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Another world is possible?
“il faut etre de son
        temps”

“one must be of one’s
     own time”
       Charles Bauderlaire
• “it has been part of the
  genius of neoliberal theory
  to provide a benevolent
  mask full of wonderful
  sounding words like
  freedom, liberty, choice,
  and rights, to hide the grim
  realities of the restoration
  or reconstitution of naked
  class power, locally as well
  as transnationally, but most
  particularly in the main
  financial centres of global
  capitalism’

•   David Harvey, A Brief History of Neoliberalism




                                                     10
• Does art offer a way of
  intervening in the world?
• Is art an effective form of protest
  and dissent?
• Does art depict an alternative to
  how things are?
• Is it a form that might initiate
  change ?
• Are there still spaces for art to
  ‘protest’ against the state of
  things?                        5
                                 5
Does radical art get absorbed by the
                 Text

  museum, the institutions of art?




                              6
What does it mean to be an artist?




                                              Giovanni Segantini (1858-1899)
                                              Self Portrait (1895)


                                              ‘obstinate dreamers for whom art has
                                              remained a faith and not a profession;
                                              enthusiastic folk…whose loyal heart beats
                                              high in the presence of all that is beautiful.”
 Richard Gerstl, (1883-1908),“Self Portrait
 against a Blue Background”, 1901. Oil on     Henri Murger “Scenes of Bohemian life”
 canvas, 159 x 109 cm. Leopold Museum,
8
9
8
The Salon   The Academy
William-Adolphe Bouguereau, The Birth of Venus, 1879   11
Art with a ‘purpose’
             “The social engagement of realism did
                  not necessarily involve any overt
                   statement of social aims or any
                 outright protest against intolerable
                  political conditions. But the mere
                       intention ‘to translate the
             appearances, the customs of the time
                implied a significant involvement in
              the contemporary social situation and
                  might thus constitute a threat to
               existing values and power structures
                 as menacing as the throwing of a
                                 bomb”

                         Linda Nochlin
                            Realism
Gustave Courbet, A Burial in Ornans
1849. oil on canvas; 313 x 664
Musée d’Orsay, Paris


“To be in a position to translate the customs, the ideas, the
appearance of my epoch, according to my own estimation; to
be not only a painter, but a man as well; in short, to create a
living art -this was my goal.”

Gustave Courbet
'In our oh-so-civilised society it is necessary for me to lead the life of a savage; I must free myself
even from governments... To do that, I have just set out on the great, independent, vagabond life
of the bohemian.’

Gustave Courbet
Honoré Daumier (French, 1808-1879). The Third-Class Carriage, ca. 1863-65. Oil on canvas.
  25 3/4 x 35 1/2 in. (65.4 x 90.2 cm). H.O. Havermeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H.O.
                                    Havermeyer, 1929.
Manet, Edouard, Execution of the Emperor Maximilian
1867, Oil on canvas, 252 x 305 cm
Kunsthalle, Mannheim
Francisco de Goya. The Third of May, 1808: The
Execution of the Defenders of Madrid. 1814. Oil
on canvas, 266 x 345 cm. Museo del Prado,
Madrid, Spain.



                                                  William Hogarth
                                                  Gin Lane
                                                  1750-51
                                                  Etching and line engraving, 359 x 341 mm
In Dark Times




                20
“You pretend to be timeless
and stand above party, you
keepers of the ivory tower. You
pretend to create for man-
where is man? ...Come out of
your houses even if it difficult
for you, do away with your
individual isolation, let
yourselves be possessed by
the ideas of the working
masses and help them in their
struggle against a rotten
society”
                                   George Grosz. Self-Portrait,
                                   Warning. 1927. Oil on canvas. 98 x
George Grosz ‘Instead of           79 cm. Galerie Nierendorf, Berlin,
                                   Germany.
Biography’
George Grosz. The Pillars of Society. 1926. Oil on
canvas. 200 x 108 cm. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin -
Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Nationalgalerie, Berlin,
Germany  .
George Grosz The City. 1916/17. Oil on canvas. 100 x 102 cm.
                                                    Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Madrid, Spain




