SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies (2007) 11, 106–110
Bodywork and
Journal of
Movement Therapies
LITERATURE REVIEW
The effectiveness of Pilates training in healthy
adults: An appraisal of the research literature
Lisa Marie Bernardo, Ph.D., M.P.H., R.N., H.F.I.Ã
University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing, 225 Victoria Building, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, 412 624-7637, USA
Received 13 July 2006; accepted 8 August 2006
KEYWORDS
Pilates;
Healthy adults;
Research options;
Literature review
Summary Pilates has gained momentum and attention in the past 5 years as a
modality for improving flexibility, strength and mind–body awareness. What is not
revealed, however, is the scientific basis for this practice. The two-fold purpose of
this review was to (1) critically appraise published research on Pilates in healthy
adults and (2) propose future research options for this method in healthy adults. An
extensive literature search was conducted, using Pilates as the search word. A total
of 277 articles were found. Thirty-nine articles and abstracts were published in
refereed, professional journals, of which there were only three clinical trials in
healthy adults. The strengths of these three clinical trials were the (1) use of
established measurements for stated outcomes and (2) documented need for
research in this area. The weaknesses were (1) lack of true experimental designs, (2)
small sample sizes, and (3) lack of a defined method of Pilates. There is cautious
support for the effectiveness of Pilates in improving flexibility, abdominal and
lumbo-pelvic stability and muscular activity, primarily due to a lack of sound
research methodology surrounding each study. Utilizing a true experimental design
and stating the Pilates method utilized can strengthen and improve future Pilates
research in healthy adults.
& 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Introduction
Pilates is a mind–body fitness program gaining in
popularity and acceptance within the fitness com-
munity. Named after its founder, Joseph H. Pilates,
and detailed in his publications (Pilates, 1934,
1945), this fitness program incorporates the use of
special apparatus and equipment into movement
routines designed to enhance flexibility, strength,
and coordination. Pilates is advocated as a bene-
ficial exercise method in adult populations (Rey-
neke, 1993; LaBrusciano and Lonergan, 1996;
Latey, 2001, 2002; Stanko, 2002; Muscolino and
Cipriani, 2003a, b; Smith and Smith, 2004).
With this ongoing interest in and support for
Pilates as an exercise method in healthy adults, an
established scientific framework based on evidence
ARTICLE IN PRESS
www.intl.elsevierhealth.com/journals/jbmt
1360-8592/$ - see front matter & 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jbmt.2006.08.006
ÃTel.: +1 412 624 7637; fax: +1 412 383 7293.
E-mail address: LBE100@pitt.edu.
from research studies would be expected. To learn
more about the scientific basis for Pilates, a
literature search and critical appraisal of the
published research were undertaken to answer
the question: What is the evidence for Pilates as a
method of exercise in healthy adults?
Method
An electronic and paper literature search was
conducted using the OVID search engine. Data
bases searched were Medline, Allied and Comple-
mentary Medicine (AMED), Cumulative Index to
Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL),
SportsInfo, and the Cochrane Database of Systema-
tic Reviews. Journal articles published from
1990–2005 were searched. The key word searched
was Pilates. Articles were retrieved for appraisal if
they were human subjects research published in
refereed, professional journals. A total of 277
articles and abstracts were identified. No meta-
analyzes or systematic reviews were found. Table 1
outlines the distribution of published Pilates arti-
cles.
Only 10 (3.9%) research studies were published in
refereed, professional journals. Of these, five
research studies were conducted in dancers and
gymnasts (Fitt et al., 1993; Parrott, 1993; McLain et
al., 1997; Hutchinson et al., 1998; McMillan et al.,
1998); two studies were conducted in special
populations (Savage, 2005; Mallery et al., 2003);
and three studies (1.08%) conducted in healthy
adults (Herrington and Davies, 2005; Segal et al.,
2004; Petrofsky et al., 2005). These three studies
are reviewed and appraised.
Literature review of the three published
studies
Herrington and Davies (2005) conducted an obser-
vational study to assess and compare the contrac-
tion of the transversus abdominis muscle among
healthy females trained in Pilates, traditional
abdominal curls and a control group. Thirty-six
healthy females (mean age ¼ 32.6 years) served as
the study subjects who were divided into three
groups. Twelve were categorized as Pilates trained,
based on their attendance of one or two 45-min
Pilates classes each week for a 6-month period.
Another 12 subjects were categorized as abdominal
curl trained, having attended 15-min abdominal
curl classes, once or twice weekly for 6 months.
The last 12 subjects did not practice Pilates or
abdominal curls. To indirectly measure contraction
of the transversus abdominis muscle and to monitor
lumbar–pelvic stability, a stabilizer pressure bio-
feedback unit (Chattanooga Group Inc.) was em-
ployed. A tester, blinded to group category,
conducted the measurements.
Results indicated that 10 (83%) Pilates group, 4
(33.3%) abdominal curl group and three (25%)
control group subjects passed the transversus
abdominis stability test. Overall, less than half of
the 36 subjects (n ¼ 17, 47%) passed this test. For
the lumbar–pelvic stability test, only 5 (42%) Pilates
group subjects passed this test, with all others
failing this test, leaving 14% overall who were able
to stabilize the lumbar–pelvic area. The authors
concluded that females who train in Pilates may be
better able to recruit and utilize their deep
abdominal muscles and stabilize the pelvic area
compared to those not trained in Pilates.
Segal et al. (2004) conducted an observational,
prospective, repeated measures study to assess the
effects of Pilates training on flexibility, body
composition, and health status of healthy adults.
A power analysis was calculated for a sample size of
16 subjects. Adult members of a health club (31
women (average age ¼ 41 years) and one man (age
42 years)) were assigned into classes of 8–12
students. All subjects participated in 1-h weekly
Pilates mat class for 6 months. Exercises progressed
in difficulty. Outcomes measured at baseline, 2, 4
and 6 months were composite flexibility (fingertip-
to-floor), body composition (height, body mass
index (BMI), body mass, segmental fat, and lean
body mass); perception of health and function
ARTICLE IN PRESS
Table 1 Distribution of published Pilates literature.
No meta-analyses or systematic reviews were found
Seventy-one (25.6%) no match in the Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory
Four (1.4%) published in foreign languages
Eighty-five (30.7%) trade magazines
Seventy-eight (28.1%) printed in consumer publications (magazines, newspapers, and newsletters)
Thirty-nine articles and abstracts (14%) published in refereed, professional journals
N ¼ 277.
Effectiveness of Pilates training in healthy adults 107
(American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS)
outcomes questionnaire); and event log (self-
report of problems with the Pilates class). Compo-
site flexibility improved from baseline to 6 months
ðPo0:01Þ. There was no statistically significant
change in body composition or in the AAOS
questionnaire. Self-reported event log had themes
of adverse events with pain or discomfort in back
and neck muscles ðn ¼ 6Þ. Positive comments were
improved posture, improved flexibility, and cessa-
tion of morning stiffness, among others. The
authors concluded that Pilates exercises may
improve truncal flexibility in healthy adults.
Petrofsky et al., (2005) conducted an observa-
tional study to compare Pilates exercises with and
without a resistance band, and to compare these
exercises against those performed with commercial
exercise equipment. Six healthy subjects, four
males and two females, (mean age ¼ 25.3 years)
were enrolled. Muscle activity was measured during
the exercises with electromyogram (EMG), and this
technique was validated in other studies. The
resistance band used during the Pilate exercises
was an oblong ring (Zone Pilates Sculpter, Svvier LP,
Santa Fe Springs, CA), and weight lifting was done
on a Keiser weight lifting system (Wilmington, DE).
Each subject participated in all exercises. Subjects
first completed Pilates exercises without the
resistance band, then completed Pilates exercises
with the resistance band. Pilates exercises included
squats, leg adduction, and hip extension. Once EMG
was assessed with the Pilates exercises, the
subjects completed commercial equipment exer-
cises on the quads, inner outer thigh, and ham-
string machines. The weight applied on each
exercise machine was compared with the results
of EMG activity during the Pilates exercises
completed with and without the resistance band.
The results showed little muscular activity during
the Pilates exercises without the resistance band,
averaging 20% of the total muscle activity for the
leg muscles. Pilates exercises with the resistance
band increased the muscle activity by at least 50%.
Pilates exercises with and without the resistance
band exercised multiple muscle groups simulta-
neously. Pilates may be beneficial in those seeking a
resistance workout that places less stress on the
joints and muscles.
Appraisal of the research studies
These three studies reflect the extent of current
published research in healthy adult subjects using
Pilates. Each study had its strengths, weaknesses,
and limitations. The theory behind each of these
studies—the effect of Pilates exercises on muscle
activity, flexibility, body composition, and muscular
strength—were well defined. Subjects across all
studies were in a similar age range, with females
over-represented, and all studies used the subjects
as their own controls. The instruments used to
measure study outcomes were valid and reliable, as
demonstrated by data from previous studies. Intra-
rater reliability was established. Subject consent
was obtained, and study protocols appeared to be
followed consistently. Overall, data analyses ap-
peared to be adequate for the level of data
collected. The researchers drew their conclusions
from their study data and did not go beyond their
findings in translating their findings into practice.
All researchers agreed that additional research in
