a bite of mine if you like. 4) Is it time for us to say „Good-bye‟? No, it‟s only nine now, we still have plenty of time to enjoy ourselves. 5) What is the little of the story you are going to write? The little is „All mines to give‟ 3) /ɔɪ/ a. Words /ɔɪ/ oil boil toy … … … ointment join joy … … … oyster choice enjoy … … … oily point employ … … … coin soil boy … … …
  • 33. 29 b. Sentences 1) What annoys an oyster? A noise annoys an oyster. 2) Did you enjoy playing with all those toys, Joyce? Yes, I enjoyed playing with them very much. 3) Can you point to me the direction to the post office? Oh, with joy! 4) What it that noise? That‟s the employees‟ voice at that factory. 5) Will you join Joyce‟ study club? Yes, I‟ll join it. There‟s no other choice. 4) /əʊ/and /ʌ/ a. Words /əʊ/ /ʌ/ /əʊ/ ocean don‟t Go hum home … … … … …
  • 34. 30 over wrote So nut note … … … … … open those show fun phone … … … … … only cold snow bun bone … … … … … omen both Low come comb … … … … … b. Sentences 1) Who wrote those poems? I don‟t know. 2) Isn‟t it cold? Yes, I‟m so frozen. I wish I were home. 3) Did you open the window? Yes, but the door is closed, so there is no draught. 4) Did you vote in November? No, I wasn‟t old enough.
  • 35. 31 5) Why must you go to the store with that cold? I need potatoes, tomatoes, and cauliflowers. 5) /aʊ/ a. Words /aʊ/ owl down how … … … ounce brown now … … … our sound eyebrow … … … out towel vow … … … hour sprout cow … … … b. Sentences 1) What did you buy in the shop yesterday? I brought a towel, powder and a cone of ice cream. 2) How many pounds of sugar did you buy last week? I bought two pounds and I also bought two ounces of tea.
  • 36. 32 3) Why could not I go out now? Without a doubt you‟ll get soused by a shower if you go out now. 4) Why do you want to go down town? I need some brown sugar and some bean sprouts. 5) How did she feel after the exams? She felt very down-hearted. 6) /ɪə/and /eə/ a. Words /ɪə/ /ɪə/ /eə/ ear here superior ear air … … … … … era fear near fear fare … … … … … earning weary theatre dear dare … … … … … earphone career queer mere mare … … … … … beer dear cafeteria rear rare … … … … …
  • 37. 33 b. Sentences 1) Why do you burst into tears dear? I feel so weary and dreary. 2) Why do you say that English is a queer language? Because we have dear, fear, and ear but we also have pear, tear, swear, and bear. 3) It appears that he got the queer idea that the beer was inferior. 4) Did you hear the queer sound of last night? Yes, and I feared it was the sound of a bear. 5) Why don‟t you wear your earrings? I don‟t like those earnings. 7) /ʊə/ a. Words /ʊə/ tour moor poor … … …
  • 38. 34 doer cruel fuel … … … pure sure cure … … … gourd jury brewer … … … fluency truer surely … … … b. Sentences 1) What had happened to that poor girl? Those cruel men took all her valuable jewelry. 2) Why did the plane stop here and not continue its tour? It ran out of fuel you know. 3) Did you tell me that he was poor? 4) Yes, aren‟t you sure about it? 5) During August there were fewer viewers. 6) The new foremen influenced the jury enormously.
  • 39. 35 5. Consonants A. The Contrastive of the Consonants Consonants are formed by interrupting, restricting, or diverting the air flow in a variety of ways.5 There are two ways of describing the consonants sounds. They are the manner of articulation and the place of articulation6 . All of them have a different ways in describing the consonants. In manner articulation refers to interaction between various articulators and the airstream. For example, with plosive sounds, fricative sounds, nasal sounds, etc. In describing the consonant sounds in term of the place articulation gives more information about what the various articulators actually do. In this paper, the writer describes the differences between Indonesian consonants and English consonants. 1. Place of Articulation a. Bilabials. These are sounds formed using both lips. They are characterized by the total closure which is made using both lips and soft palate is raised. b. Labiodentals. These are sounds formed with the upper teeth and the lower lip. They are characterized by the flight contact made by the lower lip with the upper teeth; and the soft palate is raised. c. Dentals/Interdentals. These are sounds formed with the tongue tip behind the upper front teeth. They are characterized by the light contact made by the tongue tip with the back of the top front the teeth: and the soft palate is raised. d. Alveolars. These are sounds formed with the front part of the tongue on the alveolar ridge. They are characterized by the light contact made by the front part of the tongue with the alveolar ridge: and the soft palate is raised. e. Palatals. These are sounds formed with the tongue at the very front of the palate, near alveolar rridge. They are characterized by the light 5 Gerald Kelly. How to Teach Pronounciation. (Longman), p.47 6 Muhammad Farkhan, An Introduction to Linguistics (Jakarta, Universitas Islam Negri), p. 25-28
  • 40. 36 contact made by the tongue blade with alveolar ridge; and the soft palate is raised. f. Velars. These are sounds formed with the back of the tongue against the soft palate. They are characterized by the closure made by the back of the tongue against the soft palate; and the soft palate is lowered. g. Glottal. This sound is formed in the area of glottis without the active use of tongue and other parts of the mounth. It is characterized by the audible friction made by the air that passes from the lungs through the open glottis. 2. Manner of Articulation a. Stops. These sounds are produced by a complete blocking or stopping of the air stream and then letting it go abruptly. When the air is suddenly released a plosive is made. The block can be made by the two lips, producing the bilabial plosive /p/ and /b/; it can be made by the tongue pressing against the alveolar ridge. b. Fricative. These sounds are the result of incomplete blocking or stopping of the air stream and having the air to escape through a narrowed channel with audible friction. c. Affricatives. These sounds are produced through a combination of sounds. Initially there is complete closure as for a stop. This is then followed by a slow release with friction, as for a fricative. d. Nasals. These sounds involve the complete closure of the mouth with lowering the velum to let the air flow out through the nose. In English, the vocal cords vibrate in the production of nasals and so English nasals are voiced. e. Liquids. There are two sounds included in liquids. The sound /l/ is formed by letting the air stream flow around the sides of the tongue as it makes contact with the alveolar ridge. The sound /r/ is produced by raising the tongue tip and curling it back behind the alveolar ridge. f. Glides/Semi-vowels. The sounds are produced with the tongue moving or gliding to or from a position associated with neighboring vowel sounds.
  • 41. 37 To this extent, they are vowel-like which normally occur at the beginning of a word or syllable and thus behave functionally like consonants. Phonemes Fonem POA Bilabials Labiodentals Dentals Alveolar Palatals Velars Glottal POA Bilabials Labiodentals Dentals Alveolar Palatals Velars Glottal MOA MOA Stop p t k Stop p t c k b d g b d J g Nasal m n ŋ Nasal m n n' ŋ Fricative f θ s ʃ Fricative f s s‟ kh h v ð z ʒ z Affricative t ʃ Affricative dʒ Glide w j h Glide w y Liquid l Liquid l r r Based on the table, it can be found there are 22 consonants7 /b/, /p/, /d/, /t/, /g/, /k/, /f/, /z/, /s/, /s‟/, /kh/, /h/, /j/, /c/, /m/, /n/, /n‟/, /ŋ/, /r/, /l/, /w/, and /y/ in fonem, but phonemes have 24 consonants /b/, /p/, /d/, /t/, /g/, /k/, /f/, /v/, /z/, /s/, /θ /, /ð/, /h/, /j/, /ʃ/, /m/, /n/, /tʃ/, /ŋ/, /ʒ/, /dʒ/,/r/, /l/, and /w/. From the data of the consonants, fonem have /c/ and /j/ produced in palatals place and stop manners, but phonemes have /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ produced in palatals place and affricative manners. There is /n‟/ (ny) in fonem, but it which is produced in palatals place and nasal manners does not exist in phonemes. 7 Erien Komarudin,Panduan Kreatif Bahasa Indonesia (Jakarta: Yudistira, 2007), p. 2-5
  • 42. 38 The differences of fricative manners are also found there. For example, in place of labiodentals, it can be found phonemes have /f/ and /v/, but in fonem just has /f/; in place of dentals, there is no available in fonem, but there are θ and ð in phonemes; then, in place of palatals, phonemes have /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, but in fonem has /s‟/ (sy) in Bahasa Indonesia; also, in the place of velars, there is no available in phonemes, but fonem has /kh/. The differences of glides manners are also found there. For example, in the place of palatals, the difference between fonem and phonemes is just in the symbol like fonem has a symbol /y/, but phoneme has a symbol /j/. Nevertheless, in place of glottal, there is /h/ in phonemes, but there is no consonant in fonem. B. How to produce the English consonanats 1. Bilabial Plosives /p/ and /b/ a. Words /p/ /b/
  • 43. 39 pen sharpen cup bed rubber lab ... ... ... ... ... ... pound expect rope boy cuppboard robe ... ... ... ... ... ... poor repeat lip baby harbour rub ... ... ... ... ... ... post separate soap bad labour pub ... ... ... ... ... ... pull copy deep bear table web ... ... ... ... ... ... /b/ /p/ /b/ /p/ cub pup pig big ... ... ... ... cab cap pear bear ... ... ... ... tab lap pull bull ... ... ... ... robe rope post boast ... ... ... ... rib rip pround bound ... ... ... ... b. Sentences 1) Miss brown is a timid person, but she is exceptionally patient with her pupils. 2) Pasty poured the puding into pot and put some sugar in it.
