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pomo              SculptureSunday, 7 October 2012
•    European and American        Sculpture in the 80’s responded        to the changing nature of society.   •    What th...
The 1980’S      “A zeitgeist of cynicism”Sunday, 7 October 2012
4Sunday, 7 October 2012
Two distinct responses to this...             British and .........American sculpture...                                  ...
A betrayal of arts                  avant gardism / radicalism?                                            6Sunday, 7 Octo...
HAUNTED BY THE PAST                             7Sunday, 7 October 2012
Key Features of the Modernist Avant Garde• Avant Garde art should  be above, beyond,  distinct from the  academy and marke...
Key Features of the Modernist Avant Garde         Transgression and Critique     • Socially, morally, sexually       trans...
Key Features of the Modernist Avant Garde         • Questions what is           permissible as art         • Focuses on su...
• The Readymade      •          	Key points about the readymade:                 	      	      •   The choice of object is...
12Sunday, 7 October 2012
Changes to the Avant Garde         The birth of the culture industry - the start of a cultural cold war    • The old enemi...
The cultural apocalypse    “Our culture, on its lower    and popular levels, has    plumbed abysses of vulgarity    and fa...
Advance?	        	   or   Retreat?Sunday, 7 October 2012
Visual Muzak?                                       Jules Olitski “Instant Loveland”                                      ...
Avant Gardism and Political RadicalismSunday, 7 October 2012
Avant garde practice 60’s + 70’s         Dematerialisation of the art object.         Political, anti aesthetic, anti comm...
Key Problem for the Modernist Avant Garde         • Opposition and           absorption.         • The radical is         ...
1980’s   • THE RETURN OF THE     OBJECT   • THE RETURN OF     AESTHETICS                             Bill Woodrow Blue Mon...
New British Sculpture 80’s   • Tony Cragg, Richard Deacon,     Edward Allington, Bill     Woodrow.   • Transformation of f...
Bill Woodrow           Twin-Tub with Guitar 1981   22Sunday, 7 October 2012
“What does it   mean to us on   a conscious, or   perhaps more   important,   unconscious level,   to live amongst   these...
Tony Cragg          24Sunday, 7 October 2012
Bill Woodrow,   Car Door, Armchair and Incident 1981                                                                25Sund...
Edward Allington  Oblivion Penetrated, 1982, mixed media. Collection Tate,                                                ...
“..their (New British Sculptors) attempts to render galvanised iron or     commonplace washing machines aesthetically rele...
NEW YORK ART NOW                                    SAATCHI GALLERY                                    1988    Jeff Koons,...
The Great Divider   • Timely contemporary     response to ‘new times’.     Engaged with an increasingly     consumerist cu...
“The subjects of commodity     sculpture are advertising’s     language of signs, desire,     purchase , and making     co...
“Referring to the     tendency of avant garde art to     end up “above a sofa”, Bickerton     wrote     that his wall moun...
Appropriation    •   Duchampian ‘tradition’    •   Pictures Group    •   Sampling, stealing...    •   Questions notions of...
From resistance to complicity -the neo avant garde    “Shopping Sculpture”                                      Haim Stein...
Death of the avant garde?    All art was reduced to the level of a        commodity. There was no        distance or alter...
Cometh the hour,                         cometh the man                            (devil?)                               ...
36Sunday, 7 October 2012
The Anti Avant Gardist? - Reasons to be Cheerful Part 1  Bravo Bravo - baiting the art world    An ex wall street broker  ...
• ‘Pop culture figures are vicariously alluring, and this      is why they are so affectively charged. They can only      b...
Koons’ celebrity• I have basic point of  differentiation here, between  Koons and all those ‘celebrity’  artists who have ...
Sunday, 7 October 2012
Sunday, 7 October 2012
The Anti Avant Gardist?          Reasons to be Cheerful part 2          No Irony (?)      •   While the majority of his   ...
"I like the things that I like, I like      colour, and I like materialism and I      like seductiveness. And to me      t...
Reasons to be cheerful (?) part 3- Collapsing Critical DistanceSunday, 7 October 2012
“The regimentation of human movement, activity and perception accompanies    the geometric division of space/ It is govern...
I find arts ability to guide,      direct, and manipulate to be      exciting. The only direction I      see for art is as...
Sunday, 7 October 2012
Reasons to be Cheerful Part 4          Crafty anti modernism          “my god it actually looks like he loves these…things...
Sunday, 7 October 2012
Sunday, 7 October 2012
Sunday, 7 October 2012
The unacceptability of being a Fan -’illegitimate pleasure’    Up until this point the choice    had seemed straightforwar...