Pilates is needed. These strengths add to the body
of empirical evidence needed in the application of
Pilates exercises and outcomes in a healthy adult
population.
Numerous weaknesses were found across the
studies. Aside from Segal et al. (2004) who
recruited from a health club, it is unclear how
subjects were recruited into the studies by Her-
rington and Davies (2005) and Petrofsky et al.
(2005). All sample sizes were very small, which
does not allow for generalizability of the findings.
Only Segal et al. (2004) calculated sample size to
determine the effect needed to measure differ-
ences in fitness attributes before and after the
Pilates interventions.
The Pilates exercises themselves were a source
of concern. Segal et al. (2004) utilized the
Stott–Pilates method, and the classes were taught
by a Stott–Pilates certified instructor. The Stott–Pi-
lates method is taught through an established
curriculum, and instructors follow a prescribed
sequencing of exercises similar to that taught by
Pilates himself. The method of Pilates utilized in
the remaining two studies is unclear, leaving doubt
as to whether or not Pilates actually was per-
formed. Herrington and Davies (2005) enrolled
subjects who self-reported their practice of Pilates,
but there was no verification of the Pilates method
practiced by the subjects or their ability to perform
Pilates exercises. Similarly, Petrofsky et al. (2005)
listed Pilates exercises as muscle groups worked
(leg adduction, hip extension), and the translation
into a Pilates exercise is not given. Readers, then,
may arrive at or draw different assumptions about
what Pilates method was practiced.
The lack of a defined method of Pilates, the small
sample sizes, and the lack of randomization
influenced the studies’ results. While Segal et al.
(2004) utilized a defined Pilates method and
ARTICLE IN PRESS
L.M. Bernardo108
specified a power calculation, randomization and a
control group were lacking (although each subject
served as his/her own control). Their findings
support increased flexibility and no changes in
body composition or self-reported health following
a period of Pilates training. However, positive
comments about the benefits of Pilates in their
activities of daily living were provided. These
results show promise for future large-scale studies
in Pilates training. Herrington and Davies (2005)
showed that the Pilates-trained subjects had the
highest passing rates for transversus abdominis
isolation and lumbar–pelvic stability compared to
those subjects trained in abdominal curls or those
in the control group. While subject randomization
was not possible, the randomizing of the measure-
ments for transversus abdominis isolation and
lumbar–pelvic stability would have avoided bias in
the test measurements and perhaps the results.
Because the Pilates method used by the Pilates
subjects was not explicated or tested, it cannot be
said for certain that the subjects’ results were due
to Pilates training. Similarly, Petrofsky et al. (2005)
did not randomize their testing order and kept
standard the order of Pilates exercises, Pilates
exercises with the resistance band and then weight
machines. The order of muscle activity also was
kept standard. Again, the method of Pilates utilized
by subjects when completing the exercises as well
as the subjects’ prior experience with or profi-
ciency in Pilates was not stated, allowing for
uncertainty as to whether or not Pilates exercises
were executed or executed properly.
Implications for Practice
Despite the hundreds of published articles on
Pilates, the extant scientific evidence for Pilates
is limited. An extensive literature search found 277
Pilates articles published in the past 14 years; only
10 (3.6%) were human subjects research and of
these, only three were conducted in healthy adults.
The research presented in this appraisal was
published very recently (2003–2005), at a height
in the Pilates movement. Ideally, one would expect
to find a significant number of well-controlled
research studies in healthy adults conducted at
universities, or at fitness centers, Pilates studios,
health clubs, rehabilitation or other settings.
Remarkably, very few research studies have been
published where Pilates has been rigorously and
empirically tested and evaluated, in any popula-
tion. This lack of published research is disappoint-
ing, considering the popularity of Pilates, the
numerous established curricula for instructor and
student training, and how it is adapted and taught
in a variety of settings.
Overall, each study’s purpose and questions were
well stated. The rationale for studying Pilates was
thorough, and documentation of the need for such
study was clear. All investigators stated that Pilates
warranted further study in healthy adults. The lack
of randomization, either in group assignment or in
outcome measurement, raises questions of bias.
This bias cannot be discounted, despite similarities
in gender (mostly females) and age (adult) across
the studies. Furthermore, there was no direct
measurement of the subjects’ prior training in or
skill level with executing Pilates exercises.
A limitation of this appraisal is that articles may
have been missed that were not available through
the OVID search engine. Unpublished master’s
theses and doctoral dissertations were not obtained
through this search, and these studies may hold
additional data of interest to researchers and
practitioners.
Conclusion
This appraisal of three human subjects research
studies utilizing Pilates finds support for the
effectiveness of Pilates in healthy adults to improve
flexibility, transversus abdominis activation, lum-
bar–pelvic stability, and muscular activity. This
support is given cautiously, due to small sample
sizes, lack of true experimental research designs,
and bias in subject recruitment and measurement.
The lack of specificity and description of the Pilates
method used in two of the studies leaves room for
doubt as to how Pilates was defined and practiced.
Researchers and practitioners alike agree that
there is a lack of, and need for, published research
on the effectiveness of Pilates in healthy adults
(Fitt et al., 1993; Brown, 1999; Stone, 2000; Lange
et al., 2000). Human subjects research must be
conducted with Pilates to establish an evidence
base for its practice.
Well-designed experimental studies that rando-
mize subjects, utilize a control group, define the
Pilate method utilized, calculate statistical power
and sample size, and using valid and reliable
methods to measure outcomes, would build a body
of scientific evidence of Pilates’ efficacy and
effectiveness in practice with healthy adults.
References
Brown, S., 1999. Pilates: man or method. Journal of Dance
Medicine and Science 3 (4), 137–138.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
Effectiveness of Pilates training in healthy adults 109
Fitt, S., Sturman, J., McClain-Smith, S., 1993. Effects of Pilates-
based conditioning on strength, alignment, and range of
motion in university ballet and modern dance majors.
Kinesiology and Medicine for Dance 16 (1), 36–51.
Herrington, L., Davies, R., 2005. The influence of Pilates training
on the ability to contract the transversus abdominis muscle in
asymptomatic individuals. Journal of Bodywork and Move-
ment Therapies 9, 52–57.
Hutchinson, M., Tremain, L., Christiansen, J., Beitzel, J., 1998.
Improving leaping ability in elite rhythmic gymnasts.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 30 (10),
1543–1547.
LaBrusciano, G., Lonergan, S., 1996. Pilates: a method ahead of
its time. Strength and Conditioning August, 74–75.
Lange, C., Unnithan, V., Larkam, E., Latta, 2000. Maximizing the
benefits of Pilates-inspired exercise for learning functional
motor skills. Journal of Body Work and Movement Therapies 4
(2), 99–108.
Latey, P., 2001. The Pilates method: history and philosophy.
Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 5 (4),
275–282.
Latey, P., 2002. Updating the principles of the Pilates meth-
od—part 2. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 6
(2), 94–101.
Mallery, L., MacDonald, E., Hubley-Kozey, C., Earl, M., Rock-
wood, K., MacKnight, C., 2003. The feasibility of performing
resistance exercise with acutely ill hospitalized older adults.
BMC Geriatrics 3 (3), 3.
McLain, S., Carter, C., Abel, J., 1997. The effect of a
conditioning and alignment program on the measurement of
supine jump height and pelvic alignment when using the
current concepts reformer. Journal of Dance Medicine and
Science 1 (4), 149–154.
McMillan, A., Proteau, L., Lebe, R., 1998. The effect of Pilates-
based training on dancers’ dynamic posture. Journal of Dance
Medicine and Science 2 (3), 101–107.
Muscolino, J., Cipriani, S., 2003a. Pilates and the ‘‘power-
house’’—I. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8,
15–24.
Muscolino, J., Cipriani, S., 2003b. Pilates and the ‘‘power-
house’’—II. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8,
122–130.
Parrott, A., 1993. The effects of Pilates technique and aerobic
conditioning on dancers’ technique and aesthetic. Kinesiol-
ogy and Medicine for Dance 15 (2), 45–64.
Petrofsky, J., Morris, A., Bonacci, J., Hanson, A., Jorritsma, R., Hill,
J., 2005. Muscle use during exercise: a comparison of conven-
tional weight equipment to Pilates with and without a resistive
exercise device. The Journal of Applied Research 5 (1), 160–173.
Pilates, J., 1934. Your Health. Presentation Dynamics Inc.,
Incline Village, NV.
Pilates, J., 1945. Return to life Through Contrology. Presentation
Dynamics Inc., Incline Village, NV.
Reyneke, D., 1993. The Pilates method of exercise and
rehabilitation. Physiotherapy in Sport 18 (3), 19.
Savage, A., 2005. Is lumbopelvic stability training (using the
Pilates model) an effective treatment strategy for women
with stress urinary incontinence? A review of the literature
and report of a pilot study. Journal of the Association of
Chartered Physiotherapists in Women’s Health 97, 33–48.
Segal, N., Hein, J., Basford, J., 2004. The effects of Pilates
training on flexibility and body composition: an observational
study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 85,
1977–1981.
Smith, K., Smith, E., 2004. Integrating Pilates-based core
strengthening into older adult fitness programs. Topics in
Geriatric Rehabilitation 21 (1), 57–67.
Stanko, E., 2002. The role of modified Pilates in women’s health
physiotherapy. Journal of the Association of Chartered
Physiotherapists in Women’s Health 90, 21–32.
Stone, J., 2000. The Pilates method. Athletic Therapy Today 5
(2), 56.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
L.M. Bernardo110

