SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Preventive Medicine 42 (2006) 177 – 180
                                                                                                                                  www.elsevier.com/locate/ypmed




       Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
                 Russell Jago a,*, Marielle L. Jonker b,c, Mariam Missaghian b, Tom Baranowski b
                                       ¨
      a
           Department of Exercise and Health Sciences, Centre for Sport, Exercise and Health, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TP, UK
       b
           Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, 1100 Bates Street, Houston, TX 77030-2600, USA
                  c
                    Rijks Universiteit Groninge, Faculteit der Medische Wetenschappen, A. Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
                                                               Available online 27 December 2005



Abstract

    Background. There is a need to find ways to increase the physical activity levels and improve the body composition and blood pressure of
girls.
    Methods. Thirty 11-year-old girls were recruited from two after school programs in Houston Texas in Spring 2005. Participants from
one program (16) were randomly assigned to intervention, the other (14) served as controls. BMI, BMI percentile, waist circumference and
blood pressure were assessed before and after the intervention. Pilates classes were provided free of charge for an hour per day at the
intervention site, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks. Four participants wore heart rate monitors during every session and completed enjoyment
and perceived exertion questionnaires. Repeated measures analysis of variance with time (within) and group (between) as factors was
performed.
    Results. Mean attendance was 75%, mean heart rate 104 bpm, mean perceived exertion 5.9 (1 – 10 scale) and enjoyment 4.4 (1 – 5 scale). There
was a significant ( P = 0.039) time by group interaction for BMI percentile. Graphs indicated that this difference was influenced by large
reductions in the BMI percentile of healthy girls.
    Conclusions. Girls enjoyed Pilates, and participation for 4 weeks lowered BMI percentile. Pilates holds promise as a means of reducing
obesity.
D 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Enjoyment; Metabolic syndrome; Overweight; Adolescent; Children




Introduction                                                                       pressure. It is also not clear if Pilates places aerobic demands
                                                                                   on the body, which could be important for obtaining
   Regular physical activity has been associated with a reduced                    reductions in fasting insulin (McMurray et al., 2000). The
risk of obesity among adolescents, and as girls physical activity                  aim of this pilot study was to determine whether girls liked
levels are particularly low (Jago et al., 2005), there is a need to                and attended Pilates, the effect of participation in Pilates on
find innovative ways to increase their physical activity (Jago and                 body mass, waist circumference and blood pressure.
Baranowski, 2004). It seems likely that girls will participate
more frequently in activities that they enjoy.                                     Methods
   Pilates is popular among women (Chang, 2000). Pilates is
a series of low impact muscle contraction exercises. The                               Participants were 30, 11.2 (T0.6)-year-old students recruited from two
activities train the muscles in the core of the body (Chang,                       YMCA after school programs within Houston, Texas, in Spring 2005. One site
2000; Siler, 2000). No study has assessed whether girls like to                    was randomly assigned to intervention (n = 16), the other control (n = 14). Mat-
                                                                                   based Pilates classes were offered each day for 4 weeks at the intervention site.
engage in Pilates or if participation in Pilates has positive
                                                                                   Each class was scheduled to last an hour and was led by a YMCA certified mat
effects on their body mass, waist circumference or blood                           Pilates instructor. Control group participants engaged in their usual YMCA
                                                                                   activities during the intervention period and were offered free Pilates classes
                                                                                   once the post data had been collected. The Baylor College of Medicine
                                                                                   Institutional Review Board approved this study. Written informed consent was
 * Corresponding author.                                                           obtained for all participants. All measurements were recorded at baseline and
   E-mail address: russ.jago@gmail.com (R. Jago).                                  immediately after the study.

0091-7435/$ - see front matter D 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2005.11.010
178                                                 R. Jago et al. / Preventive Medicine 42 (2006) 177 – 180


Table 1
Anthropometric and blood pressure variables at baseline and post-assessment for intervention and control group
                          Intervention (n = 16)                                  Control (n = 14)                                    Time by treatment effecta
                          Baseline mean (SD)      Post mean (SD)    Change       Baseline mean (SD)    Post mean (SD)     Change
Weight (kg)                49.4   (18.8)           48.9   (17.94)   À0.5          43.9   (12.0)         43.9   (11.2)      0         F(1,   28)   =   0.921,   P   =   0.345
BMI (kg/m2)                21.6   (5.4)            21.1   (5.6)     À0.5          20.1   (4.8)          20.0   (4.4)      À0.1       F(1,   28)   =   2.795,   P   =   0.106
BMI percentile             71.2   (23.3)           68.1   (26.2)    À3.1          62.5   (31.7)         63.3   (31.6)     +0.8       F(1,   28)   =   4.701,   P   =   0.039*
Waist (cm)                 74.2   (15.8)          73.09   (15.4)    À1.1          69.1   (14.2)         69.2   (14.5)     +0.1       F(1,   28)   =   1.803,   P   =   0.190
Diastolic BP (mm HG)       62.7   (6.2)            58.9   (6.9)     À3.8          60.8   (7.6)          60.5   (7.6)      À0.3       F(1,   28)   =   1.810,   P   =   0.189
Systolic BP (mm HG)       108.2   (9.4)           102.5   (5.6)     À5.7         101.6   (11.80)       102.3   (9.2)      +1.3       F(1,   28)   =   3.513,   P   =   0.071
 a
   Repeated measures ANOVA with time (within) and treatment group (between) as factors.
 * P < 0.05.