  • 44. 40 3) I hope the postman will give me a parcel. 4) Don't put the cups in the soapy water. 5) Before the baby is put to bed, the mother sings him lullaby. 2. Alveolar Plosives /t/ and /d/ a. Words /t/ /d/ Take waiter debt day sudden Lad ... ... ... ... ... ... toy matter set doll under bad ... ... ... ... ... ... tail sister get desk wider wide ... ... ... ... ... ... town hunter right dog needle food ... ... ... ... ... ... Test western float dull idea rude ... ... ... ... ... ... /t/ /d/ /d/ /t/ time dime send sent ... ... ... ... tale dale lend lent ... ... ... ... town down spend spent ... ... ... ... The die wed wet
  • 45. 41 ... ... ... ... tame dame wide white ... ... ... ... b. Sentences 1) What time did you feed the dogs this morning? I don't remember, but I think I fed it at ten past ten. 2) Did tom tell you and Ted about my sister? No, he only told us a wonderful tale about a while cat that ate a dozen pounds of mutton. 3) How desks does your daddy need? He said he needed a dozen desks. 4) How many times has Diana taken a trip to Sydney? She did not tell me how many times, but she said that she had been to Sydney several times. 5) Why did you cut the tail of your cat? I didn't cut it, it was Tom who cut it.
  • 46. 42 3. Velar Plosives /k/ and /g/ a. Words /g/ /k/ go again beg cook baker book ... ... ... ... ... ... goat ago bag cake acre make ... ... ... ... ... ... girl beggar dog quick orchestra take ... ... ... ... ... ... goose agree pig come bookish lake ... ... ... ... ... ... Gate begin leg key rocky pick ... ... ... ... ... ... /k/ /g/ /g/ /k/ came game pig pick ... ... ... ... coat goat bag back ... ... ... ... curl girl dog dock ... ... ... ... Kate gate dug duck ... ... ... ... Come gum log lock ... ... ... ... b. Sentences 1) The girls are cooking in the kitchen.
  • 47. 43 2) Kate agrees to go to the lake. 3) The goat chased the geese and the ducks. 4) If you want to go for a picnic, don't forget to bring along some cakes. 5) The ship anchored near the rocky mountain. 4. Palato – Alveolar Affricatives /tʃ / and /dʒ/ a. Words /tʃ / /dʒ/ chair actual sketch jail soldier wage ... ... ... ... ... ... chief capture church judge subject page ... ... ... ... ... ... chess nature couch joke reject damage ... ... ... ... ... ... choice feature lunch joy urgent stage ... ... ... ... ... ... cheap picture march jewel major image ... ... ... ... ... ... /tʃ / /dʒ/ /tʃ / /dʒ/ cheap jeep richer ridger ... ... ... ... choose jews larch large ... ... ... ...
  • 48. 44 chin gin beseech besiege ... ... ... ... chest jest leech liege ... ... ... ... choke joke perch purge ... ... ... ... b. Sentences 1) How often do you go to church? We go to church every Sunday. 2) Who is in charge of the shipping department? Mr. Cheston is in charge of the shipping department. 3) How how many chapters have you read in your history book? We have already finished eleven chapter. 4) What is the price of these handkerchiefs? These hankerchiefs sell at two dollars each. 5) Does your watch keep good time? No, my watch is not at all accurate, it needs repair. 6) What is that strange noise i hear?
  • 49. 45 The wind in the trees at this time of night always makes a very strange noise. 7) Are you fond of orange – juice? Yes, I drink oarang – juice every morning for breakfast. 8) Who arranged the flowers in this vase? Aren't they lovely? Julia arranged them. 9) Have you read 'The Red Badge of Courage? Yes, I read it in one of my collage English classes. 10) Did you enjoy the concert last night? Yes, I enjoyed it immensely. 5. Labio – Dental Fricatives /f/ and /v/ a. Words /f/ /v/ fine after belief vine evil love ... ... ... ... ... ... fever fifteen leaf very advise leave ... ... ... ... ... ... Flute coffee deaf vivid favour live ... ... ... ... ... ... fond before loaf value never above
  • 50. 46 ... ... ... ... ... ... fussy effort cough vital flavour brave ... ... ... ... ... ... /f/ /v/ /v/ /f/ fine vine believe belief ... ... ... ... few view leave leaf ... ... ... ... feel veal prove proof ... ... ... ... ferry very service surface ... ... ... ... fiigure vigour larva laugher ... ... ... ... b. Sentences 1) Why do you never go to the movies? I really don't like the movies. 2) For whom do you intend to vote in the election? I shall probably vote Mr. Vale. 3) Do you plan to take a long vacation this summer? No, we shall spend only a few weeks in Vermont. 4) Why did you leave school early yesterday?
  • 51. 47 Some friends were visiting us and we went to Radio city. 5) Why does John devote so much time to his English. He wishes to enter the advertising business and to be able to write advertising copy. 6. Dental Fricatives /θ/ and /ð/ a. Words /θ/ /ð/ thin method both the mother with ... ... ... ... ... ... thick author death there brother breath ... ... ... ... ... ... thing weathy earth this neither smooth ... ... ... ... ... ... thank healthy growth these whether breath ... ... ... ... ... ... thumb birthday bath though brother teeth ... ... ... ... ... ... /θ/ /t/ /ð/ /d/ Thin tin they day ... ... ... ... thick tick there dare ... ... ... ... thank tank though dough ... ... ... ... thought taught then den
  • 52. 48 ... ... ... ... death debt southern sudden ... ... ... ... /θ/ /s/ /ð/ /s/ thank sank forth force ... ... ... ... thin sin myth miss ... ... ... ... thick sick path pass ... ... ... ... thumb some math mass ... ... ... ... thing sing mouth mouse ... ... ... ... 1) Through thick and thin 2) Healthy wealthy and wise 3) The forth of the month 4) A truthful thought 5) The thunder of the earthquake. 6) The smooth leather
  • 53. 49 7) Without the southern army 8) Their father and mother 9) Either this one or the other 10) Bathing in the southing water b. Sentences 1) Where did Thelma put the thermos bottle? She threw it into the basket. 2) Did Ruth put the cloth on the table? Yes, she did. She is a thoughtful girl. 3) Did Ethel find her thimble? Yes, it was on her thumb. 4) Who is the author of this theme? The author is Nathaniel Hawthorn. 5) Are you thirsty?
  • 54. 50 Yes, is there more lemonade in this thermos. 6) Where is that leather bag? There, it is on the table.. 7) Is this the way to the town? Yes, go over that way. 8) Which tie shall I wear, this one or that one? I think this one is better than that one. 9) Have you seen those brothers of mind? No, but there is your mother. Ask her about them. 10) Would you rather have this one or that one? Neither, thanks. I've had enough of both of them. 11) A thing, a tin, a tin thing, a thin tin thing. 12) They think this disciple did a sinful thing. 13) They thanked the singer for the things he sang 14) The youth thought that the theft was the third, though the Smiths thought it was the thirteenth..
