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  • “What Warhol’s dictum [that anything could be art] amounted to was that you cannot tell when something is a work of art just by looking at it, for there is no particular way that art has to look. The upshot was that you could not teach the meaning of art by examples.”
  • An art world increasingly driven by corporate money and marketing The intertwined and interdependent relations of fashion, mass media, the entertainment industries, and whatever passes for elite culture, makes any attempt at discrimination between genres or practices, to say nothing of critical judgment, extremely difficult.At the end of the 1930s, Clement Greenberg’s formulism had taught that to protect itself, its quality, or its purity from the kitsch, art had to turn on its own constitutive forms, forms that would become the sole object of theory. Confronted with a shattering of stylistic tendencies and a global proliferation of art scenes, and inheriting a scepticism about all universal judgments and a market-driven environment .Pop Art was a reaction against abstract painting, which pop artists considered as too sophisticated and elite. Pop artists' favorite images were objects from everyday's life like soup cans for Andy Warhol or comics for Roy Lichtenstein. Typical for the attitude of the Pop Art movement was Andy Warhol's use of serigraphy, a photo-realistic, mass-production technique of printmaking. Pop Art intruded into the media and advertising. The differences between The fine arts and commercial arts were voluntarily torn down. An excellent example are the designs of music album covers in the sixties. The undoubted cult figure of Pop Art was Andy Warhol (1928-1987). Other great names are Jaspar Johns, Robert Rauschenberg, David Hockney, Claes Oldenburg, Roy Lichtenstein…The Pop Art movement was mainly an American and British art movement.
  • The philosophical revolution in art:You can’t tell art just by lookingThe revolution Danto is talking about is that the difference between art and non-art is no longer visible (even though it is still there). Modernism made the revolution possible, by erasing old standards (Warhol’s soup cans wouldn’t have been possible in the 19th century)Breaking down social boundaries (e.g., gender & class)Breaking down the boundary between High Art and popular culture (e.g., Pop Art, Warhol). “The transfiguration of the commonplace”Making a new kind of museum (a more popular institution, with sales)And (Danto’s real subject) a philosophical revolution.
  • Previous standards must have been erased (by modernism)There must be a theory that would let you count it as art (“an enfranchising theory”). In other words, people in the art world must at least be able to have a discussion, and be able to give reasons why such a thing should count as art, and some number of them must be persuaded by the reasons.
  • Background: what Danto thinks Philosophy is:The job of philosophy is “to draw the boundary lines which divide the universe into the most fundamental kinds of things that exist.”A good philosophical method: find two things that you think are fundamentally different (like dreams and waking experience), yet they appear to be the same. Find out what makes them different.Brillo Box is a perfect philosophical example. It looks just like a carton of Brillo boxes, but in fact it is an art work.The difference is not the materials. It is wood, not cardboard like the real thing; but Brillo pads could just as well be shipped in wood containers. The difference must be conceptual, not visible. The work raises a philosophical question about the difference between art and non-art.
  • “Art was no longer possible in terms of a progressive historical narrative. The narrative had come to an end... [This], in fact, was a liberating idea, or I thought it could be. It liberated artists from the task of making more history. It liberated artists from having to follow the ‘correct historical line’” (Danto 1992, p.10)
  • Danto was against the delimitation of art practice and advocated a relativist position in response to the emergence of the everyday in artistic practices (which had been excluded so forcefully by Greenbergian formalist criticism). His enquiry was ontological and concerned the definition of art and pivoted on what he saw as the break in art production set in motion by Andy Warhol. He argued that if Warhol’s ‘Brillo Boxes’, cannot be visually distinguished from actual Brillo boxes then it follows that art cannot be defined in terms of its visual distinctiveness, and must be instead characterised philosophically.See DANTO, ARTHUR C. The Transfiguration of the Commonplace: a Philosophy of Art(Cambridge, MA, & London: Harvard University Press), 1981
  • The Pop Art movement originated in England in the 1950s and traveled overseas to the United States during the 1960s. Richard Hamilton and Eduardo Paolozzi, both members of the Independent Group, pioneered the movement in London in the 1950s. In the 1960s, the movement was carried by Peter Blake, Patrick Caulfield, David Hockney, Allen Jones, and Peter Phillips. In the early sixties, Pop art found its way to the United States, seen in the work of Jim Dine, Roy Lichtenstein, and Robert Rauschenberg. It developed in the United States as a response to the wealth of the post World War II era and the growing materialism and consumerism in society. The most recognized Pop Artist, Andy Warhol, used a photo-realistic, mass production printmaking technique called seriagraphy to produce his commentaries on media, fame, and advertising. Pop Art made commentary on contemporary society and culture, particularly consumerism, by using popular images and icons and incorporating and re-defining them in the art world. Often subjects were derived from advertising and product packaging, celebrities, and comic strips. The images are presented with a combination of humor, criticism and irony. In doing this, the movement put art into terms of everyday, contemporary life. It also helped to decrease the gap between "high art" and "low art" and eliminated the distinction between fine art and commercial art methods.Arthur C. Danto argues that Andy Warhol's Brillo Box of 1964 brought the established trajectory of Westen art to an end and gave rise to a pluralism which has changed the way art is made, perceived, and exhibited.
