SlideShare a Scribd company logo
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Transversus Abdominis and Obliquus Internus Activity During
Pilates Exercises: Measurement With Ultrasound Scanning
Irit Endleman, MSc, MCSP, Duncan J. Critchley, MSc, MCSP
ABSTRACT. Endleman I, Critchley DJ. Transversus abdo-
minis and obliquus internus activity during Pilates exercises:
measurement with ultrasound scanning. Arch Phys Med Reha-
bil 2008;89:2205-12.
Objective: To assess activity of transversus abdominis
(TrA) and obliquus internus abdominis (OI) muscles during
classical Pilates exercises performed correctly and incorrectly,
and with or without equipment.
Design: Repeated-measures descriptive study.
Setting: Pilates studio.
Participants: A volunteer sample of women (nϭ18) and
men (nϭ8), mean age Ϯ SD (43Ϯ14y), with more than 6
months classical Pilates training and no back pain or other
condition likely to influence abdominal muscle activity.
Interventions: Participants performed Pilates imprint, hun-
dreds A and B, roll-up, and leg-circle exercises on a mat. The
hundreds exercise was also performed on a reformer (sliding
platform). Mat imprint and hundreds exercises were instructed
to be performed correctly (with abdominal drawing-in) or
incorrectly (without drawing-in).
Main Outcome Measure: Thickness of TrA and OI middle
fibers measured with ultrasound imaging.
Results: TrA thickness increased during the mat imprint, hun-
dreds A, hundreds B, leg-circle, and roll-up exercises (all Pϭ.001)
compared with resting. OI thickness increased during the mat
imprint, hundreds A, hundreds B, leg-circle (all Pϭ.001), and
roll-up exercises (Pϭ.002) compared with resting. TrA thickness
during reformer hundreds B was greater than during mat hundreds
B (Pϭ.011); OI thicknesses were not different for this compari-
son. During incorrect imprint, neither TrA or OI thicknesses were
different to resting. TrA and OI muscle thicknesses were moder-
ately correlated (Rϭ.410; Pϭ.001).
Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that a
selection of classic Pilates exercises activates TrA and OI. Use
of the reformer exercise machine can result in greater TrA
activation in some exercises. TrA and OI did not function
independently during these exercises. Research into the train-
ing effects of Pilates or in patient populations can be under-
taken using ultrasonography in submaximal exercises.
Key Words: Abdominal muscles; Exercise; Rehabilitation;
Ultrasonography.
© 2008 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medi-
cine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and
Rehabilitation
THE EXERCISE REGIMEN known as pilates, founded on
the teachings of Joseph Pilates (1880–1967), has become
a popular choice for people seeking conditioning and rehabil-
itation; devotees in the United States increased 1000-fold be-
tween 1990 and 2000.1
Pilates advocates claim the exercises
involve activation of the transversus and obliquus internus
abdominal muscles thought to stabilize the lumbar spine; hence
Pilates has application in lumbo-pelvic pain rehabilitation and
dance, sport, or athletic conditioning. This claim has had min-
imal formal investigation.2
There has been considerable recent interest in neuromuscular
control of spinal motion in rehabilitation and conditioning.
Models of trunk muscle function developed from Bergmark’s3
classification of local muscles, such as TrA,4,5
attaching to the
spine and global muscles, such as middle fibers of OI,3
span-
ning the pelvis to ribs, stress the importance of TrA as a spinal
stabilizer, and are influential in contemporary physical therapy
and conditioning practice.4,6-10
Others, such as McGill et
al,11-13
do not employ this classification, and suggest all trunk
muscles have a role in spinal stability.
Classic Pilates aims to improve health and well being with
exercises that emphasize abdominal and low back muscle
strengthening while maintaining good posture and body align-
ment.14
Exercises are mat-based or use equipment, such as the
reformer (fig 1; and see Methods: Materials), as assistive
and/or resistive exercise tools.14
It is claimed that Pilates ex-
ercises activate TrA and OI muscles15,16
; consequently, Pilates
is advocated as a progression from spinal stabilization physical
therapy (involving TrA retraining) as maintenance or preven-
tative exercises for people with back pain.7
To date, no pub-
lished studies have evaluated TrA or OI muscle activity during
Pilates exercises.
All classic Pilates exercises involve the imprint action, pull-
ing the navel toward the spine. Pilates believed pulling in the
abdomen in this way protected the spine.14
The imprint action
appears to be similar to the low abdominal drawing-in exercise
used to activate TrA in spinal stabilization training.10
It is
recognized that many patients find low abdominal drawing-in
difficult to learn even when taught by expert physical thera-
pists.10
With the widespread popularity of Pilates, there is
variation in teaching standards, and there are differences in
emphasis of the importance of the imprint action.14-16
It is not
known whether it is necessary to maintain the imprint action
during exercises, according to classic Pilates principles, in
order to activate TrA and OI muscles most effectively.
Ultrasound imaging has been used as a noninvasive tool for
measuring abdominal muscle thickness change during respira-
From the School of Human Health and Performance, University College London
(Endleman); Academic Department of Physiotherapy, King’s College London,
(Critchley), London, UK.
No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research
supporting this article has or will confer a benefit on the authors or on any organi-
zation with which the authors are associated.
Reprint requests to Duncan J. Critchley, MSc, MCSP, Academic Dept of Physio-
therapy, King’s College London, Guy’s Campus, London, SE1 6RT, UK, e-mail:
duncan.critchley@kcl.ac.uk.
0003-9993/08/8911-00932$34.00/0
doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2008.04.025
List of Abbreviations
ANOVA analysis of variance
EMG electromyographic
ICC intraclass correlation coefficients
MVC maximum voluntary contraction
OI obliquus internus abdominis
TrA transversus abdominis
2205
Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008
tion, abdominal muscle exercises, and gait.17-21
Thickness
change in TrA and OI has been shown to have good correlation
with EMG activity up to 30% to 50% MVC,22,23
suggesting
that thickness change is a valid measure of activity in these
muscles at these levels of effort. Unfortunately, the relationship
in obliquus externus abdominis is much weaker, and ultra-
sound-measured thickness change cannot be confidently used
as a gauge of activity in this muscle.22,24
The aims of the investigation were to evaluate the following
hypotheses with ultrasound measurements of muscle thickness:
(1) Pilates exercises performed by Pilates-trained healthy per-
sons would result in greater activity in TrA and OI muscles
than at rest. (2) Performing the exercises correctly, following
classic Pilates principles of maintaining the imprint action, or
drawn-in abdominal wall, would result in greater TrA and OI
muscle activity than performing the same exercises incorrectly.
(3) Using the Pilates reformera
equipment would result in
greater TrA and OI muscle activity than when performing the
same exercise on mats.
In addition, we evaluated the correlation of TrA and middle
fibers of OI muscle activity during a range of exercises aimed
at promoting trunk stability in order to investigate the degree of
functional independence of these muscles.
METHODS
Participants
After we obtained ethical approval from the University Col-
lege London Research Ethics Committee and written informed
consent, 8 men and 18 women who had attended supervised
classical Pilates sessions at least once a week for the previous
6 months were recruited from a Pilates studio. Potential par-
ticipants were excluded if they were under 18 years old, had
spinal or abdominal surgery at any time, had low back pain in
the last 2 years, had visible scoliosis, had neuromuscular dis-
orders, or were pregnant.
Materials
A portable ultrasound scannerb
was used in B mode with a
7.5-MHz linear head. A Pilates reformer, a sliding platform on
tracks set in a frame, was used for the equipment-based exer-
cise (see fig 1). Participants can lie, sit, or stand on the sliding
platform, which is free to move, thus providing a unidirection-
ally unstable base of support. Exercises are performed by
moving the platform against spring resistance.
Procedures
Each participant’s demographic data, height, and weight
were recorded. All exercises were initially demonstrated by the
researcher, a physical therapist who is also an experienced
Pilates instructor. Exercises were conducted in random order
over a 50-minute period to minimize possible fatigue effects.
All testing took place in the studio of Pilates International,
Highgate, London, UK.
Ultrasonography
The ultrasound machine was calibrated prior to data collection
by comparing with metal phantoms of known dimensions. All
subjects had their antero-lateral abdominal muscles imaged in a
supine position initially, to familiarize the researcher with the
participant’s muscle topography and fascial landmarks that could
be used to improve measurement reliability (fig 2). All stored
Fig 2. Example ultrasound image of antero-lateral abdominal wall (A)
at rest and (B) during imprint. OE, obliquus externus abdominis; OI,
obliquus internus abdominis; TrA, transversus abdominis.
Fig 1. (A) Reformer hundreds A and (B) reformer hundreds B.
2206 ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PILATES, Endleman
Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008
images for measurement purposes were made with the transducer
orientated antero-laterally with the midpoint of the transducer
positioned midway between the iliac crest and the lowest rib along
the anterior axillary line of the left abdomen. At this point, the
middle fibers of TrA can be imaged simultaneously with the
middle fibers of OI.21
Care was taken to position the transducer
perpendicularly to the abdominal wall at all times for optimal
image clarity and increased accuracy of readings. Static views
were stored using the freeze facility of the scanner timed to the end
of exhalation17
; the thickness of muscles was measured using the
automatic calipers software of the scanner. All ultrasound scans
were taken with the scanner head in the same position, using skin
landmarks or an indelible pen to minimize repositioning error.
Thicknesses of TrA and OI muscles were measured in resting
supine position, during the following exercises, then repeated in
resting supine position to assess short-term intratester reliability.
Exercises
Muscle thickness ultrasound measurements were taken dur-
ing the imprint (fig 3) abdominal draw-in action, the starting
posture for all other classic Pilates exercises. After consultation
with experienced classic Pilates instructors, a representative set
of 3 classic Pilates mat exercises was chosen: the hundreds (fig
4), roll-up (fig 5), and leg-circle (fig 6). The exercises chosen
employ the Pilates principles of breathing control and abdom-
inal muscle control. They are included in every classical Pilates
class and can be modified and progressed. The 3 exercises