  • 55. 51 7. Alveolar Fricatives /s/ and /z/ a. Words /s/ /z/ seat listen pass zebra razor as ... ... ... ... ... ... seldom lesson ass zero museum buzz ... ... ... ... ... ... sing mister bus zoo lazy nose ... ... ... ... ... ... sell assist lace zone dizzy walls ... ... ... ... ... ... smoke ask notes zinc result rise ... ... ... ... ... ... /s/ /z/ /z/ /s/ loose lose eyes ice ... ... ... ... bus buzz prize price ... ... ... ... lice liez plays place ... ... ... ... rice rise zinc sink ... ... ... ... seal zeal zoo sue ... ... ... ... b. Sentences 1) The music caused pleasant memories to arise.
  • 56. 52 2) The zoology class was required to spend the afternoon watching the animals in the zoo. 3) It is always easy to criticize the work of others. 4) She teased her little cousin unreasonably. 5) The cause of the disaster was not easy to discover. 6) The quiz programme was easily the most interesting of all. 7) Do you sometimes visit the zoo? Yes, we sometimes go to the zoo on Saturday afternoons. 8) Why didn't you call a physician after your accident? I wasn't seriously enough hurt to call a physician. 9) Which do you prefer classical music or jazz? Generally I prefer classical music more than jazz, but occationally I like to listen to jazz. 10) Did you find this study of Latin easy or difficult? Fortunately, I found Latin to be quite easy.
  • 57. 53 8. Palato – Alveolar Fricatives /ʃ / and /ʒ/ a. Words /ʃ / /ʒ/ shop fashion wish pleasure treasure seizure ... ... ... ... ... ... share ocean push leisure vision precision ... ... ... ... ... ... she election bush decision usual parisian ... ... ... ... ... ... shall delicious rush collision visual persuasion ... ... ... ... ... ... shoulder mention irish measure occasion provision ... ... ... ... ... ... b. Sentences 1) The report clearly showed the position of the ships before the battle. 2) Fushing roughly past us, the man dashed into the shop. 3) Several fish were to be seen splashing in the shallow water of the stream. 4) The explosion was one of the usual force and completely wrecked the garage. 5) The seazure of private properly gratly aided the regime. 6) He is casual acquaintance whom I meet occationally on the street.
  • 58. 54 7) The cause of the collision was finally traced to the poor vision of one the drivers. 8) His position and prestige make his decision final. 9) Where did the collision take place? It took place directly in front of the Treasury Building. 10) Do you think it correct for young girls to used rouge? If rouge is used in moderation I see no objection to it. 11) What decision did you and Helen reach concerning your vacation? We decided to take a bicycle trip trough Belgium. 12) What do you usually do on Saturday afternoon? On Saturday afternoon, father and I usually take a walk through the park. 13) What do you do with your leasure time? I have very little leasure time because I both work and go to school. 14) How often do you shine your shoes? I'm afraid that I don't shine them as often as I should.
  • 59. 55 15) Did you go to shopping yesterday? Yes, but we started very late and many of the shops were closed. 16) Did you enjoy the refreshment at the party last night? I thought the cake was quite delicious. 17) Why did she wish to leave so early? She didn't feel well and wished to go home. 18) Why does the old man's hand shake so? He was palsy and he can't control the shaking of his hand. 9. Glottal Fricative /h/ a. Words /h/ here behold behave ... ... ... hair ahead perhaps ... ... ... hole somehow behind ... ... ... haze manhood anyhow ... ... ... hurricane abhor inhale ... ... ...
  • 60. 56 b. Sentences 1) Who said 'hello' to Mr. Hudson yesterday? Henry the hat-maker said 'hello' to him yesterday. 2) How did Helen behave in that party? Oh, she behaved very nicely. 3) Whose horse is here? That must be Harry's horse. 4) Who is the man riding a horse ahead of us? I don't know for sure, but perhaps he is Mr. Hamilton. 5) Whose house is standing on that hill? I don't know. Ask Helen, perhaps she know whose house it is. 10. Bilabial Nasal /m/ a. Words /m/ milk swimmer calm ... ... ... mine dimple roam ... ... ... miss remble mime ... ... ...
  • 61. 57 maybe common climb ... ... ... mister almond dime ... ... ... b. Sentences 1) Whom did you make the cake for? I made it for Mary, Maggie and Max. 2) Is it comfortable to ride on a camel? Maybe, I have never ridden an a camel before. 3) May I smoke here? I am sorry, you have to go to the smoking compartment. 4) Will it be warm in Manchester in May? I think so, Summer usually comes in June, so in May the weather will be just fine. 5) Is Mount Everest the highest mountain in the world? Yes, but many mointaineers have succeeded in climbing it.
  • 62. 58 11. Alveolar Nasal /n/ a. Words /n/ near banner tan ... ... ... no signature van ... ... ... now penny garden ... ... ... nose swanny down ... ... ... nest dentist mourn ... ... ... b. Sentences 1) Why are you standing under that tree? Look here! There is a nest on the branches of this tree. 2) Do you think one hanger is enough? No, one hanger's not enough. 3) I want to know how many women were present in that meeting. There wasn't a single woman present. 4) When is uncle John coming? Uncle John's coming in the morning.
  • 63. 59 5) What did the nurse want to do with the needle? I don't know. She didn't tell me anything about that. 12. Velar Nasal /ŋ/ a. Words /ŋ/ playing language wing ... ... ... anxious tango thing ... ... ... link twinkle swing ... ... ... bring blink ring ... ... ... wink mango rang ... ... ... b. Sentences 1) Seeing is believing. 2) Watching the birds flying 3) Sleeping during class 4) Calling during working hours 5) Waiting for the singer to sing.
  • 64. 60 6) Bing was eating while Mary was pressing and brushing his clothing. 7) In the beginning he was looking forward to swimming. 8) They are asking for help during the coming street – cleaning programme. 9) The wind was blowing hard and it was raining. 10) The sinking ship kept asking for help during the raging typhoon. 13. Lateral /l/ a. Words /l/ live milk doll ... ... ... look else hill ... ... ... leave island fall ... ... ... love million thrill ... ... ... lamb silly bell ... ... ... b. Sentences 1) Lazy Lucy likes to lull in the morning.
  • 65. 61 2) Leave the silly girl alone. 3) Helen likes to drink cold milk in the morning. 4) Don't lean your elbow on the glass counter. 5) Look at that ugly owl perching on the branch of that time. 14. Post – Alveolar Frictionless Continuant /r/ a. Words /r/ roam arrow furious ... ... ... roll carriage general ... ... ... risk cathedral eyebrow ... ... ... ruin narrow quarrel ... ... ... Ralph dairy sparrow ... ... ... b. Sentences 1) Where did Richard throw the arrow? He threw it to the waste basket near the mirror. 2) Why was Ralph furious last night?
  • 66. 62 Because Ronald broke his mirror. 3) Where did Mary lose her umbrella? She dropped it on the street when she was hurrying to the library. 4) Why is Terry crying? I think she grows tired and is hungry. 5) What will you do as soon as you arrive in Paris? I'll write down everything, I see in my diary 15. Unrounded Palatal Semi Vowel /j/ a. Words /j/ young argue failure ... ... ... yesterday nephew familiar ... ... ... yard beautiful dune ... ... ... university musical view ... ... ... Europe new human ... ... ...
  • 67. 63 b. Sentences 1) The beautiful young lady argued with him yesterday 2) Her nephew studies music in that university. 3) Next year, we will go to Europe. 4) My nephew is a member of the local yachting Club. 5) She likes the beautiful new suit that her mother bought in Europe. 16. Labio – Velar Semi Vowel /w/ a. Words /w/ /w/ /v/ West Weather Away West Vest ... ... ... ... ... Way won Twenty Went Vent ... ... ... ... ... Work Wise Awake Wine Vine ... ... ... ... ... Wide Water Forward Worse Verse ... ... ... ... ... warm went backward wane vane ... ... ... ... ... b. Sentences 1) Are you willing to wait for William? I don't want to but I will
  • 68. 64 2) Did that wool vest wash well? Yes, very well, I washed it in warm water. 3) Isn't the weather warm for winter? Yes, it is warm, but the wind is cool. 4) How long did you wait for your watch to be fixed? I had to wait one week. 5) Was Howard on time? No, we waited over one hour for him. 6. Word Contraction A. Introduce Contractions A contraction is two words that are made into one word. Say the word contraction. “We call it a contraction because the words contract and become smaller.” “Here is an example.” Build the words he and is. he is Remove the i and replace it with the apostrophe. “Instead of two words, he is, we now have one word, he’s.” This is called a contraction. Point to the apostrophe tile. “I put an apostrophe in place of the letter that I took out. Say the word apostrophe. Build the words she and will.
