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Jyotsna Mishra | Msap | Xth sem | 070901162
Thesis report 1: 14/02/12
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
Introduction
Nehru center for performing arts, aims to provide the planned city of Chandigarh a traditional outlook. As
this Indian city lacks the local street culture , this performing art center aims to make people aware about the
Indian tradition and culture, and conserve it to educate the up-coming generation. It will also help promote
tourism of Chandigarh.
1
The movement arts is vibrant, evolving.
Through the years, the art has evolved taking new shapes every time, converting and integrating through the passage of time. This gives to many
new forms of art. Art has survived many criticism as well appreciation in the test of time.
Today art is understood and appreciated by larger section of society. The Nehru center for performing arts at Chandigarh, attempts to be the
converging point and a national level platform for people who are interested in performing arts.
The site in Chandigarh is year marked at sector 34b by the Chandigarh development authority, this will be developed to cater to the surrounding
population and beyond.
The project focus on developing into a center that caters primarily to the performing arts, providing with space, infrastructure, knowledge recourse
and acting as a magnet to those practicing or interested in art. A potential attempt will be made to promote learning and interest towards the arts
through observation, interaction and practice.
Mr Rakeshwar Katoch, a theatre buff, said: “The city has a potential to emerge as a major cultural centre in the North. All art forms need the
support of the state and neighbouring state governments need to get together with the UT Administration to form a common action plan for the
promotion of art and culture.
Sanjeev Singh Bariana
Tribune News Service
The future of performing arts will be shaped by many factors, but perhaps none is more important than the future structure of demand. The size and
shape of the market for performing arts has changed over time, reflecting shifts in demand that are stimulated by technological change as well as
social, demographics and economic trends in society.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
justification
2
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
Justification of support for both capital and revenue funding has included one or more of the following reasons:
 Cultural: to safeguard an aspect of cultural heritage; continuity of art forms, display of performing skills and sustaining national, local or
ethnic traditions; to retain and improve an existing stock of facilities and established companies for the performing arts, or to provide new
facilities to ensure cultural opportunities.
 Economic: direct employment of staff and performers; benefits to secondary businesses such as poster and programme printing and material
supply; a widening of the tourist and conference market which, in turn, brings money into the town or city; an attraction to encourage
relocation, and location of organizations, institutions, industry and commerce in an area with subsequent employment benefits.
 Educational: to cultivate an appreciation of the art forms through the exposure of audiences to examples; to form part of an educational
programme for schoolchildren, students and those in adult education.
 Prestige: international, national, regional, city or town comparison; re-enforcement of regional identity emphasizing dispersal from
metropolitan focus.
 Quality of life: performing arts as acceptable complementary activities to work and domestic obligations as a positive use of leisure time
which enriches life culturally and also socially.
 Regeneration: part of a wider programme to revitalize an existing city or town centre or to assist in the formation of a new community, to
attract industry, commerce, institutions, housing, and so on.
 Cultural Democracy: to stimulate and foster participation in the performing arts by all sections of a community, defined locally, as a creative
activity .
Justification :
Justification
3
Aim:
Developing a performing art center at Chandigarh, Punjab, which facilitates, practice, teaching, research, display and appreciation of various art forms.
Objective:
 To provide leadership on a national level as India’s premier performing arts, research and training centre through the presentation of Indian and
international art forms, the promotion of excellence and the preservation of India’s rich cultural heritage.
 Development of a performing arts center providing the required areas and infrastructure to be able to display and promote the art. Designing a self
integrated and flexible space, and also ensure constant activity at the center, involving the community and public.
Project Outline:
 Performing art center at Chandigarh, Punjab shall be a center for research, understanding and promotion of the performing arts. It shall cater to all
forms of performing arts stressing upon dance, theater and music also including the contemporary art form. It will also have a research center for
music and dance form. Provision for accommodation for a limited number of people will also be included in design.
 Focus on multiple use of one space, convertible spaces mostly for community and public interaction. Landscape plays an important role in making
the planning and resolving the circulation, so it will be designed accordingly.The project envisages the creation of an environment for the arts, meant
exclusively for the arts and not for any one exclusive art. It is therefore meant to encourage in a broad sense all kinds of artistic pursuits.
 From an architectural point of view the building will be planned in order to create an environment befitting the nature of the activities related to the
arts and their promotion. Apart from the functional spaces, therefore the creation of an ample amount of space for the interpretation of art by the
sensitive art- lover and the interaction between the people interested in the arts is envisaged. The mood and the ambiance of the built space will be
conductive for the reflecting over subjects and missing over art of the solitary thinker’s mind. The architecture will be sensitive to art and yearn to be
an extension of it.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
SYNOPSIS
4
 From the functional point of view the building will be designed to house the facilities required for the staging and presentation of various
disciplines of performing arts.
 Through the years, the art has evolved taking new shapes every time converting and branching out to give birth to new forms. The art has
survived all test of time, and today it is appreciated and understood in all its forms by a larger section of people. Today people recognise the value
and scope of performing arts, and more than a type of means of entertainment people are taking it up as a subject to study and research.
 The performing arts center at chandigharh, punjab attempts to be the converging point for all interested in the performance arts and a source for
information.
 The site is in the heart of chandigharh, a planned city by architect le corbusier, and it is a flat tarrain, it lies in sector 34 B.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
SYNOPSIS
5
Performing Arts:
The performing arts are those forms art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own body, face, and presence as a medium,
and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some physical art object . The term "performing
arts" first appeared in the English language in the year 1711.
Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its
common elements are pitch ( which governs melody and harmony),
rhythm (and its associated concepts; tempo, meter, and articulation),
dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. The word
derives from Greek μουσική (mousike; "art of the Muses").
The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of
music vary according to culture and social context. Music ranges from
strictly organized compositions (and their recreation in performance),
through improvisational music to aleatoric forms. Music can be
divided into genres and subgenres, although the dividing lines and
relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open
to individual interpretation, and occasionally controversial. Within
"the arts", music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art, and
auditory art.
Performing arts
Minor forms
• Magic
• puppetry
Major forms
• Theater –
contemporary, folk
• Dance – classical,
folk, contemporary
• Music- classical, folk,
contemporary
• Opera
• Circus
Genres
• Drama
• Tragedy
• Comedy
• Tragicomedy
• Romance
• Satire
• Epic
• lyrics
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
Performing art
6
Theatre
Theatre is the branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out
stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture,
music, dance, sound and spectacle—indeed any one or more elements
of the other performing arts. In addition to the standard narrative
dialogue style of plays, theatre takes such forms as
plays, musicals, opera, ballet, illusion, mime, classical Indian
dance, kabuki, mummers' plays, improvisational theatre, stand-up
comedy, pantomime, and non-conventional or art house theatre.
Dance
Dance (from Old French dancier, perhaps from Frankish) generally
refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or
presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting.
Dance is also used to describe methods of non-verbal
communication (see body language) between humans or animals (bee
dance, mating dance), motion in inanimate objects (the leaves danced in
the wind), and certain music genres.
Choreography is the art of making dances, and the person who does this is
called a choreographer.
Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent
on social, cultural, aesthetic artistic and moral constraints and range from
functional movement (such as folk dance) to codified, virtuoso techniques
such as ballet. In sports, gymnastics, figure skating, and synchronized
swimming are dance disciplines while martial arts "kata" are often
compared to dances.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
7
Performing art
Performing Arts in India:
History of Classical Dances
In its truest sense, Indian classical dance is an expression of life,
involving the body as well as the emotions. Indian Dance is based on
texts from Sanskrit, an ancient Indian language – also thought to be the
mother of not only Indian languages but also modern European
languages. Indian classical dance is one of the oldest dance traditions
associated with any of the world’s major religions. It has evolved with
the concepts of self and world. According to Hindu mythology,
the Taandav (the frenzied dance performed by Lord Shiva, in grief after
his consort Sati’s tragic demise) symbolises the cosmic cycles of creation
and destruction, birth and death. His dance is therefore the dance of the
Universe, the throb of eternal life. An interesting parallel may be seen in
modern physics, which depicts that the cycle of creation and destruction
is not only reflected in the turn of seasons and in the birth and death of
living creatures but also in the life cycle of inorganic matter.
Nataraja (literally the king of dancers) or Lord Shiva in a graceful
dancing pose is worshipped all over India, by classical dancers, and also
a collector’s item for connoisseurs of art.
Nataraja – the divine dancer
The origin of Indian dance can be traced back to Bharata Muni (a
learned saint) who lived between the 1st and 2nd century and
composed a magnum opus on dance, which is known to the world
as Natya Shastra. In ancient times, dance was not merely a form of
entertainment. On the contrary it was considered a medium of
instruction of morality, good values, and scriptures and the
expression of reality.
Natya Shastra serves as a common text for all the varieties of Indian
classical dance forms. It contains elaborate details on various types
of postures, mudras or hand movements depicting different
meanings, besides the construction of a stage, the art of make-up
and lastly the orchestra. All dance forms make ample use of the nine
basis rasas or emotions – hasya (joy and happiness), krodha (anger),
bibhatsa (disgust), bhaya (fear), vira (courage), karuna
(compassion), adbhuta (wonder) and shanta (serenity).
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
8
Performing arts in india
Natya Shastra further divides classical dance into nritya- the rhythmic
elements, nritya- the combination of rhythm and expression, and
finally, natya – comprising the dramatic elements embedded in the
dance recital. To appreciate natya or dance drama, an individual needs
to possess sound knowledge, understanding and appreciation of Indian
legends and mythology and folklore. Hindu deities like Vishnu,
Krishna, Shiva and Lakshmi, Rama and Sita are commonly depicted in
these dances. Each dance form also draws inspiration from stories
depicting the life and traditional beliefs of the Indians.
Ancient Indian history reveals that several centuries before Christ,
India's art forms of dance, music and theatre were fairly well-
advanced. The performing arts, i.e. dance and music reached the acme
of their glory, during the reign of the Chola dynasty in Southern India.
Dance forms were nurtured with a purpose in the sacred premises of
temples. Temple dancing was imbued with the idea of taking art to the
people, and conveying a message to the masses. The temple rituals
necessitated the physical presence of mortal women (instead of the
ornate, carved figures of heavenly damsels, apsaras) to propitiate the
gods. The allegorical view of dance, used for the purpose of the
pleasing the devas, was gradually transformed into a regular, service
(with deep religious connotations) in the temples of the medieval
times.
This was possibly the reason behind the origin
of devadasis (literally: servants of the deity), the earliest
performers of the classical Indian dances. They were supposed to
pursue the dance forms devotedly and excel in them. At the
outset, devadasis were respectable women and highly talented
artists hailing from the highest strata of the society. They lived
and danced only in the temple premises – their vocation enjoying
great religious prestige. It was only much later that
the devadasis condescended to perform in royal courts, in the
presence of the elite and the nobility.
A devadasi not only performed on all festive occasions, but also
had to be present for the daily rituals, connected with the deity.
She was paid from temple funds; moreover the temple supplied
the food grains for her and her family. To render a realistic touch
a devadasi was ceremonially wedded to the deity. She was
consecrated to her lord and thus out of bounds for mortals.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
9
Performing arts in india
Kathakali
Kathakali literally means story-play and is an elaborate dance depicting the victory of truth over falsehood. A Striking
feature of Kathakali is the use of elaborate make-up and colourful costumes. This is to emphasize that the characters
are super beings from another world, and their make-up is easily recognisable to the trained eye as satvik or
godlike, rajasik or heroic, and tamasik or demonic.
MohiniAttam
The theme of Mohini attam dance is love and devotion to god. Vishnu or Krishna is most often the hero. The
spectators can feel his invisible presence when the heroine or her maid details dreams and ambitions through circular
movements, delicate footsteps and subtle expressions. Through slow and medium tempos, the dancer is able to find
adequate space for improvisations and suggestive bhavas or emotions.
The basic dance steps are the Adavus which are of four kinds: Taganam, Jaganam, Dhaganam and Sammisram. These
names are derived from the nomenclature called vaittari. The Mohini attam dancer maintains realistic make-up and
adorns a simple costume, in comparison to costumes of other dances, such as Kathakali. The dancer is attired in a
beautiful white with gold border Kasavu saree of Kerala, with the distinctive white Jasmin flowers around a French
bun at the side of her head.
Dance forms in India:
A land of contrast and variety
India is about extremes, vastness, intensity and paradox - all are qualities that describe this ancient culture. The sharp peaks of the Himalayas, the
sweltering heat of the great Indian plain, the delicious cool of Kashmir, arid deserts and monsoons in the tropical southwest- all these contrasts and
many others are commonplace in India. Tiny villages where the slow pace of life remains the same as in centuries past are connected to teeming urban
centres by dirt roads that seemingly stretch to the horizon. Culturally too, India is teeming with variety. There are several subcultures thriving within
the composite Indian culture. This variety and diversity impart to the Indian culture. This variety and diversity impart to the Indian culture a mystical
dimension and rich spirituality.
There are many types of dance in India, from those which are deeply religious in content to those which are danced on more trivial happy
occasions. Classical dances of India are usually always spiritual in content, although this is often true also of Folk dances.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
10
Performing arts in india
Bharata Natyam
Bharata Natyam dance has been handed down through the centuries by dance
teachers (or gurus) called nattuwanars and the temple dancers, called devadasis. In
the sacred environment of the temple these families developed and propagated their
heritage. The training traditionally took around seven years under the direction of the
nattuwanar who were scholars and persons of great learning. The four great
nattuwanars of Tanjore were known as the Tanjore Quartet and were brothers named
Chinnaiah, Ponnaiah, Vadivelu and Shivanandam. The Bharata Natyam repertiore as
we know it today was constructed by this talented Tanjore Quartet.
Kuchipudi
The dance drama that stil exists today and can most closely be associated with the
Sanskrit theatrical tradition is Kuchipudi which is also known as Bhagavata Mela
Natakam. The actors sing and dance, and the style is a blend of folk and classical.
Arguably this is why this technique has greater freedom and fluidity than other dance
styles.
Bhagavata mela natakam was always performed as an offering to the temples of
either Merratur, Soolamangalam, Oothkadu, Nallur or Theperumanallur.
Kathak
This north Indian dance form is inextricably bound with classical Hindustani music,
and the rhythmic nimbleness of the feet is accompanied by the table or pakhawaj.
Traditionally the stories were of Radha and Krishna, in the Natwari style (as it was
then called) but the Mughal invasion of North India had a serious impact on the
dance. The dance was taken to Muslim courts and thus it became more entertaining
and less religious in content. More emphasis was laid on nritya, the pure dance
aspect and less on abhinaya (expression and emotion).
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
11
Performing arts in india
Odissi
Odissi is based on the popular devotion to Lord Krishna and the verses of the Sanskrit play Geet Govinda are
used to depict the love and devotion to God. The Odissi dancers use their head, bust and torso in soft flowing
movements to express specific moods and emotions.