Sunday, 7 October 2012
Reasons to be cheerful part 5             Talking pleasure in learning to loveSunday, 7 October 2012
•   For Koons his love of popular forms     was a form of submission, for sure,     but a submission that casts him/you   ...
Judith Williamson in her book “Consuming   Passions” in 1985 wrote about one of the   limitations of critical engagement w...
57Sunday, 7 October 2012
Made in Heaven             Disappearing of the MapSunday, 7 October 2012
Sunday, 7 October 2012
60Sunday, 7 October 2012
Sunday, 7 October 2012
Sunday, 7 October 2012
Sunday, 7 October 2012
Sunday, 7 October 2012
Sunday, 7 October 2012
Criticisms     • Complicity with the       market.     • Betrayal of arts radical,       oppositional potential.     • Sen...
• “Koons is not exploiting the   media for avant garde   purposes. He is in cahoots   with the media. He has no   message ...
68Sunday, 7 October 2012
•   Koons re-imagined or rethought some central ideas about what it           might mean to be an artist in the 1980’s.   ...
Koons as FuturologistSunday, 7 October 2012
Affective labour   • One of the ways Koons’     succeeded’ was by being     good at communicating     (cynics might say   ...
Emotional Labour  • According to Hochschild, jobs    involving emotional labor are    defined as those that:  • 1 Require f...
• Forms of emotional labour   •  Surface acting, involves "painting     on" affective displays, or faking;     Surface act...
Affective emotional labour    • ‘the management of feeling      to create a publicly      observable facial and bodily    ...
• ‘In these ways the worker    performer manufacturers the    final product: the desired    emotional state in the    custo...
• ‘Whilst early on in his career    there was some    acknowledgement of the    strategies behind the work, in    intervie...
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Sculpture

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Sculpture

  1. 1. pomo SculptureSunday, 7 October 2012
  2. 2. • European and American Sculpture in the 80’s responded to the changing nature of society. • What the writer David Harvey has called the financialisation of everything, the increasing commodification and commercialization of society and culture. • The neoliberal ideology, Thatcherism...privatisation, entrepreneurialism, meritocracy... • A society and culture increasing dominated by consumerism.. an age where everything has its price. 2Sunday, 7 October 2012
  3. 3. The 1980’S “A zeitgeist of cynicism”Sunday, 7 October 2012
  4. 4. 4Sunday, 7 October 2012
  5. 5. Two distinct responses to this... British and .........American sculpture... 5Sunday, 7 October 2012
  6. 6. A betrayal of arts avant gardism / radicalism? 6Sunday, 7 October 2012
  7. 7. HAUNTED BY THE PAST 7Sunday, 7 October 2012
  8. 8. Key Features of the Modernist Avant Garde• Avant Garde art should be above, beyond, distinct from the academy and market. The symbolic embodiment of arts freedom. An alternative and antidote to the commercial, managerial ‘spirit’ of capitalism. The power of the ‘new’. Permanent revolution. Overthrowing the tyranny of tradition. Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917Sunday, 7 October 2012
  9. 9. Key Features of the Modernist Avant Garde Transgression and Critique • Socially, morally, sexually transgressive • (Politically) critical of the status quo • Avant gardist work expresses a sense of alienation from the norms of society - explicitly and implicitly advocating a social, political revolution as well as an artistic one. • The avant garde artist is viewed as an outsider, a rebel, a martyr – at a distance from the ‘norm’.Sunday, 7 October 2012
  10. 10. Key Features of the Modernist Avant Garde • Questions what is permissible as art • Focuses on subject matter and material previously ignored as ignoble, base, vulgar or banal • Asserts that this trash or kitsch possesses aesthetic and intellectual valueSunday, 7 October 2012
  11. 11. • The Readymade • Key points about the readymade: • The choice of object is itself a creative act. • By cancelling the useful function of an object it becomes art. • The presentation and addition of a title to the object have given it a new thoughtʼ. • Duchamps readymades also asserted the principle that what is art is defined by the artist (and the institution?). • The readymade also raises questions about how important skill (technique) is, and how the value of an art object is Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917 determined, and by whom. The ultimate avant garde gesture(?) • Source: Tate Gallery Website, Definitions. 11Sunday, 7 October 2012
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  13. 13. Changes to the Avant Garde The birth of the culture industry - the start of a cultural cold war • The old enemies and old certainties of avant gardist work were threatened by the rapid growth of popular culture post 45. • For many self professed avant gardists popular, mass or kitsch was the new enemySunday, 7 October 2012