Germany: a Winter's Tale. 1917/19. Oil on canvas.
Max Beckmann
The Night 1918-19. Oil on canvas. 133 x 154 cm
Kunstammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf
Thomas Hart Benton, The Ballad of the
Jealous Lover of Lone Green Valley, 1934,
Oil and tempera on canvas.
                                            Grant Wood
                                            Return from Bohemia
                                            1935
“The indignity of speaking for others”   Craig Owens
“When art gets involved with politics, art always loses”




Pablo Picasso ‘Guernica’ 1937, Oil on Canvas
33349x777cm, Museuo del Prado, Madrid




  “I am a Communist and my painting is Communist painting..But if I were a shoemaker,
  Royalist or Communist or anything else, I would not necessary hammer my shoes
  In a special way to show my politics.”

  Picasso
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?
  v=qXtlhH2eqhQ




                             30
New Times, New Methods


 “New problems appear
     and demand new
     methods. Reality
   changes; in order to
  represent it, modes of
representation must also
 change. Nothing comes
  from nothing; the new
 comes from the old, but
  that is why it is new”.

 Bertolt Brecht “Popularity
       and Realism”
                              "And Yet it Moves"
                              John Heartfield, 1943.
1969-1970; Jon Hendricks, Irving Petlin, Frazier Dougherty, photo by Ron L. Haeberle; Art Workers Coalition; Offset; 24
13/16 x 38 inches
“A growing number of artists have
begun to feel the need to respond to the
deepening political crisis in America.
Among those artists, however, there are
serious differences concerning their
relations to direct political actions.
Many feel that the political implications
of their work constitute the most
profound political action they can make.
Others, not denying this, continue to
feel the need for an immediate, direct
political commitment. Still others feel
that their work is devoid of political
meaning and that their political lives are
unrelated to art. What is your position
regarding the kinds of political action
that should be taken by artists?”

Artforum
Martha Rosler
 Bringing the War Home: House Beautiful, 1967-72
 Photomontage printed as color photograph
 20 x 24" or 24 x 20" (print size)

http://www.MarthaRosler.net
35
34
“If you make protest paintings you are likely to
 stay below the sophistication of the apparatus
 you are attacking. It is emotionally gratifying to
  point the finger at some atrocity and say this
   here is the bastard responsible for it. But in
effect once the work arrives in a public place, it
only addresses itself to people who share these
  feelings and are already convinced. Appeals
    and condemnations don’t make you think”

        Hans Haacke in Art and Politics
            Quoted in Modernism in Dispute
The Assault on Culture with a Capital C - The Barbarians are at the Door
“Popular, transient,
 expendable, low
    cost, mass
 produced, young,
    witty, sexy,
    gimmicky,
glamorous and big
    business.”

     Richard Hamilton
The Birth of Mass Consumerism
The Birth of Pop - British Pop’s Ambivalent Populism


 “The definition of culture is changing as a result of the
pressure of the great audience, which is no longer new
       but experienced in the consumption of its arts.
   Therefore, it is no longer sufficient to define culture
 solely as something that a minority guards for the few
and the future (though such art is uniquely valuable and
 as precious as ever). Our definition of culture is being
   stretched beyond the fine art limits imposed on it by
Renaissance theory and refers now, increasingly, to the
       whole complex of human activities. Within this
definition, rejection of the mass produced arts is not, as
  critics think, a defence of culture, but an attack on it.”

   Lawrence Alloway “The Arts and the Mass Media”
The Roots of Pop - Social, Political and economic changes
Education expansion 1950s - 1960’s

                                 By 1969 there were three times as many
                                 universities as there had been thirty
                                 years before – while state contribution to
                                 education rose form 7million in 1947 to
                                 157 million in 1966 – the number of
                                 students in the sixties doubled form 7 to
                                 14% of the population.



                                     “Britain had by accident bred a class of
                                     young people from ordinary homes who
                                     now had some idea of the privileges
                                     previously enjoyed only by boys from
                                     upper-class families.”