provided a variety of different ways of loading the abdominal
muscles, such as through a raised leg (leg-circle), raised legs
(hundreds A), raised legs and head (hundreds B), raised arms
(roll-up A), and raised arms and trunk (roll-up B). Roll-up and
hundreds are dynamic exercises, so measurements were taken
at 2 stages of each of these exercises, described, for example,
as hundreds A and hundreds B (see fig 4). The imprint action
and hundreds exercises were performed with both correct and
incorrect instructions (fig 7). The hundreds exercises were
performed on the reformer (see fig 1) as well as on a mat.
Although all participants were experienced students of clas-
sic Pilates and might be expected to know how to perform the
exercises correctly, a standardized teaching protocol was fol-
lowed for each exercise. Teaching correctly performed exer-
cises emphasized imprinting, or maintaining a drawn-in abdo-
men during exercises, while breathing freely with a mobile rib
cage. The phrases scoop the belly or navel to spine are used
during exercises to reinforce this teaching. When teaching the
incorrect exercises, participants were not corrected if their
antero-lateral abdomen rose away from their spine. Participants
who drew in their abdomen during incorrect exercises were
instructed to push the abdominal muscles out and allow them to
rise (see fig 7). This was also demonstrated to them by the
examiner. All teaching was conducted by a single Pilates
instructor to ensure consistency.
Data Analysis
Repeated resting thickness measurements were compared
with the methods described by Rankin and Stokes25
using
Bland and Altman plots and ICC. The correlation coefficient
(R2
) indicates the extent to which the pairs of numbers for these
2 variables lie on a straight line. Distributions were checked to
ensure that parametric assumptions were met. Muscle thick-
nesses of TrA and OI in all conditions were compared sepa-
rately with repeated-measures 1-way ANOVAs in order to
compare the effect of the 4 exercises with rest, between cor-
rectly and incorrectly performed exercises, and between exer-
Fig 3. Mat imprint.
Fig 4. (A) Mat hundreds A and (B) mat hundreds B.
2207ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PILATES, Endleman
Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008
cise with and without equipment. In order to assess whether
TrA and OI thicknesses were related, Pearson’s correlation
between the 2 muscle thicknesses was tested, and lines of best
fit for 8 possible relationships were compared. Statistical sig-
nificance was accepted at PϽ.05. Data were analyzed using
SPSS 12.0.c
All data are presented as means Ϯ SDs unless
otherwise stated.
RESULTS
Demographic Data
Participants had a mean Ϯ SD age of 43Ϯ14 year old, weight
of 62.3Ϯ9.1kg, 1.70Ϯ0.74m tall, 21.7Ϯ2.8kg/m2
body mass in-
dex and had practiced Pilates for 8.2Ϯ7.2 years, ranging from 6
months to 25 years.
Repeatability
Visual inspection of Bland and Altman plots suggested no
systematic differences between the 2 ultrasound measurements
for either resting muscle. ICCs were .82 and .91 for TrA and
OI, respectively. These results suggest that there is good short-
term intraoperator repeatability for either resting muscle thick-
ness measurement using ultrasound imaging.
Comparisons of Muscle Thickness During Exercise
and Rest
Both muscles increased in thickness during all correctly
performed exercises compared with at rest (hypothesis 1).
There were significant differences between all exercises in both
TrA (PϽ.001) and OI (PϽ.001) thickness, assessed with
measures repeated 1-way ANOVAs (tables 1, 2; fig 8).
Comparisons of Muscle Thickness During Exercises
Performed Correctly and Incorrectly
The effects of performing the exercises incorrectly varied
between the 2 muscles and between different exercises. The
imprint exercise performed correctly resulted in significantly
greater thickness than when the exercise was performed incor-
rectly in both TrA and OI. During the imprint exercise per-
formed incorrectly, neither TrA nor OI was thicker than at rest
(hypothesis 2) (see tables 1, 2; see fig 8).
There were no differences in TrA thickness between cor-
rectly and incorrectly performed mat hundreds A or mat hun-
dreds B exercises, and both correctly and incorrectly performed
mat hundreds A and mat hundreds B exercises resulted in
significantly greater TrA thickness than at rest. During the mat
hundreds A exercise, there was no difference in OI thickness
between correctly and incorrectly performed exercises; during
the mat hundreds B exercise, OI muscle thickness was greater
Fig 7. (A) Correct imprint and (B) incorrect imprint.
Fig 5. (A) Roll-up A and (B) roll-up B.
Fig 6. Leg-circle.
2208 ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PILATES, Endleman
Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008
when this exercise was performed incorrectly (hypothesis 2)
(see tables 1, 2; see fig 8).
Comparisons of Muscle Thickness During Exercises With
and Without Equipment
During the hundreds A exercise, TrA muscle thickness was
the same regardless of whether the exercise took place on a mat
or on the reformer. During the hundreds B exercise, TrA was
thicker when exercising with the reformer. Performing the
hundreds A and hundreds B exercises on the reformer made no
difference to OI muscle thickness compared with the same
exercises performed on a mat, although the muscle was close to
being significantly thicker during the hundreds A exercise on
the reformer (Pϭ.56; hypothesis 3) (see tables 1, 2; see fig 8).
It was observed post hoc that the more demanding exercises—the
mat hundreds A, the mat hundreds B, the leg-circle, and the roll-up B
exercises—were associated with greater muscle thickness com-
pared with the imprint or roll-up A exercises (see tables 1, 2;
see fig 8).
Pearson’s correlation between all TrA and OI muscle thick-
nesses R2
was equal to .410 (Pϭ.001). A power relationship
provided the closest line of best fit (Fϭ66.73; Pϭ0.001), but
was only a little better than a linear relationship (Fϭ62.58;
Pϭ0.001) (fig 9).
DISCUSSION
The main finding was that both TrA and OI muscles were
significantly thicker during all correctly performed Pilates ex-
ercises investigated compared with resting supine. TrA and OI
muscle thickness change has been shown to correlate with
EMG muscular activity up to moderate levels of effort,22,23
suggesting that this thickness increase indicates muscle activ-
ity, possibly in order to help stabilize or protect the spine.10
The
3 Pilates exercises investigated therefore activate the deeper
abdominal muscles. This has been frequently claimed but not
clearly demonstrated prior to this study.
The imprint action, taught when first learning Pilates and the
basis of all other classic Pilates exercises, showed a difference
in muscle thickness according to whether the exercise was
performed correctly or not. During higher effort exercises, such
as hundreds A and B, there were no significant differences
between exercises performed correctly and incorrectly. How-
ever, participants were all experienced Pilates practitioners,
and it may have been hard for them to unlearn the exercises,
particularly in complex movements such as the hundreds or
leg-circle exercises, components of which may have been per-
formed unconsciously. Some participants reported finding it
difficult to perform the exercises incorrectly because they were
so accustomed to drawing in their abdomens. Further studies
could investigate the activity of the abdominal muscles during
Pilates exercises among naive or patient populations.
Using the reformer equipment resulted in thicker TrA during
the higher effort hundreds B exercise, but no difference during
the lower effort hundreds A, and no differences in OI. The
hundreds exercise involves lying supine on the sliding board of
the reformer, which may provide external lumbo-pelvic stabi-
lization and thus minimize the effects of the extra resistance
and challenge to balance provided by the equipment.
Some models of spinal stability propose independent func-
tions for TrA and OI.3,10
The moderate correlation between
these 2 muscles found in the present study does not support this
view. There is controversy regarding whether isolated TrA
muscle exercises are desirable or practical in programs aimed
at enhancing muscular stabilization of the spine.10,11,13,26,27
In
the present study, there was an increase in thickness of OI in 23
Table1:PairwiseComparisonsofTransversusAbdominisThickness(mm)BetweenDifferentPilatesExercises
MeanDifferenceϮSE
RestImprint
Imprint
IncorrectHundredsA
HundredsA
IncorrectHundredsB
HundredsB
IncorrectRoll-UpARoll-UpBLeg-Circle
HundredsA
Reformer
HundredsB
Reformer
Rest2.66Ϯ0.25*0.38Ϯ0.22*4.90Ϯ0.54*5.57Ϯ0.61*4.05Ϯ0.41*4.78Ϯ0.69*2.68Ϯ0.39*4.72Ϯ0.49*4.41Ϯ0.49*5.39Ϯ0.54*5.28Ϯ0.60*
P
Imprint.000*2.28Ϯ0.26*2.24Ϯ0.572.91Ϯ0.641.39Ϯ0.502.12Ϯ0.710.02Ϯ0.492.06Ϯ0.571.75Ϯ0.562.73Ϯ0.522.62Ϯ0.57
Imprintincorrect.096.000*4.52Ϯ0.545.19Ϯ0.563.67Ϯ0.404.40Ϯ0.642.30Ϯ0.414.34Ϯ0.464.03Ϯ0.485.01Ϯ0.484.90Ϯ0.56
HundredsA.000*.001.0000.67Ϯ0.42*0.85Ϯ0.350.12Ϯ0.582.22Ϯ0.410.18Ϯ0.460.49Ϯ0.330.49Ϯ0.46*0.38Ϯ0.54
HundredsA
incorrect.000.000.000.124*1.52Ϯ0.410.79Ϯ0.342.88Ϯ0.550.85Ϯ0.471.16Ϯ0.450.18Ϯ0.430.29Ϯ0.53
HundredsB.000*.010.000.022.0010.73Ϯ0.59*1.37Ϯ0.410.67Ϯ0.400.36Ϯ0.311.34Ϯ0.381.23Ϯ0.44*
HundredsB
incorrect.000.006.000.838.030.225*2.10Ϯ0.680.06Ϯ0.620.37Ϯ0.580.61Ϯ0.590.50Ϯ0.65
Roll-upA.000*.962.000.000.000.003.0052.03Ϯ0.441.73Ϯ0.472.70Ϯ0.522.60Ϯ0.64
Roll-upB.000*.001.000.699.080.103.922.0000.31Ϯ0.390.67Ϯ0.520.56Ϯ0.64
Leg-circle.000*.005.000.150.016.253.527.001.4400.98Ϯ0.400.87Ϯ0.56
HundredsA
reformer.000*.000.000.299*.675.002.313.000.211.0220.11Ϯ0.30
HundredsB
reformer.000*.000.000.491.592.011*.452.000.390.132.720
NOTE.Upperright,meansϮSEsofdifferencesbetweenthickness;lowerleft,theirassociatedPvalues.
*Testofapriorihypothesis.
2209ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PILATES, Endleman
Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008
of 26 participants during the imprint action correctly performed
(according to an experienced classic Pilates instructor and
physical therapist), suggesting that an isolated TrA contraction
is hard to achieve even in a highly trained population. Beith
and Harrison28
argue that because of the anatomy of the com-
bined aponeurosis and their reflex connections, the abdominal
muscles cannot function independently. These results support
that view.
The use of ultrasound to measure abdominal muscle thick-
ness as a proxy of muscle activity is becoming increasingly
popular.17-21,29,30
Non-Pilates exercises designed to activate the
stabilizing abdominal muscles have been demonstrated to in-
crease the thickness of TrA and OI,9,19,29,31
findings similar to
those of this study. Repeated measurement of the thickness
from the same portion of abdominal muscle requires accurate
identification of muscle architecture and careful repositioning
between scans to ensure that the same portion of the abdominal
wall is measured each time; however, reliability was investi-
gated and demonstrated to be very good. Similar very good-
to-excellent intrarater reliability (ICC) has been reported in
other studies.9,23,32
Thickness change and EMG signal have
been demonstrated to correlate well in both TrA and OI at low
to moderate levels of effort.22,23
Hodges et al22
concluded that
the relationship was weaker during efforts greater than 20% to