  • The term Pop Art was first used by the British critic Lawrence Alloway in 1954 as a convenient label for the ‘popular art’ being created by and influenced by mass media and mass culture. He extended the term in 1962 to include the activity of artists who were trying to use the popular image in the context of ‘fine art’.The first truly Pop Art work made in Britain is generally accepted to be Richard Hamilton’s Just What Is It That Makes Today's Home So Different, So Appealing? A collage made in 1956
  • “Topicality and a rapid rate of change are not academic in any usual sense of the word, which means a system that is static, rigid, self-perpetuating. Sensitiveness to the variables of our life and economy enable the mass arts to accompany the changes in our life far more closely than the fine arts which are a repository of time-binding values.”
  • Initially Pop Art was more of an underground scene and when it emerged it was met with some resistance.
  • In some respects this is due to its forerunner, modernism:“Modernism constituted itself through a conscious strategy of exclusion, an anxiety of contamination by its other: an increasingly consuming and engulfing mass culture”
  • “Kitsch, using for raw material the debased and academicized simulacra of genuine culture, welcomes and cultivates ... Insensitivity. Kitsch is mechanical and operates by formulas. Kitsch is vicarious experience and faked sensations.. Kitsch is the epitome of all that is spurious in the life of our times [...] Formal culture has always belonged to the [powerful and cultivated]; while the [great mass of the exploited and poor] have had to content themselves with folk or rudimentary culture, or kitsch.”
  • In the USA Pop Art grew out of Abstract Art with many American Pop Artists citing Willem de Kooning as a major influence in their work.Also in the USA as it emerged it was the ideal instrument for coming to terms with the American urban environment.
  • Pop Art was a highly self-conscious movement.It was concerned with what we could call the archeology of mass-produced myths and of popular design.
  • Pop Art can also be seen to be generically style-less and so when we talk about it we are not talking about a coherent movement as such.In saying that the overriding continuity in terms of Pop Artists activities can be recognised as trying to make sense of the environment.Like practically everything else in our society pop culture was the product of the Industrial Revolution and of the series of technological revolutions that succeeded it.
  • “[Reality, the Real,] no longer has to be rational, since it is no longer measured against some ideal or negative instance. It is nothing more than operational. In fact, since it is no longer enveloped by an imaginary, it is no longer real at all.”“It is no longer a question of imitation, nor reduplication, nor even of parody. It is rather a question of substituting signs of the real for the real itself; that is, an operation to deter every real process by its operational double... A perfect descriptive machine which provides all the signs of the real and short-circuits all is vicissitudes.” (Baudrillard [1983] 2001, p.170)
  • Baudrillard wrote of the Third-order simulation (where the copy replaces the original): For example Disneyland exists to cover up the fact that it is all of “real” America that is Disneyland. Disneyland is presented as imaginary so that we will think that the rest of the country is real, when actually the rest of America is no longer real but made up of simulation and the hyperreal. There is no longer a question of false representation of reality, but of hiding the fact that the real is no longer real.Disneyland is supposed to make its visitors believe that adults and the “real” world are elsewhere. He talks about how what we know as reality now is actually a simulation of reality. “Disneyland is a perfect model of all the entangled orders of simulation.”The imaginary world is what is supposed to make it successful, but it is made successful through its miniaturized social representation of “real” America.