                                     Shawn Levy
                                     ‘Ready Steady Go:Swinging London and the Invention of Cool
                                     (london 2002), pg. 66
New Stories for New Times
British Pop’s Ambivalent Populism
   You’ve never had it so good - 60’s Pop
• The use of pre existing, ready
  made, mass media imagery within
  ‘fine art’. The conflation of the ‘low’
  with the‘high’.British pop is often
  hand painted pop.
• Often expresses a paradoxical
  relationship with the pleasures,
  materials and forms of post war
  consumerism - simultaneously
  attracted and skeptical..looks
  forward and back…
• This commitment to using popular
  imagery has broader connotations -      •Peter Phillips
  it signals a desire for a transformed   •The Entertainment Machine 1961

  cultural landscape -one where the
  old hierarchies of taste and value
  are questioned.
British Pop’s Ambivalent Populism




 We Two Boys Together Clinging, 1961
           David Hockney
British Pop’s Ambivalent Populism




Derek Boshier
The Identi-Kit Man 1962
British Pop’s Ambivalent Populism




Pauline Boty “The Only Blonde in the World” 1963
British Pop’s Ambivalent Populism




Joe Tilson                     Peter Phillips
Vox Box 1963                   Custom Print No. 1 1965
British Pop’s Ambivalent Populism




Patrick Caulfield
                                    Patrick Caulfield
Black and White Flower Piece 1963   After Lunch 1975
The Roots of Pop - Social, Political and Economic changes
  Responses - The Culture Industry

• Culture industry is a term coined by
  Theodor Adorno (1903-1969) and Max
  Horkheimer (1895-1973).
• The idea that the factory style production
  of popular culture produces standardised
  products that manipulate and seduce the
  consumer (or masses) with quick,easy
  gratification that leaves the consumer
  passive and ultimately unhappy.
• A central idea in Adorno and Horkheimer
  critique of mass culture is that it creates
  false needs - needs which are
  manufactured and of course satisfied by
  capitalism
The Roots of Pop - Social, Political and Economic changes
Responses to
                               “The effectiveness of the
                               culture industry depends
                               not on its parading of an
                               ideology, on disguising the
                               true nature of things, but on
                               removing the thought that
                               there is an alternative to
                               the status quo. “
                               Theodore Adorno
                               The Culture Industry
‘something is provided for
            all
 so that none may escape’
  Adorno, T & Horkheimer,M, Dialectic of the Enlightenment (Verso, 1997) p. 123
The Roots of Pop - Social, Political and Economic changes
Responses to - A Cultural Cold War? High versus Low


“We can assert with some
confidence that our own period is
one of decline: that the standards of
culture are lower than they were fifty
years ago…I see no reason why the
decay of culture should not proceed
much further, and why we may not
even anticipate a period of some
duration, of which is possible to say
that it will have no culture. “

T.S.Eliot, Notes towards a Definition
of Culture, quoted in Greenberg.
‘The Plight of Culture’.
American Pop - ‘Modern’ Hard Edged Pop
• While sharing British artists
  fascination with the ephemeral
  of the mass media, American
  pop was formally far more
  progressive / avant garde - not
  least in its use of commercial,
  mechanical techniques (silk-         Edward Ruscha. (American, born
                                       1937). Standard Station. 1966.
  screening, acrylic etc.)             Screenprint, composition: 19 5/8 x
                                       36 15/16" (49.6 x 93.8 cm);

• Taking ‘sides’ with the popular
  against the idea of ‘elite’
  culture still has the socially
  revolutionary inflection of British
  Pop, but in America , this spirit
  fo democratizing culture is more
  pronounced.
American Pop - ‘Modern’ Pop
“I am for an art that is
political-erotical-mystical, that
does something other than sit
on its ass in a museum.

I am for an art that embroils
itself with the everyday crap
and still comes out on top. “

Claes Oldenburg
“The thesis of the present essay is
that Warhol, though he grounded his
art in the ubiquity of the packaged
commodity, produced his most
powerful work by dramatizing the
breakdown of commodity exchange.
These were instances in which the
mass-produced image as the bearer
of desires was exposed in its
inadequacy by the reality             Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych (1962)
of suffering and death.”