More Related Content

What's hot

NEPS Lab Review
NEPS Lab ReviewNEPS Lab Review
NEPS Lab Review
Melissa Anderson
 
Hs rehab
Hs rehabHs rehab
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
spastudent
 
TC_poster
TC_posterTC_poster
TC_poster
Stan Baltsezak
 
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI)
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI)International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI)
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI)
inventionjournals
 
Comparison of postexercise nutrition
Comparison of postexercise nutritionComparison of postexercise nutrition
Comparison of postexercise nutrition
Antony Morales
 
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizadoPilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
[5] poster epainos
[5] poster epainos[5] poster epainos
[5] poster epainos
Nikos Tzormpatzakis
 
Pilates and motor control
Pilates and motor controlPilates and motor control
Pilates and motor control
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Effects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy Children
Effects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy ChildrenEffects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy Children
Effects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy Children
spastudent
 
SR - Presentation
SR - PresentationSR - Presentation
SR - Presentation
Jordan Hatcher
 
Associations of Obesity Indices with Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Bengali Sch...
Associations of Obesity Indices with Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Bengali Sch...Associations of Obesity Indices with Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Bengali Sch...
Associations of Obesity Indices with Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Bengali Sch...
SSR Institute of International Journal of Life Sciences
 
Bia poster
Bia poster Bia poster
Bia poster
Shreya Korgaonkar
 
the effectiveness of Pilates for low-back pain
the effectiveness of Pilates for low-back painthe effectiveness of Pilates for low-back pain
the effectiveness of Pilates for low-back pain
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Effect of core strength training and yogasana practices on selected health re...
Effect of core strength training and yogasana practices on selected health re...Effect of core strength training and yogasana practices on selected health re...
Effect of core strength training and yogasana practices on selected health re...
IJARIIT
 
Antalya poster presentation
Antalya poster presentationAntalya poster presentation
Antalya poster presentation
perparim ferunaj
 
Influencing factors upon the reliability of physical proficiency test
Influencing factors upon the reliability of physical proficiency testInfluencing factors upon the reliability of physical proficiency test
Influencing factors upon the reliability of physical proficiency test
IOSR Journals
 
The effects of muscle action, repetition duration, and loading
The effects of muscle action, repetition duration, and loadingThe effects of muscle action, repetition duration, and loading
The effects of muscle action, repetition duration, and loading
Humberto Gomes
 
Conference presentation
Conference presentationConference presentation
Conference presentation
Noel Sritharan
 
Does Wearing an Activity Monitor Affect Activity Levels
Does Wearing an Activity Monitor Affect Activity LevelsDoes Wearing an Activity Monitor Affect Activity Levels
Does Wearing an Activity Monitor Affect Activity Levels
David Queen
 

What's hot (20)

NEPS Lab Review
NEPS Lab ReviewNEPS Lab Review
NEPS Lab Review
 
Hs rehab
Hs rehabHs rehab
Hs rehab
 
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
 
TC_poster
TC_posterTC_poster
TC_poster
 
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI)
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI)International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI)
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI)
 
Comparison of postexercise nutrition
Comparison of postexercise nutritionComparison of postexercise nutrition
Comparison of postexercise nutrition
 
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizadoPilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
 
[5] poster epainos
[5] poster epainos[5] poster epainos
[5] poster epainos
 
Pilates and motor control
Pilates and motor controlPilates and motor control
Pilates and motor control
 
Effects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy Children
Effects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy ChildrenEffects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy Children
Effects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy Children
 
SR - Presentation
SR - PresentationSR - Presentation
SR - Presentation
 
Associations of Obesity Indices with Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Bengali Sch...
Associations of Obesity Indices with Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Bengali Sch...Associations of Obesity Indices with Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Bengali Sch...
Associations of Obesity Indices with Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Bengali Sch...
 
Bia poster
Bia poster Bia poster
Bia poster
 
the effectiveness of Pilates for low-back pain
the effectiveness of Pilates for low-back painthe effectiveness of Pilates for low-back pain
the effectiveness of Pilates for low-back pain
 
Effect of core strength training and yogasana practices on selected health re...
Effect of core strength training and yogasana practices on selected health re...Effect of core strength training and yogasana practices on selected health re...
Effect of core strength training and yogasana practices on selected health re...
 