30% MVC from results of a small sample (nϭ3), whereas
McMeeken et al23
demonstrated a good relationship to 50%
MVC in a larger group (nϭ9). Data from both these studies22,23
suggest muscle thickness increase tends to be smaller for the
same increase in EMG signal during higher efforts. Ultrasound
measurement of thickness may therefore have underestimated
differences between more strenuous exercises so that differ-
ences may exist but were not detected between, for example,
correct and incorrect hundreds B. The percentage of MVC of
transversus and OI muscles during these exercises is unknown,
but comparison with similar exercises from other studies sug-
gests that most were less than 30% and unlikely to have
exceeded 50%; during the dying bug exercise (crook lying,
both arms and both legs raised from plinth), similar to the
hundreds B exercise, oblique abdominal muscle EMG activity
was never greater than 25% MVC33
; in a curl-up exercise,
similar to the present roll-up B, OI EMG activity was reported
as 42% of MVC.34
In the present study, during more strenuous
exercises such as hundreds A and B and roll-up B, muscles
were thicker than during lower effort exercises such as the
imprint action or roll-up A, increasing confidence in the valid-
ity of this method of measuring of muscle activity. However,
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Rest
Imprint
Imprintincorrect
100sA
100sAincorrect
100sB
100sincorrectB
Roll-upA
Roll-upB
Legcircle
100sAreformer
100sBreformer
Mean (SD)
Musclethickness(mm)
Transversus abdominis Obliquus internus
Fig 8. TrA and OI thickness measurement (mm) during different
Pilates exercises.
Table2:PairwiseComparisonsofObliquusInternusAbdominisThickness(mm)BetweenDifferentPilatesExercises
MeanDifferenceϮSE
RestImprint
Imprint
IncorrectHundredsA
HundredsA
IncorrectHundredsB
HundredsB
IncorrectRoll-upARoll-upBLeg-Circle
HundredsA
Reformer
HundredsB
Reformer
Rest2.00Ϯ0.31*0.71Ϯ0.532.07Ϯ0.44*1.08Ϯ0.52*4.00Ϯ0.53*1.82Ϯ0.751.11Ϯ0.32*5.80Ϯ0.75*1.58Ϯ0.40*3.12Ϯ0.61*4.97Ϯ0.70*
P
Imprint.000*1.29Ϯ0.52*0.07Ϯ0.520.92Ϯ0.552.00Ϯ0.550.18Ϯ0.820.89Ϯ0.303.80Ϯ0.740.42Ϯ0.411.12Ϯ0.602.97Ϯ0.67
Imprintincorrect.192.019*1.35Ϯ0.65Ϫ0.37Ϯ0.673.29Ϯ0.731.11Ϯ0.690.40Ϯ0.525.09Ϯ0.84Ϫ0.87Ϯ0.522.41Ϯ0.694.26Ϯ0.74
HundredsA.000*.901.0480.98Ϯ0.48*1.93Ϯ0.540.24Ϯ0.630.95Ϯ0.493.75Ϯ0.600.49Ϯ0.371.06Ϯ0.53*2.90Ϯ0.68
HundredsA
incorrect.047.106.587.510*2.92Ϯ0.660.74Ϯ0.560.03Ϯ0.544.72Ϯ0.580.50Ϯ0.352.04Ϯ0.653.89Ϯ0.70
HundredsB.000*.001.000.001.0002.18Ϯ0.89*2.89Ϯ0.441.80Ϯ0.692.42Ϯ0.540.88Ϯ0.540.97Ϯ0.63*
HundredsB
incorrect.022.831.117.706.196.022*0.71Ϯ0.813.98Ϯ0.860.25Ϯ0.631.30Ϯ0.853.15Ϯ0.89
Roll-upA.002*.007.453.065.955.000.3884.69Ϯ0.650.47Ϯ0.402.01Ϯ0.533.86Ϯ0.56
Roll-upB.000*.000.000.000.000.015.000.0004.22Ϯ0.502.68Ϯ0.730.83Ϯ0.78
Leg-circle.001*.311.106.201.172.000.698.253.0001.55Ϯ0.513.39Ϯ0.58
HundredsA
reformer.000*.071.002.056*.004.119.140.001.001.0061.85Ϯ0.34
HundredsB
reformer.000*.000.000.000.000.135*.002.000.297.000.000
NOTE.Upperright,meansϮSEsofdifferencesbetweenthickness;lowerleft,theirassociatedPvalues.
*Testofapriorihypothesis.
2210 ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PILATES, Endleman
Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008
further studies should investigate the relationship of abdominal
muscle thickness and EMG activity during different exercises
and with larger sample sizes.21
The present study measured muscle thickness during 3 of 34
possible classic Pilates exercises. The exercises were chosen
after consultation with experienced instructors and are believed
to be representative of the conditioning system. Further re-
search could compare other exercises. Exercises such as leg-
circle and roll-up are dynamic but were measured in a station-
ary position in the present study. Video recording real-time
ultrasound can be used to measure muscle thickness during
dynamic exercises,20,23
which may give more valid findings.
Ultrasound scanning is a safe, reliable, and practical tool that
could be used to evaluate change in both the TrA and OI
muscle thickness after Pilates or other training programs if
submaximal exercises are investigated.
Study Limitations
Because of the weaker relationship between muscle thick-
ness and EMG activity at higher percentages of MVC, less
confidence can be placed in the results of more strenuous
exercises.
CONCLUSIONS
A significant increase in thickness, representing muscle ac-
tivity, was demonstrated in both TrA and OI during 3 Pilates
exercises performed according to classic Pilates principles.
Muscle thicknesses during the imprint action performed incor-
rectly are no greater than at rest. Further research is needed to
investigate other exercises, the longer-term effects of perform-
ing Pilates exercises, and patient populations such as those with
low back or pelvic pain.
Acknowledgments: We thank Bruce Lynn, PhD, and Jeroen
Bergmann, MSc, for statistical advice, Elizabeth Proud for editorial
assistance, Heather Sampson, Martin Sampson, and the staff at Pilates
International, Highgate, London, UK, for loan of facilities, equipment,
and guidance regarding exercise choice, and all participants.
References
1. Chang Y. Grace under pressure: ten years ago, 5,000 people did the
exercise routine called Pilates: the number now is 5 million in
America alone: but what is it, exactly? Newsweek 2000;135:72-3.
2. Bernardo LM. The effectiveness of Pilates training in healthy
adults: an appraisal of the research literature. J Bodywork Move-
ment Ther 2007;11:106-10.
3. Bergmark A. Stability of the lumbar spine: a study in mechanical
engineering. Acta Orthop Scand 1989;230:1-54.
4. O’Sullivan PB. Lumbar segmental “stability”: clinical presenta-
tion and specific stabilizing exercise management. Man Ther
2000;5:2-12.
5. Urquhart DM, Barker PJ, Hodges PW, Story IH, Biggs CA.
Regional morphology of the transversus abdominis and oblique
internus and externus abdominis muscles. Clin Biomech (Bristol,
Avon) 2005;20:233-41.
6. Hodges PW. Is there a role for transverses abdominis in lumbo
pelvic stability? Man Ther 1999;4:74-86.
7. Comerford M, Mottram S. Functional stability retraining: princi-
ples and strategies for managing mechanical dysfunction. J Body-
work Movement Ther 2001;6:3-14.
8. Willardson J. Core stability training: applications to sports condi-
tioning programs. J Strength Cond Res 2007;21:979-85.
9. Ainscough-Potts AM, Morrissey MC, Critchley DJ. The response
of the transverse abdominis and internal oblique muscles to dif-
ferent postures. Man Ther 2006;11:54-60.
10. Richardson CA, Hodges PW, Hides JA. Therapeutic exercise for
lumbopelvic stabilization: a motor control approach for the treat-
ment and prevention of low back pain. 2nd ed. Edinburgh:
Churchill Livingstone; 2004.
11. McGill SM. Invited review: low back stability: from formal de-
scription to issues for performance and rehabilitation. Exerc Sport
Sci Rev 2001;29:26-31.
12. McGill SM. Low back pain disorders: evidence based prevention
and rehabilitation. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2002.
13. McGill SM, Grenier S, Kavcic N, Cholewicki J. Coordination of
muscle activity to assure stability of the lumbar spine. J Electro-
myography Kinesiol 2003;13:353-9.
14. Pilates JH, Miller W. Pilates’ return to life through contrology.
Incline Village: Presentation Dynamics; 1998.
15. Robinson L, Fischer H, Knox J, Thomson G. Official body control
Pilates manual: the ultimate guide to the Pilates method. London:
Macmillan; 2002.
16. Merrithew M. Manual: comprehensive matwork. 2nd ed. Paris:
Thompson Printing & Lithographing; 2002.
17. Misuri G, Colagrande S, Gorini M, et al. In vivo US assessment
of respiratory function of abdominal muscles in normal subjects.
Eur Respir J 1997;10:2861-7.
18. Critchley D. Instructing pelvic floor contraction facilitates trans-
versus abdominis thickness change during low-abdominal hollow-
ing. Physiother Res Int 2002;7:66-75.
19. Critchley D, Coutts FJ. Abdominal muscle function in chronic low
back pain patients: measurement with real-time ultrasound scan-
ning. Physiotherapy 2002;88:322-32.
20. Bunce SM, Hough AD, Moore AP. Measurement of abdominal
muscle thickness using M-mode ultrasound imaging during func-
tional activities. Man Ther 2004;9:41-4.
21. Teyhen DS, Gill NW, Whittaker JL, Henry SM, Hides JA, Hodges
P. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the abdominal muscles.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2007;37:450-66.
22. Hodges PW, Pengel LH, Herbert RD, Gandevia SC. Measurement
of muscle contraction with ultrasound imaging. Muscle Nerve
2003;27:682-92.
23. McMeeken J, Beith, I, Newham D, Milligan P, Critchley D. The
relationship between EMG and change in thickness of transversus
abdominis. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2004;19:337-42.
24. John EK, Beith ID. Can activity within the external abdominal
oblique be measured using real-time ultrasound imaging? Clin
Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2007;22:972-9.
Fig 9. Correlation of TrA and OI thickness with lines of best fit.
2211ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PILATES, Endleman
Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008
25. Rankin G, Stokes M. Reliability of assessment tools in rehabili-
tation: an illustration of appropriate statistical analysis. Clin Re-
habil 1998;12:187-99.
26. Grenier SG, McGill SM. Quantification of lumbar stability by
using 2 different abdominal activation strategies. Arch Phys Med
Rehabil 2007;88:54-62.
27. Beith ID, Synnott RE, Newman SA. Abdominal muscle activity
during the abdominal hollowing manoeuvre in the four point
kneeling and prone positions. Man Ther 2001;6:82-7.
28. Beith ID, Harrison PJ. Stretch reflexes in human abdominal mus-
cles. Exp Brain Res 2004;59:206-13.
29. Stuge B, Mørkved S, Haug Dahl H, Vøllestad N. Abdominal and
pelvic floor muscle function in women with and without long
lasting pelvic girdle pain. Man Ther 2006;11:287-96.
30. Raney NH, Teyhen DS, Childs JD. Observed changes in lateral
abdominal muscle thickness after spinal manipulation: a case
series using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging. J Orthop Sports
Phys Ther 2007;37:472-9.
31. Hides JA, Wilson S, Stanton W, et al. An MRI investigation
into the function of the transversus abdominis muscle during
“drawing-in” of the abdominal wall. Spine 2006;31:E175-
E178.
32. Hides JA, Miokovic T, Belavý DL, Stanton WR, Richardson CA.
Ultrasound imaging assessment of abdominal muscle function
during drawing-in of the abdominal wall: an intrarater reliability
study. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2007;37:480-6.
33. Souza GM, Baker LL, Powers CM. Electromyographic activity of
selected trunk muscles during dynamic spine stabilization exer-
cises. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1551-7.
34. Escamilla RF, Babb E, DeWitt R, et al. Electromyographic
analysis of traditional and nontraditional abdominal exercises:
implications for rehabilitation and training. Phys Ther 2006;
86:656-71.
Suppliers
a. Pilates International, Unit 1, Broadbent Close, 20/22 Highgate High
St, London, N6 5JG UK.
b. Aloka 55D-900; Aloka Co Ltd, 6-22-1, Mure, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo,
181-8622 Japan.
c. SPSS Inc, 233 S Wacker Dr, 11th Fl, Chicago, IL 60606.
2212 ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PILATES, Endleman
Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008