  • ForBaudrillard Pop Art constituted a turning point in the history of art whereby art becomes simply the reproduction of signs of the world and in particular the signs of consumer society which itself is primarily a system of signs. Pop Art therefore represents for Baudrillard the triumph of the sign over its referent, the end of representational art, the beginning of a new form of art that he termed ‘simulation’. From his perspective, art became a mere simulation of the images and objects of the contemporary world. Baudrillard also insisted that it was wrong to criticise Pop Art for its naïve Americanism, for its crass commercialism, for its flatness and banality, because these are the very characteristics whereby Pop Art reproduces the very logic of contemporary culture.
  • Baudrillard interprets Pop Art as emblematic of sign culture, of the reduction of culture to a system of signs within which art often plays a privileged role. Art is subject to the same rules and system of signification as other commodities and follows as well the codes of fashion, determination of value by the market and commodification, thus subverting its critical vocation.Pop Art for Baudrillard illustrate the ways that simulacra came to replicate reality and the process whereby it became increasingly difficult to tell the difference between simulacra and reality, in which hyperreal models came to dominate and determine art and social life. These theories of art as simulation and hyperreality developed in studies in the mid 1970s and early 1980s, collected in the volumes on Simulations (1983) and Simulations and Simulacra (194), came to influence new movements in the art world. His theories of stages of representation and simulacra were applied to art history and his analysis of simulations to art works. In particular, the trend of simulation art seemed to embody his theory of simulations, while hyperrealist art movements illustrated his theory of hyperreaity.
  • In the postmodern media and consumer society, everything becomes an image, a sign, a spectacle.In art this can be seen as an attempt to simulate art, to replicate and mix previous artistic forms and styles, and to produce ever more images and artistic objects. This eclecticism of forms and pleasures produces a situation in which art is no longer art in classical or modernist senses but is merely image, artifact, object, simulation, or commodity.
  • Pop Art attempted to cancel the older, inherited "grand tradition" of European art (and prior American art based on European traditions) to clear the way for something modern, American, and a way of embodying a new concept or philosophy of art-making and even what art is or should be in the current moment assumes and negates both the inherited European system of High Art, the New York Abstract Expressionist movement and its corollary, Colour Field Painting, and the emerging Minimalist movement and post-Pop art continues to intervene in the visual system, appropriating popular and commercial mass culture content, and compelling us to see and receive art objects, images, and materials in different, disruptive, ironic, and humorous ways
  • Pop Art was an art movement in the late 1950s and 1960s that reflected everyday life and common objects. Pop artists blurred the line between fine art and commercial art. Once you “got” Pop, you could never see a sign the same way again. And once you thought Pop, you could never see America the same way again.
  • Roy Lichtenstein, Blam, magna on canvas, 1962
  • Andy Warhol, 200 Campbells Soup Cans, acrylic on canvas, 1962Warhol’s work eliminates the idea of the hand made work of art. His works were often based on photographic images transferred directly onto the canvas with stencils.Warhol’s work makes us aware again of objects that have lost their usual recognition through constant exposure. We take a fresh look at things familiar to us, recontextualised.
  • ‘…the art world is becoming allied with the entertainment industry in both ethos and conduct; there is a growing inability to discriminate between knowledge and information; the intellectual strategies of the avant garde have been supplanted by socially irrelevant and sensationalist shock tactics; the perpetual claims for the right of ‘freedom of expression’ concealed new politically correct strictures on criticism; matters of taste have become matters of opinion, any form of judgement or evaluation; moral or aesthetic, is now offensive and derided as hopelessly anachronistic; contemporary art is collaborating with the media in turning a critical discerning public into a passive consuming mass.’
  • Pop culture involved a shift in attitudes towards the object. Objects are no longer unique. We know that most of the things we use are made in identical thousands, each indistinguishable from the rest. There was a growing tendency to value things, not for their own sake but in terms of the job they could perform, art felt the effect of this attitude.
  • Visual images play a primary role in the commerce of contemporary societies.Commodity culture and consumer societies are dependent upon the constant production and consumption of goods in order to function.Advertising images are central to the construction of cultural ideas about lifestyle, self-image, self-improvement, and glamourPop Art in engaged with mass culture in a way that did not condemn it but demonstrated their love of and pleasure in popular culture.