Antalya poster presentation
Antalya poster presentationAntalya poster presentation
Antalya poster presentation
 
Influencing factors upon the reliability of physical proficiency test
Influencing factors upon the reliability of physical proficiency testInfluencing factors upon the reliability of physical proficiency test
Influencing factors upon the reliability of physical proficiency test
 
The effects of muscle action, repetition duration, and loading
The effects of muscle action, repetition duration, and loadingThe effects of muscle action, repetition duration, and loading
The effects of muscle action, repetition duration, and loading
 
Conference presentation
Conference presentationConference presentation
Conference presentation
 
Does Wearing an Activity Monitor Affect Activity Levels
Does Wearing an Activity Monitor Affect Activity LevelsDoes Wearing an Activity Monitor Affect Activity Levels
Does Wearing an Activity Monitor Affect Activity Levels
 

Similar to Pilates em Adultos Saudáveis

physical activity and pregnancy
physical activity and pregnancyphysical activity and pregnancy
physical activity and pregnancy
msimoes29
 
Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girlsEffect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Pilates
PilatesPilates
Julie walters
Julie waltersJulie walters
Julie walters
AHP_SHU
 
Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006
Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006
Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006
Felipe Vargas Rios
 
The effect of an educational program on strength-trainingadh.docx
The effect of an educational program on strength-trainingadh.docxThe effect of an educational program on strength-trainingadh.docx
The effect of an educational program on strength-trainingadh.docx
arnoldmeredith47041
 
The Fitness Self-Wellness of Physical Therapists
The Fitness Self-Wellness of Physical TherapistsThe Fitness Self-Wellness of Physical Therapists
The Fitness Self-Wellness of Physical Therapists
Sharon Fair
 
Is Pilates Good for Rehabilitation?
Is Pilates Good for Rehabilitation?Is Pilates Good for Rehabilitation?
Is Pilates Good for Rehabilitation?
Andrew Cannon
 
Adeyeye adeyemi elijah synopsis faculty presentation july 18, 2019.edited
Adeyeye adeyemi  elijah synopsis faculty presentation  july 18, 2019.editedAdeyeye adeyemi  elijah synopsis faculty presentation  july 18, 2019.edited
Adeyeye adeyemi elijah synopsis faculty presentation july 18, 2019.edited
Lagos State University International School, Ojo.
 
DAVID JANETT MA THESIS FINAL DRAFT PDF
DAVID JANETT MA THESIS FINAL DRAFT PDFDAVID JANETT MA THESIS FINAL DRAFT PDF
DAVID JANETT MA THESIS FINAL DRAFT PDF
David Janett
 
Scanned by CamScannerScanned by CamScannerRE.docx
Scanned by CamScannerScanned by CamScannerRE.docxScanned by CamScannerScanned by CamScannerRE.docx
Scanned by CamScannerScanned by CamScannerRE.docx
anhlodge
 
The Health Benefits of Yoga and Exercise
The Health Benefits of Yoga and ExerciseThe Health Benefits of Yoga and Exercise
The Health Benefits of Yoga and Exercise
maxrox99
 
Pilates na lombalgia
Pilates na lombalgiaPilates na lombalgia
Pilates na lombalgia
Andréia Salvador
 
Fit Bit Poster-36x48inches
Fit Bit Poster-36x48inchesFit Bit Poster-36x48inches
Fit Bit Poster-36x48inches
Amanda Buschau
 
Plugin transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20duri...
Plugin transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20duri...Plugin transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20duri...
Plugin transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20duri...
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...
Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...
Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...
Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...
Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Protein supplements research
Protein supplements researchProtein supplements research
Protein supplements research
Nadine Massaad
 
Dose_Response_of_1,_3,_and_5_Sets_of_Resistance.25.pdf
Dose_Response_of_1,_3,_and_5_Sets_of_Resistance.25.pdfDose_Response_of_1,_3,_and_5_Sets_of_Resistance.25.pdf
Dose_Response_of_1,_3,_and_5_Sets_of_Resistance.25.pdf
Sandro Pedrozo
 
Erasmus secular trend (1997 2007) of physical fitness
Erasmus secular trend (1997 2007) of physical fitnessErasmus secular trend (1997 2007) of physical fitness
Erasmus secular trend (1997 2007) of physical fitness
elevendimhaid primaryschool
 

Similar to Pilates em Adultos Saudáveis (20)

physical activity and pregnancy
physical activity and pregnancyphysical activity and pregnancy
physical activity and pregnancy
 
Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girlsEffect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
 
Pilates
PilatesPilates
Pilates
 
Julie walters
Julie waltersJulie walters
Julie walters
 
Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006
Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006
Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006
 
The effect of an educational program on strength-trainingadh.docx
The effect of an educational program on strength-trainingadh.docxThe effect of an educational program on strength-trainingadh.docx
The effect of an educational program on strength-trainingadh.docx
 
The Fitness Self-Wellness of Physical Therapists
The Fitness Self-Wellness of Physical TherapistsThe Fitness Self-Wellness of Physical Therapists
The Fitness Self-Wellness of Physical Therapists
 
Is Pilates Good for Rehabilitation?
Is Pilates Good for Rehabilitation?Is Pilates Good for Rehabilitation?
Is Pilates Good for Rehabilitation?
 
Adeyeye adeyemi elijah synopsis faculty presentation july 18, 2019.edited
Adeyeye adeyemi  elijah synopsis faculty presentation  july 18, 2019.editedAdeyeye adeyemi  elijah synopsis faculty presentation  july 18, 2019.edited
Adeyeye adeyemi elijah synopsis faculty presentation july 18, 2019.edited
 
DAVID JANETT MA THESIS FINAL DRAFT PDF
DAVID JANETT MA THESIS FINAL DRAFT PDFDAVID JANETT MA THESIS FINAL DRAFT PDF
DAVID JANETT MA THESIS FINAL DRAFT PDF
 
Scanned by CamScannerScanned by CamScannerRE.docx
Scanned by CamScannerScanned by CamScannerRE.docxScanned by CamScannerScanned by CamScannerRE.docx
Scanned by CamScannerScanned by CamScannerRE.docx
 
The Health Benefits of Yoga and Exercise
The Health Benefits of Yoga and ExerciseThe Health Benefits of Yoga and Exercise
The Health Benefits of Yoga and Exercise
 
Pilates na lombalgia
Pilates na lombalgiaPilates na lombalgia
Pilates na lombalgia
 
Fit Bit Poster-36x48inches
Fit Bit Poster-36x48inchesFit Bit Poster-36x48inches
Fit Bit Poster-36x48inches
 
Plugin transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20duri...
Plugin transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20duri...Plugin transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20duri...
Plugin transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20duri...
 
Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...
Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...
Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...
 
Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...
Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...
Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...
 
Protein supplements research
Protein supplements researchProtein supplements research
Protein supplements research
 
Dose_Response_of_1,_3,_and_5_Sets_of_Resistance.25.pdf
Dose_Response_of_1,_3,_and_5_Sets_of_Resistance.25.pdfDose_Response_of_1,_3,_and_5_Sets_of_Resistance.25.pdf
Dose_Response_of_1,_3,_and_5_Sets_of_Resistance.25.pdf
 
Erasmus secular trend (1997 2007) of physical fitness
Erasmus secular trend (1997 2007) of physical fitnessErasmus secular trend (1997 2007) of physical fitness
Erasmus secular trend (1997 2007) of physical fitness
 

More from Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta

Pilates na Lombalgia
Pilates na LombalgiaPilates na Lombalgia
Pilates na Lombalgia
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Intra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar Spine
Intra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar SpineIntra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar Spine
Intra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar Spine
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Pilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação postural
Pilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação posturalPilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação postural
Pilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação postural
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgiaPlugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Pilates and the Powerhouse
Pilates and the PowerhousePilates and the Powerhouse
Pilates and the Powerhouse
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Pilates and low back pain: a systematic review
Pilates and low back pain: a systematic reviewPilates and low back pain: a systematic review
Pilates and low back pain: a systematic review
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Table summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg method
Table summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg methodTable summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg method
Table summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg method
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Pilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão Sistemática
Pilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão SistemáticaPilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão Sistemática
Pilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão Sistemática
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Pilates na Lombalgia - revisão
Pilates na Lombalgia - revisãoPilates na Lombalgia - revisão
Pilates na Lombalgia - revisão
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Efeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio Muscular
Efeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio MuscularEfeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio Muscular
Efeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio Muscular
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...
Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...
Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...
Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...
Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Protocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombar
Protocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombarProtocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombar
Protocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombar
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Abordagem Fisioterapeutica do Pilates
Abordagem Fisioterapeutica do PilatesAbordagem Fisioterapeutica do Pilates
Abordagem Fisioterapeutica do Pilates
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Owsley - an introduction to clinical pilates
Owsley - an introduction to clinical pilatesOwsley - an introduction to clinical pilates
Owsley - an introduction to clinical pilates
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Pilate Method: History and philosophy
Pilate Method: History and philosophyPilate Method: History and philosophy
Pilate Method: History and philosophy
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 