  • 69. 65 “I can say She will come over, or I can use a shortcut and say She‟ll come over.” Change she will into she’ll. “She’ll is a contraction, a shorter way of saying she will.” Remove the apostrophe. “What happens if I forget to put in the apostrophe? What word do we have?” Shell. “That‟s not the word we want. So you can see that it is important to put in the apostrophe.” Replace the apostrophe. B. Teach Common Contractions Using the letter tiles, build the two words in the first column and then show your student how to create the contraction using the apostrophe tile. Do the first few together, and then let your student try it alone. Reading the sentences with your student will help illustrate how contractions look and sound in a sentence. Two words Contraction Sentence she is she‟s She‟s my sister. he is he‟s He‟s fifteen years old. that is that‟s That‟s an extra slice of pizza. is not isn‟t Isn‟t this a friendly dog? do not don‟t Don‟t knock the glass over! cannot can‟t Jenny can‟t drive yet.
  • 70. 66 did not didn‟t It didn‟t rain last night. I will I‟ll I‟ll go with you to the park. he will he‟ll He‟ll like this present. she will she‟ll She‟ll need a winter coat. we will we‟ll We‟ll keep you company. you will you‟ll You‟ll enjoy the book. I am I‟m I‟m very thirsty. C. Dictate Sentences Dictate several sentences each day. You’ll be done soon. I’ll call you later. I’ll see you at my house. Pam can’t come over today. We’ll go sledding soon. She didn’t clean her room. I don’t have any more candy. You’ll find the toy over there. Isn’t that a priceless doll? That’s a very good book! She’s a fun girl! I’m doing a math problem. He’s got a song she’ll like. He’ll sing all day and night!
  • 71. 67 7. Linking When we say a sentence in English, we join or "link" words to each other. Because of this linking, the words in a sentence do not always sound the same as when we say them individually. Linking is very important in English. If you recognize and use linking, two things will happen: 1. you will understand other people more easily 2. other people will understand you more easily There are basically two main types of linking: A. consonant ⇔ vowel We link words ending with a consonant sound to words beginning with a vowel sound. Linking Consonant to Vowel When a word ends in a consonant sound, we often move the consonant sound to the beginning of the next word if it starts with a vowel sound. For example, in the phrase turn off... we write it like this: turn off we say it like this: tur-noff Remember that it's the sound that matters. In the next example sentence, have ends with...  the letter e (which is a vowel)  but the sound v (which is a consonant) So we link the ending consonant sound of have to the beginning vowel sound of the next word a.
  • 72. 68 And in fact we have four consonant to vowel links in this sentence: We write it like this: Can I have a bit of egg? We say it like this: ca-ni-ha-va-bi-to-vegg? B. vowel ⇔ vowel We link words ending with a vowel sound to words beginning with a vowel sound Linking Vowel to Vowel When one word ends with a vowel sound and the next word begins with a vowel sound, we link the words with a sort of Y or Wsound. It depends on the shape of our mouth at the end of the first word. Lips wide o o | — When the first word ends in an a, e, i vowel sound [ eɪ / i: / aɪ ], our lips are wide. Then we insert a Y sound at the beginning of the next word: we write first word ends with we say pay all /eɪ/ payyall the end /i:/ theyend lie on /aɪ/ lieyon
  • 73. 69 8. Assimilation A. Introductions "Assimilation is the influence of a sound on a neighboring sound so that the two become similar or the same. For example, the Latin prefix in- 'not, non-, un-' appears in English as il-, im-. and ir- in the words illegal, immoral, impossible (both m and p are bilabial consonants), and irresponsible as well as the unassimilated original form in-in indecent and incompetent. Although the assimilation of the n of in- to the following consonant in the preceding examples was inherited from Latin, English examples that would be considered native are also plentiful. In rapid speech native speakers of English tend to pronounce ten bucks as though it was written tembucks, and in anticipation of the voiceless s in son the final consonant of his in his son is not as fully voiced as the s in his daughter, where it clearly is [z]." However, assimilation is a linguistic process by which a sound becomes similar to an adjacent sound. An interesting observation of assimilation rules is evidenced in the formation of plurals and the past tense in English. When pluralizing nouns, the last letter is pronounced as either [s], [z], or [ɪz]. When forming past tenses of verbs, the -ed ending is pronounced as either [t], [d], [ɪd]. If you were to sort words into three columns, you would be able to tell why certain words are followed by certain sounds: Plural nouns /s/ /z/ /ɪz/ cats dads churches tips bibs kisses laughs dogs judges Past Tense /t/ /d/ /ɪd/ kissed loved patted washed jogged waded coughed teased seeded
  • 74. 70 Hopefully, you can determine which consonants produce which sounds. In the nouns, /s/ is added after voiceless consonants, and /z/ is added after voiced consonants. /iz/ is added after sibilants. For the verbs, /t/ is added after voiceless consonants, and /d/ is added after voiced consonants. /ɪd/ is added after alveolar stops. The great thing about this is that no one ever taught you this in school. But thanks to linguistics, you now know why there are different sounds (because of assimilation rules, the consonants become more like their neighboring consonants.) B. Assimilation Rules 1) Total and Partial Assimilation may be partial or total. In the phrase ten bikes, for example, the normal form in colloquial speech would be /tem baiks/, not /ten baiks/, which would sound somewhat 'careful.' In this case, the assimilation has been partial: the /n/ sound has fallen under the influence of the following /b/, and has adopted its billability, becoming /m/. It has not, however, adopted its plosiveness. The phrase /teb baiks/ would be likely only if one had a severe cold! The assimilation is total in ten mice /tem mais/, where the /n/ sound is now identical with the /m/ which influenced it." Total Assimilation  “winter” : /t/  [n] / [n] __ (meaning that /t/ becomes [n] in the environment after [n]).  “center” : /t/  [n] / [n] __ (/t/ becomes [n] in the environment after [n]). Partial Assimilation  “stopped” : /d/  [t] / [p] __ (i.e. /d/ becomes [t] in the environment after [p].)
  • 75. 71  “picked” : /d/  [t] / [k] __ (i.e. /d/ becomes [t] in the environment after [k].) 2) Progressive (or left-to-right) Assimilation If the phoneme changes to match the preceding phoneme, it is progressive assimilation.  “dogs” : /s/  [z] / [g] __ ( the ending [s] is assimilated to [z] by the influence of the preceding voiced [g].)  “pubs” : /s/  [z] / [b] __ ( the ending [s] is assimilated to [z] by the influence of the preceding voiced [b].) 3) Regressive, or Anticipatory (or right-to-left) Assimilation If the phoneme changes to match the following phoneme, it is regressive assimilation.  “miss you” : [m'ISE] /s/  [S] / __ [ j ] . (the sound [s] in [mIs] is changed to [S] by the assimilation of the following palatal glide [ j ].) 4) Double Assimilation  “man” : /A/  [A] / [m] __ [n] (The [A] in /mAn/ is nasalized by its preceding [m] and its following [n].)
  • 76. 72 9. Elision A. Introductions "Elision of sounds can . . . be seen clearly in contracted forms like isn't(is not), I'll (I shall/will), who's (who is/has), they'd (they had, they should, or they would), haven't (have not) and so on. We see from these examples that vowels or/and consonants can be elided. In the case of contractions or words like library (pronounced in rapid speech as /laibri/), the whole syllable is elided B. The Nature of Reduced Articulation "It is easy to find examples of elision, but very difficult to state rules that govern which sounds may be elided and which may not. Elision of vowels in English usually happens when a short, unstressed vowel occurs between voiceless consonants, e.g. in the first syllable of perhaps, potato, the second syllable of bicycle, or the third syllable of philosophy. . . . "It is very important to note that sounds do not simple 'disappear' like a light being switched off. A transcription such as /æks/ for acts implies that the /t/phoneme has dropped out altogether, but detailed examination of speech shows that such effects are more gradual: in slow speech the /t/ may be fully pronounced, with an audible transition from the preceding /k/ and to the following /s/, while in a more rapid style it may be articulated but not given any audible realization, and in very rapid speech it may be observable, if at all, only as a rather early movement of the tongue blade toward the /s/ position." 1) From Iced Tea to Ice Tea "An elision is the omission of a sound for phonological reasons . . .: 'cause (also spelled 'cos, cos, coz) from because; fo'c'sle from forecastle; or ice tea from iced tea(in which -ed is pronounced /t/ but omitted because of the immediately following /t/)."