The form is curvaceous, concentrating on the tribhang or the division of the body into three parts, head, bust
and torso; the mudras and the expressions are similar to those of Bharatnatyam. Odissi performances are
replete with lores of the eighth incarnation of Vishnu, Lord Krishna. It is a soft, lyrical classical dance which
depicts the ambience of Orissa and the philosophy of its most popular deity, Lord Jagannath, whose temple is
in Puri. On the temple walls of Bhubaneshwar, Puri and Konark the dance sculptures of Odissi are clearly
visible.
Manipuri
This dance style was originally called jogai which means
circular movement. In ancient texts it has been compared to the
movement of the planets around the sun. It is said that when
Krishna, Radha and the gopis danced the Ras Leela, Shiva made
sure that no one disturbed the beauty of the dancing. Parvati, the
consort of Lord Shiva also wished to see this dance, so to please
her he chose the beautiful area of manipur and re-enacted the
Ras Leela. Hundreds of centuries later, in the 11th century,
during the reign of Raja Loyamba, prince Khamba of the
Khomal dynasty and Princess Thaibi of the Mairang dynasty re-
enacted the dance and it became known as Lai-Haraoba, the
most ancient dance of Manipur.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
12
Performing arts in india
Forms of music in India:
The music of India includes multiple varieties of folk, popular, pop, classical music and R&B. India's classical music tradition, including Carnatic and
Hindustani music, has a history spanning millennia and developed over several eras. It remains fundamental to the lives of Indians today as sources of
spiritual inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment. India is made up of several dozen ethnic groups, speaking their own languages and
dialects having distinct cultural traditions.
The two main traditions of classical music are Carnatic music, found predominantly in the peninsular regions, and Hindustani music, found in the
northern and central regions.
Hindustani music
(Main article: Hindustani classical music)
Hindustani music is an Indian classical music tradition that goes back to Vedic times around 1000 BC.
It further developed circa the 13th and 14th centuries AD with Persian influences and from existing
religious and folk music. The practice of singing based on notes was popular even from the Vedic
times where the hymns in Sama Veda, a sacred text, were sung as Samagana and not chanted.
Developing a strong and diverse tradition over several centuries, it has contemporary traditions
established primarily in India but also in Pakistan and Bangladesh.
In contrast to Carnatic music, the other main Indian classical music tradition originating from the
South, Hindustani music was not only influenced by ancient Hindu musical traditions, historical Vedic
philosophy and native Indian sounds but also enriched by the Persian performance practices of
the Mughals. During the Medieval age especially in the Mughal era various Gharana became famous
due to excellence and class in type of musics like raga, almost all from the lineage of Tansen one of
the navratna of Mughal Emperor Akbar. Classical genres are dhrupad, dhamar, khyal, taranay sadra..
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
13
Performing arts in india
Carnatic music
(Main article: Carnatic music)
The present form of Carnatic music is based on historical developments that can be traced to the 15th
- 16th centuries AD and thereafter. However, the form itself is reputed to have been one of the gifts
bestowed on man by the gods of Hindu mythology. It is one of the oldest musical forms that continue
to survive today.
Carnatic music is melodic, with improvised variations. It consists of a composition with improvised
embellishments added to the piece in the forms of Raga Alapana, Kalpanaswaram, Neraval and in
the case of more advanced students, Ragam Tanam Pallavi. The main emphasis is on the vocals as
most compositions are written to be sung, and even when played on instruments, they are meant to
be performed in a singing style (known as gāyaki). There are about 7.2 million ragas (or scales) in
Carnatic Music, with around 300 still in use today.
Purandara Dasa is considered the father of carnatic music. Sri Tyagaraja, Sri Shyama Shastryand
Sri Muthuswami Dikshitarare considered the trinity of carnatic music and with them came the
golden age in carnatic music in the 18th-19th century
Noted artists of Carnatic Music include MS Subbulakshmi, Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar (the father
of the current concert format), Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer,TN Seshagopalanand more
recently Sanjay Subrahmanyan TM Krishna Bombay Jayashri etc.
Every December, the city of Chennai in India has its six week-long Music Season, which has been
described as the world's largest cultural event. It has served as the foundation for most music in
South India, including folk music, festival music and has also extended its influence to film music in
the past 100–150 years or so.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
14
Performing arts in india
Theater in India:
The earliest form of the theatre of India was the Sanskrit theatre. It
began after the development of Greek and Roman theatre and before the
development of theatre in other parts of Asia. It emerged sometime
between the 2nd century BCE and the 1st century CE and flourished
between the 1st century CE and the 10th, which was a period of relative
peace in the history of India during which hundreds of plays were
written. With the Islamic conquests that began in the 10th and 11th
centuries, theatre was discouraged or forbidden entirely. Later, in an
attempt to re-a India as one of the means of entertainment. As a diverse,
multi-cultural nation, the theatre of India cannot be reduced to a single,
homogenous trend.
Traditional Indian theatre
Kutiyattam is the only surviving specimen of the ancient Sanskrit
theatre, thought to have originated around the beginning of
the Common Era, and is officially recognised by UNESCO as
a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. In
addition, many forms of Indian folk theatre abound. Bhavai (strolling
players) is a popular folk theatre form of Gujarat, said to have arisen in
the 14th century CE. Jatra has been popular in Bengal and its origin is
traced to the Bhakti movement in the 16th century. Another folk
theatre form popular in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Malwa region
ofMadhya Pradesh is Swang, which is dialogue-oriented rather than
movement-oriented and is considered to have arisen in its present form
in the late 18th - early 19th centuries.
Yakshagana is a very popular theatre
art in Karnataka and has existed under
different names at least since the 16th
century. It is semi-classical in nature
and involves music and songs based
on carnatic music, rich costumes,
storylines based on the Mahabharata
and Ramayana It also employs spoken
dialogue in-between its songs that
gives it a folk art flavour. Kathakali is
a form of dance-drama, characteristic
of Kerala, that arose in the 17th
century, developing from the temple-
art plays Krishnanattam and
Rananattam.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
15
Performing arts in india
:
Metropolitan centres are traditionally the main focus of cultural activity within a country, with a concentration of companies and facilities for the
performing arts, their organization, creative activity and education of performers, management and production staff. Such centres benefit from the
major concentration of population and national focus of transportation networks.
There are several categories as follows:
Opera house
National subsidized professional resident company in repertory or repertoire and visiting comparable companies of international standard providing
large-scale opera productions. Such a facility may be exclusively for opera or combined with ballet.
Ballet/dance theatre
National subsidized professional resident company as described under opera house, but exclusively for ballet and dance.
Concert hall
Classical orchestral and choral music, jazz and pop/ rock music, with the leading subsidized professional orchestras and groups. Either housing a
resident orchestra for their exclusive or seasonal use, or a touring facility hired by promotional organizations including the orchestras and groups.
Recital room
Medium- and small-scale classical orchestral and choral music, jazz and pop/rock music also with readings such as poetry. Either housing a resident
orchestra for a season or, more often, hosting touring companies and groups.
Experimental music workshop
Facility for the development of new forms of music with a prevailing concentration on electronics and amplification.
Metropolitan centre:
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
Literature study
16
Commercial theatre
Drama and musical productions usually initiated by the management or promoting organization with long runs over several months. Such theatres
usually present new plays and musicals and originate the new productions.
They may also be initiated by the subsidized sector and transferred to the commercial theatre.
Arena
Facilities for the presentation of very large-scale pop/ rock concerts and other spectacles covering opera, music and musicals, hired by commercial
organizations who initiate and promote groups and companies as one-off events or part of a tour.
Drama theatre
National subsidized professional resident drama company in repertory, or repertoire and visiting companies of national and international standard,
producing new and established works.
Small- and medium-scale drama theatre
Small theatres presenting new plays and experimental productions, with or without subsidy to supplement revenue, relying on low overheads and
benefiting from a large catchment area from which audiences are attracted.