More from Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta (20)

Pilates na Lombalgia
Pilates na LombalgiaPilates na Lombalgia
Pilates na Lombalgia
 
Intra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar Spine
Intra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar SpineIntra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar Spine
Intra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar Spine
 
Pilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação postural
Pilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação posturalPilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação postural
Pilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação postural
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgiaPlugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia
 
Pilates and the Powerhouse
Pilates and the PowerhousePilates and the Powerhouse
Pilates and the Powerhouse
 
Pilates and low back pain: a systematic review
Pilates and low back pain: a systematic reviewPilates and low back pain: a systematic review
Pilates and low back pain: a systematic review
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)
 
Table summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg method
Table summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg methodTable summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg method
Table summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg method
 
Pilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão Sistemática
Pilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão SistemáticaPilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão Sistemática
Pilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão Sistemática
 
Pilates na Lombalgia - revisão
Pilates na Lombalgia - revisãoPilates na Lombalgia - revisão
Pilates na Lombalgia - revisão
 
Efeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio Muscular
Efeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio MuscularEfeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio Muscular
Efeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio Muscular
 
Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...
Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...
Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...
 
Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...
Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...
Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...
 
Protocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombar
Protocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombarProtocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombar
Protocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombar
 
Abordagem Fisioterapeutica do Pilates
Abordagem Fisioterapeutica do PilatesAbordagem Fisioterapeutica do Pilates
Abordagem Fisioterapeutica do Pilates
 
Owsley - an introduction to clinical pilates
Owsley - an introduction to clinical pilatesOwsley - an introduction to clinical pilates
Owsley - an introduction to clinical pilates
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)
 
Pilate Method: History and philosophy
Pilate Method: History and philosophyPilate Method: History and philosophy
Pilate Method: History and philosophy
 

Recently uploaded

BCBR MCQs with Answers.pdf for exam for NMC promotions
BCBR MCQs with Answers.pdf for exam for NMC promotionsBCBR MCQs with Answers.pdf for exam for NMC promotions
BCBR MCQs with Answers.pdf for exam for NMC promotions
sathya swaroop patnaik
 
Hypothyroidism / Underactive thyroid gland presentation
Hypothyroidism / Underactive thyroid gland presentationHypothyroidism / Underactive thyroid gland presentation
Hypothyroidism / Underactive thyroid gland presentation
riyaramesh2003
 
EXTRACTION,_PHYTOCHEMICAL_SCREENING_&_FORMULATION_OF_BOERRHAVIA.pptx
EXTRACTION,_PHYTOCHEMICAL_SCREENING_&_FORMULATION_OF_BOERRHAVIA.pptxEXTRACTION,_PHYTOCHEMICAL_SCREENING_&_FORMULATION_OF_BOERRHAVIA.pptx
EXTRACTION,_PHYTOCHEMICAL_SCREENING_&_FORMULATION_OF_BOERRHAVIA.pptx
AbhashSingh12
 
How to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptx
How to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptxHow to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptx
How to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptx
AmandaChou9
 
anthelmintic-drugs.pptx pharmacology dep
anthelmintic-drugs.pptx pharmacology depanthelmintic-drugs.pptx pharmacology dep
anthelmintic-drugs.pptx pharmacology dep
sapnasirswal
 
THE MANAGEMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER . pptx
THE MANAGEMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER . pptxTHE MANAGEMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER . pptx
THE MANAGEMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER . pptx
Bright Chipili
 
OBSTETRICS SEPSIS - BUNDLE APPROACH.pptx
OBSTETRICS SEPSIS - BUNDLE APPROACH.pptxOBSTETRICS SEPSIS - BUNDLE APPROACH.pptx
OBSTETRICS SEPSIS - BUNDLE APPROACH.pptx
Niranjan Chavan
 
Prevention of Cruelty to animals act 1960
Prevention of Cruelty to animals act 1960Prevention of Cruelty to animals act 1960
Prevention of Cruelty to animals act 1960
PratibhaSonawane5
 
Prakinsons disease and its affect on eye.
Prakinsons disease and its affect on eye.Prakinsons disease and its affect on eye.
Prakinsons disease and its affect on eye.
Riya Bist
 
Hemodialysis: Chapter 11, Venous Catheter - Basics, Insertion, Use and Care -...
Hemodialysis: Chapter 11, Venous Catheter - Basics, Insertion, Use and Care -...Hemodialysis: Chapter 11, Venous Catheter - Basics, Insertion, Use and Care -...
Hemodialysis: Chapter 11, Venous Catheter - Basics, Insertion, Use and Care -...
NephroTube - Dr.Gawad
 
Stepping Forward to Transform MCL Management: Guidance on the Selection and U...
Stepping Forward to Transform MCL Management: Guidance on the Selection and U...Stepping Forward to Transform MCL Management: Guidance on the Selection and U...
Stepping Forward to Transform MCL Management: Guidance on the Selection and U...
PVI, PeerView Institute for Medical Education
 
GAIRIKA.pptx for Rasashastra and Bhaisajya kalpana
GAIRIKA.pptx for Rasashastra and Bhaisajya kalpanaGAIRIKA.pptx for Rasashastra and Bhaisajya kalpana
GAIRIKA.pptx for Rasashastra and Bhaisajya kalpana
AparnaNandakumar12
 
ONYDA XR clonidine liquid preparation by Dr. Amrutha
ONYDA XR clonidine liquid preparation by Dr. AmruthaONYDA XR clonidine liquid preparation by Dr. Amrutha
ONYDA XR clonidine liquid preparation by Dr. Amrutha
Amrutha Gudimetla
 
Building a Strong Partnership with Your Medical Team
Building a Strong Partnership with Your Medical TeamBuilding a Strong Partnership with Your Medical Team
Building a Strong Partnership with Your Medical Team
bkling
 
Bangalore @Girls @Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦0000XX0000🫦 List For Friendship Girl...
Bangalore @Girls @Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦0000XX0000🫦 List For Friendship Girl...Bangalore @Girls @Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦0000XX0000🫦 List For Friendship Girl...
Bangalore @Girls @Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦0000XX0000🫦 List For Friendship Girl...
paridubey2024#G05
 
Lymphoma Made Easy , New Teaching Lectures
Lymphoma Made Easy , New Teaching LecturesLymphoma Made Easy , New Teaching Lectures
Lymphoma Made Easy , New Teaching Lectures
MiadAlsulami
 
THE REVIEW OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PURE MATERIA MEDICA.BHMS.MATERIA MEDICA.HOM...
THE REVIEW OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PURE MATERIA MEDICA.BHMS.MATERIA MEDICA.HOM...THE REVIEW OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PURE MATERIA MEDICA.BHMS.MATERIA MEDICA.HOM...
THE REVIEW OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PURE MATERIA MEDICA.BHMS.MATERIA MEDICA.HOM...
DRPREETHIJAMESP
 
Verified Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
Verified Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...Verified Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
Verified Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
ailynolive
 
