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http://www.tate.org.uk/modern/exhibitions/carstenholler/
                                                           2
Ideology of the Modernist White Cube

•   The dominant display form in
    modernist art, especially
    within American Modernism.
•   A sacred sphere, separate
    from ‘everyday’ reality
•   A space for distinct, ‘unique’,
    elevated ‘pleasures’.
•   A space for quiet reflection,
    for transcendental
    experiences.
•   A space to exhibit singular
    wall or plinth based
    autonomous artworks.
Inside the White Cube: The Ideology of the Gallery Space
    by Brian O'Doherty




•   White walls
•   Sparse instruction or information
•   Uncomfortable seating
•   Grand imposing entrance
•   Uniform flat lighting
•   A religious silence
“….it can be seen that museums betray, in the smallest
details of their morphology and their organisation,
their true function, which is to strengthen the feeling of
belonging in some and the feeling of exclusion in
others. Everything in these civic temples in which
bourgeois society deposits its most sacred possessions
[…] combines to indicate that the world of art is as
contrary to the world of the everyday life as the sacred
is to the profane. The prohibition against touching the
objects, the religious silence which is forced upon
visitors, the puritan asceticism of the facilities, always
scarce and uncomfortable, the almost systematic
refusal of any instruction, the grandiose solemnity of
the decoration and the decorum, [..] monumental
staircases both outside and inside, everything seems
done to remind people that the transition from the
profane world to the sacred, presupposes , as
Durkheim says, ‘a genuine metamorphosis’, a radical
spiritual change…”

Pierre Bourdieu
“A Sociological Theory of Art’ in “The Pure Gaze:
Essays on Art”
printed in “The Field of Cultural Production”
•   The reaction against the ideology and power of the modernist
    white cube - it’s demand for formal purity, specialisation and
    faith in the separation of art from everyday life.
•   A belief that the experience of art offered by such spaces was
    untenably elitist and exclusionary.
•   An attempt to resist the commodification of art - its growing
    commercialisation - an anti materialistic opposition.
•   A demand for independence and freedom of expression
History / Sources of Installation Art

•   Dada / Surrealism
•   Independent group
•   Fluxus
•   Happenings
•   Performance
•   Arte Povera
•   Minimalism
•   Conceptualism
•   Land Art
Dada
The International Surrealist Exhibitions 1938, 42, 47 and 58

                                                                         “The central room of the
                                                                         exhibition made a direct
                                                                         appeal to the senses :the
                                                                         poet Benjamin Peret
                                                                         installed a coffee-roasting
                                                                         machine, which gave the
                                                                         whole space a marvellous
                                                                         smell’, while a disquieting
                                                                         recorded soundtrack of
                                                                         hysterical inmates at an
                                                                         insane asylum permeated
                                                                         the gallery..”


                                                                         Claire Bishop
                                                                         Installation Art



•   Marcel Duchamp, Installation for the exhibition of First Papers of
    Surrealism, 1942
Independent group
Happenings -immersive environments

                                                  Kaprow wasn’t installing
                                                  anything to be looked at..but
                                                  something to be played in,
                                                  participated in by visitors who
                                                  then became co-creators.




Allan Kaprow
«Push and Pull. A Furniture Comedy for Hans Hofmann»For the Museum of Modern
Art's «Hans Hofmann and His Students» traveling show, Kaprow created «Push and Pull:
A Furniture Comedy for Hans Hofmann», which consisted of two furnished rooms that
could be rearranged by visitors. (Some older women, Kaprow noted, were appalled and
began to houseclean.) Excerpt form the «Instructions»: Anyone can find or make one or
more rooms of any shape, size, proportion, and color -- then furnish them perhaps, maybe
paint some things or everything. Everyone else can come in and, if the room(s) are
furnished, they also can arrange them, accommodating themselves as they see fit. Each
day things will change.» Allan Kaprow
Minimalism
                                          ‘For the first time, I
                                          was forced to
                                          recognise the entire
                                          space, and the people
                                          in it..Until Minimalism, I
                                          had been taught , or
                                          taught myself, to look
                                          only within a frame;
                                          with Minimalism the
                                          frame broke, or at least
Robert Morris Installation at the Green   stretched’
Gallery (1963)
                                          Vito Acconci.
“Cultural confinement takes place when a curator imposes his own
limits on an art exhibition , rather than asking an artist to set his limits.
Artists are expected to fit into fraudulent categories. Some artists
imagine they've got a hold on this apparatus, which in fact has got a
hold of them. As a result, they end up supporting a cultural prison that
is out of their control. Artists themselves are not confined, but their
output is. Museums, like asylums and jails, have wards and cells- in
other words, neutral rooms called "galleries." A work of art when
placed in a gallery loses its charge, and becomes a portable object or
surface disengaged from the outside world.”