Measures                                                                             treatment and control groups at baseline. Repeated measures analysis of
                                                                                     variance with time (within) and treatment groups (between) as factors was used
    Date of birth was obtained by self-report and age calculated. Height was         to test for time by treatment effects on participant’s weight, BMI, BMI
measured to the nearest 0.1 cm on a stadiometer (PE-AIM-101, Perspective             percentile, waist circumference, diastolic and systolic blood pressure with
Enterprises, Kalamazoo, MI) with the participants shoeless. Body weight was          separate models run for each variable.
measured to the nearest 0.1 kg using a pre-calibrated electronic scale (SECA
Alpha 882, Vogel and Halke, Hamburg). Body mass index (BMI) was                      Results
calculated (kg/m2) and age and gender specific BMI percentile computed
using the Centers for Disease Control program (National Center for Health
Statistics, 2000). Waist circumference was recorded to the nearest 0.1 cm at            There were no significant differences in any of the outcome
the iliac crest. Research assistants were within 0.5 kg (weight), 0.5 cm             variables between the two groups at baseline (Table 1). There
(height) and 1 cm (waist circumference) of the first author on at least 90% of       were no time-related changes in the pattern of attendance, heart
a certification group during a pre-study training and certification procedure.       rate or enjoyment across the study. Mean intervention
Blood pressure was recorded three times using an automated blood pressure
monitor (Omron HEM-907, Vernon Hills, IL). The initial value was recorded            attendance was 75% with a mean heart rate of 104 bpm. Mean
after the participant had been seated quietly for 3 min with each subsequent         perceived exertion was 5.9 (1 – 10 scale) with a mean
value recorded 1 min after the preceding recording. The mean of the second           enjoyment of 4.4 (1– 5 scale).
and third readings was used in all analyses. Study staff recorded treatment             The repeated measures ANOVA yielded a significant time
group attendance at the Pilates sessions. Four randomly selected treatment           by group interaction for BMI percentile ( P = 0.039). There was
participants wore Polar heart rate monitors placed in the center of the chest
during each Pilates session. The same participants also completed previously         a 3.1 reduction in the BMI percentile of the treatment group
validated perceived exertion (1 – 10 scale) (Robertson et al., 2000) and             while the control group increased by 0.8 percentiles. There was
enjoyment (1 – 5 scale) questions (Macfarlane and Kwong, 2003) at the end of         also a time by group interaction that approached significance
each session.                                                                        for systolic blood pressure ( P = 0.071).
                                                                                        To further investigate the change in BMI percentile, the
Statistics                                                                           baseline and post-test BMI percentile variables were plotted
                                                                                     separately for the intervention and control groups (Figs. 1 and
    Mean heart rate, perceived exertion and enjoyment ratings were calculated
across sessions, and mean attendance (percent) was calculated. Independent t         2) based on descending initial values. Fig. 1 shows that the
tests were used to test for differences in participants weight, BMI, BMI             change detected was influenced by a small number of cases
percentile, waist circumference, diastolic and systolic blood between the            whose BMI percentile fell considerably as a result of




                                               Fig. 1. Baseline and post-test BMI percentile—intervention group.
R. Jago et al. / Preventive Medicine 42 (2006) 177 – 180                                             179




                                       Fig. 2. Baseline and post-test BMI percentile—intervention group.



participating in the intervention. However, it is important to            Limitations
highlight greater changes occurred in participants with low
initial values where a small change in BMI resulted in a larger              The study was limited by the small sample size, the short
drop in BMI percentile. The figure for the control group is               duration of the intervention and the lack of age diversity in the
more mixed, with lower initial values among some participants             sample. Participants were clustered within after school pro-
and a slightly smaller sample. Thus, the results indicate a               grams, and participants at the two locations could share similar
disproportionate drop in the BMI percentile of healthy girls and          characteristics. Since this was a pilot study with only two
suggest that the effect of the intervention was not uniform               centers, we could not control for clustering effects. The study
among participants.                                                       was also limited by a lack of information on other metabolic
                                                                          syndrome risks.
Discussion
                                                                          Conclusion
    Participation in Pilates for 4 weeks led to a small
reduction in the BMI percentile of 11-year-old girls. This                   Participation in Pilates for 4 weeks lowered the BMI
change was influenced by a small change in the BMI of girls               percentile of 10- to 12-year-old girls. Participants enjoyed
who were healthy at the baseline assessment and the small                 Pilates and attended regularly, suggesting that Pilates might
sample size. However, as small changes were also detected in              prove to be a useful means of increasing activity and thereby
the BMI percentiles of the heavier girls, a significant                   curbing the obesity epidemic.
reduction in their BMI percentiles might be achieved with
increased exposure to the program. Further, as the perceived              Acknowledgments
exertion ratings showed that the girls found Pilates to be only
somewhat challenging and the heart rate data indicated that                  This study was funded by a grant from a Bristol-Myers
Pilates was not an aerobic activity a more intense interven-              Squibb Research Grant in Nutrition awarded through the
tion might further enhance the potential to affect the BMI                Children’s Nutrition Research Center at Baylor College of
percentile of the heavier girls. This might be achieved by                Medicine. This work is also a publication of the USDA/ARS
combining Pilates with an aerobic activity, such as dance                 Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediat-
which may also provide the dose of training that appears to               rics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s
be necessary to positively influence insulin levels (McMurray             Hospital, Houston, Texas. This project has been funded in
et al., 2000).                                                            part by federal funds from the USDA/ARS under co-operative
    The girls enjoyed and regularly attended the Pilates classes.         agreement 58-6250-51000. The contents of this publication do
Since poor attendance has contributed (Pate et al., 2003) to the          not necessarily reflect the views or polices of the USDA nor
failure to increase adolescent physical activity, the high                does mention of trade names, commercial products, or
attendance and enjoyment levels in this study suggest that                organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Pilates may be a useful method of increasing activity and
warrants further study. The relatively low cost of delivering
                                                                          References
Pilates sessions (space, an instructor and mats) also indicates
that it is an activity that could be implemented within after             Chang, Y., 2000. Grace under pressure. Ten years ago, 5,000 people did the
school programs, suggesting that broad dissemination could be                exercise routine called Pilates. The number now is 5 million in America
achieved.                                                                    alone. But what is it, exactly? Newsweek 135 (9), 72 – 73.
180                                                   R. Jago et al. / Preventive Medicine 42 (2006) 177 – 180