  • 77. 73 2) From Iced Cream to Ice Cream "[Ice cream] is an extremely common term and no one these days, I believe, would be tempted to describe the confection as iced cream--and yet this was its original description. . . . With time, however, the - ed ending eroded. In pronunciation, it would have been swallowed very early and eventually this was reflected in the way it was written." 3) Wanna "In North and South, Mr. [John] Jakes is careful to keep his elisions within quotation marks: 'I'm sure, Cap'n,' says a farmer in his novel, and a stevedore calls a young soldier a 'sojer boy.' . . "Stephen Crane, in his Maggie, a Girl of the Streets, in 1896 pioneered wannain literature with 'I didn' wanna give 'im no stuff.' The spelling is designed to recreate the way the spoken word pounds, shapes and knocks about the original words." 10. Pronunciation in Practice A. Poems I take it you already know /aɪ teɪk ɪt ju: ɔ:lˈredɪ nəʊ/ Of tough and bough and cough and dough? /əv tʌf ənd bau ənd kɒf ənd dəʊ/ Others may stumble but not you /ˈʌðə(r)z meɪ ˈstʌmbl bət nɒt ju:/ On hiccough, trorough, slough and through. /ɒn ˈhIkɒf ˈɵʌrə slaʊ ənd ɵru:/ Well done! And now you wish perhaps, /wel dʌn/ ənd nəʊ ju: wɪʃ pəˈhæps/ To learn of less familiar traps? /tu: lɜ:n əv les fəˈmɪlə(r) træps/
  • 78. 74 Beware of heard, a dreadful word /bɪˈweə(r) əv hɜ:d ə ˈdredful wɜ:d/ That looks like beard and sounds like bird. /ðæt lʊks laɪk bɪəd ənd saundz laɪk bɜ:d/ And dead, it‟s said like bed, not bead. /ənd ded ɪts sed laɪk bed nɒt bi:d/ For goodness‟ sake don‟t call it „deed‟! /fə(r) ˈgudnəs seɪk dəʊnt kɔ:l ɪt di:d/ Watch out for meat and great and threat /wɒt∫ aʊt fə(r) mi:t ənd greɪt ənd ɵret/ (they rhyme with suite and straight and debt) /ðeɪ raɪm wɪð swi:t ənd streɪt ənd det/ A moth is not a moth in mother, /ə mɒɵ ɪz nɒt ə mɒɵ ɪn ˈmʌðə(r)/ Nor both in bother, broth, or brother, /nɔ:(r) bəʊɵ ɪn ˈbɒðə(r) brɒɵ ɔ:(r) ˈbrʌðə(r)/ And here is not a match for there, /ənd hɪə(r) ɪz nɒt ə mæt∫ fə(r) ðeə(r)/ Nor dear and fear for bear and pear, /nɒ:(r) dɪə(r) ənd fɪə(r) fə(r) beə(r) ənd peə(r)/ And then there‟s doze and rose and lose /ənd ðen ðeəz dəuz ənd rəuz ənd lu:z/ Just look them up and goose and choose, /ʤʌst luk ðəm ʌp ənd gu:s ənd t∫u:z/ And cork and work and card and ward /ənd kɔ:k ənd we:k ənd ka:d ənd wɔ:d/ And font and front and word and sword, /ənd font ənd frʌnt ənd wɜ:d ənd sɔ:d And do and go and thwart and cart, /ənd du: ənd gəu ənd ɵwo:t ənd ka:t/
  • 79. 75 Come, I‟ve hardly made a start! /kʌm aɪv ˈha:dlɪ meɪd ə sta:t/ A dreadful language? Man alive! /ə dredful ˈlæŋgwɪʤ/ mæn əˈlaɪv/ I‟d learned to speak it when I was five! /aɪd lɜ:nd tu: spi:k ɪt wen aɪ wəz faɪv/ And yet to write it, the more I sigh, /ənd jet tu: raɪt ɪt/ ðə mɔ:(r) aɪ saɪ/ I‟ll not learn how „til the day I die. /aIl nɒt lɜ:n haʊ ˈtɪl ðə deɪ aɪ daɪ/ B. Short Stories Eliza Riley Return to Paradise rɪˈtɜ:n tu: ˈpærədaɪs Lisa gazed out over the Caribbean sea, feeling the faint breeze against her face–eyes shut, /ˈli:sə geɪzd aʊt ˈəʊvə(r) ðə kærɪbi:ən si: ˈfi:lɪŋ ðə feɪnt bri:z əˈgenst hə(r) feɪs - aɪz ʃʌt the white sand warm between her bare toes. The place was beautiful beyond belief, but it ðə waɪt sænd wɔ:m bɪˈtwi:n hə(r) beə(r) təʊz / ðə pleɪs wəz ˈbju:tɪfl bɪˈjɒnd bɪˈli:f bət ɪt was still unable to the grief she felt as she remembered the last time she had been here. wəz stɪl ʌnˈeɪbl tu; ðə gri:f ʃi felt əz ʃi rɪˈmembə(r)d ðə lɑ:st taɪm ʃi həd bi:n hɪə(r) / She had married James right here on this spot three years ago to the day. Dressed /ʃi həd ˈmærid ʤeɪmz raɪt hɪə(r) ɒn ðɪs spɒt Ɵri: jɪə(r)z əˈgəʊ tu: ðə deɪ / drest in a simple white shift dress, miniature white roses attemping to tame her long dark curls, ɪn ə ˈsɪmpl waɪt ʃɪft dres ˈmɪnətʃə(r) waɪt rəʊzɪz əˈtemptɪŋ tu: teɪm hə(r) lɒŋ dɑ:k kɜ:lz Lisa had been happier than she had ever thought possible. James was even less formal but ˈli:sə həd bi:n ˈhæpiə(r) ðən ʃi həd ˈevə(r) Ɵɔ:t ˈpɒsəbl / ʤeɪmz wəz ˈi:vn les ˈfɔ:ml bət utterly irresistible in creased summer trousers and a loose white cotton shirt. His dark hair ˈʌtəlɪ ˌɪrɪˈzɪstəbl ɪn kri:st ˈsʌmə(r) ˈtraʊzəz ənd ə lu:s waɪt ˈkɒtn ʃɜ:t / hɪz dɑ:k heə(r) slightly ruffled and his eyes full of adoration as his looked at his bride to be. The justice of ˈslaɪtli ˈrʌfld ənd hɪz aɪz fʊl əv ˌædəˈreɪʃn əz hɪz lʊkt ət hɪz braɪd tu: bi: / ðə ˈʤʌstɪs əv the peace had read their vows as they held hands and laughed at the sheer joy of being ðə pi:s həd ri:d ðeə(r) vaʊz əz ðeɪ held hændz ənd lɑ:ft ət ðə ʃɪə(r) ʤɔɪ əv ˈbi:ɪŋ young, in love and staying in a five star resort on the Caribbean island of the Dominican jʌŋ , ɪn lʌv ənd steɪˈɪŋ ɪn ə faɪv stɑ:(r) rɪˈzɔ:t ɒn ðə kærɪˈbi:ən ˈaɪlənd əv ðə dəˈmɪnɪkən Republic. They had seen the years blissfully stretching ahead of them, together forever. rɪˈpʌblɪk / ðeɪ həd si:n ðə jɪə(r)z ˈblɪsfəli stretʃɪŋ əˈhed əv ðəm , təˈgeðə(r) fərˈevə(r) / They planned their children, two she said, he said four so they compromised on three (two ðeɪ plænd ðeə(r) ˈtʃɪldrən , tu: ʃi sed , hi: sed fɔ:(r) səʊ ðeɪ ˈkɒmprəmaɪzd ɒn Ɵri: (tu:
  • 80. 76 girls and a boy of course); where they would live, the travelling they would do together – it gɜ:lz ənd ə bɔɪ əv kɔ:s) ; weə(r) ðeɪ wəd laɪv , ðə ˈtrævlɪŋ ðeɪ wəd du: təˈgeðə(r) - ɪt was all certain, so they had thought then. wəz ɔ:l ˈsɜ:tn , səʊ ðeɪ həd Ɵɔ:t ðen / But that seemed such a long time ago now. A it can change in just a few years – a /bət ðæt si:md sʌtʃ ə lɒŋ taɪm əˈgəʊ naʊ / ə ɪt kən tʃeɪnʤ ɪn ʤʌst ə fju: jɪə(r) - ə lot of heartache can change a person and drive a wedge through the strongest ties, break lɒt əv hɑ:teɪk kən tʃeɪnʤ ə ˈpɜ:sn ənd draɪv ə weʤ Ɵru: ðə strɒŋɪst taɪz breɪk even the deepest love. Three years to the day and they had returned, thought this time not ˈi:vn ðə di:pɪst lʌv / Ɵri: jɪə(r)z tu: ðə deɪ ənd ðeɪ həd rɪˈtɜ:nd ðəʊ ðɪs taɪm nɒt for the beachside marriages the island was famous for but for one of its equally fə(r) ðə bi:tʃsaɪd ˈmærɪʤɪz ðə ˈaɪlənd wəz ˈfeɪməs fə(r) bət fə(r) wʌn itz ˈi:kwəli popular quickie divorces. ˈpɒpjələ(r) ˈkwɪki dɪ‟vɔ:sɪz / Lisa let out a sigh that was filled with pain and regret. What could she do but move /ˈli:sə let aʊt ə saɪ ðæt wəz fɪld wɪð peɪn ənd rɪˈgret / wɒt