Other categories
● Universities and Colleges including Schools of Music and Drama, providing theatres and concert halls for their own and public use
● Open-air auditoria for seasonal concerts and drama productions
● Informal external spaces for street theatre, music and entertainments
● Theatres with restrictions on company (e.g. Youth Theatre) and audience (e.g. club theatres with restricted membership)
● One-off events including stadium concerts and festivals.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
17
Literature study
Entrance foyer
The entrance foyer may be required to accommodate the following:
● ticket check if at entrance, and not at points of entry into the auditorium
● information in the form of leaflets and other handouts describing productions and events, notice boards providing information on events and,
possibly, a reception/information desk
● circulation and waiting area
● seating (desirable for ambulant disabled)
● directional signage directing the public to the various facilities (consider carefully colour, size and type face for clarity and for the visually
impaired and elderly)
● supervision: some consideration needs to be given to oversee the entrance area by the staff in order to offer assistance and exercise control
● exhibition and display: space for temporary exhibitions or wall display; display cases for merchandise and crafts
● access to box office, crèche, cloakrooms, toilets and sales, as well as meeting rooms and other public facilities
The public needs to be able to easily identify visually the main circulation routes to the auditorium and other public facilities from the entrance
foyer.
Offices and associated areas
The following staff may require individual offices; with each office being 12–15M2:
● Platform/stage manager
● Assistant platform/stage manager
● Secretary
● Chief technician
● Master carpenter
● Property master
● Wardrobe mistress/master
In addition electricians, and platform/stage hands and including flymen (if appropriate) require changing rooms: allow 3M2 per person. Stage
hands for opera, musicals, dance and drama productions, if seen within a performance will require make-up provision and to change into
costumes. Showers should be available to stage hands and flymen, off their changing rooms. A separate toilet can be located at platform/stage
level, suitable for wheelchair users.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
18
Literature study
Foyer
The foyer provides the means of access to all parts of the auditorium and should have facilities for the public to sit, talk, walk about and meet
friends. These social aims can include also a legitimate level of self-display from formal promenading to a general awareness of those attending a
performance. The floor area is related to the capacity of the auditorium: allow a minimum of 0.6M2 per person for all the foyer areas, excluding
toilets, cloakroom and vertical circulation.
Public entrance
The front entrance provides the main access into, and egress from, the
building for the public. The entrance should be located along the main
access route and be clearly visible: the public should be aware of the
entrance by its location and signage. The entrance gives information
about the attitude of the management towards the public and can be
welcoming or intimidating, exclusive or embracing, clear or obscure.
Requirements for public entrance areas include:
● Access and parking: Provision for passengers to alight at the main entrance by taxi, car or coach, with a discrete lay by or service road,
especially if it is a large building complex, and close proximity to parking.
● External display: Name of the building and/or company as an illuminated external sign; posters and advertising material; current and
future attractions on adjustable signs or electronic signs; banners and flags. The building itself, suitably artificially lit when dark, is also an
external display.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
19
Literature study
Canopy: Provision of shelter at the main entrance from inclement weather with a protective cover over, and across, the line of doors.A
canopy is a useful device for gathering together pedestrian routes and dropping-off points if dispersed (Figure 13.2).
● Entrance doors and lobbies: Two lines of doors reduce noise and draught penetration into the foyer; automatic doors are essential for
wheelchair users. The distance between the lines of doors should be a minimum of 2 M: several pairs of doors
Parking:
Landscaping:
Integration of all the spaces can be achieved by landscape, built form- such as
connecting corridors, pergolas, pavement design etc.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
20
Literature study
Signage's :
Art gallery :
The gallery may be designed as a formal interior essentially for pictures, or
less formal and specific, allowing exhibitions to be created for the space.
Live Art should be considered, as should the use of gallery space for recitals,
drama performances and so on, in which case the acoustic characteristics of
the space would require particular attention. The whole of the gallery can be
the foyer space to the auditorium, with refreshment areas, toilets, etc.
off the gallery, thus making the gallery the focus of the public spheres.
A display can be provided within the foyer associated with a performance or
conference, exhibitions of local interest, sponsors’ material and
art-related displays, on walls or screens. Security can be covered by the
general provision in the building.
Standard signage's used for the building services, the signage's should reflect the cultural theme of the
design it should be placed in such a manner that people need not ask which direction to go.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
21
Literature study
Library :
•Area required for a simple reading/work place is 2.5 m2
For a PC or individual work place > 4.0 m2 is needed
• fire precaution
•Installation of book security system will prevent theft of book, by
giving electronic lock up.
•The more efficient method is to have linked areas which as large as
possible without change in level.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
22
Literature study
Toilets:
Legislation provides a guide to the minimum provision: this is usually inadequate especially for women.
A general guide to the minimum requirements is as follows:
Men WCs minimum of 2 for up to 500 males, then one for each additional 500.
Urinals minimum of 2 for up to 100 males, then one for each additional 100.
Wash basins one for each WC plus one for each five urinals.
Women WCs minimum of 2 for up to 75 females, then one for each additional 50.
Wash basin one for each WC.
Also consider powder shelves, long mirrors and sanitary towel dispensers and disposal in women’s toilets and provision for changing nappies
Allow for handdrying facilities: either electric warm air dryers, roller towels or paper towels with containers for disposal.
Separate toilet or toilets for disabled persons, containing 1 WC and 1 wash basin in each toilet, are essential provision.
Toilets should be located off the main circulation near the entrance lobby and also at each level of the foyer in a multi-level auditorium.
Auditorium and platform/stage formats
The relationship between the auditorium [the audience] and the platform/stage [the performance] is a fundamental requirement. The selected
format affects the experience for both audience and performers, seating capacity and auditorium size and shape, from which follows the general
arrangement of the building.
The relationship may be summarized as either the proscenium format or open stage format: the proscenium format is as if the performance is
seen through a window’ or hole in the wall and there is a clear division between audience and performers; the open stage formats follow the
concept of the auditorium and platform/ stage being within a single volume with the seating confronting, partially surrounding or wholly
surrounding the platform/stage.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
23
Literature study
Predominant types of production:
The following relationships accommodate a predominant type of production in purpose-built facilities.
Compatible secondary uses may be included in the brief but they do not require any physical adaptation of the auditorium and platform/stage, or only
require a modest level of flexibility.
For orchestral and choral classical music in a concert hall or recital room, there are three broad categories: the audience focused towards the
orchestra and choir on the platform, with or without choir stalls, in a single direction; the audience on three sides, semi-surrounding the platform; the
audience surrounding the platform .
Types of single direction relationship include the:
● rectangular box;
● variations on the rectangular box;
● fan-shaped auditorium.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
24
Literature study
Open stage forms:
The open stage forms may be classified into five broad categories:
● End stage: the audience focused towards the stage within a rectangular box: the stage at the narrow end, with stage and audience in the same space.
● Fan-shaped: the stage is encircled by the audience by 90°. This level of encirclement allows the performer to command the audience and for the
performer to be seen against a scenic background by the audience.
● Thrust stage: with the audience on three sides, semi-surrounding the stage.
● Theatre-in-the-round: the audience surrounds the performance. Entrances by the performers are through the audience. Acoustically the performer
needs to project to the whole audience in every direction, which implies a limit to the maximum distance from stage to rear row.
● Traverse stage: the audience either side of the stage.
Multi-purpose formats:
As opposed to an auditorium and platform/stage for a predominant type of production in a purpose-built facility, the brief may refer to more than
one type of production to be accommodated within a single format.