Jago, R., Baranowski, T., 2004. Non-curricular approaches for increasing            National Center for Health Statistics, 2000. CDC Growth Charts: United States
   physical activity in youth: a review. Prev. Med. 39 (1), 157 – 163.              Pate, R.P., Saunders, R.P., Ward, D.S., Felton, G., Trost, S.G., Dowda, M.,
Jago, R., Anderson, C., Baranowski, T., Watson, K., 2005. Adolescent patterns           2003. Evaluation of a community-based intervention to promote physical
   of physical activity: differences by gender, day and time of day. Am. J. Prev.       activity in youth: lessons from active winners. Am. J. Health Promot. 17
   Med. 28 (5), 447 – 452.                                                              (3), 171 – 182.
Macfarlane, D., Kwong, W.T., 2003. Children’s heart rates and enjoyment             Robertson, R.J., Goss, F.L., Boer, N.F., Peoples, J.A., Foreman, A.J.,
   levels during PE classes in Hong Kong primary schools. Pediatr. Exerc. Sci.          Dabayebeh, I.M., Millich, N.B., Balasekaran, G., Riechman, S.E.,
   15, 179 – 190.                                                                       Gallagher, J.D., Thompkins, T., 2000. Children’s OMNI scale of perceived
McMurray, R.G., Bauman, M.J., Harrell, J.S., Brown, S., Bangdiwala, S.I.,               exertion: mixed gender and race validation. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 32 (3),
   2000. Effects of improvement in aerobic power on resting insulin and                 452 – 458.
   glucose concentrations in children. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 132 – 139.        Siler, B., 2000. The Pilates Body. Broadway Books, New York.

More Related Content

What's hot

Pilates em Adultos Saudáveis
Pilates em Adultos SaudáveisPilates em Adultos Saudáveis
Pilates em Adultos Saudáveis
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizadoPilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Effects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary students
Effects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary studentsEffects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary students
Effects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary students
spastudent
 
Effects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patients
Effects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patientsEffects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patients
Effects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patients
Daniel Yazbek
 
Long-term effect of physical activity on energy balance and body composition
Long-term effect of physical activity on energy balance and body compositionLong-term effect of physical activity on energy balance and body composition
Long-term effect of physical activity on energy balance and body composition
juan pedro gracia mendez
 
Palmilhas e dor lombar
Palmilhas e dor lombarPalmilhas e dor lombar
Palmilhas e dor lombar
Podoposturologia Palmilhas Posturais
 
Pilates na lombalgia
Pilates na lombalgiaPilates na lombalgia
Pilates na lombalgia
Andréia Salvador
 
How Does the inclusion of interactive virtual games influence rehabilitation ...
How Does the inclusion of interactive virtual games influence rehabilitation ...How Does the inclusion of interactive virtual games influence rehabilitation ...
How Does the inclusion of interactive virtual games influence rehabilitation ...
spastudent
 
Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after knee arthroplasty for oa.
Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after knee arthroplasty for oa.Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after knee arthroplasty for oa.
Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after knee arthroplasty for oa.
FUAD HAZIME
 
Queen's Study
Queen's StudyQueen's Study
Queen's Study
Heidi Smith
 
Impact of manual therapy oa
Impact of manual therapy oaImpact of manual therapy oa
Impact of manual therapy oa
aebrahim123
 
Effects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy Children
Effects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy ChildrenEffects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy Children
Effects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy Children
spastudent
 
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
spastudent
 
Concise Fatigueposter
Concise FatigueposterConcise Fatigueposter
Concise Fatigueposter
mangogirl805
 
Post exercise cold water immersion benefits are not greater than the placebo ...
Post exercise cold water immersion benefits are not greater than the placebo ...Post exercise cold water immersion benefits are not greater than the placebo ...
Post exercise cold water immersion benefits are not greater than the placebo ...
Fernando Farias
 
To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...
To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...
To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...
IOSR Journals
 
Effect of brisk walking on flexibility of sedentary college students
Effect of brisk walking on flexibility of sedentary college studentsEffect of brisk walking on flexibility of sedentary college students
Effect of brisk walking on flexibility of sedentary college students
Alexander Decker
 
Publication
PublicationPublication
Publication
Josh Harpur
 
Barton2014
Barton2014Barton2014
IJPR.2015.138
IJPR.2015.138IJPR.2015.138
IJPR.2015.138
Sarfraznawaz Shah
 

What's hot (20)