More Related Content

What's hot

Emg de ccf em mi em reabil lca
Emg de ccf em mi em reabil lcaEmg de ccf em mi em reabil lca
Emg de ccf em mi em reabil lca
Gustavo Resek Borges
 
Comparison of a strengthening programme to a proprioceptive training in impro...
Comparison of a strengthening programme to a proprioceptive training in impro...Comparison of a strengthening programme to a proprioceptive training in impro...
Comparison of a strengthening programme to a proprioceptive training in impro...
IOSR Journals
 
Trunk muscles activation in different sitting postures during abdominal hollo...
Trunk muscles activation in different sitting postures during abdominal hollo...Trunk muscles activation in different sitting postures during abdominal hollo...
Trunk muscles activation in different sitting postures during abdominal hollo...
spastudent
 
Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006
Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006
Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006
Felipe Vargas Rios
 
Marivo_SIF_2016[1094]
Marivo_SIF_2016[1094]Marivo_SIF_2016[1094]
Marivo_SIF_2016[1094]
leonardolibero
 
Tendon Loading Program for Long Distance Runner
Tendon Loading Program for Long Distance Runner Tendon Loading Program for Long Distance Runner
Tendon Loading Program for Long Distance Runner
Lauren Jarmusz
 
Discus throwing performances and medical classification of wheelchair athlete...
Discus throwing performances and medical classification of wheelchair athlete...Discus throwing performances and medical classification of wheelchair athlete...
Discus throwing performances and medical classification of wheelchair athlete...
Ciro Winckler
 
Yoga
YogaYoga
20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women
20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women
20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women
Julie Tzeng
 
Peter Mallarias. Research Fellow, LaTrobe University and Queen Mary, Universi...
Peter Mallarias. Research Fellow, LaTrobe University and Queen Mary, Universi...Peter Mallarias. Research Fellow, LaTrobe University and Queen Mary, Universi...
Peter Mallarias. Research Fellow, LaTrobe University and Queen Mary, Universi...
MuscleTech Network
 
Strength Training Draft
Strength Training DraftStrength Training Draft
Strength Training Draft
Anthony Robbins
 
Cga ifa 2015 4 physical exam
Cga ifa 2015 4 physical examCga ifa 2015 4 physical exam
Cga ifa 2015 4 physical exam
Richard Baker
 
pradeep publication 1
pradeep publication 1pradeep publication 1
pradeep publication 1
pradeep shankar
 
Muscle ativaction during four pilates core stability exercises in quadrupede ...
Muscle ativaction during four pilates core stability exercises in quadrupede ...Muscle ativaction during four pilates core stability exercises in quadrupede ...
Muscle ativaction during four pilates core stability exercises in quadrupede ...
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Biomechanical Analysis of The Complete Core Conditioner
Biomechanical Analysis of The Complete Core ConditionerBiomechanical Analysis of The Complete Core Conditioner
Biomechanical Analysis of The Complete Core Conditioner
Brandon Hossack
 
Mi gliaccio et al. 2018 leg press vs. smith
Mi gliaccio et al. 2018 leg press vs. smithMi gliaccio et al. 2018 leg press vs. smith
Mi gliaccio et al. 2018 leg press vs. smith
Fábio Lanferdini
 
Hamstring Strains Project- FINAL!
Hamstring Strains Project- FINAL! Hamstring Strains Project- FINAL!
Hamstring Strains Project- FINAL!
Candice Shadgoo
 
Emg glúteo medio
Emg glúteo medioEmg glúteo medio
Emg glúteo medio
Universidad de Chile
 

What's hot (18)

Emg de ccf em mi em reabil lca
Emg de ccf em mi em reabil lcaEmg de ccf em mi em reabil lca
Emg de ccf em mi em reabil lca
 
Comparison of a strengthening programme to a proprioceptive training in impro...
Comparison of a strengthening programme to a proprioceptive training in impro...Comparison of a strengthening programme to a proprioceptive training in impro...
Comparison of a strengthening programme to a proprioceptive training in impro...
 
Trunk muscles activation in different sitting postures during abdominal hollo...
Trunk muscles activation in different sitting postures during abdominal hollo...Trunk muscles activation in different sitting postures during abdominal hollo...
Trunk muscles activation in different sitting postures during abdominal hollo...
 
Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006
Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006
Paper 01 emg abdominal escamilla feb 2006
 
Marivo_SIF_2016[1094]
Marivo_SIF_2016[1094]Marivo_SIF_2016[1094]
Marivo_SIF_2016[1094]
 
Tendon Loading Program for Long Distance Runner
Tendon Loading Program for Long Distance Runner Tendon Loading Program for Long Distance Runner
Tendon Loading Program for Long Distance Runner
 
Discus throwing performances and medical classification of wheelchair athlete...
Discus throwing performances and medical classification of wheelchair athlete...Discus throwing performances and medical classification of wheelchair athlete...
Discus throwing performances and medical classification of wheelchair athlete...
 
Yoga
YogaYoga
Yoga
 
20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women
20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women
20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women
 
Peter Mallarias. Research Fellow, LaTrobe University and Queen Mary, Universi...
Peter Mallarias. Research Fellow, LaTrobe University and Queen Mary, Universi...Peter Mallarias. Research Fellow, LaTrobe University and Queen Mary, Universi...
Peter Mallarias. Research Fellow, LaTrobe University and Queen Mary, Universi...
 
Strength Training Draft
Strength Training DraftStrength Training Draft
Strength Training Draft
 
Cga ifa 2015 4 physical exam
Cga ifa 2015 4 physical examCga ifa 2015 4 physical exam
Cga ifa 2015 4 physical exam
 
pradeep publication 1
pradeep publication 1pradeep publication 1
pradeep publication 1
 
Muscle ativaction during four pilates core stability exercises in quadrupede ...
Muscle ativaction during four pilates core stability exercises in quadrupede ...Muscle ativaction during four pilates core stability exercises in quadrupede ...
Muscle ativaction during four pilates core stability exercises in quadrupede ...
 
Biomechanical Analysis of The Complete Core Conditioner
Biomechanical Analysis of The Complete Core ConditionerBiomechanical Analysis of The Complete Core Conditioner
Biomechanical Analysis of The Complete Core Conditioner
 
Mi gliaccio et al. 2018 leg press vs. smith
Mi gliaccio et al. 2018 leg press vs. smithMi gliaccio et al. 2018 leg press vs. smith
Mi gliaccio et al. 2018 leg press vs. smith
 
Hamstring Strains Project- FINAL!
Hamstring Strains Project- FINAL! Hamstring Strains Project- FINAL!
Hamstring Strains Project- FINAL!
 
Emg glúteo medio
Emg glúteo medioEmg glúteo medio
Emg glúteo medio
 

Viewers also liked

Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girlsEffect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Published patent and design registration information january 22nd, 2016
Published patent and design registration information   january 22nd, 2016Published patent and design registration information   january 22nd, 2016
Published patent and design registration information january 22nd, 2016
InvnTree IP Services Pvt. Ltd.
 
Client_Newsletter CSIRO Minerals
Client_Newsletter CSIRO MineralsClient_Newsletter CSIRO Minerals
Client_Newsletter CSIRO Minerals
Mark Kelly
 
República bolivariana de venezuela
República bolivariana de venezuelaRepública bolivariana de venezuela
República bolivariana de venezuela
ylanda_arvelo
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgiaPlugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Pilates and the Powerhouse
Pilates and the PowerhousePilates and the Powerhouse
Pilates and the Powerhouse
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Table summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg method
Table summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg methodTable summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg method
Table summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg method
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...
Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...
Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...
Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...
Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
ketan resume 22
ketan resume  22ketan resume  22
ketan resume 22
Ketan Umaretiya
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Movimiento oscilatorio. maria e martinez
Movimiento oscilatorio. maria e martinezMovimiento oscilatorio. maria e martinez
Movimiento oscilatorio. maria e martinez
mariae2709
 
How to remove blpsearch.com
How to remove blpsearch.comHow to remove blpsearch.com
How to remove blpsearch.com
jesicasruma
 
Calderas monotubo acuatubular
Calderas monotubo acuatubularCalderas monotubo acuatubular
Calderas monotubo acuatubular
Laystark
 
Plugin jago -effect of-4_weeks_of_pilates_on_the_
Plugin jago -effect of-4_weeks_of_pilates_on_the_Plugin jago -effect of-4_weeks_of_pilates_on_the_
Plugin jago -effect of-4_weeks_of_pilates_on_the_
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Tienes todo un futuro por delante
Tienes todo un futuro por delanteTienes todo un futuro por delante
Tienes todo un futuro por delante
erendida vianey aguilar hernandez
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Vita
VitaVita
Client_Newsletter Monash Uni
Client_Newsletter Monash UniClient_Newsletter Monash Uni
Client_Newsletter Monash Uni
Mark Kelly
 
Pilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão Sistemática
Pilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão SistemáticaPilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão Sistemática
Pilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão Sistemática
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girlsEffect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
 
Published patent and design registration information january 22nd, 2016
Published patent and design registration information   january 22nd, 2016Published patent and design registration information   january 22nd, 2016
Published patent and design registration information january 22nd, 2016
 
Client_Newsletter CSIRO Minerals
Client_Newsletter CSIRO MineralsClient_Newsletter CSIRO Minerals
Client_Newsletter CSIRO Minerals
 
República bolivariana de venezuela
República bolivariana de venezuelaRepública bolivariana de venezuela
República bolivariana de venezuela
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgiaPlugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia
 
Pilates and the Powerhouse
Pilates and the PowerhousePilates and the Powerhouse
Pilates and the Powerhouse
 
Table summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg method
Table summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg methodTable summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg method
Table summary of studies testing clinical effectiveness of the rpg method
 
Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...
Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...
Plugin sacco,%20 i.c.n%20et%20al%20-m%e9todo%20pilates%20em%20revista%20aspec...
 
Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...
Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...
Transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pi...
 
ketan resume 22
ketan resume  22ketan resume  22
ketan resume 22
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(5)
 
Movimiento oscilatorio. maria e martinez
Movimiento oscilatorio. maria e martinezMovimiento oscilatorio. maria e martinez
Movimiento oscilatorio. maria e martinez
 
How to remove blpsearch.com
How to remove blpsearch.comHow to remove blpsearch.com
How to remove blpsearch.com
 
Calderas monotubo acuatubular
Calderas monotubo acuatubularCalderas monotubo acuatubular
Calderas monotubo acuatubular
 
Plugin jago -effect of-4_weeks_of_pilates_on_the_
Plugin jago -effect of-4_weeks_of_pilates_on_the_Plugin jago -effect of-4_weeks_of_pilates_on_the_
Plugin jago -effect of-4_weeks_of_pilates_on_the_
 
Tienes todo un futuro por delante
Tienes todo un futuro por delanteTienes todo un futuro por delante
Tienes todo un futuro por delante
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(1)
 
Vita
VitaVita
Vita
 
Client_Newsletter Monash Uni
Client_Newsletter Monash UniClient_Newsletter Monash Uni
Client_Newsletter Monash Uni
 
Pilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão Sistemática
Pilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão SistemáticaPilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão Sistemática
Pilates na Reabilitação: uma Revisão Sistemática
 

Similar to Plugin transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pilates%20exercises%20measurement%20with%20ultrasound%20scanning-1

Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizadoPilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Abdominal Exercises: A Review Study For Training Prescription
Abdominal Exercises: A Review Study For Training PrescriptionAbdominal Exercises: A Review Study For Training Prescription
Abdominal Exercises: A Review Study For Training Prescription
inventionjournals
 
Hamstring activation
Hamstring activationHamstring activation
Hamstring activation
Fernando Farias
 
Role of swiss ball in lumbar stabilization
Role of swiss ball in lumbar stabilizationRole of swiss ball in lumbar stabilization
Role of swiss ball in lumbar stabilization
Jamia Millia Islamia
 
OQASlstaaltlawsc.docx
OQASlstaaltlawsc.docxOQASlstaaltlawsc.docx
OQASlstaaltlawsc.docx
vannagoforth
 
Asca flexibility dimensions
Asca flexibility dimensionsAsca flexibility dimensions
Asca flexibility dimensions
Charlie Hoolihan
 
J Str Cond Res-2001-Coppack
J Str Cond Res-2001-CoppackJ Str Cond Res-2001-Coppack
J Str Cond Res-2001-Coppack
Russ Coppack MBE
 
Recent advances in knee oa
Recent advances in knee oaRecent advances in knee oa
Recent advances in knee oa
drpoojajoshi
 
Pilates and motor control
Pilates and motor controlPilates and motor control
Pilates and motor control
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Slater and hart, 2017 agachamento
Slater and hart, 2017 agachamentoSlater and hart, 2017 agachamento
Slater and hart, 2017 agachamento
Fábio Lanferdini
 
Pilates for Rehabilitation
Pilates for RehabilitationPilates for Rehabilitation
Pilates for Rehabilitation
Neha234666
 
To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...
To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...
To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...
IOSR Journals
 
An experimental study on scapulothoracic and glenohumeral kinematics followin...
An experimental study on scapulothoracic and glenohumeral kinematics followin...An experimental study on scapulothoracic and glenohumeral kinematics followin...
An experimental study on scapulothoracic and glenohumeral kinematics followin...
pharmaindexing
 
Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...
Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...
Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...
Fernando Farias
 
Current concept in scientific and clinical rationale behind exercises for gh ...
Current concept in scientific and clinical rationale behind exercises for gh ...Current concept in scientific and clinical rationale behind exercises for gh ...
Current concept in scientific and clinical rationale behind exercises for gh ...
Satoshi Kajiyama
 
Nikos Malliaropoulos - Rehabilitation of hamstring injuries
Nikos Malliaropoulos - Rehabilitation of hamstring injuries Nikos Malliaropoulos - Rehabilitation of hamstring injuries
Nikos Malliaropoulos - Rehabilitation of hamstring injuries
MuscleTech Network
 
Pilates
PilatesPilates
Da silva et al. 2008 leg press
Da silva et al. 2008 leg pressDa silva et al. 2008 leg press
Da silva et al. 2008 leg press
Fábio Lanferdini
 
Da silva et al. 2008 leg press
Da silva et al. 2008 leg pressDa silva et al. 2008 leg press
Da silva et al. 2008 leg press
Fábio Lanferdini
 
Gymnastics Athletes Hamstring Muscles Elasticity and Trunk Mobility
Gymnastics Athletes Hamstring Muscles Elasticity and Trunk MobilityGymnastics Athletes Hamstring Muscles Elasticity and Trunk Mobility
Gymnastics Athletes Hamstring Muscles Elasticity and Trunk Mobility
Crimsonpublishers-Sportsmedicine
 

Similar to Plugin transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pilates%20exercises%20measurement%20with%20ultrasound%20scanning-1 (20)

Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizadoPilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
 
Abdominal Exercises: A Review Study For Training Prescription
Abdominal Exercises: A Review Study For Training PrescriptionAbdominal Exercises: A Review Study For Training Prescription
Abdominal Exercises: A Review Study For Training Prescription
 
Hamstring activation
Hamstring activationHamstring activation
Hamstring activation
 
Role of swiss ball in lumbar stabilization
Role of swiss ball in lumbar stabilizationRole of swiss ball in lumbar stabilization
Role of swiss ball in lumbar stabilization
 
OQASlstaaltlawsc.docx
OQASlstaaltlawsc.docxOQASlstaaltlawsc.docx
OQASlstaaltlawsc.docx
 
Asca flexibility dimensions
Asca flexibility dimensionsAsca flexibility dimensions
Asca flexibility dimensions
 
J Str Cond Res-2001-Coppack
J Str Cond Res-2001-CoppackJ Str Cond Res-2001-Coppack
J Str Cond Res-2001-Coppack
 
Recent advances in knee oa
Recent advances in knee oaRecent advances in knee oa
Recent advances in knee oa
 
Pilates and motor control
Pilates and motor controlPilates and motor control
Pilates and motor control
 
Slater and hart, 2017 agachamento
Slater and hart, 2017 agachamentoSlater and hart, 2017 agachamento
Slater and hart, 2017 agachamento
 
Pilates for Rehabilitation
Pilates for RehabilitationPilates for Rehabilitation
Pilates for Rehabilitation
 
To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...
To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...
To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...
 
An experimental study on scapulothoracic and glenohumeral kinematics followin...
An experimental study on scapulothoracic and glenohumeral kinematics followin...An experimental study on scapulothoracic and glenohumeral kinematics followin...
An experimental study on scapulothoracic and glenohumeral kinematics followin...
 
Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...
Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...
Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...
 
Current concept in scientific and clinical rationale behind exercises for gh ...
Current concept in scientific and clinical rationale behind exercises for gh ...Current concept in scientific and clinical rationale behind exercises for gh ...
Current concept in scientific and clinical rationale behind exercises for gh ...
 
Nikos Malliaropoulos - Rehabilitation of hamstring injuries
Nikos Malliaropoulos - Rehabilitation of hamstring injuries Nikos Malliaropoulos - Rehabilitation of hamstring injuries
Nikos Malliaropoulos - Rehabilitation of hamstring injuries
 
Pilates
PilatesPilates
Pilates
 
Da silva et al. 2008 leg press
Da silva et al. 2008 leg pressDa silva et al. 2008 leg press
Da silva et al. 2008 leg press
 
Da silva et al. 2008 leg press
Da silva et al. 2008 leg pressDa silva et al. 2008 leg press
Da silva et al. 2008 leg press
 
Gymnastics Athletes Hamstring Muscles Elasticity and Trunk Mobility
Gymnastics Athletes Hamstring Muscles Elasticity and Trunk MobilityGymnastics Athletes Hamstring Muscles Elasticity and Trunk Mobility
Gymnastics Athletes Hamstring Muscles Elasticity and Trunk Mobility
 

More from Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta

Pilates na Lombalgia
Pilates na LombalgiaPilates na Lombalgia
Pilates na Lombalgia
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Intra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar Spine
Intra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar SpineIntra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar Spine
Intra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar Spine
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Pilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação postural
Pilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação posturalPilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação postural
Pilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação postural
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Pilates and low back pain: a systematic review
Pilates and low back pain: a systematic reviewPilates and low back pain: a systematic review
Pilates and low back pain: a systematic review
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Pilates na Lombalgia - revisão
Pilates na Lombalgia - revisãoPilates na Lombalgia - revisão
Pilates na Lombalgia - revisão
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Efeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio Muscular
Efeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio MuscularEfeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio Muscular
Efeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio Muscular
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...
Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...
Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Protocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombar
Protocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombarProtocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombar
Protocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombar
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...
Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...
Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Abordagem Fisioterapeutica do Pilates
Abordagem Fisioterapeutica do PilatesAbordagem Fisioterapeutica do Pilates
Abordagem Fisioterapeutica do Pilates
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Owsley - an introduction to clinical pilates
Owsley - an introduction to clinical pilatesOwsley - an introduction to clinical pilates
Owsley - an introduction to clinical pilates
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Pilates em Adultos Saudáveis
Pilates em Adultos SaudáveisPilates em Adultos Saudáveis
Pilates em Adultos Saudáveis
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Pilate Method: History and philosophy
Pilate Method: History and philosophyPilate Method: History and philosophy
Pilate Method: History and philosophy
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Rpg e Alongamento Segmentar - tese
Rpg e Alongamento Segmentar  - teseRpg e Alongamento Segmentar  - tese
Rpg e Alongamento Segmentar - tese
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Plugin diego%20 alano%20carvalho-%20lombalgia%20-%20pilates
Plugin diego%20 alano%20carvalho-%20lombalgia%20-%20pilatesPlugin diego%20 alano%20carvalho-%20lombalgia%20-%20pilates
Plugin diego%20 alano%20carvalho-%20lombalgia%20-%20pilates
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Avaliação isocinética com o Pilates
Avaliação isocinética com o PilatesAvaliação isocinética com o Pilates
Avaliação isocinética com o Pilates
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Chronic low-back pain
Chronic low-back painChronic low-back pain
Chronic low-back pain
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 

More from Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta (19)

Pilates na Lombalgia
Pilates na LombalgiaPilates na Lombalgia
Pilates na Lombalgia
 
Intra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar Spine
Intra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar SpineIntra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar Spine
Intra abdominal Pressure Mechanism for Stabilizing the Lombar Spine
 
Pilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação postural
Pilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação posturalPilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação postural
Pilates: Aspectos biomecânicos e reestruturação postural
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(4)
 
Pilates and low back pain: a systematic review
Pilates and low back pain: a systematic reviewPilates and low back pain: a systematic review
Pilates and low back pain: a systematic review
 
Pilates na Lombalgia - revisão
Pilates na Lombalgia - revisãoPilates na Lombalgia - revisão
Pilates na Lombalgia - revisão
 
Efeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio Muscular
Efeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio MuscularEfeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio Muscular
Efeitos do RPG na Correção Postural e Reequilíbrio Muscular
 
Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...
Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...
Plugin jacek%20-%20 intra-abdominal%20pressure%20mechanism%20for%20stabilizin...
 
Protocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombar
Protocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombarProtocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombar
Protocolo Fisioterapêutico para tratamento da dor lombar
 
Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...
Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...
Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises...
 