kəd ʃi du: bət mu:v on, find a new life and new dreams? –the old one was beyond repair. How could this ɒn , faɪnd ə nju: laɪf ənd nju: dri:mz ? - ðə əʊld wʌn wəz bɪˈjɒnd rɪˈpeə(r) / haʊ kəd ðɪs beautiful place, with its lush green coastline, eternity of azure blue sea and endless sands ˈbju:tɪfl pleɪs , wɪð ɪtz lʌʃ gri:n ˈkəʊstlaɪn ɪˈtɜ:nəti əv ˈæʒə(r) blu: si: ənd ˈendləs sændz be a place for the agony she felt now? bi: ə pleɪs fə(r) ðə ˈægəni ʃi felt naʊ/ The man stood watching from the edge of the palm trees. He couldn‟t take his eyes /ðə mæn stʊd wɒtʃɪŋ frəm ðə eʤ əv ðə pɑ:m tri:z / hi: ˈkʊdnt teɪk hɪz aɪz of the dark-haired woman he saw standing at the water‟s edge, gazing out to sea as though əv ðə dɑ:k-heə(r)d ˈwʊmən hi: sɔ: ˈstændɪŋ ət ðə ˈwɔ:tə(r)z eʤ geɪzɪŋ aʊt tu: si: əz ðəʊ she was waiting for something – or someone. She was beautiful, with her slim figure ʃi wəz weɪtɪŋ fə(r) ˈsʌmƟɪŋ - ɔ:(r) ˈsʌmwʌn ˈ ʃi wəz ˈbju:tɪfl , wɪð hə(r) slɪm ˈfɪgə(r) dressed in a loose flowing cotton dress, her crazy hair and bright blue eyes not far off the drest ɪn ə lu:s fləʊɪŋ ˈkɒtn dres , hə(r) ˈkreɪzi heə(r) ənd braɪt blu: aɪz nɒt fɑ:(r) ɒf ðə colour of the sea itself. It wasn‟t her looks that attracted him though; he came across ˈkʌlə(r) əv ðə si: ɪtˈself / ɪt ˈwɒznt hə(r) lʊks ðæt əˈtræktɪd hɪm ðəʊ ; hi: keim əˈkrɒs many beautiful-woman in his work as a freelance photographer. It was her loneliness and ˈmeni ˈbju:tɪfl-ˈwʊmən ɪn hɪz wɜ:k əz ə ˈfri:lɑ:ns fəˈtɒgrəfə(r)/ɪt wəz hə(r) ˈləʊlɪnɪs ənd intensity that lured him. Even at some distance he was aware that she was different from any ɪn‟tensəti ðæt lʊə(r)d hɪm / i:vn ət sʌm ˈdɪstəns hi: wəz əˈweə(r) ðæt ʃi wəz ˈdɪfrənt frəm ˈeni other woman he could meet. ˈʌðə(r) ˈwʊmən hi: kəd mi:t / Lisa sensed the man approaching even before she turned around. She had been /ˈli:sə senst ðə mæn əˈprəʊtʃɪŋ ˈi:vn bɪˈfɔ:(r) ʃi tɜ:nd əˈraʊnd / ʃi həd bi:n aware of him standing there staring at her and had felt strangely calm about being əˈweə(r) əv hɪm ˈstændɪŋ ðeə(r) stɑ:(r)ɪŋ ət hə(r) ənd həd felt ˈstreɪnʤli kɑ:m əˈbaʊt ˈbi:ɪŋ observed. She looked at him and felt the instant spark of connection she had only əb‟zɜ:vd /ʃi lʊkt ət hɪm ənd felt ðə ˈɪnstənt spɑ:k əv kəˈnekʃn ʃi həd ˈəʊnli
  • 81. 77 experience once before. He walked slowly towards her and they held each other‟s gaze. It ɪkˈspɪəriənst wʌns bɪˈfɔ:(r) / hi: wɔ:kt ˈsləʊli təˈwɔ:dz hə(r) ənd ðeɪ held i:tʃ ˈʌðə(r)z geɪz / ɪt felt like meeting a long lost friend – not a stranger on a strange beach. felt laɪk mi:tɪŋ ə lɒŋ lɒst frend - nɒt ə ˈstreɪnʤə(r) ɒn ə streɪnʤ bi:tʃ / Later, sitting at one of the many bars on the resort, sipping the local cocktails they /ˈleɪtə(r) sɪtɪŋ ət wʌn əv ðə ˈmeni bɑ:(r)z ɒn ðə riˈzɔ:t , sɪpɪŋ ðə ˈləʊkl ˈkɒkteɪl ðeɪ began to talk. First pleasantries, their hotels, the quality of the food and friendliness of the bɪˈgæn tu: tɔ:k / fɜ:st ˈplezntrɪz ðeə(r) həʊˈtelz ðə ˈkwɒləti əv ðə fu:d ənd frendlɪnɪs əv ðə locals. Their conversation was strangely hesistant considering the naturalness and ˈləʊklz / ðeə(r) ˌkɒnvəˈseɪʃn wəz ˈstreɪʤli ˈhezɪtənt kənˈsɪdə(r)ɪŋ ðə ˈnætʃrəlnəs ənd confidence of their earlier meeting. Onlookers, however, would have detected the subtle ˈkɒnfɪdəns əv ðeə(r) ˈɜ:liə(r) mi:tɪŋ / „ɒnlʊkə(r)z haʊ‟evə(r) wəd həv dɪˈtektɪd ðə ˈsʌtl flirtation as they mirrored each other‟s actions and spoke directly into each other‟s eyes. flɜ:ˈteɪʃn əz ðəɪ ˈmɪrə(r)d i:tʃ ˈʌðə(r)z ˈækʃn ənd spəʊk dəˈrektli ˈɪntə i:tʃ ˈʌðə(r)z aɪz / Only later, after the alcohol had had its loosening effect, did the conversation deepen. ˈəʊnli ˈleɪtə(r) ˈɑ:ftə(r) ðə ˈælkəhɒl həd həd ɪts lu:snɪŋ ɪ‟fekt dɪd ðə ˌkɒnvəˈseɪʃn ˈdi:pən They talked of why they were here and finally, against her judgement, Lisa opened up ðeɪ tɔ:kt əv waɪ ðeɪ wə(r) hɪə(r) ənd ˈfaɪnəli , əˈgenst hə(r) ˈʤʌʤmənt , ˈli:sə ˈəʊpənd ʌp about her heartache of the past year and how events had led her back to the place where əˈbaʊt hə(r) ˈhɑ:teɪk əv ðə pɑ:st jɪə(r) ənd haʊ ɪˈvent həd led hə(r) bæk tu: ðə pleɪs weə(r) she had married the only man she believed she could ever love. She told him how she had ʃi həd ˈmærid ðə ˈəʊnli mæn ʃi bɪˈli:vd ʃi kəd ˈevə(r) lʌv / ʃi təʊld hɪm haʊ ʃi həd felt after she had lost her baby. felt ˈɑ:ftə(r) ʃi həd lɒst hə(r) ˈbeɪbi/ She was six months pregnant and the happiest she had ever been when the pains /ʃi wəz sɪks mʌnƟs ˈpegnənt ənd ðə ˈhæpiɪst ʃi həd ˈevə(r) bi:n wen ðə peɪnz had started. She was staying with her mother as james was working out of town. He hadn‟t həd stɑ:tɪd/ ʃi wəz steɪɪŋ wɪð hə(r) ˈmʌðə(r) əz ʤeɪmz wəz wɔ:kɪŋ aʊt əv taʊn/ hi: ˈhædnt made it back in time. The doctor had said it was just one of those things,that they could meɪd ɪt bæk ɪn taɪm/ ðə ˈdɒktə(r) həd sed ɪt wəz ʤʌst wʌn əv ðəʊz Ɵɪŋz , ðæt ðeɪ kəd try again. But how could she when she couldn‟t even look James in the eye. She hated him traɪ əˈgen / bət haʊ kəd ʃi wen ʃi ˈkʊdnt ˈi:vn lʊk ʤeɪmz ɪn ðʊ aɪ / ʃi heɪtɪd hɪm then, for not being there, for not hurting as much as her but most of all for looking so ðen , fə(r) nɒt ˈbi:ɪŋ ðeə(r), fə(r) hɜ:tɪŋ əz mʌtʃ əz hə(r) bət məʊst əv ɔ:l f(r) lʊkɪŋ səʊ much like the tiny baby boy that she held for just three hours before the took him away. mʌtʃ laɪk ðə ˈtaɪni ˈbeɪbi bɔɪ ðæt ʃi held fə(r) ʤʌst Ɵri: ˈaʊə(r)z bɪˈfɔ(r) ðə tʊk hɪm əˈweɪ/ All through the following months she had withdrawn from her husband, family, friends. Not ɔ:l Ɵru: ðə ˈfɒləʊɪŋ mʌnƟs ʃi həd wɪðdrɔ:n frəm hə(r) ˈhʌzbənd , ˈfæməli , frendz / nɒt wanting to recover form the pain she felt – that would have been a betrayal of her son. At wɒntɪŋ tu: rɪˈkʌvə(r) fɔ:m ðə peɪn ʃi felt – ðæt wəd həv bi:n ə bɪˈtreɪəl əv hə(r) sʌn / ət the funeral she had refused to stand next to her husband and the next day she had left him. ðə ˈfju:nərəl ʃi həd rɪˈfju:zd tu: stænd nekst tu: ˈhʌzbənd ənd ðə nekst deɪ ʃi həd left hɪm /