Robert Smithson
Artforum 1972
Land Art




•   Walter De Maria Earth room
•    The New York Earth Room, 1977, is the third Earth Room sculpture executed by the artist,
    the first being in Munich, Germany in 1968. The second was installed at the Hessisches
    Landesmuseum in Darmstadt, Germany in 1974. The first two works no longer exist.
Performance




              VAllie Export
Main staircase and fresco painted by Tiepolo. Wurzburg, Bavaria, Germany
Installation Art
•   The viewers focus is shifted
    from individual autonomous
    art objects (on walls or
    plinths) to the context within
    which artworks are exhibited.
•   Installations employ a range
    of materials. They are hybrid,
    adaptable artworks, allowing
    artists to use a variety of
    forms, many of which
    traditionally would have been
    seen as incompatible
    (sculpture and painting and
    video etc.)
•   Frequently installations are
    temporary in nature, built
    especially for the exhibition.
•   Installations frequently invite
    and encourage a narrative
    reading.
The Viewer
•   To see yourself seeing. To engender a
    critical, self conscious, reflexsive
    attitude to the activity of looking at art
    in a space.
•   An active viewer - directly addressed.
    The interdependence of the work of art
    and the viewer - “the active nature of
    the viewer’s role within [installations],
    and the importance of first hand
    experience , came to be regarded as an
    empowering alternative to the pacifying
    effects of mass-media.” (Bishop
    Installation Art)
•   A direct, first hand experience of the
    artwork. The viewer’s sensory
    awareness is heightened.
‘Plural Vista’s- a kaleidoscope of innumerable paintings’
•   The experience of viewing an
    installation involves exposure to
    multiple perspectives
•   This fragmented experience of
    navigating an installation finds
    parallels in the 70’s post
    structuralism ideas about the
    decentring of the subject.
•   “This discourse of decentring has
    had particularly influence on the
    writing of art critics sympathetic to
    feminist and postcolonial theory,
    who ague that fantasies of
    ‘centring’ perpetuated by dominant
    ideology are masculinist, racist and
    conservative; this is because there
    is no one ‘right’ way of looking at
    the world, nor any privileged place
    from which such judgements can be
    made.” (Bishop)                         Group Material ‘American’ 1985
Installation art’s multi-perspectivalism
                                                   was viewed as emancipatory and
                                                   in contrast to single-point perspective,
                                                   which in its centring of the viewer
                                                   in a position of mastery was for feminists
                                                   marked by patriarchal power relations.


                                                          One of the first openly female-
•   Judy Chicago Dinner Party 1974 San Francisco
    Museum of Modern Art
                                                          centered art installations,
                                                          Womanhouse - a series of
                                                          fantasy environments exploring
                                                          the various personal meanings
                                                          and gender construction of
                                                          domestic space - was created
                                                          by students of the Feminist Art
                                                          Program along with a number
                                                          of local Los Angeles, CA artists,
                                                          first conceived by Paula Harper
                                                          and spearheaded by Judy
                                                          Chicago and Miriam Schapiro.
The decentred
           viewer
‘The man who flew into space from his
                                                  apartment’ is a shattered room in a
                                                  Russian tenement, littered with the
                                                  drawings of machines invented by its
                                                  occupant, a crazy reincarnation of
                                                  Leonardo, who has seemingly catapulted
                                                  himself through the ceiling of the building.
                                                  Kabakov had started on this work while
                                                  still ‘stuck’ in Russia in the 1980’s, the
                                                  drawings and story related to the dream of
                                                  escape from the constrictions of the USSR
                                                  into the apparent freedom and liberty of
                                                  the west. The ‘promised land’. However
                                                  this work was not conceived as a simplistic
                                                  critique of life under the hardship of
                                                  communism, but in a more broader way
                                                  as a means of communicating the tension
                                                  between a desire for a utopian social
                                                  order, a rational planned management of
                                                  life, and a yearning for a far more
                                                  unrestricted, imaginative, perhaps self
                                                  destructive kind of personal freedom.