Pilates em Adultos Saudáveis
Pilates em Adultos SaudáveisPilates em Adultos Saudáveis
Pilates em Adultos Saudáveis
 
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizadoPilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
Pilates na dor lombar: um estudo randomizado
 
Effects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary students
Effects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary studentsEffects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary students
Effects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary students
 
Effects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patients
Effects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patientsEffects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patients
Effects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patients
 
Long-term effect of physical activity on energy balance and body composition
Long-term effect of physical activity on energy balance and body compositionLong-term effect of physical activity on energy balance and body composition
Long-term effect of physical activity on energy balance and body composition
 
Palmilhas e dor lombar
Palmilhas e dor lombarPalmilhas e dor lombar
Palmilhas e dor lombar
 
Pilates na lombalgia
Pilates na lombalgiaPilates na lombalgia
Pilates na lombalgia
 
How Does the inclusion of interactive virtual games influence rehabilitation ...
How Does the inclusion of interactive virtual games influence rehabilitation ...How Does the inclusion of interactive virtual games influence rehabilitation ...
How Does the inclusion of interactive virtual games influence rehabilitation ...
 
Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after knee arthroplasty for oa.
Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after knee arthroplasty for oa.Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after knee arthroplasty for oa.
Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after knee arthroplasty for oa.
 
Queen's Study
Queen's StudyQueen's Study
Queen's Study
 
Impact of manual therapy oa
Impact of manual therapy oaImpact of manual therapy oa
Impact of manual therapy oa
 
Effects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy Children
Effects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy ChildrenEffects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy Children
Effects of Virtual Reality with Cerebral Palsy Children
 
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
 
Concise Fatigueposter
Concise FatigueposterConcise Fatigueposter
Concise Fatigueposter
 
Post exercise cold water immersion benefits are not greater than the placebo ...
Post exercise cold water immersion benefits are not greater than the placebo ...Post exercise cold water immersion benefits are not greater than the placebo ...
Post exercise cold water immersion benefits are not greater than the placebo ...
 
To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...
To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...
To Compare The Effect Of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Program Ve...
 
Effect of brisk walking on flexibility of sedentary college students
Effect of brisk walking on flexibility of sedentary college studentsEffect of brisk walking on flexibility of sedentary college students
Effect of brisk walking on flexibility of sedentary college students
 
Publication
PublicationPublication
Publication
 
Barton2014
Barton2014Barton2014
Barton2014
 
IJPR.2015.138
IJPR.2015.138IJPR.2015.138
IJPR.2015.138
 

Viewers also liked

Through contrology ingles
Through contrology   inglesThrough contrology   ingles
Through contrology ingles
Marcos Aurelio
 
Intervencao do pilates na reeducacao postural
Intervencao do pilates na reeducacao posturalIntervencao do pilates na reeducacao postural
Intervencao do pilates na reeducacao postural
Marcos Aurelio
 
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets ofJbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
Marcos Aurelio
 
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets ofJbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
Marcos Aurelio
 
Reeduca postural
Reeduca posturalReeduca postural
Reeduca postural
Marcos Aurelio
 
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets ofJbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
Marcos Aurelio
 
Dealing with Demonstartions &amp; Protestors- Legal Risk &amp; Response
Dealing with Demonstartions &amp; Protestors- Legal Risk &amp; ResponseDealing with Demonstartions &amp; Protestors- Legal Risk &amp; Response
Dealing with Demonstartions &amp; Protestors- Legal Risk &amp; Response
whslawyer
 

Viewers also liked (8)

Through contrology ingles
Through contrology   inglesThrough contrology   ingles
Through contrology ingles
 
Intervencao do pilates na reeducacao postural
Intervencao do pilates na reeducacao posturalIntervencao do pilates na reeducacao postural
Intervencao do pilates na reeducacao postural
 
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets ofJbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
 
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets ofJbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
 
Pilates na gestacao
Pilates na gestacaoPilates na gestacao
Pilates na gestacao
 
Reeduca postural
Reeduca posturalReeduca postural
Reeduca postural
 
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets ofJbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
Jbmt 00 maximizing the benets of
 
Dealing with Demonstartions &amp; Protestors- Legal Risk &amp; Response
Dealing with Demonstartions &amp; Protestors- Legal Risk &amp; ResponseDealing with Demonstartions &amp; Protestors- Legal Risk &amp; Response
Dealing with Demonstartions &amp; Protestors- Legal Risk &amp; Response
 

Similar to Effect of pilates ingles

Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girlsEffect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
Dra. Welker Fisioterapeuta
 
Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...
Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...
Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...
Fernando Farias
 
ATT_1424628128019_90 HUSSEINI MASOOMEH......
ATT_1424628128019_90 HUSSEINI MASOOMEH......ATT_1424628128019_90 HUSSEINI MASOOMEH......
ATT_1424628128019_90 HUSSEINI MASOOMEH......
Masoumeh Hosseini
 
Impact of Yogic Exercise on Body Fat Percentage on Middle Aged Obese People
Impact of Yogic Exercise on Body Fat Percentage on Middle Aged Obese PeopleImpact of Yogic Exercise on Body Fat Percentage on Middle Aged Obese People
Impact of Yogic Exercise on Body Fat Percentage on Middle Aged Obese People
Sports Journal
 
Antalya poster presentation
Antalya poster presentationAntalya poster presentation
Antalya poster presentation
perparim ferunaj
 