Also productions may require combination with non-performing arts activities. Each of the alternative uses will require specific provisions to be
made in its design and equipment; in platform/stage space; in orchestra space and modification of acoustics; in scenery storage and workshops; in
stage lighting and sound. While some degree of flexibility can be accommodated at reasonable cost and with success, there is a limit to the
multiplicity of use. Apart from design difficulties, the cost of providing for the different requirements and of operating a multi-purpose form may
become disproportionately high. The success of a multi-purpose format depends upon the compatibility of the various activities and the designer
must be rigorous in the assessment of the activities.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
25
Literature study
The viewer:
•The horizontal angle of polychromatic vision is generally 40 degree without eye movements.
•The horizontal angle to the projector screen at witch distortion on the screen becomes substantially intolerant is 60 degree measured to the
far side of the projected image .
LOCATION OF AUDIENCE
•Audience will not choose a location beyond a line proximity 100 degree to the curtain at the side of the proscenium .
DESIRABILITY OF LOCATIONS BY AUDIENCE
•Judged by the ability to recognize shapes, and confirmed by free audience, choice of seats, the following are the desirable locations:
A – front center B- middle center C-middle side
D-front side E-rear center F-rear side
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
26
Literature study
BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (actor/performer)
Check in , get mails and messages. 1) vestibule – min 50sqft
equipments- bulletin board.
telephone booth
2) door mans booth – min 30 softy
equipments- counter, mail box, small deck ,key rack
Dress for performance 1) dressing room-50sqft/person
-put makeup and costume location – near stage
equipments- clothes, costume hanger, shoe racks, make up table
30’’ wide, 18’’ deep,18’’wide mirror, one lavatory each
1/ 4ppl in large dressing room.
2) makeup room – 300sqft(min)
equipments- makeup table/ benches, chair on 2 sides, lights on face.
Wait for call to stage 1) green room-50 sqft/person (min)
-stage manager checks cast location- near stage
equipments- lounge, furniture, tables, full length mirror, call
system outlet.
2) stage anterroom – alternate to green room – 150 sqft
equipments- chair and benches
location- near proscenium without lounge aspects.
Go to stage 1) passage of min. wifth 1.5m no stair only ramp for level change.
-enter and perform leave the set
ACTION SPACE
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
27
Literature study
Quick change 1) dressing room – min 50sqft/ actor
space for dresser to help actor
location- immediate to the stage.
Waltz for curtain calls 1) green room , stage anteroom
Removal costume 1) shower- adjoining each
dressing room 1/6 actor
Confer with stage manager/ director 1) green room with adjoining kitchenette.
Check out and leave theater 1) vestibule and stage entrance
ACTION SPACE
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
28
Literature study
REPAIR SHOP
CRATE STORAGE
STORE ROOM
LOADING PLATFORM
LOADING DOOR
RECEIVING AND
SHIPPING SPACE
STORAGE SPACE
SCENERY SPACE
PAINT SHOP
CARPENTER SHOP
STOCK ROOM
DELIVERY DOCK
A
B
C
D
E
FLOW CHART FOR SCENERY
Sequence e ABCDE for commercial theater
EFGHDE for self contained theater
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
29
Literature study
BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (musician )
Check in , get mails and messages. 1) vestibule – min 50sqft
equipments- bulletin board.
telephone booth
2) door mans booth – min 30 softy
equipments- counter, mail box, small deck ,key rack
Prepare for performance 1) musician room – 300sqft min
-tune instruments and practice location – at basement level near pit , large instrument are usually kept
in the pit
equipments- locker or cloth racks ,chair , music cabinet, call system
outlet.
Go to pit 1) passage – direct large door allow carrying instruments.
2) orchestra pit -10sqft for musician
-100sqft for grand piano
-50 sqft tympana
width from stage figured on per person basis / depth should be kept so
that musicians are below audience sight line .
Probable steps or platform to be set over orchestra pit 1) conductor must see stage.
2)singer and orchestra must see conductor.
3) elevated orchestra pit floor- featured orchestra as a part of
performance , adds floor for seating if brought to auditorium level
makes forestage when required.
Leave pit and leave theater lavatories and toilets same as for actors, dressing room with lavatory and
shower for the conductor.
ACTION SPACE
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
30
Literature study
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
31
Literature study
BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (stage hand )
ACTION SPACE
Entrance theater check in Stage entrance and vestibule
Change clothes and go to stage Locker room according to number of men
Equipment – individual lockers, chair benches and phone
Location – in basement near stage, serves as stage hands lounge, direct
to either side of stage
Work the show Locker room
equipment-lounge furniture , adjoining toilets
Clean up and leave Locker room ,shower 1per 4 people
Treatment of accidents First aid room – 50 sqft min.
Equipments – surgical table, stools., sink and hot water facilities.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
32
Literature study
BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (stage manager )
ACTION SPACE
Checking in , getting mails and messages Use stage hands locker room
Manage the show Stage managers desk- on stage near proscenium on working side.
Equipments- calls, phone, monitor, moving stage control etc.
Work the show Locker room
equipment-lounge furniture , adjoining toilets
Care of scripts, use sheets etc. Office min 50sqft
BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (scenery )
ACTION SPACE
Brought to theater Loading door-8’X 12’ / 2.5m x 3.6m located at side ear , rear of the
stage
Loading platform- width of 2 vans
Stored pending set up Receiving space- 200sqft min,
Equipments – pipe frame at right angles to wall optional for stacking
Scenery / clear wall and floor space.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
33
Literature study
BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (scenery )
ACTION SPACE
Set up Stage equipment for flying , rolling and sinking scenery
Repairing Repair shop- 300sqft(min)
Equipments –work bench, tools for working.
Dismantling and transportation Receiving space, loading door
BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (properties)
ACTION SPACE
Brought to theater and unpacked Loading door – 6’x8’ / 1.83m x 2.5m
Separate from scenery door, adjacent to loading platform - 100sqft
Fitted to set of scenery , stored on stage (floor / rack / shelves) Operated during show, repaired, struck and transported.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
34
Literature study
BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (lighting equipments )
ACTION SPACE
Brought to theater Loading door
Unpacked Receiving space – 100 sqft
Additional space for properties, create storage when empty
Location – alley /loading platform
Installed Lighting equipment may be placed in any position on stage , above
stage , in slots in auditorium ceiling or in front of balcony and boxes.
Operated, dismantled, taken out.
BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (sound apparatus)
With less bulky by 75%, essentially the same lighting equipments.
BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (costume)
Brought to theater – loading door- property door
Passage of – 5ft /1.5m clear width, no stairs, use ramp when needed Wardrobe room – 120 sqft(min)
Equipment – costume hanger 12ft liner, ironing board
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
35
Literature study
Auditorium design:
The three-dimensional volume of an auditorium is conditioned by the limitations set by all members of the audience able to hear and see a
performance, and for the performers to be able to command the audience. Seating density, floor rake and seating layout are covered by legislation
to ensure a satisfactory means of escape in case of fire, and by an appropriate level of comfort for the audience. Performance organization requires
lighting, sound and broadcasting positions within the auditorium and a view of the whole performance area from control rooms.
Aural limitation Visual limitation
Aural limitations
There are limits to the distance
across which speech, singing and
music can be clearly heard in an
auditorium, without the assistance of
amplification, and this has a bearing
on the maximum distance from
performance to the rear row of seats.
Beyond these limits the lack of
audibility gives the audience less
than the basic requirement to clearly
hear a performance. The distance
varies according to type of
production. Other factors include the
articulation of the spoken work by
an actor or the sound quality,
including loudness, from a musical
instrument.
Visual limitations:
There are visual limitations that determine the maximum distance from the
performance area beyond which the audience is unable to appreciate the
performance adequately and for the performers to command an audience.