Amygdala Medi-Trivia Quiz (Prelims) | FAQ 2024
Amygdala Medi-Trivia Quiz (Prelims) | FAQ 2024Amygdala Medi-Trivia Quiz (Prelims) | FAQ 2024
Amygdala Medi-Trivia Quiz (Prelims) | FAQ 2024
Anindya Das Adhikary
 
World Population Day 2024_Overview_Dr Bijan Das
World Population Day 2024_Overview_Dr Bijan DasWorld Population Day 2024_Overview_Dr Bijan Das
World Population Day 2024_Overview_Dr Bijan Das
srmnchatripura
 

Recently uploaded (20)

BCBR MCQs with Answers.pdf for exam for NMC promotions
BCBR MCQs with Answers.pdf for exam for NMC promotionsBCBR MCQs with Answers.pdf for exam for NMC promotions
BCBR MCQs with Answers.pdf for exam for NMC promotions
 
Hypothyroidism / Underactive thyroid gland presentation
Hypothyroidism / Underactive thyroid gland presentationHypothyroidism / Underactive thyroid gland presentation
Hypothyroidism / Underactive thyroid gland presentation
 
EXTRACTION,_PHYTOCHEMICAL_SCREENING_&_FORMULATION_OF_BOERRHAVIA.pptx
EXTRACTION,_PHYTOCHEMICAL_SCREENING_&_FORMULATION_OF_BOERRHAVIA.pptxEXTRACTION,_PHYTOCHEMICAL_SCREENING_&_FORMULATION_OF_BOERRHAVIA.pptx
EXTRACTION,_PHYTOCHEMICAL_SCREENING_&_FORMULATION_OF_BOERRHAVIA.pptx
 
How to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptx
How to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptxHow to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptx
How to Relieve Prostate Congestion- Here are some Effective Strategies.pptx
 
anthelmintic-drugs.pptx pharmacology dep
anthelmintic-drugs.pptx pharmacology depanthelmintic-drugs.pptx pharmacology dep
anthelmintic-drugs.pptx pharmacology dep
 
THE MANAGEMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER . pptx
THE MANAGEMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER . pptxTHE MANAGEMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER . pptx
THE MANAGEMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER . pptx
 
OBSTETRICS SEPSIS - BUNDLE APPROACH.pptx
OBSTETRICS SEPSIS - BUNDLE APPROACH.pptxOBSTETRICS SEPSIS - BUNDLE APPROACH.pptx
OBSTETRICS SEPSIS - BUNDLE APPROACH.pptx
 
Prevention of Cruelty to animals act 1960
Prevention of Cruelty to animals act 1960Prevention of Cruelty to animals act 1960
Prevention of Cruelty to animals act 1960
 
Prakinsons disease and its affect on eye.
Prakinsons disease and its affect on eye.Prakinsons disease and its affect on eye.
Prakinsons disease and its affect on eye.
 
Hemodialysis: Chapter 11, Venous Catheter - Basics, Insertion, Use and Care -...
Hemodialysis: Chapter 11, Venous Catheter - Basics, Insertion, Use and Care -...Hemodialysis: Chapter 11, Venous Catheter - Basics, Insertion, Use and Care -...
Hemodialysis: Chapter 11, Venous Catheter - Basics, Insertion, Use and Care -...
 
Stepping Forward to Transform MCL Management: Guidance on the Selection and U...
Stepping Forward to Transform MCL Management: Guidance on the Selection and U...Stepping Forward to Transform MCL Management: Guidance on the Selection and U...
Stepping Forward to Transform MCL Management: Guidance on the Selection and U...
 
GAIRIKA.pptx for Rasashastra and Bhaisajya kalpana
GAIRIKA.pptx for Rasashastra and Bhaisajya kalpanaGAIRIKA.pptx for Rasashastra and Bhaisajya kalpana
GAIRIKA.pptx for Rasashastra and Bhaisajya kalpana
 
ONYDA XR clonidine liquid preparation by Dr. Amrutha
ONYDA XR clonidine liquid preparation by Dr. AmruthaONYDA XR clonidine liquid preparation by Dr. Amrutha
ONYDA XR clonidine liquid preparation by Dr. Amrutha
 
Building a Strong Partnership with Your Medical Team
Building a Strong Partnership with Your Medical TeamBuilding a Strong Partnership with Your Medical Team
Building a Strong Partnership with Your Medical Team
 
Bangalore @Girls @Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦0000XX0000🫦 List For Friendship Girl...
Bangalore @Girls @Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦0000XX0000🫦 List For Friendship Girl...Bangalore @Girls @Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦0000XX0000🫦 List For Friendship Girl...
Bangalore @Girls @Call WhatsApp Numbers 🫦0000XX0000🫦 List For Friendship Girl...
 
Lymphoma Made Easy , New Teaching Lectures
Lymphoma Made Easy , New Teaching LecturesLymphoma Made Easy , New Teaching Lectures
Lymphoma Made Easy , New Teaching Lectures
 
THE REVIEW OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PURE MATERIA MEDICA.BHMS.MATERIA MEDICA.HOM...
THE REVIEW OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PURE MATERIA MEDICA.BHMS.MATERIA MEDICA.HOM...THE REVIEW OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PURE MATERIA MEDICA.BHMS.MATERIA MEDICA.HOM...
THE REVIEW OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PURE MATERIA MEDICA.BHMS.MATERIA MEDICA.HOM...
 
Verified Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
Verified Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...Verified Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
Verified Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service...
 
Amygdala Medi-Trivia Quiz (Prelims) | FAQ 2024
Amygdala Medi-Trivia Quiz (Prelims) | FAQ 2024Amygdala Medi-Trivia Quiz (Prelims) | FAQ 2024
Amygdala Medi-Trivia Quiz (Prelims) | FAQ 2024
 
World Population Day 2024_Overview_Dr Bijan Das
World Population Day 2024_Overview_Dr Bijan DasWorld Population Day 2024_Overview_Dr Bijan Das
World Population Day 2024_Overview_Dr Bijan Das
 