Abordagem Fisioterapeutica do Pilates
Abordagem Fisioterapeutica do PilatesAbordagem Fisioterapeutica do Pilates
Abordagem Fisioterapeutica do Pilates
 
Owsley - an introduction to clinical pilates
Owsley - an introduction to clinical pilatesOwsley - an introduction to clinical pilates
Owsley - an introduction to clinical pilates
 
Pilates em Adultos Saudáveis
Pilates em Adultos SaudáveisPilates em Adultos Saudáveis
Pilates em Adultos Saudáveis
 
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)
Plugin revis%e3o%20de%20 pilates%20na%20lombalgia(3)
 
Pilate Method: History and philosophy
Pilate Method: History and philosophyPilate Method: History and philosophy
Pilate Method: History and philosophy
 
Rpg e Alongamento Segmentar - tese
Rpg e Alongamento Segmentar  - teseRpg e Alongamento Segmentar  - tese
Rpg e Alongamento Segmentar - tese
 
Plugin diego%20 alano%20carvalho-%20lombalgia%20-%20pilates
Plugin diego%20 alano%20carvalho-%20lombalgia%20-%20pilatesPlugin diego%20 alano%20carvalho-%20lombalgia%20-%20pilates
Plugin diego%20 alano%20carvalho-%20lombalgia%20-%20pilates
 
Avaliação isocinética com o Pilates
Avaliação isocinética com o PilatesAvaliação isocinética com o Pilates
Avaliação isocinética com o Pilates
 
Chronic low-back pain
Chronic low-back painChronic low-back pain
Chronic low-back pain
 

Plugin transversus%20 abdominis%20and%20obliquus%20internus%20activity%20during%20pilates%20exercises%20measurement%20with%20ultrasound%20scanning-1