  • A pop artwork is a frozen event, it comes across to us instantly, and then it has made its point. We need never look at it again. It is in this sense disposable.Fine art objects are also valued because it can be endlessly reproduced for popular consumption on posters, postcards, coffee mugs, and t-shirts.Hence, the value of the original results not only from its uniqueness but also from its role in popular culture.
  • Consumer culture

    1. 1. Postmodernism in Art: an introduction<br />Consumer Culture: <br />art and temporality<br />
    2. 2. Question: How could Brillo Box be art? <br />Andy Warhol - Brillo Box, 1969<br />
    3. 3. “What Warhol’s dictum [that anything could be art] amounted to was that you cannot tell when something is a work of art just by looking at it, for there is no particular way that art has to look. The upshot was that you could not teach the meaning of art by examples.” (Danto 1992, p.5)<br />
    4. 4. The conditions that brought Pop Art into being<br />An art world increasingly driven by corporate money and marketing<br />The intertwined and interdependent relations of fashion, mass media, the entertainment industries, and whatever passes for elite culture, makes any attempt at discrimination between genres or practices, to say nothing of critical judgment, extremely difficult.<br />At the end of the 1930s, Clement Greenberg’s formulism had taught that to protect itself, its quality, or its purity from the kitsch, art had to turn on its own constitutive forms, forms that would become the sole object of theory.<br />
    5. 5. Arthur Danto<br />Beyond the Brillo Box:<br />The philosophical revolution in art:You can’t tell art just by looking<br />The revolution Danto is talking about is that the difference between art and non-art is no longer visible (even though it is still there). <br />Modernism made the revolution possible, by erasing old standards (Warhol’s soup cans wouldn’t have been possible in the 19th century)<br />
    6. 6. Question: How could Brillo Box be art?<br />Danto’s first thoughts<br />Previous standards must have been erased (by modernism)<br />There must be a theory that would let you count it as art (“an enfranchising theory”). In other words, people in the art world must at least be able to have a discussion, and be able to give reasons why such a thing should count as art, and some number of them must be persuaded by the reasons.<br />
    7. 7. How could Brillo Box be art?<br />Danto’s later thoughts <br />Danto’s two theses: <br />Brillo Box (and things like it) are examples of art as philosophy.<br />When art becomes philosophy, art history is over. <br />
    8. 8. The End of Art?<br />“Art was no longer possible in terms of a progressive historical narrative. The narrative had come to an end... [This], in fact, was a liberating idea, or I thought it could be. It liberated artists from the task of making more history. It liberated artists from having to follow the ‘correct historical line’” (Danto 1992, p.10)<br />
    9. 9. The End of Art?<br /><ul><li>According to Danto, a narrative has ended. People still make art, and no doubt always will. But art is no longer “carrying forward the history of discovery and making new breakthroughs”.These are conceptual and not just technological breakthroughs
    10. 10. In the post-historical period, anything goes. You can make any kind of art you want. During modernism, that was not true.</li></li></ul><li>
    11. 11. Peter Blake (1961) Self-Portrait With Badges<br />Eduardo Paolozzi (1970) Hollywood Wax Museum<br />
    12. 12. Pop in Britain: The Independent Group<br />Richard Hamilton. Just What Is It That Makes Today's Home So Different, So Appealing? 1956Collage<br />
    13. 13. “Topicality and a rapid rate of change are not academic in any usual sense of the word, which means a system that is static, rigid, self-perpetuating. Sensitiveness to the variables of our life and economy enable the mass arts to accompany the changes in our life far more closely than the fine arts which are a repository of time-binding values.” <br />Lawrence Alloway (1958) The Arts and the Mass Media<br />
    14. 14. Independent Group<br />Eduardo Paolozzi<br />I was a Rich Man's Plaything  1947<br />