Ilya Kabakov
“the Man who flew into Spacefrom his Apartment”
1985
ABOVE: Ilya Kabakov, The Man Who Flew into Space (from the Ten Characters series), 1981–88. Wood, rubber, rope,
paper, electric lamp, chinaware, paste-up, rubble, and plaster powder, 96 x 94.9 x 147 cm. Musée Nationale d'Art Moderne,


                                           Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.
"The main actor in the
total installation, the
main centre toward
which everything is
addressed, for which
everything is intended,
is the viewer."

Ilya Kabakov
Paul McCarthy
Cady Noland
              29
Barbara Kruger
                 30
Installation art in the 1990’s
•   Installation arts rebirth in the
    1990’s - from counter
    cultural margin to the
    mainstream museum centre
•   In the increasing battle for
    audiences, installation art’s
    site specificity (you literally
    have to see it to experience
    it) means it is able to
    compete against other more
    popular mediums in terms of
    its ‘spectacle’.
•   In an art culture dominated
    by biennales this site
    specificity becomes a
    powerful force in attracting
    art tourism



                                       Mariko Mori
• “Contemporary installation is expensive and
  is generally reliant on private sponsorship and
  public funding. It is thus tied to corporate
  involvement in the arts and the
  commercialization of the museum, in a way
  that directly cuts against its origins in do-it-
  yourself artists' projects; this in turn is linked
  to the connection between globalization and
  privatization [..] which pushes museums and
  galleries into ever more spectacular display.”

•   Source: Julian Stallabrass
•   Contemporary Art - A Very Short Guide (Oxford 2006) pg. 18
Chris Ofili, Venice Biennial 2003. British Pavilion
Chris Ofili
History of video art
•   Late sixties - early video
    cameras appear on university
    campuses - they are large and
    bulky.
•   Naim June Paik uses Sony
    Portapak Camera
•   Early history closely connected
    to recording of performance -
    camera is stationary
•   Key first generation video
    artists or artists using video -
    Dan Graham, John Baldessari,
    Joan Jonas, Martha Rosler,
    bruce nauman, William
    Wegman, Vito Acconci....
Video Art
•   A time based medium.
•   Experiencing the changing
    patterns of form of video over
    time is frequently a central
    aspect of its character.
•   In theory an infinitely
    reproducible, non auratic
    medium. The hope that
    technological innovation
    would lead to democratic
    transformation in the
    production and consumption
    of art. Another instance of the    Martha Rosler “Semiotics of the Kitchen”
    dematerialisation of the art
    object - and anti-form.
•   The exhibition of video is fluid
    - from large scale projections
    filling a space, to single free
    standing works on domestic
    monitors.
•   Video art frequently positions
    itself in a ‘dialogue’ with
    mainstream television or film.
•   An interventionist practice -
    not only did it have the
    potential to reach far bigger
    audiences, it also had the
    possibility of offering a critique
    of the values and forms of
    commercial, mainstream TV
    and film- to turn TV /film
    against itself
•   A deconstruction of the
    mechanisms of manipulation,
    seduction and the resulting
    ‘rituals of passive
    consumption / one way
    transmission’.                       http://www.ubu.com/film/acconci.html

•   A form capable of offering
    alternative narratives in
    alternative spaces
•   A new form. No artistic or
    critical history.
Martha Rosler




                38
Bruce Nauman “Slow Angle Walk (Beckett Walk)” 1968
“From it’s beginnings in the 1970’s
counter culture, artists’ video and film has
sidestepped the hypnotizing conditions of
  narrative cinema precisely in order to
    critique the dominant culture’s most
   thoroughly passivizing entertainment
                   genre.”