Effect of Eight Weeks Conditioning On Body Mass Index of College Students
Effect of Eight Weeks Conditioning On Body Mass Index of College StudentsEffect of Eight Weeks Conditioning On Body Mass Index of College Students
Effect of Eight Weeks Conditioning On Body Mass Index of College Students
IOSR Journals
 
Articulo gineco 2
Articulo gineco 2Articulo gineco 2
Articulo gineco 2
kacm20
 
Articulo gineco 2
Articulo gineco 2Articulo gineco 2
Articulo gineco 2
kacm20
 
Aerobic exercise training during pregnancy reduces depressive symptoms in nul...
Aerobic exercise training during pregnancy reduces depressive symptoms in nul...Aerobic exercise training during pregnancy reduces depressive symptoms in nul...
Aerobic exercise training during pregnancy reduces depressive symptoms in nul...
kacm20
 
Articulo gineco 2
Articulo gineco 2Articulo gineco 2
Articulo gineco 2
kacm20
 
The Importance of Staying Active after a Cancer Diagnosis | Dr Anna Campbell
The Importance of Staying Active after a Cancer Diagnosis | Dr Anna CampbellThe Importance of Staying Active after a Cancer Diagnosis | Dr Anna Campbell
The Importance of Staying Active after a Cancer Diagnosis | Dr Anna Campbell
Scottish Cancer Prevention Network
 
20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women
20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women
20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women
Julie Tzeng
 
NEPS Lab Review
NEPS Lab ReviewNEPS Lab Review
NEPS Lab Review
Melissa Anderson
 
Leukocyte, Leukocyte Subsets, and Inflammatory Cytokine Response to Resistanc...
Leukocyte, Leukocyte Subsets, and Inflammatory Cytokine Response to Resistanc...Leukocyte, Leukocyte Subsets, and Inflammatory Cytokine Response to Resistanc...
Leukocyte, Leukocyte Subsets, and Inflammatory Cytokine Response to Resistanc...
Coleman Mills
 
Se qigong
Se qigongSe qigong
Se qigong
Morris Layton
 
Obesos
ObesosObesos
Obesos
Acquanews
 
EMG of the Transverse Abdominus and Multifidus During Pilates Exercises
EMG of the Transverse Abdominus and Multifidus During Pilates ExercisesEMG of the Transverse Abdominus and Multifidus During Pilates Exercises
EMG of the Transverse Abdominus and Multifidus During Pilates Exercises
GrandFinalTechnologies
 
Effects of postpartum exercise (1)
Effects of postpartum exercise (1)Effects of postpartum exercise (1)
Effects of postpartum exercise (1)
Riana Pasca
 
EFFECTIVENESS OF ADJUVANT YOGA THERAPY IN DIABETIC LUNG: A RANDOMIZED CONTROL...
EFFECTIVENESS OF ADJUVANT YOGA THERAPY IN DIABETIC LUNG: A RANDOMIZED CONTROL...EFFECTIVENESS OF ADJUVANT YOGA THERAPY IN DIABETIC LUNG: A RANDOMIZED CONTROL...
EFFECTIVENESS OF ADJUVANT YOGA THERAPY IN DIABETIC LUNG: A RANDOMIZED CONTROL...
Yogacharya AB Bhavanani
 
H0613644
H0613644H0613644
H0613644
IOSR Journals
 

Similar to Effect of pilates ingles (20)

Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girlsEffect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls
 
Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...
Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...
Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo E...
 
ATT_1424628128019_90 HUSSEINI MASOOMEH......
ATT_1424628128019_90 HUSSEINI MASOOMEH......ATT_1424628128019_90 HUSSEINI MASOOMEH......
ATT_1424628128019_90 HUSSEINI MASOOMEH......
 
Impact of Yogic Exercise on Body Fat Percentage on Middle Aged Obese People
Impact of Yogic Exercise on Body Fat Percentage on Middle Aged Obese PeopleImpact of Yogic Exercise on Body Fat Percentage on Middle Aged Obese People
Impact of Yogic Exercise on Body Fat Percentage on Middle Aged Obese People
 
Antalya poster presentation
Antalya poster presentationAntalya poster presentation
Antalya poster presentation
 
Effect of Eight Weeks Conditioning On Body Mass Index of College Students
Effect of Eight Weeks Conditioning On Body Mass Index of College StudentsEffect of Eight Weeks Conditioning On Body Mass Index of College Students
Effect of Eight Weeks Conditioning On Body Mass Index of College Students
 
Articulo gineco 2
Articulo gineco 2Articulo gineco 2
Articulo gineco 2
 
Articulo gineco 2
Articulo gineco 2Articulo gineco 2
Articulo gineco 2
 
Aerobic exercise training during pregnancy reduces depressive symptoms in nul...
Aerobic exercise training during pregnancy reduces depressive symptoms in nul...Aerobic exercise training during pregnancy reduces depressive symptoms in nul...
Aerobic exercise training during pregnancy reduces depressive symptoms in nul...
 
Articulo gineco 2
Articulo gineco 2Articulo gineco 2
Articulo gineco 2
 
The Importance of Staying Active after a Cancer Diagnosis | Dr Anna Campbell
The Importance of Staying Active after a Cancer Diagnosis | Dr Anna CampbellThe Importance of Staying Active after a Cancer Diagnosis | Dr Anna Campbell
The Importance of Staying Active after a Cancer Diagnosis | Dr Anna Campbell
 
20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women
20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women
20190410 Aquatic exercises improves BMD in postmenopausal women
 
NEPS Lab Review
NEPS Lab ReviewNEPS Lab Review
NEPS Lab Review
 
Leukocyte, Leukocyte Subsets, and Inflammatory Cytokine Response to Resistanc...
Leukocyte, Leukocyte Subsets, and Inflammatory Cytokine Response to Resistanc...Leukocyte, Leukocyte Subsets, and Inflammatory Cytokine Response to Resistanc...
Leukocyte, Leukocyte Subsets, and Inflammatory Cytokine Response to Resistanc...
 