Thomas Crow
‘Saturday Disasters:Trace and
Reference in Early Warhol’ in
‘Modern Art in the Common Culture

                                      Andy Warhol, Elvis I & II , 1963
                                      Silkscreen ink and spray paint on linen
                                      (silver and blue canvas) 82 x 82 in. (208.3 x 208.3)
“If you can’t beat it, Warhol
suggests, join it. More, if
you enter it totally, you
might expose it you might
reveal its automatism, even
its autism, through your
own excessive example.
Deployed first by Dada, this
strategic nihilism was
performed ambiguously by
Warhol, and artists such as
Jeff Koons have played it
out since.”

Art Since 1900
Art for Art’s Sake
The idea that art’s distinctiveness lies in its
   separation or autonomy from social, political
   values, interests and concerns.
The use of the term originated in France in the
   early 19th century and was conceived of,
   paradoxically, as a political assertion of
   artists antagonism towards the academy and
   state patronage. It was an assertion of the
   artists (bohemian) freedom to produce works
   expressive of their personal experiences and
   subjective feelings.
The idea of art for art sake was reformulated by
   the American art critic Clement Greenberg. In
   texts such as Avant Garde and Kitsch,
   Greenberg set out how abstract art was
   involved in a rejection of capitalist society
   and culture (specifically a popular,
   consumerist culture) in favour of a ‘purified’
   form of expression - free from contamination         
   by politics, ideology or overtly social content.   DANCER IN REPOSE, August
                                                      24-30, 1942, Henri Matisse
                                                      © 2001 Succession H. Matisse,
                                                      Paris/Artists Rights Society
                                                      (ARS), New York
“Art could only
                                               survive by
                                               disengaging itself
                                               from ideological
                                               confusion and
                                               violence”

                                               Clement Greenberg




Kenneth Noland (American, 1924-), Gift,
1961-2, acrylic on canvas, 182.9 x 182.9 cm,
Tate Gallery, London.
“Harold Rosenberg challenged me to
                                               explain what one of my paintings
                                               could possibly mean to the world. My
                                               answer was that if he and others
                                               could read it properly, it would mean
                                               the end of all state capitalism and
                                               totalitarianism”

                                               Newman “The Sublime is Now”




Barnnet Newman
Who's Afraid of Red, Yellow, and Blue?, 1966
75 X 48 inches
Oil on Canvas
Jackson Pollock, Mural on Indian Red Ground, 1950, oil and enamel on
board, 183 x 243.5 cm, Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Iran.
“Art could only
                                                survive by
                                                disengaging itself
                                                from ideological
                                                confusion and
                                                violence”
Jackson Pollock. (American, 1912-1956). One:
Number 31, 1950. 1950. Oil and enamel on        Clement Greenberg
unprimed canvas, 8' 10" x 17' 5 5/8" (269.5 x
530.8 cm). MOMA
“My opinion is that new needs need new
                                                              techniques. And the modern artists have
                                                              found new ways and new means of
                                                              making their statements. It seems to me
                                                              That the modern painter cannot
                                                              express this age, the airplane, the atom
                                                              bomb, the radio, in the old forms of the
                                                              renaissance or of any other past culture.
                                                              Each age finds its own technique.”

                                                              Jackson Pollock




Jackson Pollock. (American, 1912-1956). Full Fathom Five.
1947. Oil on canvas with nails, tacks, buttons, key, coins,
cigarettes, matches, etc., 50 7/8 x 30 1/8" (129.2 x 76.5
cm). Gift of Peggy Guggenheim.
Affirmative and Mute?
        ‘Visual Muzak’
                  Lucy L Lippard





    
       