  14. 14. The cultural apocalypse “Our culture, on its lower and popular levels, has plumbed abysses of vulgarity and falsehood unknown in the discoverable past; not in Rome, not in the Far east or anywhere has daily life undergone such rapid and radical change as it has in the West in the last century and half” Clement Greenberg ‘ The Plight of Culture’Sunday, 7 October 2012
  15. 15. Advance? or Retreat?Sunday, 7 October 2012
  16. 16. Visual Muzak? Jules Olitski “Instant Loveland” 1968 Anthony Caro “Early One Morning” “Silence is assent” Carl AndreSunday, 7 October 2012
  17. 17. Avant Gardism and Political RadicalismSunday, 7 October 2012
  18. 18. Avant garde practice 60’s + 70’s Dematerialisation of the art object. Political, anti aesthetic, anti commercial in form and content. • Performance • Video • Installation • Feminist • ConceptualSunday, 7 October 2012
  19. 19. Key Problem for the Modernist Avant Garde • Opposition and absorption. • The radical is domesticated.Sunday, 7 October 2012
  20. 20. 1980’s • THE RETURN OF THE OBJECT • THE RETURN OF AESTHETICS Bill Woodrow Blue Monkey 1984 Allan McCollum.1987 20Sunday, 7 October 2012
  21. 21. New British Sculpture 80’s • Tony Cragg, Richard Deacon, Edward Allington, Bill Woodrow. • Transformation of found, ‘low’ objects from the urban environment. • Focused on issues around production and consumption, surplus and waste. • “Simple domestic objects were taken to pieces, dysfunctionally altered” (B, Taylor, Art Today) 21Sunday, 7 October 2012
  22. 22. Bill Woodrow Twin-Tub with Guitar 1981 22Sunday, 7 October 2012
  23. 23. “What does it mean to us on a conscious, or perhaps more important, unconscious level, to live amongst these and many other completely new materials?” Tony Cragg Tony Cragg Kahzernarbeit 1985 23Sunday, 7 October 2012
  24. 24. Tony Cragg 24Sunday, 7 October 2012
  25. 25. Bill Woodrow, Car Door, Armchair and Incident 1981 25Sunday, 7 October 2012
  26. 26. Edward Allington Oblivion Penetrated, 1982, mixed media. Collection Tate, 26Sunday, 7 October 2012
  27. 27. “..their (New British Sculptors) attempts to render galvanised iron or commonplace washing machines aesthetically relevant could be registered as critical of 1980’s economic and social policy that was obsessed with encouraging consumerist attitudes to every object and service. Assigning status to derelict plywood or Formica could be taken as a sort of mischievous play in territory that the new social policy tended to ignore: the forlorn surfaces of public institutions , rubbish heaps, and the neglected spaces of the inner city street” Brandon Taylor, Art of Today 27Sunday, 7 October 2012
  28. 28. NEW YORK ART NOW SAATCHI GALLERY 1988 Jeff Koons, Robert Gober, Peter Halley, Haim Steinbach, Philip Taaffe and Caroll Dunham 28Sunday, 7 October 2012
  29. 29. The Great Divider • Timely contemporary response to ‘new times’. Engaged with an increasingly consumerist culture. • Sign of decadence and complicity of American artistic culture, its selling out to the values of mammon. Jeff Koons Basketball tank: 1985 29Sunday, 7 October 2012
  30. 30. “The subjects of commodity sculpture are advertising’s language of signs, desire, purchase , and making collections. It is clean and shiny art because it is protected from touch and use and available only to sight [..] it belongs to the world of ownership and exchange” Andrew Causey, Sculpture Since 1945 Ashley Bickerton ‘Le Art’ 1987 30Sunday, 7 October 2012
  31. 31. “Referring to the tendency of avant garde art to end up “above a sofa”, Bickerton wrote that his wall mounted art ‘imitates the posture of its own corruption...attempting to forward the question of precisely where conflict exists in this morass of ideal, compromise and duplicity” B, Taylor, Art Today 31Sunday, 7 October 2012
  32. 32. Appropriation • Duchampian ‘tradition’ • Pictures Group • Sampling, stealing... • Questions notions of skill, authorship and artistic value. 32Sunday, 7 October 2012
  33. 33. From resistance to complicity -the neo avant garde “Shopping Sculpture” Haim Steinbach pink accent 2, 1987. Two “schizoid” rubber masks, two chrome trash receptacles, and four “Alessi” tea kettles on chrome, aluminum and wood shelf. Allan McCollumSunday, 7 October 2012
  34. 34. Death of the avant garde? All art was reduced to the level of a commodity. There was no distance or alternative space for the kind of critical, oppositional ‘alternative’ position modernist avant gardist’s had adopted. The modernist idea of radical art being aligned with the ‘left’, seemed here to be dispensed with. “the cynical inversion of the old avant garde device of the Haim Steinbach readymade” Untitled (3 drinking containers), 1992 plastic, laminated wood shelf with objects Foster, H, Art since 1900 21 x 23 x 7 cmSunday, 7 October 2012