             Brandon Taylor
               Art Today
Laurie Anderson




•   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SirOxIeuNDE
•   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0hhm0NHhCBg

                                                 41
Bruce Nauman, Violent Incident, 1986, video, 200.0 x 250.0 x 90.0

              cm, installation, Tate Gallery, London.
Bruce Nauman
“ANTHRO/SOCIO 1991.
Projection on three walls and six
monitors - the head screams “Feed Me,
Help Me / Anthropology..Help Me / Hurt
Me / Sociology…”

http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=cxmm16gqRis&feature=related
Tony Oursler
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8aqIk_ynVak
“Installation, through its use of cinematic
 techniques both quotes and deconstructs the
      experience of film: its viewing place and
conditions, its narrative sequencing and its use
of represented space. […] Artists are using the
physical apparatus of film making, the language
  of cinematography and the subject matter of
   filmic narrative as a means of exploring the
 conditions of viewing when film is taken out of
  cinema and installed in the gallery context. “
           Source: Nicolas De Oliveira Installation Art
Matthew Barney
“Cremaster”
Pipolitti Rist “Show A Leg” tramway, Glasgow 2001.

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Audience

  • 3. Ideology of the Modernist White Cube • The dominant display form in modernist art, especially within American Modernism. • A sacred sphere, separate from ‘everyday’ reality • A space for distinct, ‘unique’, elevated ‘pleasures’. • A space for quiet reflection, for transcendental experiences. • A space to exhibit singular wall or plinth based autonomous artworks.
  • 4. Inside the White Cube: The Ideology of the Gallery Space by Brian O'Doherty • White walls • Sparse instruction or information • Uncomfortable seating • Grand imposing entrance • Uniform flat lighting • A religious silence
  • 5. “….it can be seen that museums betray, in the smallest details of their morphology and their organisation, their true function, which is to strengthen the feeling of belonging in some and the feeling of exclusion in others. Everything in these civic temples in which bourgeois society deposits its most sacred possessions […] combines to indicate that the world of art is as contrary to the world of the everyday life as the sacred is to the profane. The prohibition against touching the objects, the religious silence which is forced upon visitors, the puritan asceticism of the facilities, always scarce and uncomfortable, the almost systematic refusal of any instruction, the grandiose solemnity of the decoration and the decorum, [..] monumental staircases both outside and inside, everything seems done to remind people that the transition from the profane world to the sacred, presupposes , as Durkheim says, ‘a genuine metamorphosis’, a radical spiritual change…” Pierre Bourdieu “A Sociological Theory of Art’ in “The Pure Gaze: Essays on Art” printed in “The Field of Cultural Production”
  • 6. The reaction against the ideology and power of the modernist white cube - it’s demand for formal purity, specialisation and faith in the separation of art from everyday life. • A belief that the experience of art offered by such spaces was untenably elitist and exclusionary. • An attempt to resist the commodification of art - its growing commercialisation - an anti materialistic opposition. • A demand for independence and freedom of expression
  • 7. History / Sources of Installation Art • Dada / Surrealism • Independent group • Fluxus • Happenings • Performance • Arte Povera • Minimalism • Conceptualism • Land Art
  • 9. The International Surrealist Exhibitions 1938, 42, 47 and 58 “The central room of the exhibition made a direct appeal to the senses :the poet Benjamin Peret installed a coffee-roasting machine, which gave the whole space a marvellous smell’, while a disquieting recorded soundtrack of hysterical inmates at an insane asylum permeated the gallery..” Claire Bishop Installation Art • Marcel Duchamp, Installation for the exhibition of First Papers of Surrealism, 1942
  • 10.
  • 12.
  • 13. Happenings -immersive environments Kaprow wasn’t installing anything to be looked at..but something to be played in, participated in by visitors who then became co-creators. Allan Kaprow «Push and Pull. A Furniture Comedy for Hans Hofmann»For the Museum of Modern Art's «Hans Hofmann and His Students» traveling show, Kaprow created «Push and Pull: A Furniture Comedy for Hans Hofmann», which consisted of two furnished rooms that could be rearranged by visitors. (Some older women, Kaprow noted, were appalled and began to houseclean.) Excerpt form the «Instructions»: Anyone can find or make one or more rooms of any shape, size, proportion, and color -- then furnish them perhaps, maybe paint some things or everything. Everyone else can come in and, if the room(s) are furnished, they also can arrange them, accommodating themselves as they see fit. Each day things will change.» Allan Kaprow