Pilates em Adultos Saudáveis

  • 1. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies (2007) 11, 106–110 Bodywork and Journal of Movement Therapies LITERATURE REVIEW The effectiveness of Pilates training in healthy adults: An appraisal of the research literature Lisa Marie Bernardo, Ph.D., M.P.H., R.N., H.F.I.Ã University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing, 225 Victoria Building, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, 412 624-7637, USA Received 13 July 2006; accepted 8 August 2006 KEYWORDS Pilates; Healthy adults; Research options; Literature review Summary Pilates has gained momentum and attention in the past 5 years as a modality for improving flexibility, strength and mind–body awareness. What is not revealed, however, is the scientific basis for this practice. The two-fold purpose of this review was to (1) critically appraise published research on Pilates in healthy adults and (2) propose future research options for this method in healthy adults. An extensive literature search was conducted, using Pilates as the search word. A total of 277 articles were found. Thirty-nine articles and abstracts were published in refereed, professional journals, of which there were only three clinical trials in healthy adults. The strengths of these three clinical trials were the (1) use of established measurements for stated outcomes and (2) documented need for research in this area. The weaknesses were (1) lack of true experimental designs, (2) small sample sizes, and (3) lack of a defined method of Pilates. There is cautious support for the effectiveness of Pilates in improving flexibility, abdominal and lumbo-pelvic stability and muscular activity, primarily due to a lack of sound research methodology surrounding each study. Utilizing a true experimental design and stating the Pilates method utilized can strengthen and improve future Pilates research in healthy adults. & 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction Pilates is a mind–body fitness program gaining in popularity and acceptance within the fitness com- munity. Named after its founder, Joseph H. Pilates, and detailed in his publications (Pilates, 1934, 1945), this fitness program incorporates the use of special apparatus and equipment into movement routines designed to enhance flexibility, strength, and coordination. Pilates is advocated as a bene- ficial exercise method in adult populations (Rey- neke, 1993; LaBrusciano and Lonergan, 1996; Latey, 2001, 2002; Stanko, 2002; Muscolino and Cipriani, 2003a, b; Smith and Smith, 2004). With this ongoing interest in and support for Pilates as an exercise method in healthy adults, an established scientific framework based on evidence ARTICLE IN PRESS www.intl.elsevierhealth.com/journals/jbmt 1360-8592/$ - see front matter & 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jbmt.2006.08.006 ÃTel.: +1 412 624 7637; fax: +1 412 383 7293. E-mail address: LBE100@pitt.edu.
  • 2. from research studies would be expected. To learn more about the scientific basis for Pilates, a literature search and critical appraisal of the published research were undertaken to answer the question: What is the evidence for Pilates as a method of exercise in healthy adults? Method An electronic and paper literature search was conducted using the OVID search engine. Data bases searched were Medline, Allied and Comple- mentary Medicine (AMED), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), SportsInfo, and the Cochrane Database of Systema- tic Reviews. Journal articles published from 1990–2005 were searched. The key word searched was Pilates. Articles were retrieved for appraisal if they were human subjects research published in refereed, professional journals. A total of 277 articles and abstracts were identified. No meta- analyzes or systematic reviews were found. Table 1 outlines the distribution of published Pilates arti- cles. Only 10 (3.9%) research studies were published in refereed, professional journals. Of these, five research studies were conducted in dancers and gymnasts (Fitt et al., 1993; Parrott, 1993; McLain et al., 1997; Hutchinson et al., 1998; McMillan et al., 1998); two studies were conducted in special populations (Savage, 2005; Mallery et al., 2003); and three studies (1.08%) conducted in healthy adults (Herrington and Davies, 2005; Segal et al., 2004; Petrofsky et al., 2005). These three studies are reviewed and appraised. Literature review of the three published studies Herrington and Davies (2005) conducted an obser- vational study to assess and compare the contrac- tion of the transversus abdominis muscle among healthy females trained in Pilates, traditional abdominal curls and a control group. Thirty-six healthy females (mean age ¼ 32.6 years) served as the study subjects who were divided into three groups. Twelve were categorized as Pilates trained, based on their attendance of one or two 45-min Pilates classes each week for a 6-month period. Another 12 subjects were categorized as abdominal curl trained, having attended 15-min abdominal curl classes, once or twice weekly for 6 months. The last 12 subjects did not practice Pilates or abdominal curls. To indirectly measure contraction of the transversus abdominis muscle and to monitor lumbar–pelvic stability, a stabilizer pressure bio- feedback unit (Chattanooga Group Inc.) was em- ployed. A tester, blinded to group category, conducted the measurements. Results indicated that 10 (83%) Pilates group, 4 (33.3%) abdominal curl group and three (25%) control group subjects passed the transversus abdominis stability test. Overall, less than half of the 36 subjects (n ¼ 17, 47%) passed this test. For the lumbar–pelvic stability test, only 5 (42%) Pilates group subjects passed this test, with all others failing this test, leaving 14% overall who were able to stabilize the lumbar–pelvic area. The authors concluded that females who train in Pilates may be better able to recruit and utilize their deep abdominal muscles and stabilize the pelvic area compared to those not trained in Pilates. Segal et al. (2004) conducted an observational, prospective, repeated measures study to assess the effects of Pilates training on flexibility, body composition, and health status of healthy adults. A power analysis was calculated for a sample size of 16 subjects. Adult members of a health club (31 women (average age ¼ 41 years) and one man (age 42 years)) were assigned into classes of 8–12 students. All subjects participated in 1-h weekly Pilates mat class for 6 months. Exercises progressed in difficulty. Outcomes measured at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 months were composite flexibility (fingertip- to-floor), body composition (height, body mass index (BMI), body mass, segmental fat, and lean body mass); perception of health and function ARTICLE IN PRESS Table 1 Distribution of published Pilates literature. No meta-analyses or systematic reviews were found Seventy-one (25.6%) no match in the Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory Four (1.4%) published in foreign languages Eighty-five (30.7%) trade magazines Seventy-eight (28.1%) printed in consumer publications (magazines, newspapers, and newsletters) Thirty-nine articles and abstracts (14%) published in refereed, professional journals N ¼ 277. Effectiveness of Pilates training in healthy adults 107
  • 3. (American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) outcomes questionnaire); and event log (self- report of problems with the Pilates class). Compo- site flexibility improved from baseline to 6 months ðPo0:01Þ. There was no statistically significant change in body composition or in the AAOS questionnaire. Self-reported event log had themes of adverse events with pain or discomfort in back and neck muscles ðn ¼ 6Þ. Positive comments were improved posture, improved flexibility, and cessa- tion of morning stiffness, among others. The authors concluded that Pilates exercises may improve truncal flexibility in healthy adults. Petrofsky et al., (2005) conducted an observa- tional study to compare Pilates exercises with and without a resistance band, and to compare these exercises against those performed with commercial exercise equipment. Six healthy subjects, four males and two females, (mean age ¼ 25.3 years) were enrolled. Muscle activity was measured during the exercises with electromyogram (EMG), and this technique was validated in other studies. The resistance band used during the Pilate exercises was an oblong ring (Zone Pilates Sculpter, Svvier LP, Santa Fe Springs, CA), and weight lifting was done on a Keiser weight lifting system (Wilmington, DE). Each subject participated in all exercises. Subjects first completed Pilates exercises without the resistance band, then completed Pilates exercises with the resistance band. Pilates exercises included squats, leg adduction, and hip extension. Once EMG was assessed with the Pilates exercises, the subjects completed commercial equipment exer- cises on the quads, inner outer thigh, and ham- string machines. The weight applied on each exercise machine was compared with the results of EMG activity during the Pilates exercises completed with and without the resistance band. The results showed little muscular activity during the Pilates exercises without the resistance band, averaging 20% of the total muscle activity for the leg muscles. Pilates exercises with the resistance band increased the muscle activity by at least 50%. Pilates exercises with and without the resistance band exercised multiple muscle groups simulta- neously. Pilates may be beneficial in those seeking a resistance workout that places less stress on the joints and muscles. Appraisal of the research studies These three studies reflect the extent of current published research in healthy adult subjects using Pilates. Each study had its strengths, weaknesses, and limitations. The theory behind each of these studies—the effect of Pilates exercises on muscle activity, flexibility, body composition, and muscular strength—were well defined. Subjects across all studies were in a similar age range, with females over-represented, and all studies used the subjects as their own controls. The instruments used to measure study outcomes were valid and reliable, as demonstrated by data from previous studies. Intra- rater reliability was established. Subject consent was obtained, and study protocols appeared to be followed consistently. Overall, data analyses ap- peared to be adequate for the level of data collected. The researchers drew their conclusions from their study data and did not go beyond their findings in translating their findings into practice. All researchers