  35. 35. Cometh the hour, cometh the man (devil?) 35Sunday, 7 October 2012
  36. 36. 36Sunday, 7 October 2012
  37. 37. The Anti Avant Gardist? - Reasons to be Cheerful Part 1 Bravo Bravo - baiting the art world An ex wall street broker Koons actively sought to provoke a kind of moral queasiness and repulsion amongst the art world intelligentsia. In his personae, his unapologetic embrace of self promotion, his relaxed attitude to openly discussing money (the elephant in the room for the liberal, politically correct component of the art world) and his dedication to opening up the Pandora’s box of taste and class, he ‘succeeded’ in provoking the kind of shock, irritation and disgust typical of the ‘modernist’ avant gardist.Sunday, 7 October 2012
  38. 38. • ‘Pop culture figures are vicariously alluring, and this is why they are so affectively charged. They can only be grasped through a series of paradoxes’ • Steven Shavirio, Post Cinematic Affect, Zero books 2010.Sunday, 7 October 2012
  39. 39. Koons’ celebrity• I have basic point of differentiation here, between Koons and all those ‘celebrity’ artists who have followed him (Tracey Emin, Damien Hirst) , namely that for my perspective Koons presence, his personae , his performances within the mass media, within celebrity culture were always ‘unstable’.• To be critically gone in the mainstream...... Sunday, 7 October 2012
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  42. 42. The Anti Avant Gardist? Reasons to be Cheerful part 2 No Irony (?) • While the majority of his contemporaries used or appropriated objects from consumer culture in an ironic, critical reflection of the soullessness of consumer culture, Koons openly stated he picked figures like Popples because he had a deep affection for them - because he responded to them -because he ‘loved them’.Sunday, 7 October 2012
  43. 43. "I like the things that I like, I like colour, and I like materialism and I like seductiveness. And to me these things are absolutely beautiful. And if I didnt think these things were beautiful and they werent spiritual to me I wouldnt work with them". Jeff KoonsSunday, 7 October 2012
  44. 44. Reasons to be cheerful (?) part 3- Collapsing Critical DistanceSunday, 7 October 2012
  45. 45. “The regimentation of human movement, activity and perception accompanies the geometric division of space/ It is governed by the use of time-keeping devices, the application of standards of normalcy, and the police apparatus. In the factory, human movement is made to conform to rigorous spatial and temporal geometries.” Peter HalleySunday, 7 October 2012
  46. 46. I find arts ability to guide, direct, and manipulate to be exciting. The only direction I see for art is as a tool for manipulating it public on every level - a political tool. I dont know if this places art above, below or parallel with advertising. [...] The techniques are the same. The audience is the same. I can never tell the difference between them and us. We are them. I am mass as much as I am I. Jeff KoonsSunday, 7 October 2012
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  48. 48. Reasons to be Cheerful Part 4 Crafty anti modernism “my god it actually looks like he loves these…things!” • In 1986/7 the material execution of Koons work radically changed. While artists such as Haim Steinbach continued to use readymade’s, Koons went to extraordinary lengths and costs to have everyday toys and trinkets remade and enlarged by American and Northern European craftsmen .Sunday, 7 October 2012
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  52. 52. The unacceptability of being a Fan -’illegitimate pleasure’ Up until this point the choice had seemed straightforward enough for an artist appropriating popular culture: either you brought suspicion on yourself or you brought suspicion on popular culture. In all appropriationist work suspicion fell squarely on the culture outside art. Despite the talk of postmodern art existing in a transformed position in the culture, there was still the old prejudice that art was a superior form of culture, and therefore the only cultural form in a privileged enough position to criticise.Sunday, 7 October 2012
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  54. 54. Reasons to be cheerful part 5 Talking pleasure in learning to loveSunday, 7 October 2012
  55. 55. • For Koons his love of popular forms was a form of submission, for sure, but a submission that casts him/you neither as victim nor victimiser, but in some way both. To think of Koons relationship to popular culture, as a form of love is to have him entangled in the operations of power, exploitation and seduction to which he is not blind but submits nonetheless. This is the case, anyway, so long as it isnt assumed that love is always sweet, never critical, and can stomach no tension. Koons love for Popples, in this view, neednt mean that he was utterly naive, nor that consumer culture is innocent, presents no danger, or has no unctuous effects. Rather, Koons falls for popular culture despite himself, and despite its subjection of him.Sunday, 7 October 2012