  • 14. Minimalism ‘For the first time, I was forced to recognise the entire space, and the people in it..Until Minimalism, I had been taught , or taught myself, to look only within a frame; with Minimalism the frame broke, or at least Robert Morris Installation at the Green stretched’ Gallery (1963) Vito Acconci.
  • 15. “Cultural confinement takes place when a curator imposes his own limits on an art exhibition , rather than asking an artist to set his limits. Artists are expected to fit into fraudulent categories. Some artists imagine they've got a hold on this apparatus, which in fact has got a hold of them. As a result, they end up supporting a cultural prison that is out of their control. Artists themselves are not confined, but their output is. Museums, like asylums and jails, have wards and cells- in other words, neutral rooms called "galleries." A work of art when placed in a gallery loses its charge, and becomes a portable object or surface disengaged from the outside world.” Robert Smithson Artforum 1972
  • 16. Land Art • Walter De Maria Earth room • The New York Earth Room, 1977, is the third Earth Room sculpture executed by the artist, the first being in Munich, Germany in 1968. The second was installed at the Hessisches Landesmuseum in Darmstadt, Germany in 1974. The first two works no longer exist.
  • 17. Performance VAllie Export
  • 18. Main staircase and fresco painted by Tiepolo. Wurzburg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 19. Installation Art • The viewers focus is shifted from individual autonomous art objects (on walls or plinths) to the context within which artworks are exhibited. • Installations employ a range of materials. They are hybrid, adaptable artworks, allowing artists to use a variety of forms, many of which traditionally would have been seen as incompatible (sculpture and painting and video etc.) • Frequently installations are temporary in nature, built especially for the exhibition. • Installations frequently invite and encourage a narrative reading.
  • 20. The Viewer • To see yourself seeing. To engender a critical, self conscious, reflexsive attitude to the activity of looking at art in a space. • An active viewer - directly addressed. The interdependence of the work of art and the viewer - “the active nature of the viewer’s role within [installations], and the importance of first hand experience , came to be regarded as an empowering alternative to the pacifying effects of mass-media.” (Bishop Installation Art) • A direct, first hand experience of the artwork. The viewer’s sensory awareness is heightened.
  • 21. ‘Plural Vista’s- a kaleidoscope of innumerable paintings’ • The experience of viewing an installation involves exposure to multiple perspectives • This fragmented experience of navigating an installation finds parallels in the 70’s post structuralism ideas about the decentring of the subject. • “This discourse of decentring has had particularly influence on the writing of art critics sympathetic to feminist and postcolonial theory, who ague that fantasies of ‘centring’ perpetuated by dominant ideology are masculinist, racist and conservative; this is because there is no one ‘right’ way of looking at the world, nor any privileged place from which such judgements can be made.” (Bishop) Group Material ‘American’ 1985
  • 22. Installation art’s multi-perspectivalism was viewed as emancipatory and in contrast to single-point perspective, which in its centring of the viewer in a position of mastery was for feminists marked by patriarchal power relations. One of the first openly female- • Judy Chicago Dinner Party 1974 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art centered art installations, Womanhouse - a series of fantasy environments exploring the various personal meanings and gender construction of domestic space - was created by students of the Feminist Art Program along with a number of local Los Angeles, CA artists, first conceived by Paula Harper and spearheaded by Judy Chicago and Miriam Schapiro.
  • 23. The decentred viewer
  • 24. ‘The man who flew into space from his apartment’ is a shattered room in a Russian tenement, littered with the drawings of machines invented by its occupant, a crazy reincarnation of Leonardo, who has seemingly catapulted himself through the ceiling of the building. Kabakov had started on this work while still ‘stuck’ in Russia in the 1980’s, the drawings and story related to the dream of escape from the constrictions of the USSR into the apparent freedom and liberty of the west. The ‘promised land’. However this work was not conceived as a simplistic critique of life under the hardship of communism, but in a more broader way as a means of communicating the tension between a desire for a utopian social order, a rational planned management of life, and a yearning for a far more unrestricted, imaginative, perhaps self destructive kind of personal freedom. Ilya Kabakov “the Man who flew into Spacefrom his Apartment” 1985