  • 82. 78 C. News Obama to tackle economy 'head-on' US President-elect Barack Obama has pledged to confront the economic crisis "head-on" immediately after taking office in January. In his first official appearance since his election win, he said a stimulus package to boost the economy was long overdue and would be his top priority. He pledged to create jobs and help middle class families. Looking up, Lisa could see her pain reflected in the man‟s eyes. For the first time in /lʊkɪŋ ʌp , ˈli:sə kəd si: hə(r) peɪn rɪˈflektɪd ɪn ðə mænz aɪz / fə(r) ðə fɜ:st taɪm ɪn months she didn‟t feel alone, she felt the unbearable burden begin to lift from her, only a bit mʌnƟs ʃi ˈdɪdnt fi:l əˈləʊn , ʃi felt ðə ʌnˈbreərəbl ˈbɜ:dn bɪˈgɪn tu: lɪft frəm hə(r), ˈəʊnli ə bɪt but it was a start. She began to believe that maybe she had a future after all and maybe bət ɪt wəz ə stɑ:t/ ʃi bɪˈgæn tu: bɪˈli:v ðæt ˈmeɪbi ʃi həd ə ˈfju:tʃə(r) ˈɑ:ftə(r) ɔ:l ənd ˈmeɪbi it could be with this man, with his kind hazel eyes, wet with their shared tears. ɪt kəd bi: wɪð ðɪs mæn , wɪð hɪz kaɪnd ˈheɪzl aɪz , wet wɪð ðeə(r) ʃeə(r) teə(r)z/ They had come here to dissolve their marriage but maybe there was hope. Lisa /ðeɪ həd kʌm hɪə(r) tu: dɪˈzɒlv ðeə(r) ˈmærɪʤ bət ˈmeɪbi ðeə(r) wəz həʊp / ˈli:sə stood up and took james by the hand and led him away from the bar towards the beech stʊd ʌp ənd tʊk ʤeɪmz baɪ ðə hænd ənd led hɪm əˈweɪ frəm ðə bɑ:(r) təˈwɔ:dz ðə bi:tʃ where they had made their vows to each other three years ago. Tomorrow she would cancel weə(r) ðeɪ həd meɪd ðeə(r) vəʊz tu: i:tʃ ˈʌðə(r) Ɵri: jɪə(r)z əˈgəʊ / təˈmɒrəʊ ʃi wəd ˈkænsl the divorce; tonight they would work on renewing their promises. ðə dɪˈvɔ:s ; təˈnaɪt ðeɪ wəd wɔ:k ɒn rɪˈnju:ɪŋ ðeə(r) ˈprɒmɪsɪz/
  • 83. 79 "It's not going to be quick and it's not going to be easy to dig ourselves out of the hole we are in," he said. "But America is a strong and resilient country and I know that we will succeed if we put aside partisanship and politics to work together." The news conference at a Chicago hotel was his first since he convincingly beat Republican John McCain in Tuesday's election to become America's first black president. The 47-year-old Democrat, who takes office on 20 January, was careful not to step on the toes of the outgoing administration of President George W Bush, saying America only had one president at a time. He promised to initiate a rescue plan to provide tax relief for those struggling to pay their bills. He said an economic stimulus package needed to be passed before or immediately after his inauguration.
  • 84. 80 The president-elect also said he would extend unemployment benefits and help local governments so they did not have to lay off staff. It was a high priority, he said, to work on policies to help the stricken US car industry adjust to the economic crisis. He made no new personnel announcements but noted calls for him to pick a treasury secretary quickly. Mr Obama stressed it was important to make the right appointment, saying: "I want to move with all deliberate haste but I want to emphasise deliberate as well as haste." He referred to Friday's US labour department figures, which revealed the economy had shed 240,000 jobs in October, bringing job losses so far this year to 1.2 million. The US was facing the greatest economic crisis in memory, he said. Mr Obama was asked about a letter of congratulations on his election victory from Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. It is the first time Iran has offered such wishes to an American president-elect since the 1979 Islamic Revolution.
  • 85. 81 Mr Obama said he would review Mr Ahmadinejad's letter and "respond appropriately". "Iran's development of a nuclear weapon, I believe is unacceptable," the president- elect added. "Iran's support of terrorist organisations, I think is something that has to cease." But he also said the US approach to Iran could not be done in a "knee-jerk" fashion. 'A mutt like me' There was laughter when Mr Obama said his election night promise to find his daughters a dog for the family's move to the White House was "a major issue". He did not mention any specific breed, but said the family's preference was to adopt a dog from a shelter, "a mutt - like me", he added. Mr Obama said they had to find a pet that would not trigger an allergy of his eldest, Malia. He also added that his wife Michelle was looking at schools in Washington DC for their two children for when the family moved to the capital from Chicago next year.
  • 86. 82 There was laughter when he asked a journalist asking a question why she had her arm in a sling, and she explained she had injured herself while running to his election victory speech. Earlier, Mr Obama and Mr Biden met economic advisers including Clinton-era Treasury Secretary Larry Summers and his predecessor, Robert Rubin, as well as Paul Volcker, who was chairman of the Federal Reserve under presidents Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan. Google chief executive Eric Schmidt and billionaire investor Warren Buffett joined the talks. For treasury secretary, Mr Obama is said to be considering Mr Summers, Mr Volcker, and Timothy Geithner, president of the New York Federal Reserve Bank. The president-elect was joined at Friday's news conference by his new chief-of-staff, Rahm Emanuel, who was once an adviser to President Bill Clinton. Obama campaign strategist David Axelrod is expected to become senior White House adviser - a post previously held by Karl Rove under President Bush.
  • 87. 83 Another aide, Robert Gibbs, is expected to become White House press secretary. Mr Obama is due to discuss the economy with President Bush at the White House on Monday. He will not, however, attend the G20 economic summit to be held in Washington next weekend, senior officials have said. For treasury secretary, Mr Obama is said to be considering Mr Summers, Mr Volcker, and Timothy Geithner, president of the New York Federal Reserve Bank. The president-elect was joined at Friday's news conference by his new chief-of-staff, Rahm Emanuel, who was once an adviser to President Bill Clinton. Obama campaign strategist David Axelrod is expected to become senior White House adviser - a post previously held by Karl Rove under President Bush. Another aide, Robert Gibbs, is expected to become White House press secretary. Mr Obama is due to discuss the economy with President Bush at the White House on Monday. He will not, however, attend the G20 economic summit to be held in Washington next weekend, senior officials have said.