    15. 15. Pop Art<br />“Modernism constituted itself through a conscious strategy of exclusion, an anxiety of contamination by its other: an increasingly consuming and engulfing mass culture”<br />(Huyssen 1986, p.vii)<br />Eduardo Paolozzi, BUNK! (1971) <br />
    16. 16. Avant-garde and Kitsch<br /><ul><li>“Kitsch, using for raw material the debased and academicized simulacra of genuine culture, welcomes and cultivates ... Insensitivity. Kitsch is mechanical and operates by formulas. Kitsch is vicarious experience and faked sensations.. Kitsch is the epitome of all that is spurious in the life of our times [...] Formal culture has always belonged to the [powerful and cultivated]; while the [great mass of the exploited and poor] have had to content themselves with folk or rudimentary culture, or kitsch.” (Greenberg 1992 p. 10)</li></li></ul><li>Robert Rauschenberg, Untitled, 1955<br />
    17. 17. The archeology of mass-produced myths <br />Jasper Johns<br />Flag, 1954<br />
    18. 18. The meaning of contemporary existence<br />James Rosenquist (1960-1) President Elect<br />
    19. 19. Jean Baudrillard (1929 –2007)Main Themes<br /><ul><li> He is frequently associated with post-structuralism
    20. 20. He often made arguments based on the idea that systems of meaning could only be understood in terms of their interrelation
    21. 21. The line between reality and simulation is false </li></li></ul><li>Jean BaudrillardSimulacra and Simulation<br /><ul><li>Published in 1983
    22. 22. He talks about how society has replaced the real with signs and symbols and that what we now know as reality is only a simulation of reality
    23. 23. The present age is one of “hyperreality” where meaning is eradicated and reality has been superseded by the signs of its existence.</li></li></ul><li>Simulation and simulacra<br />“[Reality, the Real,] no longer has to be rational, since it is no longer measured against some ideal or negative instance. It is nothing more than operational. In fact, since it is no longer enveloped by an imaginary, it is no longer real at all.”<br />“It is no longer a question of imitation, nor reduplication, nor even of parody. It is rather a question of substituting signs of the real for the real itself; that is, an operation to deter every real process by its operational double... A perfect descriptive machine which provides all the signs of the real and short-circuits all is vicissitudes.” (Baudrillard [1983] 2001, p.170)<br />
    24. 24. Jean BaudrillardHyperreal and Imaginary<br /><ul><li>“Disneyland is a perfect model of all the entangled orders of simulation.”
    25. 25. The imaginary world is what is supposed to make it successful, but it is made successful through its miniaturized social representation of “real” America.</li></li></ul><li>Baudrillard, the simulacra and hyperreality<br /><ul><li>Postmodern culture is a world of signs that have made a fundamental break from referring to “reality”
    26. 26. An image changes to a simulacrum as follows:
    27. 27. It is the reflection of a reality
    28. 28. It masks and denatures a reality
    29. 29. It masks the absence of a reality
    30. 30. It has no relation to a reality
    31. 31. We are left with a “desert of the real”; an incessant production of images with no attempt to ground them in reality</li></li></ul><li>Baudrillard, the simulacra and hyperreality<br />Explains the way in which simulations or copies that are replacing the real artefacts so that increasingly reality becomes redundant<br />We can longer distinguish between the real and the representation of the real <br />In Postmodernity there is no coding texts reflect other texts rather than anything real the world becomes simulated with no attachment to anything natural (eg: apples not tasting like apple drinks)<br />
    32. 32. Baudrillard:Hyper-reality<br /><ul><li>The media dominate our perception of the outside world - representing a world that is more real than that which we can experience.
    33. 33. Media = hyper-reality
    34. 34. Reality encountered in the world is a pale shadow of this.
    35. 35. Your mind loses the ability to distinguish reality from fantasy, and begins to engage with the latter without understanding what it is doing.