  • 1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Transversus Abdominis and Obliquus Internus Activity During Pilates Exercises: Measurement With Ultrasound Scanning Irit Endleman, MSc, MCSP, Duncan J. Critchley, MSc, MCSP ABSTRACT. Endleman I, Critchley DJ. Transversus abdo- minis and obliquus internus activity during Pilates exercises: measurement with ultrasound scanning. Arch Phys Med Reha- bil 2008;89:2205-12. Objective: To assess activity of transversus abdominis (TrA) and obliquus internus abdominis (OI) muscles during classical Pilates exercises performed correctly and incorrectly, and with or without equipment. Design: Repeated-measures descriptive study. Setting: Pilates studio. Participants: A volunteer sample of women (nϭ18) and men (nϭ8), mean age Ϯ SD (43Ϯ14y), with more than 6 months classical Pilates training and no back pain or other condition likely to influence abdominal muscle activity. Interventions: Participants performed Pilates imprint, hun- dreds A and B, roll-up, and leg-circle exercises on a mat. The hundreds exercise was also performed on a reformer (sliding platform). Mat imprint and hundreds exercises were instructed to be performed correctly (with abdominal drawing-in) or incorrectly (without drawing-in). Main Outcome Measure: Thickness of TrA and OI middle fibers measured with ultrasound imaging. Results: TrA thickness increased during the mat imprint, hun- dreds A, hundreds B, leg-circle, and roll-up exercises (all Pϭ.001) compared with resting. OI thickness increased during the mat imprint, hundreds A, hundreds B, leg-circle (all Pϭ.001), and roll-up exercises (Pϭ.002) compared with resting. TrA thickness during reformer hundreds B was greater than during mat hundreds B (Pϭ.011); OI thicknesses were not different for this compari- son. During incorrect imprint, neither TrA or OI thicknesses were different to resting. TrA and OI muscle thicknesses were moder- ately correlated (Rϭ.410; Pϭ.001). Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that a selection of classic Pilates exercises activates TrA and OI. Use of the reformer exercise machine can result in greater TrA activation in some exercises. TrA and OI did not function independently during these exercises. Research into the train- ing effects of Pilates or in patient populations can be under- taken using ultrasonography in submaximal exercises. Key Words: Abdominal muscles; Exercise; Rehabilitation; Ultrasonography. © 2008 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medi- cine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation THE EXERCISE REGIMEN known as pilates, founded on the teachings of Joseph Pilates (1880–1967), has become a popular choice for people seeking conditioning and rehabil- itation; devotees in the United States increased 1000-fold be- tween 1990 and 2000.1 Pilates advocates claim the exercises involve activation of the transversus and obliquus internus abdominal muscles thought to stabilize the lumbar spine; hence Pilates has application in lumbo-pelvic pain rehabilitation and dance, sport, or athletic conditioning. This claim has had min- imal formal investigation.2 There has been considerable recent interest in neuromuscular control of spinal motion in rehabilitation and conditioning. Models of trunk muscle function developed from Bergmark’s3 classification of local muscles, such as TrA,4,5 attaching to the spine and global muscles, such as middle fibers of OI,3 span- ning the pelvis to ribs, stress the importance of TrA as a spinal stabilizer, and are influential in contemporary physical therapy and conditioning practice.4,6-10 Others, such as McGill et al,11-13 do not employ this classification, and suggest all trunk muscles have a role in spinal stability. Classic Pilates aims to improve health and well being with exercises that emphasize abdominal and low back muscle strengthening while maintaining good posture and body align- ment.14 Exercises are mat-based or use equipment, such as the reformer (fig 1; and see Methods: Materials), as assistive and/or resistive exercise tools.14 It is claimed that Pilates ex- ercises activate TrA and OI muscles15,16 ; consequently, Pilates is advocated as a progression from spinal stabilization physical therapy (involving TrA retraining) as maintenance or preven- tative exercises for people with back pain.7 To date, no pub- lished studies have evaluated TrA or OI muscle activity during Pilates exercises. All classic Pilates exercises involve the imprint action, pull- ing the navel toward the spine. Pilates believed pulling in the abdomen in this way protected the spine.14 The imprint action appears to be similar to the low abdominal drawing-in exercise used to activate TrA in spinal stabilization training.10 It is recognized that many patients find low abdominal drawing-in difficult to learn even when taught by expert physical thera- pists.10 With the widespread popularity of Pilates, there is variation in teaching standards, and there are differences in emphasis of the importance of the imprint action.14-16 It is not known whether it is necessary to maintain the imprint action during exercises, according to classic Pilates principles, in order to activate TrA and OI muscles most effectively. Ultrasound imaging has been used as a noninvasive tool for measuring abdominal muscle thickness change during respira- From the School of Human Health and Performance, University College London (Endleman); Academic Department of Physiotherapy, King’s College London, (Critchley), London, UK. No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research supporting this article has or will confer a benefit on the authors or on any organi- zation with which the authors are associated. Reprint requests to Duncan J. Critchley, MSc, MCSP, Academic Dept of Physio- therapy, King’s College London, Guy’s Campus, London, SE1 6RT, UK, e-mail: duncan.critchley@kcl.ac.uk. 0003-9993/08/8911-00932$34.00/0 doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2008.04.025 List of Abbreviations ANOVA analysis of variance EMG electromyographic ICC intraclass correlation coefficients MVC maximum voluntary contraction OI obliquus internus abdominis TrA transversus abdominis 2205 Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008
  • 2. tion, abdominal muscle exercises, and gait.17-21 Thickness change in TrA and OI has been shown to have good correlation with EMG activity up to 30% to 50% MVC,22,23 suggesting that thickness change is a valid measure of activity in these muscles at these levels of effort. Unfortunately, the relationship in obliquus externus abdominis is much weaker, and ultra- sound-measured thickness change cannot be confidently used as a gauge of activity in this muscle.22,24 The aims of the investigation were to evaluate the following hypotheses with ultrasound measurements of muscle thickness: (1) Pilates exercises performed by Pilates-trained healthy per- sons would result in greater activity in TrA and OI muscles than at rest. (2) Performing the exercises correctly, following classic Pilates principles of maintaining the imprint action, or drawn-in abdominal wall, would result in greater TrA and OI muscle activity than performing the same exercises incorrectly. (3) Using the Pilates reformera equipment would result in greater TrA and OI muscle activity than when performing the same exercise on mats. In addition, we evaluated the correlation of TrA and middle fibers of OI muscle activity during a range of exercises aimed at promoting trunk stability in order to investigate the degree of functional independence of these muscles. METHODS Participants After we obtained ethical approval from the University Col- lege London Research Ethics Committee and written informed consent, 8 men and 18 women who had attended supervised classical Pilates sessions at least once a week for the previous 6 months were recruited from a Pilates studio. Potential par- ticipants were excluded if they were under 18 years old, had spinal or abdominal surgery at any time, had low back pain in the last 2 years, had visible scoliosis, had neuromuscular dis- orders, or were pregnant. Materials A portable ultrasound scannerb was used in B mode with a 7.5-MHz linear head. A Pilates reformer, a sliding platform on tracks set in a frame, was used for the equipment-based exer- cise (see fig 1). Participants can lie, sit, or stand on the sliding platform, which is free to move, thus providing a unidirection- ally unstable base of support. Exercises are performed by moving the platform against spring resistance. Procedures Each participant’s demographic data, height, and weight were recorded. All exercises were initially demonstrated by the researcher, a physical therapist who is also an experienced Pilates instructor. Exercises were conducted in random order over a 50-minute period to minimize possible fatigue effects. All testing took place in the studio of Pilates International, Highgate, London, UK. Ultrasonography The ultrasound machine was calibrated prior to data collection by comparing with metal phantoms of known dimensions. All subjects had their antero-lateral abdominal muscles imaged in a supine position initially, to familiarize the researcher with the participant’s muscle topography and fascial landmarks that could be used to improve measurement reliability (fig 2). All stored Fig 2. Example ultrasound image of antero-lateral abdominal wall (A) at rest and (B) during imprint. OE, obliquus externus abdominis; OI, obliquus internus abdominis; TrA, transversus abdominis. Fig 1. (A) Reformer hundreds A and (B) reformer hundreds B. 2206 ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PILATES, Endleman Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008
  • 3. images for measurement purposes were made with the transducer orientated antero-laterally with the midpoint of the transducer positioned midway between the iliac crest and the lowest rib along the anterior axillary line of the left abdomen. At this point, the middle fibers of TrA can be imaged simultaneously with the middle fibers of OI.21 Care was taken to position the transducer perpendicularly to the abdominal wall at all times for optimal image clarity and increased accuracy of readings. Static views were stored using the freeze facility of the scanner timed to the end of exhalation17 ; the thickness of muscles was measured using the automatic calipers software of the scanner. All ultrasound scans were taken with the scanner head in the same position, using skin landmarks or an indelible pen to minimize repositioning error. Thicknesses of TrA and OI muscles were measured in resting supine position, during the following exercises, then repeated in resting supine position to assess short-term intratester reliability. Exercises Muscle thickness ultrasound measurements were taken dur- ing the imprint (fig 3) abdominal draw-in action, the starting posture for all other classic Pilates exercises. After consultation with experienced classic Pilates instructors, a representative set of 3 classic Pilates mat exercises was chosen: the hundreds (fig 4), roll-up (fig 5), and leg-circle (fig 6). The exercises chosen employ the Pilates principles of breathing control and abdom- inal muscle control. They are included in every classical Pilates class and can be modified and progressed. The 3 exercises provided a variety of different ways of loading the abdominal muscles, such as through a raised leg (leg-circle), raised legs (hundreds A), raised legs and head (hundreds B), raised arms (roll-up A), and raised arms and trunk (roll-up B). Roll-up and hundreds are dynamic exercises, so measurements were taken at 2 stages of each of these exercises, described, for example, as hundreds A and hundreds B (see fig 4). The imprint action and hundreds exercises were performed with both correct and incorrect instructions (fig 7). The hundreds exercises were performed on the reformer (see fig 1) as well as on a mat. Although all participants were experienced students of clas- sic Pilates and might be expected to know how to perform the exercises correctly, a standardized teaching protocol was fol- lowed for each exercise. Teaching correctly performed exer- cises emphasized imprinting, or maintaining a drawn-in abdo- men during exercises, while breathing freely with a mobile rib cage. The phrases scoop the belly or navel to spine are used during exercises to reinforce this teaching. When teaching the incorrect exercises, participants were not corrected if their antero-lateral abdomen rose away from their spine. Participants who drew in their abdomen during incorrect exercises were instructed to push the abdominal muscles out and allow them to rise (see fig 7). This was also demonstrated to them by the examiner. All teaching was conducted by a single Pilates instructor to ensure consistency. Data Analysis Repeated resting thickness measurements were compared with the methods described by Rankin and Stokes25 using Bland and Altman plots and ICC. The correlation coefficient (R2 ) indicates the extent to which the pairs of numbers for these 2 variables lie on a straight line. Distributions were checked to ensure that parametric assumptions were met. Muscle thick- nesses of TrA and OI in all conditions were compared sepa- rately with repeated-measures 1-way ANOVAs in order to compare the effect of the 4 exercises with rest, between cor- rectly and incorrectly performed exercises, and between exer- Fig 3. Mat imprint. Fig 4. (A) Mat hundreds A and (B) mat hundreds B. 2207ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PILATES, Endleman Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008
  • 4. cise with and without equipment. In order to assess whether TrA and OI thicknesses were related, Pearson’s correlation between the 2 muscle thicknesses was tested, and lines of best fit for 8 possible relationships were compared. Statistical sig- nificance was accepted at PϽ.05. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0.c All data are presented as means Ϯ SDs unless otherwise stated. RESULTS Demographic Data Participants had a mean Ϯ SD age of 43Ϯ14 year old, weight of 62.3Ϯ9.1kg, 1.70Ϯ0.74m tall, 21.7Ϯ2.8kg/m2 body mass in- dex and had practiced Pilates for 8.2Ϯ7.2 years, ranging from 6 months to 25 years. Repeatability Visual inspection of Bland and Altman plots suggested no systematic differences between the 2 ultrasound measurements for either resting muscle. ICCs were .82 and .91 for TrA and OI, respectively. These results suggest that there is good short- term intraoperator repeatability for either resting muscle thick- ness measurement using ultrasound imaging. Comparisons of Muscle Thickness During Exercise and Rest Both muscles increased in thickness during all correctly performed exercises compared with at rest (hypothesis 1). There were significant differences between all exercises in both TrA (PϽ.001) and OI (PϽ.001) thickness, assessed with measures repeated 1-way ANOVAs (tables 1, 2; fig 8). Comparisons of Muscle Thickness During Exercises Performed Correctly and Incorrectly The effects of performing the exercises incorrectly varied between the 2 muscles and between different exercises. The imprint exercise performed correctly resulted in significantly greater thickness than when the exercise was performed incor- rectly in both TrA and OI. During the imprint exercise per- formed incorrectly, neither TrA nor OI was thicker than at rest (hypothesis 2) (see tables 1, 2; see fig 8). There were no differences in TrA thickness between cor- rectly and incorrectly performed mat hundreds A or mat hun- dreds B exercises, and both correctly and incorrectly performed mat hundreds A and mat hundreds B exercises resulted in significantly greater TrA thickness than at rest. During the mat hundreds A exercise, there was no difference in OI thickness between correctly and incorrectly performed exercises; during the mat hundreds B exercise, OI muscle thickness was greater Fig 7. (A) Correct imprint and (B) incorrect imprint. Fig 5. (A) Roll-up A and (B) roll-up B. Fig 6. Leg-circle. 2208 ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PILATES, Endleman Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008