Se qigong
Se qigongSe qigong
Se qigong
 
Obesos
ObesosObesos
Obesos
 
EMG of the Transverse Abdominus and Multifidus During Pilates Exercises
EMG of the Transverse Abdominus and Multifidus During Pilates ExercisesEMG of the Transverse Abdominus and Multifidus During Pilates Exercises
EMG of the Transverse Abdominus and Multifidus During Pilates Exercises
 
Effects of postpartum exercise (1)
Effects of postpartum exercise (1)Effects of postpartum exercise (1)
Effects of postpartum exercise (1)
 
EFFECTIVENESS OF ADJUVANT YOGA THERAPY IN DIABETIC LUNG: A RANDOMIZED CONTROL...
EFFECTIVENESS OF ADJUVANT YOGA THERAPY IN DIABETIC LUNG: A RANDOMIZED CONTROL...EFFECTIVENESS OF ADJUVANT YOGA THERAPY IN DIABETIC LUNG: A RANDOMIZED CONTROL...
EFFECTIVENESS OF ADJUVANT YOGA THERAPY IN DIABETIC LUNG: A RANDOMIZED CONTROL...
 
H0613644
H0613644H0613644
H0613644
 

Recently uploaded

A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two HeartsA Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
Steve Thomason
 
KHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGH
KHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGHKHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGH
KHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGH
shreyassri1208
 
Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)
Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)
Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)
nitinpv4ai
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
nitinpv4ai
 
Ch-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdf
Ch-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdfCh-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdf
Ch-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdf
lakshayrojroj
 
CIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdf
CIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdfCIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdf
CIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdf
blueshagoo1
 
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptxA Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
OH TEIK BIN
 
220711130097 Tulip Samanta Concept of Information and Communication Technology
220711130097 Tulip Samanta Concept of Information and Communication Technology220711130097 Tulip Samanta Concept of Information and Communication Technology
220711130097 Tulip Samanta Concept of Information and Communication Technology
Kalna College
 
220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx
220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx
220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx
Kalna College
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
Mohammad Al-Dhahabi
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
سمير بسيوني
 
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brubPharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
danielkiash986
 
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Krassimira Luka
 
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
EduSkills OECD
 
How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17
How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17
How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health SciencesEducational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Iris Thiele Isip-Tan
 
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in useHow to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
Celine George
 
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptxSWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
zuzanka
 

Recently uploaded (20)

A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two HeartsA Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
 
KHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGH
KHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGHKHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGH
KHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGH
 
Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)
Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)
Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
 
Ch-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdf
Ch-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdfCh-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdf
Ch-4 Forest Society and colonialism 2.pdf
 
CIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdf
CIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdfCIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdf
CIS 4200-02 Group 1 Final Project Report (1).pdf
 
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptxA Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
 
220711130097 Tulip Samanta Concept of Information and Communication Technology
220711130097 Tulip Samanta Concept of Information and Communication Technology220711130097 Tulip Samanta Concept of Information and Communication Technology
220711130097 Tulip Samanta Concept of Information and Communication Technology
 
220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx
220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx
220711130088 Sumi Basak Virtual University EPC 3.pptx
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
 
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brubPharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
 
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
 
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
 
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
 
How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17
How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17
How to Setup Default Value for a Field in Odoo 17
 
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health SciencesEducational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
 
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in useHow to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
 
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptxSWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
 