       
Jules Olitski born 1922
Jules Olitski Instant Loveland 1968
What now?
“Why is it that whilst the world outside spirals
                              in ever tighter circles of terror and repression,
                              and the potential avenues of avoidance or
                              resistance become squeezed by the growing
                              dominance of capital and its civil and military
                              bulldogs, artists retreat further into a hermetic
                              world of abstraction, formalism, deferred
                              meanings and latent spiritualism? Do artists
                              really [..] have no choice but to accept that
                              the gallery is now fit solely for the exploration
                              of formal issues? […]That the world is a
                              different place since 9/11 is a truism, but it
             Claire Barclay   could (and has) been argued that there is a
                              need now, more than ever, for artists and
Jim Lambie                    writers to engage with the moral and ethical
                              parameters of our globalising world. “

                              Nick Evans
                              Tired of the Soup du Jour
                              http://www.variant.randomstate.org/16texts/
                              Soup_du_Jour.html




             Cathy Wilkes
Goya
(Great Deeds of War! Lives Lost!) Pl. 39
Desastres de la Guerra, 1810-20 (Disasters of War)
Paul McCarthy
Politics

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Politics

  • 1. Another world is possible?
  • 2. “il faut etre de son temps” “one must be of one’s own time” Charles Bauderlaire
  • 3.
  • 4. • “it has been part of the genius of neoliberal theory to provide a benevolent mask full of wonderful sounding words like freedom, liberty, choice, and rights, to hide the grim realities of the restoration or reconstitution of naked class power, locally as well as transnationally, but most particularly in the main financial centres of global capitalism’ • David Harvey, A Brief History of Neoliberalism 10
  • 5. • Does art offer a way of intervening in the world? • Is art an effective form of protest and dissent? • Does art depict an alternative to how things are? • Is it a form that might initiate change ? • Are there still spaces for art to ‘protest’ against the state of things? 5 5
  • 6. Does radical art get absorbed by the Text museum, the institutions of art? 6
  • 7. What does it mean to be an artist? Giovanni Segantini (1858-1899) Self Portrait (1895) ‘obstinate dreamers for whom art has remained a faith and not a profession; enthusiastic folk…whose loyal heart beats high in the presence of all that is beautiful.” Richard Gerstl, (1883-1908),“Self Portrait against a Blue Background”, 1901. Oil on Henri Murger “Scenes of Bohemian life” canvas, 159 x 109 cm. Leopold Museum,
  • 8. 8
  • 9. 9 8
  • 10. The Salon The Academy
  • 11. William-Adolphe Bouguereau, The Birth of Venus, 1879 11
  • 12.
  • 13. Art with a ‘purpose’ “The social engagement of realism did not necessarily involve any overt statement of social aims or any outright protest against intolerable political conditions. But the mere intention ‘to translate the appearances, the customs of the time implied a significant involvement in the contemporary social situation and might thus constitute a threat to existing values and power structures as menacing as the throwing of a bomb” Linda Nochlin Realism
  • 14. Gustave Courbet, A Burial in Ornans 1849. oil on canvas; 313 x 664 Musée d’Orsay, Paris “To be in a position to translate the customs, the ideas, the appearance of my epoch, according to my own estimation; to be not only a painter, but a man as well; in short, to create a living art -this was my goal.” Gustave Courbet
  • 15. 'In our oh-so-civilised society it is necessary for me to lead the life of a savage; I must free myself even from governments... To do that, I have just set out on the great, independent, vagabond life of the bohemian.’ Gustave Courbet
  • 16. Honoré Daumier (French, 1808-1879). The Third-Class Carriage, ca. 1863-65. Oil on canvas. 25 3/4 x 35 1/2 in. (65.4 x 90.2 cm). H.O. Havermeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H.O. Havermeyer, 1929.
  • 17.
  • 18. Manet, Edouard, Execution of the Emperor Maximilian 1867, Oil on canvas, 252 x 305 cm Kunsthalle, Mannheim