  • 5. when this exercise was performed incorrectly (hypothesis 2) (see tables 1, 2; see fig 8). Comparisons of Muscle Thickness During Exercises With and Without Equipment During the hundreds A exercise, TrA muscle thickness was the same regardless of whether the exercise took place on a mat or on the reformer. During the hundreds B exercise, TrA was thicker when exercising with the reformer. Performing the hundreds A and hundreds B exercises on the reformer made no difference to OI muscle thickness compared with the same exercises performed on a mat, although the muscle was close to being significantly thicker during the hundreds A exercise on the reformer (Pϭ.56; hypothesis 3) (see tables 1, 2; see fig 8). It was observed post hoc that the more demanding exercises—the mat hundreds A, the mat hundreds B, the leg-circle, and the roll-up B exercises—were associated with greater muscle thickness com- pared with the imprint or roll-up A exercises (see tables 1, 2; see fig 8). Pearson’s correlation between all TrA and OI muscle thick- nesses R2 was equal to .410 (Pϭ.001). A power relationship provided the closest line of best fit (Fϭ66.73; Pϭ0.001), but was only a little better than a linear relationship (Fϭ62.58; Pϭ0.001) (fig 9). DISCUSSION The main finding was that both TrA and OI muscles were significantly thicker during all correctly performed Pilates ex- ercises investigated compared with resting supine. TrA and OI muscle thickness change has been shown to correlate with EMG muscular activity up to moderate levels of effort,22,23 suggesting that this thickness increase indicates muscle activ- ity, possibly in order to help stabilize or protect the spine.10 The 3 Pilates exercises investigated therefore activate the deeper abdominal muscles. This has been frequently claimed but not clearly demonstrated prior to this study. The imprint action, taught when first learning Pilates and the basis of all other classic Pilates exercises, showed a difference in muscle thickness according to whether the exercise was performed correctly or not. During higher effort exercises, such as hundreds A and B, there were no significant differences between exercises performed correctly and incorrectly. How- ever, participants were all experienced Pilates practitioners, and it may have been hard for them to unlearn the exercises, particularly in complex movements such as the hundreds or leg-circle exercises, components of which may have been per- formed unconsciously. Some participants reported finding it difficult to perform the exercises incorrectly because they were so accustomed to drawing in their abdomens. Further studies could investigate the activity of the abdominal muscles during Pilates exercises among naive or patient populations. Using the reformer equipment resulted in thicker TrA during the higher effort hundreds B exercise, but no difference during the lower effort hundreds A, and no differences in OI. The hundreds exercise involves lying supine on the sliding board of the reformer, which may provide external lumbo-pelvic stabi- lization and thus minimize the effects of the extra resistance and challenge to balance provided by the equipment. Some models of spinal stability propose independent func- tions for TrA and OI.3,10 The moderate correlation between these 2 muscles found in the present study does not support this view. There is controversy regarding whether isolated TrA muscle exercises are desirable or practical in programs aimed at enhancing muscular stabilization of the spine.10,11,13,26,27 In the present study, there was an increase in thickness of OI in 23 Table1:PairwiseComparisonsofTransversusAbdominisThickness(mm)BetweenDifferentPilatesExercises MeanDifferenceϮSE RestImprint Imprint IncorrectHundredsA HundredsA IncorrectHundredsB HundredsB IncorrectRoll-UpARoll-UpBLeg-Circle HundredsA Reformer HundredsB Reformer Rest2.66Ϯ0.25*0.38Ϯ0.22*4.90Ϯ0.54*5.57Ϯ0.61*4.05Ϯ0.41*4.78Ϯ0.69*2.68Ϯ0.39*4.72Ϯ0.49*4.41Ϯ0.49*5.39Ϯ0.54*5.28Ϯ0.60* P Imprint.000*2.28Ϯ0.26*2.24Ϯ0.572.91Ϯ0.641.39Ϯ0.502.12Ϯ0.710.02Ϯ0.492.06Ϯ0.571.75Ϯ0.562.73Ϯ0.522.62Ϯ0.57 Imprintincorrect.096.000*4.52Ϯ0.545.19Ϯ0.563.67Ϯ0.404.40Ϯ0.642.30Ϯ0.414.34Ϯ0.464.03Ϯ0.485.01Ϯ0.484.90Ϯ0.56 HundredsA.000*.001.0000.67Ϯ0.42*0.85Ϯ0.350.12Ϯ0.582.22Ϯ0.410.18Ϯ0.460.49Ϯ0.330.49Ϯ0.46*0.38Ϯ0.54 HundredsA incorrect.000.000.000.124*1.52Ϯ0.410.79Ϯ0.342.88Ϯ0.550.85Ϯ0.471.16Ϯ0.450.18Ϯ0.430.29Ϯ0.53 HundredsB.000*.010.000.022.0010.73Ϯ0.59*1.37Ϯ0.410.67Ϯ0.400.36Ϯ0.311.34Ϯ0.381.23Ϯ0.44* HundredsB incorrect.000.006.000.838.030.225*2.10Ϯ0.680.06Ϯ0.620.37Ϯ0.580.61Ϯ0.590.50Ϯ0.65 Roll-upA.000*.962.000.000.000.003.0052.03Ϯ0.441.73Ϯ0.472.70Ϯ0.522.60Ϯ0.64 Roll-upB.000*.001.000.699.080.103.922.0000.31Ϯ0.390.67Ϯ0.520.56Ϯ0.64 Leg-circle.000*.005.000.150.016.253.527.001.4400.98Ϯ0.400.87Ϯ0.56 HundredsA reformer.000*.000.000.299*.675.002.313.000.211.0220.11Ϯ0.30 HundredsB reformer.000*.000.000.491.592.011*.452.000.390.132.720 NOTE.Upperright,meansϮSEsofdifferencesbetweenthickness;lowerleft,theirassociatedPvalues. *Testofapriorihypothesis. 2209ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PILATES, Endleman Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008
  • 6. of 26 participants during the imprint action correctly performed (according to an experienced classic Pilates instructor and physical therapist), suggesting that an isolated TrA contraction is hard to achieve even in a highly trained population. Beith and Harrison28 argue that because of the anatomy of the com- bined aponeurosis and their reflex connections, the abdominal muscles cannot function independently. These results support that view. The use of ultrasound to measure abdominal muscle thick- ness as a proxy of muscle activity is becoming increasingly popular.17-21,29,30 Non-Pilates exercises designed to activate the stabilizing abdominal muscles have been demonstrated to in- crease the thickness of TrA and OI,9,19,29,31 findings similar to those of this study. Repeated measurement of the thickness from the same portion of abdominal muscle requires accurate identification of muscle architecture and careful repositioning between scans to ensure that the same portion of the abdominal wall is measured each time; however, reliability was investi- gated and demonstrated to be very good. Similar very good- to-excellent intrarater reliability (ICC) has been reported in other studies.9,23,32 Thickness change and EMG signal have been demonstrated to correlate well in both TrA and OI at low to moderate levels of effort.22,23 Hodges et al22 concluded that the relationship was weaker during efforts greater than 20% to 30% MVC from results of a small sample (nϭ3), whereas McMeeken et al23 demonstrated a good relationship to 50% MVC in a larger group (nϭ9). Data from both these studies22,23 suggest muscle thickness increase tends to be smaller for the same increase in EMG signal during higher efforts. Ultrasound measurement of thickness may therefore have underestimated differences between more strenuous exercises so that differ- ences may exist but were not detected between, for example, correct and incorrect hundreds B. The percentage of MVC of transversus and OI muscles during these exercises is unknown, but comparison with similar exercises from other studies sug- gests that most were less than 30% and unlikely to have exceeded 50%; during the dying bug exercise (crook lying, both arms and both legs raised from plinth), similar to the hundreds B exercise, oblique abdominal muscle EMG activity was never greater than 25% MVC33 ; in a curl-up exercise, similar to the present roll-up B, OI EMG activity was reported as 42% of MVC.34 In the present study, during more strenuous exercises such as hundreds A and B and roll-up B, muscles were thicker than during lower effort exercises such as the imprint action or roll-up A, increasing confidence in the valid- ity of this method of measuring of muscle activity. However, 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Rest Imprint Imprintincorrect 100sA 100sAincorrect 100sB 100sincorrectB Roll-upA Roll-upB Legcircle 100sAreformer 100sBreformer Mean (SD) Musclethickness(mm) Transversus abdominis Obliquus internus Fig 8. TrA and OI thickness measurement (mm) during different Pilates exercises. Table2:PairwiseComparisonsofObliquusInternusAbdominisThickness(mm)BetweenDifferentPilatesExercises MeanDifferenceϮSE RestImprint Imprint IncorrectHundredsA HundredsA IncorrectHundredsB HundredsB IncorrectRoll-upARoll-upBLeg-Circle HundredsA Reformer HundredsB Reformer Rest2.00Ϯ0.31*0.71Ϯ0.532.07Ϯ0.44*1.08Ϯ0.52*4.00Ϯ0.53*1.82Ϯ0.751.11Ϯ0.32*5.80Ϯ0.75*1.58Ϯ0.40*3.12Ϯ0.61*4.97Ϯ0.70* P Imprint.000*1.29Ϯ0.52*0.07Ϯ0.520.92Ϯ0.552.00Ϯ0.550.18Ϯ0.820.89Ϯ0.303.80Ϯ0.740.42Ϯ0.411.12Ϯ0.602.97Ϯ0.67 Imprintincorrect.192.019*1.35Ϯ0.65Ϫ0.37Ϯ0.673.29Ϯ0.731.11Ϯ0.690.40Ϯ0.525.09Ϯ0.84Ϫ0.87Ϯ0.522.41Ϯ0.694.26Ϯ0.74 HundredsA.000*.901.0480.98Ϯ0.48*1.93Ϯ0.540.24Ϯ0.630.95Ϯ0.493.75Ϯ0.600.49Ϯ0.371.06Ϯ0.53*2.90Ϯ0.68 HundredsA incorrect.047.106.587.510*2.92Ϯ0.660.74Ϯ0.560.03Ϯ0.544.72Ϯ0.580.50Ϯ0.352.04Ϯ0.653.89Ϯ0.70 HundredsB.000*.001.000.001.0002.18Ϯ0.89*2.89Ϯ0.441.80Ϯ0.692.42Ϯ0.540.88Ϯ0.540.97Ϯ0.63* HundredsB incorrect.022.831.117.706.196.022*0.71Ϯ0.813.98Ϯ0.860.25Ϯ0.631.30Ϯ0.853.15Ϯ0.89 Roll-upA.002*.007.453.065.955.000.3884.69Ϯ0.650.47Ϯ0.402.01Ϯ0.533.86Ϯ0.56 Roll-upB.000*.000.000.000.000.015.000.0004.22Ϯ0.502.68Ϯ0.730.83Ϯ0.78 Leg-circle.001*.311.106.201.172.000.698.253.0001.55Ϯ0.513.39Ϯ0.58 HundredsA reformer.000*.071.002.056*.004.119.140.001.001.0061.85Ϯ0.34 HundredsB reformer.000*.000.000.000.000.135*.002.000.297.000.000 NOTE.Upperright,meansϮSEsofdifferencesbetweenthickness;lowerleft,theirassociatedPvalues. *Testofapriorihypothesis. 2210 ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PILATES, Endleman Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008
  • 7. further studies should investigate the relationship of abdominal muscle thickness and EMG activity during different exercises and with larger sample sizes.21 The present study measured muscle thickness during 3 of 34 possible classic Pilates exercises. The exercises were chosen after consultation with experienced instructors and are believed to be representative of the conditioning system. Further re- search could compare other exercises. Exercises such as leg- circle and roll-up are dynamic but were measured in a station- ary position in the present study. Video recording real-time ultrasound can be used to measure muscle thickness during dynamic exercises,20,23 which may give more valid findings. Ultrasound scanning is a safe, reliable, and practical tool that could be used to evaluate change in both the TrA and OI muscle thickness after Pilates or other training programs if submaximal exercises are investigated. Study Limitations Because of the weaker relationship between muscle thick- ness and EMG activity at higher percentages of MVC, less confidence can be placed in the results of more strenuous exercises. CONCLUSIONS A significant increase in thickness, representing muscle ac- tivity, was demonstrated in both TrA and OI during 3 Pilates exercises performed according to classic Pilates principles. Muscle thicknesses during the imprint action performed incor- rectly are no greater than at rest. Further research is needed to investigate other exercises, the longer-term effects of perform- ing Pilates exercises, and patient populations such as those with low back or pelvic pain. Acknowledgments: We thank Bruce Lynn, PhD, and Jeroen Bergmann, MSc, for statistical advice, Elizabeth Proud for editorial assistance, Heather Sampson, Martin Sampson, and the staff at Pilates International, Highgate, London, UK, for loan of facilities, equipment, and guidance regarding exercise choice, and all participants. References 1. Chang Y. Grace under pressure: ten years ago, 5,000 people did the exercise routine called Pilates: the number now is 5 million in America alone: but what is it, exactly? Newsweek 2000;135:72-3. 2. Bernardo LM. The effectiveness of Pilates training in healthy adults: an appraisal of the research literature. J Bodywork Move- ment Ther 2007;11:106-10. 3. Bergmark A. Stability of the lumbar spine: a study in mechanical engineering. Acta Orthop Scand 1989;230:1-54. 4. O’Sullivan PB. Lumbar segmental “stability”: clinical presenta- tion and specific stabilizing exercise management. Man Ther 2000;5:2-12. 5. Urquhart DM, Barker PJ, Hodges PW, Story IH, Biggs CA. Regional morphology of the transversus abdominis and oblique internus and externus abdominis muscles. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2005;20:233-41. 6. Hodges PW. Is there a role for transverses abdominis in lumbo pelvic stability? Man Ther 1999;4:74-86. 7. Comerford M, Mottram S. Functional stability retraining: princi- ples and strategies for managing mechanical dysfunction. J Body- work Movement Ther 2001;6:3-14. 8. Willardson J. Core stability training: applications to sports condi- tioning programs. J Strength Cond Res 2007;21:979-85. 9. Ainscough-Potts AM, Morrissey MC, Critchley DJ. The response of the transverse abdominis and internal oblique muscles to dif- ferent postures. Man Ther 2006;11:54-60. 10. Richardson CA, Hodges PW, Hides JA. Therapeutic exercise for lumbopelvic stabilization: a motor control approach for the treat- ment and prevention of low back pain. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2004. 11. McGill SM. Invited review: low back stability: from formal de- scription to issues for performance and rehabilitation. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2001;29:26-31. 12. McGill SM. Low back pain disorders: evidence based prevention and rehabilitation. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2002. 13. McGill SM, Grenier S, Kavcic N, Cholewicki J. Coordination of muscle activity to assure stability of the lumbar spine. J Electro- myography Kinesiol 2003;13:353-9. 14. Pilates JH, Miller W. Pilates’ return to life through contrology. Incline Village: Presentation Dynamics; 1998. 15. Robinson L, Fischer H, Knox J, Thomson G. Official body control Pilates manual: the ultimate guide to the Pilates method. London: Macmillan; 2002. 16. Merrithew M. Manual: comprehensive matwork. 2nd ed. Paris: Thompson Printing & Lithographing; 2002. 17. Misuri G, Colagrande S, Gorini M, et al. In vivo US assessment of respiratory function of abdominal muscles in normal subjects. Eur Respir J 1997;10:2861-7. 18. Critchley D. Instructing pelvic floor contraction facilitates trans- versus abdominis thickness change during low-abdominal hollow- ing. Physiother Res Int 2002;7:66-75. 19. Critchley D, Coutts FJ. Abdominal muscle function in chronic low back pain patients: measurement with real-time ultrasound scan- ning. Physiotherapy 2002;88:322-32. 20. Bunce SM, Hough AD, Moore AP. Measurement of abdominal muscle thickness using M-mode ultrasound imaging during func- tional activities. Man Ther 2004;9:41-4. 21. Teyhen DS, Gill NW, Whittaker JL, Henry SM, Hides JA, Hodges P. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the abdominal muscles. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2007;37:450-66. 22. Hodges PW, Pengel LH, Herbert RD, Gandevia SC. Measurement of muscle contraction with ultrasound imaging. Muscle Nerve 2003;27:682-92. 23. McMeeken J, Beith, I, Newham D, Milligan P, Critchley D. The relationship between EMG and change in thickness of transversus abdominis. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2004;19:337-42. 24. John EK, Beith ID. Can activity within the external abdominal oblique be measured using real-time ultrasound imaging? Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2007;22:972-9. Fig 9. Correlation of TrA and OI thickness with lines of best fit. 2211ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PILATES, Endleman Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008
  • 8. 25. Rankin G, Stokes M. Reliability of assessment tools in rehabili- tation: an illustration of appropriate statistical analysis. Clin Re- habil 1998;12:187-99. 26. Grenier SG, McGill SM. Quantification of lumbar stability by using 2 different abdominal activation strategies. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007;88:54-62. 27. Beith ID, Synnott RE, Newman SA. Abdominal muscle activity during the abdominal hollowing manoeuvre in the four point kneeling and prone positions. Man Ther 2001;6:82-7. 28. Beith ID, Harrison PJ. Stretch reflexes in human abdominal mus- cles. Exp Brain Res 2004;59:206-13. 29. Stuge B, Mørkved S, Haug Dahl H, Vøllestad N. Abdominal and pelvic floor muscle function in women with and without long lasting pelvic girdle pain. Man Ther 2006;11:287-96. 30. Raney NH, Teyhen DS, Childs JD. Observed changes in lateral abdominal muscle thickness after spinal manipulation: a case series using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2007;37:472-9. 31. Hides JA, Wilson S, Stanton W, et al. An MRI investigation into the function of the transversus abdominis muscle during “drawing-in” of the abdominal wall. Spine 2006;31:E175- E178. 32. Hides JA, Miokovic T, Belavý DL, Stanton WR, Richardson CA. Ultrasound imaging assessment of abdominal muscle function during drawing-in of the abdominal wall: an intrarater reliability study. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2007;37:480-6. 33. Souza GM, Baker LL, Powers CM. Electromyographic activity of selected trunk muscles during dynamic spine stabilization exer- cises. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1551-7. 34. Escamilla RF, Babb E, DeWitt R, et al. Electromyographic analysis of traditional and nontraditional abdominal exercises: implications for rehabilitation and training. Phys Ther 2006; 86:656-71. Suppliers a. Pilates International, Unit 1, Broadbent Close, 20/22 Highgate High St, London, N6 5JG UK. b. Aloka 55D-900; Aloka Co Ltd, 6-22-1, Mure, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo, 181-8622 Japan. c. SPSS Inc, 233 S Wacker Dr, 11th Fl, Chicago, IL 60606. 2212 ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PILATES, Endleman Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89, November 2008