Effect of pilates ingles

  • 1. Preventive Medicine 42 (2006) 177 – 180 www.elsevier.com/locate/ypmed Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls Russell Jago a,*, Marielle L. Jonker b,c, Mariam Missaghian b, Tom Baranowski b ¨ a Department of Exercise and Health Sciences, Centre for Sport, Exercise and Health, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TP, UK b Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, 1100 Bates Street, Houston, TX 77030-2600, USA c Rijks Universiteit Groninge, Faculteit der Medische Wetenschappen, A. Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands Available online 27 December 2005 Abstract Background. There is a need to find ways to increase the physical activity levels and improve the body composition and blood pressure of girls. Methods. Thirty 11-year-old girls were recruited from two after school programs in Houston Texas in Spring 2005. Participants from one program (16) were randomly assigned to intervention, the other (14) served as controls. BMI, BMI percentile, waist circumference and blood pressure were assessed before and after the intervention. Pilates classes were provided free of charge for an hour per day at the intervention site, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks. Four participants wore heart rate monitors during every session and completed enjoyment and perceived exertion questionnaires. Repeated measures analysis of variance with time (within) and group (between) as factors was performed. Results. Mean attendance was 75%, mean heart rate 104 bpm, mean perceived exertion 5.9 (1 – 10 scale) and enjoyment 4.4 (1 – 5 scale). There was a significant ( P = 0.039) time by group interaction for BMI percentile. Graphs indicated that this difference was influenced by large reductions in the BMI percentile of healthy girls. Conclusions. Girls enjoyed Pilates, and participation for 4 weeks lowered BMI percentile. Pilates holds promise as a means of reducing obesity. D 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Enjoyment; Metabolic syndrome; Overweight; Adolescent; Children Introduction pressure. It is also not clear if Pilates places aerobic demands on the body, which could be important for obtaining Regular physical activity has been associated with a reduced reductions in fasting insulin (McMurray et al., 2000). The risk of obesity among adolescents, and as girls physical activity aim of this pilot study was to determine whether girls liked levels are particularly low (Jago et al., 2005), there is a need to and attended Pilates, the effect of participation in Pilates on find innovative ways to increase their physical activity (Jago and body mass, waist circumference and blood pressure. Baranowski, 2004). It seems likely that girls will participate more frequently in activities that they enjoy. Methods Pilates is popular among women (Chang, 2000). Pilates is a series of low impact muscle contraction exercises. The Participants were 30, 11.2 (T0.6)-year-old students recruited from two activities train the muscles in the core of the body (Chang, YMCA after school programs within Houston, Texas, in Spring 2005. One site 2000; Siler, 2000). No study has assessed whether girls like to was randomly assigned to intervention (n = 16), the other control (n = 14). Mat- based Pilates classes were offered each day for 4 weeks at the intervention site. engage in Pilates or if participation in Pilates has positive Each class was scheduled to last an hour and was led by a YMCA certified mat effects on their body mass, waist circumference or blood Pilates instructor. Control group participants engaged in their usual YMCA activities during the intervention period and were offered free Pilates classes once the post data had been collected. The Baylor College of Medicine Institutional Review Board approved this study. Written informed consent was * Corresponding author. obtained for all participants. All measurements were recorded at baseline and E-mail address: russ.jago@gmail.com (R. Jago). immediately after the study. 0091-7435/$ - see front matter D 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2005.11.010
  • 2. 178 R. Jago et al. / Preventive Medicine 42 (2006) 177 – 180 Table 1 Anthropometric and blood pressure variables at baseline and post-assessment for intervention and control group Intervention (n = 16) Control (n = 14) Time by treatment effecta Baseline mean (SD) Post mean (SD) Change Baseline mean (SD) Post mean (SD) Change Weight (kg) 49.4 (18.8) 48.9 (17.94) À0.5 43.9 (12.0) 43.9 (11.2) 0 F(1, 28) = 0.921, P = 0.345 BMI (kg/m2) 21.6 (5.4) 21.1 (5.6) À0.5 20.1 (4.8) 20.0 (4.4) À0.1 F(1, 28) = 2.795, P = 0.106 BMI percentile 71.2 (23.3) 68.1 (26.2) À3.1 62.5 (31.7) 63.3 (31.6) +0.8 F(1, 28) = 4.701, P = 0.039* Waist (cm) 74.2 (15.8) 73.09 (15.4) À1.1 69.1 (14.2) 69.2 (14.5) +0.1 F(1, 28) = 1.803, P = 0.190 Diastolic BP (mm HG) 62.7 (6.2) 58.9 (6.9) À3.8 60.8 (7.6) 60.5 (7.6) À0.3 F(1, 28) = 1.810, P = 0.189 Systolic BP (mm HG) 108.2 (9.4) 102.5 (5.6) À5.7 101.6 (11.80) 102.3 (9.2) +1.3 F(1, 28) = 3.513, P = 0.071 a Repeated measures ANOVA with time (within) and treatment group (between) as factors. * P < 0.05. Measures treatment and control groups at baseline. Repeated measures analysis of variance with time (within) and treatment groups (between) as factors was used Date of birth was obtained by self-report and age calculated. Height was to test for time by treatment effects on participant’s weight, BMI, BMI measured to the nearest 0.1 cm on a stadiometer (PE-AIM-101, Perspective percentile, waist circumference, diastolic and systolic blood pressure with Enterprises, Kalamazoo, MI) with the participants shoeless. Body weight was separate models run for each variable. measured to the nearest 0.1 kg using a pre-calibrated electronic scale (SECA Alpha 882, Vogel and Halke, Hamburg). Body mass index (BMI) was Results calculated (kg/m2) and age and gender specific BMI percentile computed using the Centers for Disease Control program (National Center for Health Statistics, 2000). Waist circumference was recorded to the nearest 0.1 cm at There were no significant differences in any of the outcome the iliac crest. Research assistants were within 0.5 kg (weight), 0.5 cm variables between the two groups at baseline (Table 1). There (height) and 1 cm (waist circumference) of the first author on at least 90% of were no time-related changes in the pattern of attendance, heart a certification group during a pre-study training and certification procedure. rate or enjoyment across the study. Mean intervention Blood pressure was recorded three times using an automated blood pressure monitor (Omron HEM-907, Vernon Hills, IL). The initial value was recorded attendance was 75% with a mean heart rate of 104 bpm. Mean after the participant had been seated quietly for 3 min with each subsequent perceived exertion was 5.9 (1 – 10 scale) with a mean value recorded 1 min