  • 25. ABOVE: Ilya Kabakov, The Man Who Flew into Space (from the Ten Characters series), 1981–88. Wood, rubber, rope, paper, electric lamp, chinaware, paste-up, rubble, and plaster powder, 96 x 94.9 x 147 cm. Musée Nationale d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.
  • 26. "The main actor in the total installation, the main centre toward which everything is addressed, for which everything is intended, is the viewer." Ilya Kabakov
  • 27.
  • 31. Installation art in the 1990’s • Installation arts rebirth in the 1990’s - from counter cultural margin to the mainstream museum centre • In the increasing battle for audiences, installation art’s site specificity (you literally have to see it to experience it) means it is able to compete against other more popular mediums in terms of its ‘spectacle’. • In an art culture dominated by biennales this site specificity becomes a powerful force in attracting art tourism Mariko Mori
  • 32. • “Contemporary installation is expensive and is generally reliant on private sponsorship and public funding. It is thus tied to corporate involvement in the arts and the commercialization of the museum, in a way that directly cuts against its origins in do-it- yourself artists' projects; this in turn is linked to the connection between globalization and privatization [..] which pushes museums and galleries into ever more spectacular display.” • Source: Julian Stallabrass • Contemporary Art - A Very Short Guide (Oxford 2006) pg. 18
  • 33. Chris Ofili, Venice Biennial 2003. British Pavilion
  • 35. History of video art • Late sixties - early video cameras appear on university campuses - they are large and bulky. • Naim June Paik uses Sony Portapak Camera • Early history closely connected to recording of performance - camera is stationary • Key first generation video artists or artists using video - Dan Graham, John Baldessari, Joan Jonas, Martha Rosler, bruce nauman, William Wegman, Vito Acconci....
  • 36. Video Art • A time based medium. • Experiencing the changing patterns of form of video over time is frequently a central aspect of its character. • In theory an infinitely reproducible, non auratic medium. The hope that technological innovation would lead to democratic transformation in the production and consumption of art. Another instance of the Martha Rosler “Semiotics of the Kitchen” dematerialisation of the art object - and anti-form. • The exhibition of video is fluid - from large scale projections filling a space, to single free standing works on domestic monitors.
  • 37. Video art frequently positions itself in a ‘dialogue’ with mainstream television or film. • An interventionist practice - not only did it have the potential to reach far bigger audiences, it also had the possibility of offering a critique of the values and forms of commercial, mainstream TV and film- to turn TV /film against itself • A deconstruction of the mechanisms of manipulation, seduction and the resulting ‘rituals of passive consumption / one way transmission’. http://www.ubu.com/film/acconci.html • A form capable of offering alternative narratives in alternative spaces • A new form. No artistic or critical history.
  • 39. Bruce Nauman “Slow Angle Walk (Beckett Walk)” 1968
  • 40. “From it’s beginnings in the 1970’s counter culture, artists’ video and film has sidestepped the hypnotizing conditions of narrative cinema precisely in order to critique the dominant culture’s most thoroughly passivizing entertainment genre.” Brandon Taylor Art Today
  • 41. Laurie Anderson • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SirOxIeuNDE • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0hhm0NHhCBg 41
  • 42. Bruce Nauman, Violent Incident, 1986, video, 200.0 x 250.0 x 90.0 cm, installation, Tate Gallery, London.
  • 43. Bruce Nauman “ANTHRO/SOCIO 1991. Projection on three walls and six monitors - the head screams “Feed Me, Help Me / Anthropology..Help Me / Hurt Me / Sociology…” http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=cxmm16gqRis&feature=related
  • 44.
  • 46.
  • 47. “Installation, through its use of cinematic techniques both quotes and deconstructs the experience of film: its viewing place and conditions, its narrative sequencing and its use of represented space. […] Artists are using the physical apparatus of film making, the language of cinematography and the subject matter of filmic narrative as a means of exploring the conditions of viewing when film is taken out of cinema and installed in the gallery context. “ Source: Nicolas De Oliveira Installation Art
  • 48.
  • 50. Pipolitti Rist “Show A Leg” tramway, Glasgow 2001.