  • 19. Francisco de Goya. The Third of May, 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid. 1814. Oil on canvas, 266 x 345 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. William Hogarth Gin Lane 1750-51 Etching and line engraving, 359 x 341 mm
  • 21. “You pretend to be timeless and stand above party, you keepers of the ivory tower. You pretend to create for man- where is man? ...Come out of your houses even if it difficult for you, do away with your individual isolation, let yourselves be possessed by the ideas of the working masses and help them in their struggle against a rotten society” George Grosz. Self-Portrait, Warning. 1927. Oil on canvas. 98 x George Grosz ‘Instead of 79 cm. Galerie Nierendorf, Berlin, Germany. Biography’
  • 22. George Grosz. The Pillars of Society. 1926. Oil on canvas. 200 x 108 cm. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin - Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany .
  • 23. George Grosz The City. 1916/17. Oil on canvas. 100 x 102 cm. Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Madrid, Spain Germany: a Winter's Tale. 1917/19. Oil on canvas.
  • 24. Max Beckmann The Night 1918-19. Oil on canvas. 133 x 154 cm Kunstammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf
  • 25.
  • 26. Thomas Hart Benton, The Ballad of the Jealous Lover of Lone Green Valley, 1934, Oil and tempera on canvas. Grant Wood Return from Bohemia 1935
  • 27. “The indignity of speaking for others” Craig Owens
  • 28.
  • 29. “When art gets involved with politics, art always loses” Pablo Picasso ‘Guernica’ 1937, Oil on Canvas 33349x777cm, Museuo del Prado, Madrid “I am a Communist and my painting is Communist painting..But if I were a shoemaker, Royalist or Communist or anything else, I would not necessary hammer my shoes In a special way to show my politics.” Picasso
  • 31. New Times, New Methods “New problems appear and demand new methods. Reality changes; in order to represent it, modes of representation must also change. Nothing comes from nothing; the new comes from the old, but that is why it is new”. Bertolt Brecht “Popularity and Realism” "And Yet it Moves" John Heartfield, 1943.
  • 32. 1969-1970; Jon Hendricks, Irving Petlin, Frazier Dougherty, photo by Ron L. Haeberle; Art Workers Coalition; Offset; 24 13/16 x 38 inches
  • 33. “A growing number of artists have begun to feel the need to respond to the deepening political crisis in America. Among those artists, however, there are serious differences concerning their relations to direct political actions. Many feel that the political implications of their work constitute the most profound political action they can make. Others, not denying this, continue to feel the need for an immediate, direct political commitment. Still others feel that their work is devoid of political meaning and that their political lives are unrelated to art. What is your position regarding the kinds of political action that should be taken by artists?” Artforum
  • 34. Martha Rosler Bringing the War Home: House Beautiful, 1967-72 Photomontage printed as color photograph 20 x 24" or 24 x 20" (print size) http://www.MarthaRosler.net
  • 35. 35 34
  • 36. “If you make protest paintings you are likely to stay below the sophistication of the apparatus you are attacking. It is emotionally gratifying to point the finger at some atrocity and say this here is the bastard responsible for it. But in effect once the work arrives in a public place, it only addresses itself to people who share these feelings and are already convinced. Appeals and condemnations don’t make you think” Hans Haacke in Art and Politics Quoted in Modernism in Dispute
  • 37. The Assault on Culture with a Capital C - The Barbarians are at the Door
  • 38. “Popular, transient, expendable, low cost, mass produced, young, witty, sexy, gimmicky, glamorous and big business.” Richard Hamilton
  • 39. The Birth of Mass Consumerism
  • 40. The Birth of Pop - British Pop’s Ambivalent Populism “The definition of culture is changing as a result of the pressure of the great audience, which is no longer new but experienced in the consumption of its arts. Therefore, it is no longer sufficient to define culture solely as something that a minority guards for the few and the future (though such art is uniquely valuable and as precious as ever). Our definition of culture is being stretched beyond the fine art limits imposed on it by Renaissance theory and refers now, increasingly, to the whole complex of human activities. Within this definition, rejection of the mass produced arts is not, as critics think, a defence of culture, but an attack on it.” Lawrence Alloway “The Arts and the Mass Media”