The distance to the furthest seat varies according to the type and scale of
production:
● In order to discern facial expression – essential with drama – the
maximum distance from the point of command on the stage should not
exceed 20 M. The point of command is the geometric centre of an open
stage or the setting line of a proscenium stage.
● For opera and musicals, discerning facial expressions is less critical and
the distance to the rear row can be 30 M.
● For dance, the audience needs to appreciate the body and feet of the
dancers, and also to discern facial expressions: the maximum distance
from the point
of command on the stage should not exceed 20M.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
36
Literature study
Auditorium acoustics:
The acoustic performance of the auditorium is a critical design requirement and needs to be considered as part of the initial brief. Acoustic
performance refers to the quality of the sound – music or speech – heard by each member of the audience, and also the performers on the
platform/stage. Design considerations for the acoustics of an auditorium, when the sound is not amplified, include:
● Type of production: each type has its own requirements with different characteristics for music and speech.
● Shape and size of the auditorium: the extent to which the audience surrounds the platform/stage;
seating capacity; number and depth of balconies; rake of the seating; for concerts, the proportion of length to width and height to width; for
opera, dance and musicals, the location of the orchestra pit; location of performance lighting and sound equipment and lighting bridges.
● Setting for the performance: such as permanent architectural setting,
within audience, proscenium stage and so on.
● Volume of the auditorium: calculated as the number
in the audience multiplied by a ratio of volume
to person, according to the type of production:
3.4M3 per person for music and 9M3 per person for
speech within the auditorium enclosure: for opera
the ratio is between 7M3 and 8M3 per person.
● Reverberation time: the difference in time between
direct sound to each member of an audience and
the reflected sound from all surfaces of the auditorium,
which requires to be short for speech and long for music
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
37
Literature study
Seating layout:
The seating layout in an auditorium depends mainly on the selection of format – the relationship between audience and performance – and the visual
and aural limitations associated with a particular type of production as well as the number of levels and sightlines. Other aspects which influence the
layout, and thereby condition seating capacity, include factors in the following sections.
Design of the individual auditorium seat
The design aim is to provide an appropriate standard of comfort during a performance. The range of human body dimensions is wide, while a single,
or restricted, size of seat is normally provided. Also tolerance levels vary between generations and indeed between different performing arts: the
young can tolerate simple seating found less comfortable by older age groups,
whereas those attending concerts of classical music appear to expect a level of comfort higher than those at a drama performance. The dimensions of
a seat are generally based on a median characteristic of the anticipated users, which varies by age and also by nationality.
Minor variation is achieved by the upholstery and adjustment of the back and seat pan material when the seat is occupied: otherwise the seat
selection is a common size within the whole, or part of, the auditorium layout. Probably the best that can be achieved is in the order of 90 per cent of
the audience within an acceptable range of comfort.
Other factors include:
● Acoustics: upholstery must satisfy the acoustic
requirements, usually the level of absorbency when
unoccupied; this is especially the case with music.
● Ventilation/heating: for air supply or extract under
a seat, space should be allowed in the floor or riser
to receive a grille.
● Upholstery: thickness of padding should provide
comfort and avoid fatigue, but should not encourage
excessive relaxation; the material of the
padding and finish must satisfy fire regulations.
For choice of type of seat .
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
38
Literature study
Seating density
Density of seating can vary (Figure 12.20): seats with arms and
a tippable seat can occupy an area as small as 500 mm wide,
and less with seats without arms, with a row to row dimension
of 760 mm, but can be as large as 750 mm wide by 1400 mm.
This is a variation from 0.38M2 to 1.05M2, with these
examples, and the increased dimensions means fewer seats
within a given area and reduces the seating capacity. The
minimum dimensions laid down by legislation offer a low
standard of comfort for the audience. Comfort needs to be
considered, especially knee room, and these dimensions should
not be taken as the norm. Social cohesion of the audience may
be lost if the space standards are too high, with the performer
being less aware of the grouping and more the individuals.
Travel distance
The evacuation from each level of the auditorium within a limited period of time is required in case of a fire. For traditional seating the travel
distance is 18 M measured from the gangway: for continental seating, 15 M from any seat. The aim is to evacuate the audience of each level within
2.5 minutes.
Exit numbers
At least two separate independent exits must be provided from each level within the auditorium. The exits should be located with sufficient
remoteness from each other to allow alternative directions of escape. The number of exits per level are two for each level within an auditorium with
the seating capacity up to 500: an additional exit is required for every further 250 seats as
defined by legislation. Egress in case of emergencies should follow the natural flow of movement from the
seats away from the platform/stage.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
39
Literature study
Exit widths
The exit widths are laid down by regulations. The base calculation is 45 persons per minute per unit width of 520–530 mm. The minimum total
exit widths required are outlined
Exit route
The exits from the auditorium must lead directly to a place of safety. The exit route must be the same width as the exit and be a consistent
width avoiding bottlenecks. The exit doors from the auditorium, any doors within the route and the final exit doors must open in the
direction of egress. Staircases within the route are subject to the following conditions: the maximum number of steps, 16: the minimum
number, 2; tread/riser to be 275 – 180, as a recommended ratio, and consistent.
Ramps should be at a pitch of 1.15, in lengths of 10 m maximum with intermediate platforms. Exit routes for wheelchair users are required
to be on the flat or ramped if there is a change of level, and may be required to be separate from the other routes. Routes are to be enclosed
by fire-resistant material within the building.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
40
Literature study
Circulation within auditorium:
Audience entry points into the auditorium from the foyer can be at the rear or sides of the seating, or within
the banks of seating, and should be related to the gangway positions While gangways are primarily
calculated as part of the escape route in case of fire, they also act as circulation routes through the
auditorium, with possible additional gangways, from the audience entry points to the particular row and seat.
Access through banks of raked seating –
vomitories – remove seats, and thereby reduce the potential seating capacity .A threshold
space at the entry points for ticket checks, programme sales and for members of the audience to orientate
themselves should be considered.
Gangways for use by wheelchair users require to be flat or ramped: the pitch should not exceed 1.15 for a
ramp with a maximum distance of 10 M. Beyond 10 M, the regulations require a flat platform, which in a
large auditorium may be inconvenient as it may break the line of the seating banks. Permission will be
necessary to have a continuous ramp. For a wheelchair user moving from a ramped gangway to a flat
platform will require an intermediate ramp. Gangway widths are established through the regulations
covering fire escape from auditoria. The minimum width though is taken as 1100 mm unless used
by wheelchair users where the width increases to 1200mm.
Handrails will be required to a stepped gangway adjacent to an enclosing wall; to a stepped gangway if a
drop at the side; at landings, rear of rostra and where there is a drop of more than 600 mm; where the rake is
above 25° to a gangway the ends of the rows served
by the gangway may require a loop rail
Rails are usually 900 mm above the pitch line and 1200 mm above landings, with panels either solid or sub-
divisions which may require a 100mm maximum gap.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
41
Literature study
Performers’ access through the auditorium
Performers may have access to the stage through the auditorium during a performance by way of:
● access along the gangways, with stepped access onto the stage if raised;
● access through vomitories exclusively for performers.
Details of a performers’ vomitory are shown in
The performers’ vomitory can be filled
to accommodate auditorium seating if not in use.
Wheelchair location within the seating
Regulations require a minimum number of places for
wheelchairs at each level, or 1/100th of the audience
capacity whichever is the greater. Wheelchair locations, as
discrete areas, can occur at the rear, front, side or within
the seating. Wheelchairs can be centrally positioned by
forming a bay off a cross gangway. The actual location will
be conditioned by the particular seating layout, the
convenient points of entry from the public areas and the
escape arrangements in the case of fire. Separate entrances
into the auditorium as well as escape routes should be
considered.