  56. 56. Judith Williamson in her book “Consuming Passions” in 1985 wrote about one of the limitations of critical engagement with the products of consumer culture. Williamson noted, that while it was more than common to discuss how commodities channel our desires for ‘the need for change, the sense that there must be something else’ into ‘the need for a new purchase, a new hairstyle, a new coat of paint’ what was always lacking in this discussion was any sense of how ‘consuming products does give a thrill, a sense of both belonging and being different’. In essence, there’s no obvious understanding of why the products are successful as products. Why there are attractive, entertaining - pleasurable. Williamson regarded this as something of a major handicap to unraveling and examining the global success of the entertainment industry. 56Sunday, 7 October 2012
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  58. 58. Made in Heaven Disappearing of the MapSunday, 7 October 2012
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  66. 66. Criticisms • Complicity with the market. • Betrayal of arts radical, oppositional potential. • Sentimental, ‘frivolous’, celebration of vacuous, banal, ‘kitschy’ culture 66Sunday, 7 October 2012
  67. 67. • “Koons is not exploiting the media for avant garde purposes. He is in cahoots with the media. He has no message . It’s self advertisement, and I find that repulsive. ‘ • Rosalind Krauss quoted in Pop LIfe, Tate Gallery. 67Sunday, 7 October 2012
  68. 68. 68Sunday, 7 October 2012
  69. 69. • Koons re-imagined or rethought some central ideas about what it might mean to be an artist in the 1980’s. • He thoroughly dispensed with the idea that artists could or should operate outside the entertainment or culture industry. For Koons arts absorption into entertainment was inevitable and they might as well seize the opportunities that would arise for making art more popular, accessible and visible. • While he rejected what he saw as outmoded ideas about how art should be made (i.e solely by one artist) his use of other craftsmen to fabricate his work created art works where the technical and material quality of the finished work was central. We could say his postmodernism was anti-modernist in this respect. • His aesthetic and moral ‘transgressions’, his ‘shocks’ weren’t always typically avant gardist in tone or content. The shocks that accompanied his work arose from his assertion of loving popularSunday, 7 October 2012
  70. 70. Koons as FuturologistSunday, 7 October 2012
  71. 71. Affective labour • One of the ways Koons’ succeeded’ was by being good at communicating (cynics might say operating). • In this respect he was a very good at ‘affective labour’ or ‘emotional labour’.Sunday, 7 October 2012
  72. 72. Emotional Labour • According to Hochschild, jobs involving emotional labor are defined as those that: • 1 Require face-to-face or voice- to-voice contact with the public; • 2. Require the worker to produce an emotional state in another person; • 3. Allow the employees to exercise a degree of control over their emotional activities. • Display rules refer to the organizational rules about what kind of emotion to express on the job. 72Sunday, 7 October 2012
  73. 73. • Forms of emotional labour • Surface acting, involves "painting on" affective displays, or faking; Surface acting involves employees presenting emotions on his or her "surface", without actually feeling them. The employee in this case puts on a facade as if the emotions are felt, like a "persona". • Deep acting wherein they modify their inner feelings to match the emotion expressions the organization requires.Sunday, 7 October 2012
  74. 74. Affective emotional labour • ‘the management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display the emotional labourer is required to ‘induce or suppress feeling in order to sustain the outward countenance that produces the proper state of mind in others’ • Ivor Southwood, Non Stop Inertia, pg. 23Sunday, 7 October 2012
  75. 75. • ‘In these ways the worker performer manufacturers the final product: the desired emotional state in the customer. A large part of the effort of emotional labour is taken up with creating the impression that the act is itself natural and effortless because to show that it is contrived would invalidate the exchange and spoil the product” • Ivor Southwood,Non Stop Inertia, pg24Sunday, 7 October 2012
  76. 76. • ‘Whilst early on in his career there was some acknowledgement of the strategies behind the work, in interviews and statements made in the years since, Koons has persistently stayed in character with an a-critical tone...’ • Capitalist Realness Catherine Wood quoted in Pop LIfe, Tate Gallery. 76Sunday, 7 October 2012

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