  • 41. The Roots of Pop - Social, Political and economic changes Education expansion 1950s - 1960’s By 1969 there were three times as many universities as there had been thirty years before – while state contribution to education rose form 7million in 1947 to 157 million in 1966 – the number of students in the sixties doubled form 7 to 14% of the population. “Britain had by accident bred a class of young people from ordinary homes who now had some idea of the privileges previously enjoyed only by boys from upper-class families.” Shawn Levy ‘Ready Steady Go:Swinging London and the Invention of Cool (london 2002), pg. 66
  • 42. New Stories for New Times
  • 43. British Pop’s Ambivalent Populism You’ve never had it so good - 60’s Pop • The use of pre existing, ready made, mass media imagery within ‘fine art’. The conflation of the ‘low’ with the‘high’.British pop is often hand painted pop. • Often expresses a paradoxical relationship with the pleasures, materials and forms of post war consumerism - simultaneously attracted and skeptical..looks forward and back… • This commitment to using popular imagery has broader connotations - •Peter Phillips it signals a desire for a transformed •The Entertainment Machine 1961 cultural landscape -one where the old hierarchies of taste and value are questioned.
  • 44. British Pop’s Ambivalent Populism We Two Boys Together Clinging, 1961 David Hockney
  • 45. British Pop’s Ambivalent Populism Derek Boshier The Identi-Kit Man 1962
  • 46. British Pop’s Ambivalent Populism Pauline Boty “The Only Blonde in the World” 1963
  • 47. British Pop’s Ambivalent Populism Joe Tilson Peter Phillips Vox Box 1963 Custom Print No. 1 1965
  • 48. British Pop’s Ambivalent Populism Patrick Caulfield Patrick Caulfield Black and White Flower Piece 1963 After Lunch 1975
  • 49.
  • 50. The Roots of Pop - Social, Political and Economic changes Responses - The Culture Industry • Culture industry is a term coined by Theodor Adorno (1903-1969) and Max Horkheimer (1895-1973). • The idea that the factory style production of popular culture produces standardised products that manipulate and seduce the consumer (or masses) with quick,easy gratification that leaves the consumer passive and ultimately unhappy. • A central idea in Adorno and Horkheimer critique of mass culture is that it creates false needs - needs which are manufactured and of course satisfied by capitalism
  • 51. The Roots of Pop - Social, Political and Economic changes Responses to “The effectiveness of the culture industry depends not on its parading of an ideology, on disguising the true nature of things, but on removing the thought that there is an alternative to the status quo. “ Theodore Adorno The Culture Industry
  • 52. ‘something is provided for all so that none may escape’ Adorno, T & Horkheimer,M, Dialectic of the Enlightenment (Verso, 1997) p. 123
  • 53. The Roots of Pop - Social, Political and Economic changes Responses to - A Cultural Cold War? High versus Low “We can assert with some confidence that our own period is one of decline: that the standards of culture are lower than they were fifty years ago…I see no reason why the decay of culture should not proceed much further, and why we may not even anticipate a period of some duration, of which is possible to say that it will have no culture. “ T.S.Eliot, Notes towards a Definition of Culture, quoted in Greenberg. ‘The Plight of Culture’.
  • 54. American Pop - ‘Modern’ Hard Edged Pop • While sharing British artists fascination with the ephemeral of the mass media, American pop was formally far more progressive / avant garde - not least in its use of commercial, mechanical techniques (silk- Edward Ruscha. (American, born 1937). Standard Station. 1966. screening, acrylic etc.) Screenprint, composition: 19 5/8 x 36 15/16" (49.6 x 93.8 cm); • Taking ‘sides’ with the popular against the idea of ‘elite’ culture still has the socially revolutionary inflection of British Pop, but in America , this spirit fo democratizing culture is more pronounced.
  • 55. American Pop - ‘Modern’ Pop “I am for an art that is political-erotical-mystical, that does something other than sit on its ass in a museum. I am for an art that embroils itself with the everyday crap and still comes out on top. “ Claes Oldenburg
  • 56.