Choice of location within an auditorium is desirable,
covering each level and within different sections
of the seating. In the larger auditorium, placing the
wheelchair users in a single designated area should be
avoided.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
42
Literature study
Broadcasting requirements
Television cameras
External broadcasting – television and radio – and recording in auditoria may be a
requirement especially in those buildings for the performing arts housing
or hosting national and regional professional companies. Television cameras require to be
located in the seating areas either in specific
locations, on platforms, or by displacing seats.
Sound control room
In large auditoria with amplified sound and/or sound
effects the sound control room may be located within
the seating area to benefit from being in the acoustic
volume of the auditorium.
Adaptation
In multi-purpose auditoria where different formats or
uses are combined then all or part of the raked seating
will require to be movable. This can be achieved
by forming a structure off a flat floor, and include
● Bleacher seating: Telescopic structure with tippable
upholstered seating with backs, able
retracted into the depth of a single and highest
row. The rows are straight and the extended structure
is a simple rectangular block, which places a
discipline on the seating layout.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
43
Literature study
● Rostra: Complete raked units with either permanent or removable seats, on wheels or air pallets for ease of
movement into storage areas when not in use.
● Sectional rostra: A set of boxes able to be built up to form raked units with removable seats. The storage
requirements are less than complete rostra.
● Kit of parts: Scaffolding or equivalent set of components able to form raked levels to receive seating. This is the most
flexible system, it has efficient storage requirements, but is labour intensive.
● Hydraulic lifts: Mechanical method of raising sections of the flat floor to form a rake floor to receive
seating. Loose seats, secured in position when required for
Performances.
Sightlines: seated audience
For the whole of the audience to have an uninterrupted view of the performance and its setting over the heads in front and clear of overhangs,
the section and plan of the auditorium needs to conform to certain limitations set by vertical and horizontal sightlines.
Vertical sightlines
Vertical sightlines may be calculated by establishing:
Lowest and nearest point of sight on the platform/ stage for the audience to
see clearly. The platform/stage height, when raised, can range from 600 to
1100 mm above the lowest level of the auditorium and point can be the
leading edge, or setting line for the performance, at or above the
platform/stage level. If a forestage is part of the proscenium or end stage
formats then point needs to relate to the forestage. If an orchestra pit is
included between stage and seating then point may be regarded as the
conductor’s head. With a symphony orchestra in a concert hall, the ability to
see each musician at the front of the stage (who partially masks the other
musicians) may not be critical and point P may be taken as over 600 mm
above the platform level at the front edge.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
44
Literature study
Horizontal sightlines:
Horizontal sightlines are to be considered only with a
proscenium stage and possibly end stage and platforms
for classical and choral music. Given a particular
performance area, sightlines will limit the width
of seating that can be provided in the auditorium.
Conversely the sightlines from the side seats restrict
the amount of the performance area that can be used.
The narrowest dimension of the proscenium opening,
if adjustable, should be taken as the basis of the
calculations.
Each member of the audience should have a direct
view of the performance focused towards the centre
of the performance area. Curved or angled rows
direct the focus of the audience towards the centre.
The curved rows radiating from the circular stage of a
Greco-Roman theatre is a clear and simple example
of this form with the geometry emanating from a single
point. With a proscenium stage the geometry of
the performance area varies from the setting out
point of the seating; the audience should be contained
within a 130° angle peripheral spread of vision
from the performer at the point of command on the
performance area for opera, dance, musicals and
Drama.
Without head movement the arc to view the whole
of the performance area on plan is 40° from the eye.
An acceptable degree of head movement is debatable,
where the seat is focused away from the stage, as
with side galleries, requiring the head to be turned by
the member of the audience .
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
45
Literature study
Ventilation
The experience of enjoying a performance is influenced
by the quality of the ventilation in the auditorium,
and the avoidance of draughts, stuffiness and
noise of mechanical ventilation. Health needs include
respiration while comfort needs include maintaining
body heat, control of airborne contamination and
removal of odours. There is also the cost of the ventilation
and associated questions about heating which
can contribute significantly to the running costs.
The approach to the ventilation of an auditorium
reflects its size and shape (number of balconies in particular),
level of flexibility (different audience/performance
relationships), the type of construction of
the auditorium enclosure and external climate conditions.
The initial design decisions lie with defining the
noise criterion and number of air changes per hour to
be achieved in the auditorium. The acceptable level of
noise can vary according to performing art: for drama
the level can be NR25 while for orchestral music the
level may be required to be much lower at NR20. For
recording, the level would be even lower with a recommended
NR15. This criteria refers to the background
noise level and not the quality of the sound as experienced
by members of an audience.
Ventilation supply rates of air relate to the need to
provide fresh air at a rate of change to achieve suitable
comfort conditions: rates are subject to legislation
expressed as a minimum of fresh air supply per
person, including a proportion of recycled conditioned
air. Air change rates appear to vary according
to the authoritative body.
The basic principle of mechanical ventilation lies
with bringing air into an auditorium, with air which is
fresh, clean and at a similar temperature, achieving a
number of air changes per hour when the auditorium is
occupied. This is complemented by the extract of air to
achieve the air changes. There are different locations for
the introduction of air into an auditorium and for the
extraction of air.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
46
Literature study
Lighting:
Lighting within the auditorium covers the following:
● Performance lighting Lighting positions within the auditorium at ceiling level, on side and rear walls, balcony fronts and at low level within the
seating; the lighting direction is towards the platform/stage with clear projection; each position requires ease of access for technicians to change and
adjust, with lighting bridges at ceiling level and ladder access to wall locations; follow spotlights require a location at the rear of
the auditorium or from a lighting bridge at ceiling lighting is an integral part of the staging of all types of production, except orchestral and choral
music, and is subject to changes within a performance controlled by operatives at the rear of the auditorium . The tradition for orchestral and choral
music is for the platform to be illuminated during the performance with a general and fixed level of lighting: however this may be changing
with, say, follow spotlights as an increasingly common feature.
Auditorium lighting: For illumination of circulation routes and seating areas for the audience to move around the auditorium, read programmes,
and so on; decorative lighting emphasizing architectural features within the auditorium. Auditorium lighting is usually dimmed and out during the
actual performance for all types of production except for classical and choral music, where the tradition is to dim the lights only.
● Emergency lighting: An illumination of the circulation routes within the auditorium during a performance, with the luminaires located at ceiling
level or/and at a low level incorporated into the design of the gangways; exit signs and emergency directions at points of egress in the auditorium;
lighting of the auditorium at times of emergency.
Working lights: general illumination of the auditorium for cleaning and maintenance as a separate system during times when the auditorium is
not used for performance and rehearsals.
● Director’s desk lighting: supply of power within the auditorium to serve temporary location of director’s desk during rehearsals. This is not
usually applicable for classical music.
● Cue lights: at entry points into the auditorium.
● Blue lights: areas within the auditorium which will be accessed during the performance by technicians and performers require lighting but at
a low level with a blue light to avoid distraction to the audience. This covers lighting bridges and entry points into the auditorium.