after the preceding recording. The mean of the second enjoyment of 4.4 (1– 5 scale). and third readings was used in all analyses. Study staff recorded treatment The repeated measures ANOVA yielded a significant time group attendance at the Pilates sessions. Four randomly selected treatment by group interaction for BMI percentile ( P = 0.039). There was participants wore Polar heart rate monitors placed in the center of the chest during each Pilates session. The same participants also completed previously a 3.1 reduction in the BMI percentile of the treatment group validated perceived exertion (1 – 10 scale) (Robertson et al., 2000) and while the control group increased by 0.8 percentiles. There was enjoyment (1 – 5 scale) questions (Macfarlane and Kwong, 2003) at the end of also a time by group interaction that approached significance each session. for systolic blood pressure ( P = 0.071). To further investigate the change in BMI percentile, the Statistics baseline and post-test BMI percentile variables were plotted separately for the intervention and control groups (Figs. 1 and Mean heart rate, perceived exertion and enjoyment ratings were calculated across sessions, and mean attendance (percent) was calculated. Independent t 2) based on descending initial values. Fig. 1 shows that the tests were used to test for differences in participants weight, BMI, BMI change detected was influenced by a small number of cases percentile, waist circumference, diastolic and systolic blood between the whose BMI percentile fell considerably as a result of Fig. 1. Baseline and post-test BMI percentile—intervention group.
  • 3. R. Jago et al. / Preventive Medicine 42 (2006) 177 – 180 179 Fig. 2. Baseline and post-test BMI percentile—intervention group. participating in the intervention. However, it is important to Limitations highlight greater changes occurred in participants with low initial values where a small change in BMI resulted in a larger The study was limited by the small sample size, the short drop in BMI percentile. The figure for the control group is duration of the intervention and the lack of age diversity in the more mixed, with lower initial values among some participants sample. Participants were clustered within after school pro- and a slightly smaller sample. Thus, the results indicate a grams, and participants at the two locations could share similar disproportionate drop in the BMI percentile of healthy girls and characteristics. Since this was a pilot study with only two suggest that the effect of the intervention was not uniform centers, we could not control for clustering effects. The study among participants. was also limited by a lack of information on other metabolic syndrome risks. Discussion Conclusion Participation in Pilates for 4 weeks led to a small reduction in the BMI percentile of 11-year-old girls. This Participation in Pilates for 4 weeks lowered the BMI change was influenced by a small change in the BMI of girls percentile of 10- to 12-year-old girls. Participants enjoyed who were healthy at the baseline assessment and the small Pilates and attended regularly, suggesting that Pilates might sample size. However, as small changes were also detected in prove to be a useful means of increasing activity and thereby the BMI percentiles of the heavier girls, a significant curbing the obesity epidemic. reduction in their BMI percentiles might be achieved with increased exposure to the program. Further, as the perceived Acknowledgments exertion ratings showed that the girls found Pilates to be only somewhat challenging and the heart rate data indicated that This study was funded by a grant from a Bristol-Myers Pilates was not an aerobic activity a more intense interven- Squibb Research Grant in Nutrition awarded through the tion might further enhance the potential to affect the BMI Children’s Nutrition Research Center at Baylor College of percentile of the heavier girls. This might be achieved by Medicine. This work is also a publication of the USDA/ARS combining Pilates with an aerobic activity, such as dance Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediat- which may also provide the dose of training that appears to rics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s be necessary to positively influence insulin levels (McMurray Hospital, Houston, Texas. This project has been funded in et al., 2000). part by federal funds from the USDA/ARS under co-operative The girls enjoyed and regularly attended the Pilates classes. agreement 58-6250-51000. The contents of this publication do Since poor attendance has contributed (Pate et al., 2003) to the not necessarily reflect the views or polices of the USDA nor failure to increase adolescent physical activity, the high does mention of trade names, commercial products, or attendance and enjoyment levels in this study suggest that organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Pilates may be a useful method of increasing activity and warrants further study. The relatively low cost of delivering References Pilates sessions (space, an instructor and mats) also indicates that it is an activity that could be implemented within after Chang, Y., 2000. Grace under pressure. Ten years ago, 5,000 people did the school programs, suggesting that broad dissemination could be exercise routine called Pilates. The number now is 5 million in America achieved. alone. But what is it, exactly? Newsweek 135 (9), 72 – 73.
  • 4. 180 R. Jago et al. / Preventive Medicine 42 (2006) 177 – 180 Jago, R., Baranowski, T., 2004. Non-curricular approaches for increasing National Center for Health Statistics, 2000. CDC Growth Charts: United States physical activity in youth: a review. Prev. Med. 39 (1), 157 – 163. Pate, R.P., Saunders, R.P., Ward, D.S., Felton, G., Trost, S.G., Dowda, M., Jago, R., Anderson, C., Baranowski, T., Watson, K., 2005. Adolescent patterns 2003. Evaluation of a community-based intervention to promote physical of physical activity: differences by gender, day and time of day. Am. J. Prev. activity in youth: lessons from active winners. Am. J. Health Promot. 17 Med. 28 (5), 447 – 452. (3), 171 – 182. Macfarlane, D., Kwong, W.T., 2003. Children’s heart rates and enjoyment Robertson, R.J., Goss, F.L., Boer, N.F., Peoples, J.A., Foreman, A.J., levels during PE classes in Hong Kong primary schools. Pediatr. Exerc. Sci. Dabayebeh, I.M., Millich, N.B., Balasekaran, G., Riechman, S.E., 15, 179 – 190. Gallagher, J.D., Thompkins, T., 2000. Children’s OMNI scale of perceived McMurray, R.G., Bauman, M.J., Harrell, J.S., Brown, S., Bangdiwala, S.I., exertion: mixed gender and race validation. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 32 (3), 2000. Effects of improvement in aerobic power on resting insulin and 452 – 458. glucose concentrations in children. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 132 – 139. Siler, B., 2000. The Pilates Body. Broadway Books, New York.