  • 57. “The thesis of the present essay is that Warhol, though he grounded his art in the ubiquity of the packaged commodity, produced his most powerful work by dramatizing the breakdown of commodity exchange. These were instances in which the mass-produced image as the bearer of desires was exposed in its inadequacy by the reality Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych (1962) of suffering and death.” Thomas Crow ‘Saturday Disasters:Trace and Reference in Early Warhol’ in ‘Modern Art in the Common Culture Andy Warhol, Elvis I & II , 1963 Silkscreen ink and spray paint on linen (silver and blue canvas) 82 x 82 in. (208.3 x 208.3)
  • 58.
  • 59.
  • 60. “If you can’t beat it, Warhol suggests, join it. More, if you enter it totally, you might expose it you might reveal its automatism, even its autism, through your own excessive example. Deployed first by Dada, this strategic nihilism was performed ambiguously by Warhol, and artists such as Jeff Koons have played it out since.” Art Since 1900
  • 61. Art for Art’s Sake The idea that art’s distinctiveness lies in its separation or autonomy from social, political values, interests and concerns. The use of the term originated in France in the early 19th century and was conceived of, paradoxically, as a political assertion of artists antagonism towards the academy and state patronage. It was an assertion of the artists (bohemian) freedom to produce works expressive of their personal experiences and subjective feelings. The idea of art for art sake was reformulated by the American art critic Clement Greenberg. In texts such as Avant Garde and Kitsch, Greenberg set out how abstract art was involved in a rejection of capitalist society and culture (specifically a popular, consumerist culture) in favour of a ‘purified’ form of expression - free from contamination    by politics, ideology or overtly social content. DANCER IN REPOSE, August 24-30, 1942, Henri Matisse © 2001 Succession H. Matisse, Paris/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
  • 62. “Art could only survive by disengaging itself from ideological confusion and violence” Clement Greenberg Kenneth Noland (American, 1924-), Gift, 1961-2, acrylic on canvas, 182.9 x 182.9 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
  • 63. “Harold Rosenberg challenged me to explain what one of my paintings could possibly mean to the world. My answer was that if he and others could read it properly, it would mean the end of all state capitalism and totalitarianism” Newman “The Sublime is Now” Barnnet Newman Who's Afraid of Red, Yellow, and Blue?, 1966 75 X 48 inches Oil on Canvas
  • 64. Jackson Pollock, Mural on Indian Red Ground, 1950, oil and enamel on board, 183 x 243.5 cm, Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Iran.
  • 65. “Art could only survive by disengaging itself from ideological confusion and violence” Jackson Pollock. (American, 1912-1956). One: Number 31, 1950. 1950. Oil and enamel on Clement Greenberg unprimed canvas, 8' 10" x 17' 5 5/8" (269.5 x 530.8 cm). MOMA
  • 66. “My opinion is that new needs need new techniques. And the modern artists have found new ways and new means of making their statements. It seems to me That the modern painter cannot express this age, the airplane, the atom bomb, the radio, in the old forms of the renaissance or of any other past culture. Each age finds its own technique.” Jackson Pollock Jackson Pollock. (American, 1912-1956). Full Fathom Five. 1947. Oil on canvas with nails, tacks, buttons, key, coins, cigarettes, matches, etc., 50 7/8 x 30 1/8" (129.2 x 76.5 cm). Gift of Peggy Guggenheim.
  • 67. Affirmative and Mute? ‘Visual Muzak’ Lucy L Lippard Jules Olitski born 1922 Jules Olitski Instant Loveland 1968
  • 69. “Why is it that whilst the world outside spirals in ever tighter circles of terror and repression, and the potential avenues of avoidance or resistance become squeezed by the growing dominance of capital and its civil and military bulldogs, artists retreat further into a hermetic world of abstraction, formalism, deferred meanings and latent spiritualism? Do artists really [..] have no choice but to accept that the gallery is now fit solely for the exploration of formal issues? […]That the world is a different place since 9/11 is a truism, but it Claire Barclay could (and has) been argued that there is a need now, more than ever, for artists and Jim Lambie writers to engage with the moral and ethical parameters of our globalising world. “ Nick Evans Tired of the Soup du Jour http://www.variant.randomstate.org/16texts/ Soup_du_Jour.html Cathy Wilkes
  • 70. Goya (Great Deeds of War! Lives Lost!) Pl. 39 Desastres de la Guerra, 1810-20 (Disasters of War)