agreed that additional research in Pilates is needed. These strengths add to the body of empirical evidence needed in the application of Pilates exercises and outcomes in a healthy adult population. Numerous weaknesses were found across the studies. Aside from Segal et al. (2004) who recruited from a health club, it is unclear how subjects were recruited into the studies by Her- rington and Davies (2005) and Petrofsky et al. (2005). All sample sizes were very small, which does not allow for generalizability of the findings. Only Segal et al. (2004) calculated sample size to determine the effect needed to measure differ- ences in fitness attributes before and after the Pilates interventions. The Pilates exercises themselves were a source of concern. Segal et al. (2004) utilized the Stott–Pilates method, and the classes were taught by a Stott–Pilates certified instructor. The Stott–Pi- lates method is taught through an established curriculum, and instructors follow a prescribed sequencing of exercises similar to that taught by Pilates himself. The method of Pilates utilized in the remaining two studies is unclear, leaving doubt as to whether or not Pilates actually was per- formed. Herrington and Davies (2005) enrolled subjects who self-reported their practice of Pilates, but there was no verification of the Pilates method practiced by the subjects or their ability to perform Pilates exercises. Similarly, Petrofsky et al. (2005) listed Pilates exercises as muscle groups worked (leg adduction, hip extension), and the translation into a Pilates exercise is not given. Readers, then, may arrive at or draw different assumptions about what Pilates method was practiced. The lack of a defined method of Pilates, the small sample sizes, and the lack of randomization influenced the studies’ results. While Segal et al. (2004) utilized a defined Pilates method and ARTICLE IN PRESS L.M. Bernardo108
  • 4. specified a power calculation, randomization and a control group were lacking (although each subject served as his/her own control). Their findings support increased flexibility and no changes in body composition or self-reported health following a period of Pilates training. However, positive comments about the benefits of Pilates in their activities of daily living were provided. These results show promise for future large-scale studies in Pilates training. Herrington and Davies (2005) showed that the Pilates-trained subjects had the highest passing rates for transversus abdominis isolation and lumbar–pelvic stability compared to those subjects trained in abdominal curls or those in the control group. While subject randomization was not possible, the randomizing of the measure- ments for transversus abdominis isolation and lumbar–pelvic stability would have avoided bias in the test measurements and perhaps the results. Because the Pilates method used by the Pilates subjects was not explicated or tested, it cannot be said for certain that the subjects’ results were due to Pilates training. Similarly, Petrofsky et al. (2005) did not randomize their testing order and kept standard the order of Pilates exercises, Pilates exercises with the resistance band and then weight machines. The order of muscle activity also was kept standard. Again, the method of Pilates utilized by subjects when completing the exercises as well as the subjects’ prior experience with or profi- ciency in Pilates was not stated, allowing for uncertainty as to whether or not Pilates exercises were executed or executed properly. Implications for Practice Despite the hundreds of published articles on Pilates, the extant scientific evidence for Pilates is limited. An extensive literature search found 277 Pilates articles published in the past 14 years; only 10 (3.6%) were human subjects research and of these, only three were conducted in healthy adults. The research presented in this appraisal was published very recently (2003–2005), at a height in the Pilates movement. Ideally, one would expect to find a significant number of well-controlled research studies in healthy adults conducted at universities, or at fitness centers, Pilates studios, health clubs, rehabilitation or other settings. Remarkably, very few research studies have been published where Pilates has been rigorously and empirically tested and evaluated, in any popula- tion. This lack of published research is disappoint- ing, considering the popularity of Pilates, the numerous established curricula for instructor and student training, and how it is adapted and taught in a variety of settings. Overall, each study’s purpose and questions were well stated. The rationale for studying Pilates was thorough, and documentation of the need for such study was clear. All investigators stated that Pilates warranted further study in healthy adults. The lack of randomization, either in group assignment or in outcome measurement, raises questions of bias. This bias cannot be discounted, despite similarities in gender (mostly females) and age (adult) across the studies. Furthermore, there was no direct measurement of the subjects’ prior training in or skill level with executing Pilates exercises. A limitation of this appraisal is that articles may have been missed that were not available through the OVID search engine. Unpublished master’s theses and doctoral dissertations were not obtained through this search, and these studies may hold additional data of interest to researchers and practitioners. Conclusion This appraisal of three human subjects research studies utilizing Pilates finds support for the effectiveness of Pilates in healthy adults to improve flexibility, transversus abdominis activation, lum- bar–pelvic stability, and muscular activity. This support is given cautiously, due to small sample sizes, lack of true experimental research designs, and bias in subject recruitment and measurement. The lack of specificity and description of the Pilates method used in two of the studies leaves room for doubt as to how Pilates was defined and practiced. Researchers and practitioners alike agree that there is a lack of, and need for, published research on the effectiveness of Pilates in healthy adults (Fitt et al., 1993; Brown, 1999; Stone, 2000; Lange et al., 2000). Human subjects research must be conducted with Pilates to establish an evidence base for its practice. Well-designed experimental studies that rando- mize subjects, utilize a control group, define the Pilate method utilized, calculate statistical power and sample size, and using valid and reliable methods to measure outcomes, would build a body of scientific evidence of Pilates’ efficacy and effectiveness in practice with healthy adults. References Brown, S., 1999. Pilates: man or method. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science 3 (4), 137–138. ARTICLE IN PRESS Effectiveness of Pilates training in healthy adults 109
  • 5. Fitt, S., Sturman, J., McClain-Smith, S., 1993. Effects of Pilates- based conditioning on strength, alignment, and range of motion in university ballet and modern dance majors. Kinesiology and Medicine for Dance 16 (1), 36–51. Herrington, L., Davies, R., 2005. The influence of Pilates training on the ability to contract the transversus abdominis muscle in asymptomatic individuals. Journal of Bodywork and Move- ment Therapies 9, 52–57. Hutchinson, M., Tremain, L., Christiansen, J., Beitzel, J., 1998. Improving leaping ability in elite rhythmic gymnasts. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 30 (10), 1543–1547. LaBrusciano, G., Lonergan, S., 1996. Pilates: a method ahead of its time. Strength and Conditioning August, 74–75. Lange, C., Unnithan, V., Larkam, E., Latta, 2000. Maximizing the benefits of Pilates-inspired exercise for learning functional motor skills. Journal of Body Work and Movement Therapies 4 (2), 99–108. Latey, P., 2001. The Pilates method: history and philosophy. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 5 (4), 275–282. Latey, P., 2002. Updating the principles of the Pilates meth- od—part 2. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 6 (2), 94–101. Mallery, L., MacDonald, E., Hubley-Kozey, C., Earl, M., Rock- wood, K., MacKnight, C., 2003. The feasibility of performing resistance exercise with acutely ill hospitalized older adults. BMC Geriatrics 3 (3), 3. McLain, S., Carter, C., Abel, J., 1997. The effect of a conditioning and alignment program on the measurement of supine jump height and pelvic alignment when using the current concepts reformer. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science 1 (4), 149–154. McMillan, A., Proteau, L., Lebe, R., 1998. The effect of Pilates- based training on dancers’ dynamic posture. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science 2 (3), 101–107. Muscolino, J., Cipriani, S., 2003a. Pilates and the ‘‘power- house’’—I. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8, 15–24. Muscolino, J., Cipriani, S., 2003b. Pilates and the ‘‘power- house’’—II. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8, 122–130. Parrott, A., 1993. The effects of Pilates technique and aerobic conditioning on dancers’ technique and aesthetic. Kinesiol- ogy and Medicine for Dance 15 (2), 45–64. Petrofsky, J., Morris, A., Bonacci, J., Hanson, A., Jorritsma, R., Hill, J., 2005. Muscle use during exercise: a comparison of conven- tional weight equipment to Pilates with and without a resistive exercise device. The Journal of Applied Research 5 (1), 160–173. Pilates, J., 1934. Your Health. Presentation Dynamics Inc., Incline Village, NV. Pilates, J., 1945. Return to life Through Contrology. Presentation Dynamics Inc., Incline Village, NV. Reyneke, D., 1993. The Pilates method of exercise and rehabilitation. Physiotherapy in Sport 18 (3), 19. Savage, A., 2005. Is lumbopelvic stability training (using the Pilates model) an effective treatment strategy for women with stress urinary incontinence? A review of the literature and report of a pilot study. Journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Women’s Health 97, 33–48. Segal, N., Hein, J., Basford, J., 2004. The effects of Pilates training on flexibility and body composition: an observational study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 85, 1977–1981. Smith, K., Smith, E., 2004. Integrating Pilates-based core strengthening into older adult fitness programs. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation 21 (1), 57–67. Stanko, E., 2002. The role of modified Pilates in women’s health physiotherapy. Journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Women’s Health 90, 21–32. Stone, J., 2000. The Pilates method. Athletic Therapy Today 5 (2), 56. ARTICLE IN PRESS L.M. Bernardo110