  • 88. 84 Bibliography Algeo, John. "Vocabulary," in The Cambridge History of the English Language, Volume IV, ed. by Suzanne Romaine. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999. Burridge, Kate. Gift of the Gob: Morsels of English Language History. HarperCollins Australia, 2011 Cambride dictionary Crystal, David. Introducing Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996 Farkhan, Muhammad. An Introduction to Linguistics. Jakarta, Universitas Islam Negri. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_language Jones, Daniel. English Pronouncing Dictionary, 17th ed. Cambridge University Press, 2006 Kansakar, Tej R. A Course in English Phonetics. Orient Blackswan, 1998 Kelly, Gerald. How to Teach Pronounciation. Longman Komarudin, Erien. Panduan Kreatif Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Yudistira, 2007. Ogden, Richard. An Introduction to English Phonetics. Edinburgh University Press, 2009. Safire, William "The Elision Fields." The New York Times Magazine, August 13, 1989) Stagebery, Norman C. An Introductory English Grammar. New York: Holt, Renehart, and Winston, 1977.
  • 89. STBA Pertiwi Jl. Beringin Raya 16, Perum Karawaci 2015
  • 90. JADWAL PERKULIAHAN STBA PERTIWI KAMPUS TANGERANG SEMESTER II TERM 1 TA. 2015-2016 KELAS KARYAWAN TERM 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 12,03 18,03 19,03 02,04 09,04 10,04 16,04 23,04 24,04 30,04 01,05 14,05 15,05 21,05 1 08,00 - 09,30 Pancasila MFJ * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 2 09,30 - 11,00 Grammar 2 RAM * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 3 11,00 - 12,30 Vocabulary 2 DHW * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 4 13,30 - 15,00 Comp. App. PAN * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 5 15,00 - 16,30 Composition 2 MIF * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 6 16,30 - 18,00 Reading 2 AHM * * * * * * * * * * * * * FINAL kelas tambahan dapat disesuaikan sesuai kesepakatan antara dosen dan mahasiswa JADWAL PERKULIAHAN STBA PERTIWI KAMPUS TANGERANG SEMESTER IV TERM 1 TA. 2015-2016 KELAS KARYAWAN ` TERM 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 12,03 18,03 19,03 02,04 09,04 10,04 16,04 23,04 24,04 30,04 01,05 14,05 15,05 21,05 1 08,00 - 09,30 Morphology SEP * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 2 09,30 - 11,00 Grammar 4 DHW * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 3 11,00 - 12,30 Composition 4 RAM * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 4 13,30 - 15,00 CCU MAR * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 5 15,00 - 16,30 Reading 4 AHM * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 6 16,30 - 18,00 TOEIC Prep. MIF * * * * * * * * * * * * * FINAL kelas tambahan dapat disesuaikan sesuai kesepakatan antara dosen dan mahasiswa ISTIRAHAT ISTIRAHAT No Waktu Mata Kuliah DS ROOM Pertemuan ke/ Tanggal No Waktu Mata Kuliah DS ROOM Pertemuan ke/ Tanggal
  • 91. JADWAL PERKULIAHAN STBA PERTIWI KAMPUS TANGERANG SEMESTER VI TERM 1 TA. 2015-2016 KELAS KARYAWAN ` TERM 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 12,03 18,03 19,03 02,04 09,04 10,04 16,04 23,04 24,04 30,04 01,05 14,05 15,05 21,05 1 08,00 - 09,30 Micro Teaching RAM * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 2 09,30 - 11,00 Sociolingusitics SEP * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 3 11,00 - 12,30 Public Speaking PAN * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 4 13,30 - 15,00 Literary Criticism ANJ * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 5 15,00 - 16,30 Literary Criticism ANJ * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 6 16,30 - 18,00 Lang Teach Meth MAR * * * * * * * * * * * * * FINAL kelas tambahan dapat disesuaikan sesuai kesepakatan antara dosen dan mahasiswa TANGERANG, 7 MARET 2016 MAR = Muhammad Ariyudha Rio, S.Pd. ANJ = Akhmad Nurjanna, M. Pd. SEP = Sundaru Eko Putro, S.S. PAN = Priska Aprilianty N.F., S. Pd. RAM = Rifki Amin, M. Pd. MFJ = Mas Fierna Janvierna, S. Pd. AHM = Ahmad Muftihadi, S. Ag. DHW = Dedi Herawadi, S.Pd., MM. MIF = Mohammad Iqbal F., M.Hum ISTIRAHAT M. Ariyudha Rio S., S.Pd. No Waktu Mata Kuliah DS ROOM Pertemuan ke/ Tanggal
  • 92. JADWAL PERKULIAHAN STBA PERTIWI KAMPUS TANGERANG SEMESTER II TERM 2 TA. 2015-2016 KELAS KARYAWAN TERM 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 11,06 18,06 19,06 25,06 23,07 24,07 30,07 31,07 06,08 07,08 13,08 14,08 20,08 27,08 1 08,00 - 09,30 Hislet* SEP * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 2 09,30 - 11,00 Conversation PAN/RAM * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 3 11,00 - 12,30 Phonology MIF * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 4 13,30 - 15,00 Indonesian Culture DHW * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 5 15,00 - 16,30 Bahasa Indonesia DHW * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 6 16,30 - 18,00 * * * * * * * * * * * * * FINAL * Hislet = History of English Literature kelas tambahan dapat disesuaikan sesuai kesepakatan antara dosen dan mahasiswa JADWAL PERKULIAHAN STBA PERTIWI KAMPUS TANGERANG SEMESTER IV TERM 2 TA. 2015-2016 KELAS KARYAWAN ` TERM 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 11,06 18,06 19,06 25,06 23,07 24,07 30,07 31,07 06,08 07,08 13,08 14,08 20,08 27,08 1 08,00 - 09,30 Listening 3 RAM09,00 - 10,00 09,00 - 10,00 09,00 - 10,00 09,00 - 10,00 * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 2 09,30 - 11,00 Translation 2 MIF10,00 - 11,00 10,00 - 11,00 10,00 - 11,00 10,00 - 11,00 * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 3 11,00 - 12,30 Drama PAN11,00 - 12,00 11,00 - 12,00 11,00 - 12,00 11,00 - 12,00 * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 4 13,30 - 15,00 Business English 1 ANJ12,30 - 13,30 12,30 - 13,30 12,30 - 13,30 12,30 - 13,30 * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 5 15,00 - 16,30 Conversation 4 MAR13,30 - 14,30 13,30 - 14,30 13,30 - 14,30 13,30 - 14,30 * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 6 16,30 - 18,00 * * * * * * * * * * * * * FINAL ISTIRAHAT ISTIRAHAT No Waktu Mata Kuliah DS ROOM Pertemuan ke/ Tanggal No Waktu Mata Kuliah DS ROOM Pertemuan ke/ Tanggal
  • 93. JADWAL PERKULIAHAN STBA PERTIWI KAMPUS TANGERANG SEMESTER VI TERM 2 TA. 2015-2016 KELAS KARYAWAN ` TERM 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 11,06 18,06 19,06 25,06 23,07 24,07 30,07 31,07 06,08 07,08 13,08 14,08 20,08 27,08 1 08,00 - 09,30 Semantics MIF * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 2 09,30 - 11,00 American Cult. Std. SEP * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 3 11,00 - 12,30 Interpreting RAM * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 4 13,30 - 15,00 Reading 6 MAR * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 5 15,00 - 16,30 Hist. of Modrn. Phil. ANJ * * * * * * MID * * * * * * FINAL 6 16,30 - 18,00 * * * * * * * * * * * * * FINAL kelas tambahan dapat disesuaikan sesuai kesepakatan antara dosen dan mahasiswa TANGERANG, 1 MEI 2016 MAR = Muhammad Ariyudha Rio, S.Pd. ANJ = Akhmad Nurjanna, M. Pd. SEP = Sundaru Eko Putro, S.S. PAN = Priska Aprilianty N.F., S. Pd. RAM = Rifki Amin, M. Pd. MIF = Mohammad Iqbal F., M.Hum DHW = Dedi Herawadi, S.Pd., MM. ISTIRAHAT M. Ariyudha Rio S., S.Pd. No Waktu Mata Kuliah DS ROOM Pertemuan ke/ Tanggal