    36. 36. Fulfillment or happiness is found through simulation and imitation of a transient simulacrum of reality, rather than any interaction with any "real" reality.</li></li></ul><li>Pop Art<br /><ul><li> attempted to cancel the older, inherited "grand tradition" of European art (and prior American art based on European traditions) to clear the way for something modern, American, and a way of embodying a new concept or philosophy of art-making and even what art is or should be in the current moment
    37. 37. assumes and negates both the inherited European system of High Art, the New York Abstract Expressionist movement and its corollary, Colour Field Painting, and the emerging Minimalist movement
    38. 38. and post-Pop art continues to intervene in the visual system, appropriating popular and commercial mass culture content, and compelling us to see and receive art objects, images, and materials in different, disruptive, ironic, and humorous ways</li></li></ul><li>Once you “got” Pop, you could never see a sign the same way again. And once you thought Pop, you could never see America the same way again.<br /> <br />Andy Warhol from Popism: The Warhol ‘60s  <br />
    39. 39. Pop Artists used common images from <br /> everyday culture as their sources including:<br /><ul><li>Advertisements
    40. 40. Consumer goods
    41. 41. Celebrities
    42. 42. Photographs
    43. 43. Comic strips</li></ul>Roy Lichtenstein, Masterpiece, 1962<br />
    44. 44. Pop Artists used bold, flat colors and hard edge compositions adopted from commercial designs like those found in:<br /><ul><li>Billboards
    45. 45. Murals
    46. 46. Magazines
    47. 47. Newspapers</li></ul>Campbell's Soup II,1969<br />
    48. 48. Roy Lichtenstein, Blam, magna on canvas, 1962<br />
    49. 49. Andy Warhol, Two Hundred Campbell’s Soup Cans, 1962<br />
    50. 50. The art world today reflects many of the ideas, methods and materials initiated by the Pop Art movement.<br />In Untitled, 1991, Barbara Kruger uses the iconography of the American flag and hard edge graphics to pose a series of provocative questions about American cultural values.<br />Barbara Kruger, Untitled, 1991<br />Courtesy: Mary Boone Gallery, NY<br />In Rabbit, 1986, artist Jeff Koons cast a mass-produced inflatable Easter bunny in highly polished stainless steel. The sculpture became iconic of art in the 1980s. <br />Jeff Koons, Rabbit, 1986,  Jeff Koons<br />
    51. 51. ‘…the art world is becoming allied with the entertainment industry in both ethos and conduct; there is a growing inability to discriminate between knowledge and information; the intellectual strategies of the avant garde have been supplanted by socially irrelevant and sensationalist shock tactics; the perpetual claims for the right of ‘freedom of expression’ concealed new politically correct strictures on criticism; matters of taste have become matters of opinion, any form of judgement or evaluation; moral or aesthetic, is now offensive and derided as hopelessly anachronistic; contemporary art is collaborating with the media in turning a critical discerning public into a passive consuming mass.’<br />Vickery, Jonathan. Art without Administration; Radical Art and Critique after the Neo-avant-Garde, Third Text, Vol. 16, Issue 4, Routledge, UK, 2002, p401<br />
    52. 52. Pop culture involved a shift in attitudes towards the object. Objects are no longer unique. We know that most of the things we use are made in identical thousands, each indistinguishable from the rest. There was a growing tendency to value things, not for their own sake but in terms of the job they could perform, art felt the effect of this attitude.<br />Nixon/ Khrushchev ‘Kitchen Debate’ (1959)<br />
    53. 53. Consumer Culture and the Manufacturing of Desire<br /><ul><li>Visual images play a primary role in the commerce of contemporary societies.
    54. 54. Commodity culture and consumer societies are dependent upon the constant production and consumption of goods in order to function.
    55. 55. Advertising images are central to the construction of cultural ideas about lifestyle, self-image, self-improvement, and glamour
    56. 56. Pop Art engaged with mass culture in a way that did not condemn it but demonstrated their love of and pleasure in popular culture.</li></li></ul><li>Andy Warhol’s Marilyn Diptych (1962) comments on the star’s iconic status as a glamour figure and a media commodity.<br />He emphasizes that cultural icons can and must be mass-distributed in order for them to have mass appeal.<br />
    57. 57. References<br /><ul><li>Baudrillard, Jean ([1983] 2001) Simulacra and Simulations, in Jean Baudrillard: Selected Writings, Poster, M (ed.) Cambridge, Polity Press.
    58. 58. Danto, Arthur C (1992) Beyond the Brillo Box: The visual arts in post-historical perspective. London, University of California Press.
    59. 59. Danto, Arthur C (1997). ‘After The End of Art: Contemporary Art and the Pale of History’, Princeton University Press.
    60. 60. Greenberg, Clement (1989) Art and Culture: Critical Essays. Boston, Beacon Press.
    61. 61. Huyssen, Andreas (1986) After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture and Postmodernism, London, MacMillan Press LTD.</li>

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