Ease of access is required to service all luminaires.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
47
Literature study
Sound equipment:
The sound equipment described in the following sections may be required to be incorporated into
the auditorium design. Control rooms for performance sound, broadcasting and recording are
discussed under Performance Organization
Sound reinforcement:
Location of loudspeakers for the amplification of
music, voices or special effects, especially for those
performances relying on amplification such as musicals
and pop/rock concerts. The aim is to locate the
main loudspeaker to distribute sound across the whole
of the audience and can be:
● over the platform/stage along the setting line or
above the proscenium opening
● at the sides of the platform/stage as the traditional
position for pop/rock/jazz concerts (often touring
groups providing their own equipment)
● various positions within the auditorium to supplement
main loudspeakers and for sound effects on
side and rear walls, ceiling to auditorium and balconies
and, possibly, under the floor. Location
requires an uninterrupted line from speakers to
members of the audience.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
48
Literature study
Public address
Loudspeakers may be required within the auditorium for announcements to the audience as a separate system.
Rehearsals
Loudspeakers may be required, usually located at the rear of the auditorium, for use during rehearsals on the stage, so that the director located in the
auditorium can communicate with the performers on the stage. This requirement tends not to be applicable for orchestral and choral music rehearsals,
or for small auditoria.
Broadcasting and recording
Consideration should be made of provision within the auditorium for television and radio transmission and for video, film and tape recording of a
performance. Spatial requirements, beyond camera and operator locations, are nominal and mainly include access for cables and equipment.
Aids for the hard of hearing
To assist the hard of hearing, consider the applications of one of the following:
● induction loop: magnetic field transmission looped around auditorium
● infra-red system: modulated light signals, radiated from a number of sources
● hard-wired: cable within floor trunking connected to panel in seat.
Fire protection
The enclosing walls and floors of the auditorium should be fire-resistant as should the doors and other openings in the walls. Other aspects to be
considered,include:
● non-combustibility of materials including finishes and seating
● detector system: smoke detectors in auditorium and associated voids
● extinguishers: hose-reels, portable extinguishers; automatic sprinkler systems will not be allowed over seating areas
● alarms: connected to automatic detector system and central indicator panel and, possibly, direct link to local fire station; alarms should be visual
(flashing light) in auditorium and not audible.
Fire precautions should be discussed with the local fire authority and fire insurers
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
49
Literature study
Structure:
A large span structure will be required, capable of carrying shaped ceiling, lighting bridges and ventilation ducts. Floors will be sloped, raked,
dished or, if a multi-purpose auditorium, flat. Balconies introduce additional long spans able to carry heavy loads. For sound insulation purposes the
auditorium walls will have to be substantial, which suggests load-bearing construction.
Ceiling zone:
The ceiling and ceiling zone are mainly determined by functional needs and include the following requirements:
● Acoustic requirements: Profiled reflector panels and possible adjustable diffusers to ensure distribution of sound over the whole seating area.
For non-amplified music the reflectors will need to be suspended over the platform as well.
● Lighting requirements: Access and supporting framework for performance lighting, ‘house’ lighting and also working lights and emergency
lights.
● Ventilation requirements: Air ducts and plenums, diffusers, noise attenuation and monitoring equipment, supporting hangers and means of
access for servicing.
● Production requirements: For opera, dance, musicals and drama, a grid and pulley suspension system for flying or suspending scenery over
forestage, including access by technicians.
● Fire control requirements: Alarm system in voids;
fire dampers in ducts.
Seating capacity:
The maximum capacity within an auditorium depends on the selection of format and the aural and visual limitations set by the type of
production. Other influences on the calculation include, levels, sightlines, acoustics, circulation and seating density, as well as the size and
shape of the platform/stage (to be described in the following section). To maximize the seating capacity within these limitations, sightlines
may be compromised so that, say, 10 per cent of the audience experiences 90 per cent of the performance area. This is a debatable issue
mainly associated with the proscenium format, where, to achieve an intimate character in the auditorium, a desire to provide
perfect sightlines for everyone may have to be overridden. The actual seating capacity depends on the ability to attract audiences which
may be less than the possible maximum. Also the potential peak demand could exceed the selected capacity on a particular evening: the aim
though should be to spread attendance across less popular days, or extend performances over a longer period of time rather than increase
the capacity over a short duration.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
50
Literature study
Safety curtain:
In case of fire on the stage, traditionally it is necessary to separate
the stage areas from the auditorium, with the proscenium opening
being closed by a safety curtain. The normal form of safety curtain
is a rigid type which is suspended immediately behind the
proscenium opening, running between side tracks and dropping
onto the stage front from the flytower The safety curtain can be on
the straight line of the stage separating the orchestra pit, as part of
the auditorium from the stage, or on the line of the rail to the
orchestra pit so that when the pit is exchanged for an apron stage it
is accommodated within the stage area. If there is a curved or
angled pit rail then the safety curtain should follow the same line.
The safety curtain tends to be obligatory for auditoria with a
seating capacity over 500, as outlined in the building regulation.
The need for a safety curtain is historically-defined, based on pre-
electric lighting and extensive use of combustible materials on the
stage. The continued use of the traditional barrier of the safety
curtain to separate the stage volume from the auditorium has been
questioned. Alternatives include a sprinkler system along the line
of a proscenium opening and/or controlled smoke extract within
the stage volume as well as away from the stage in the auditorium.
Access to the stage: performers
The door leading from the dressing rooms for the performers should be
located down stage of the prompt side (PS) as the primary point of entry to
the stage, with a cross-over behind the stage, and at least a second point of
entry on the non-PS side. All entrances to the stage require lobbies as sound
and light locks. The entrances should be located so as to leave a maximum
amount of clear wall space. Access is also required to the sub-stage by
performers from both sides of the performance area and possibly also from
the auditorium, which may require steps at the side of the front of the stage.
With opera, there are a large number of performers including principals,
chorus and dancers: separate access points should be considered for each
group.
.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
51
Literature study
Orchestra pit: opera, musicals, dance:
The orchestra for opera, musicals and dance is in a pit between the stage and the audience. The limiting factor is for the conductor to be seen by both the
singers and dancers on the stage and the musicians. The audience requires to hear a balance of singers and
orchestra, especially for opera. Amplification in musicals makes this requirement less of a necessity. Allow 1.3M2 average per player, 5M2 for the piano,
10M2 for tympani and percussion and 4M2 for the conductor. The actual production will have specific
orchestral requirements with variation in the size and composition of the orchestra. The conductor’s eye level must not be lower than stage level when
seated on a high stool.
To minimize the gulf between stage and audience the pit can extend under the stage
front for a distance no greater than 2 M. The soffit of the overhang should reflect the
sound outward into the auditorium. For opera, the pit should be designed for a
maximum of 100 musicians: for musicals, 60; for dance, 60–90. The numbers could be
less with touring companies. The floor level of the orchestra pit should be adjustable,
between 2–3 m, below the stage level to suit the different requirements of the
musicians and directors. The fire separation between auditorium and stage
must be maintained including the entry point into the pit: access must be possible from
both ends. The orchestra pit requires its own independent ventilation system, locally
controlled. Lifts may be required to reduce the size of the pit, and its acoustics.
The orchestra pit requires acoustic treatment and working lights, as well as the socket
outlets for lighting to music stands.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
52
Literature study
Relationship between public spaces
The functional relationships between the various
public spaces are shown in.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
53
Literature study
Conclusion
A complete theater unit :must :
1) Accommodate an audience
2) accommodate a performance
3) Bring audience and performance together in the most efficient way
A theater must have the following salient feature:
1) Interdependence of functions- optimizing the audience performance relationship in order to increase the appreciation of
audience towards the performance and also to encourage the performers to give their best effort.
2) Universality – functional requisites are identical irrespective of the origin of the building project .
3) Harmony between functions and architectural stage theatrical functions must be the primary determinants of the site, shape and
arrangements of the parts of the theater building.
4) Appropriate selection of site- the site must be big enough to hold the theater and to provide access and outside audience landing
facilities.
5) Development of plan – shape and size of the stage and auditorium , acting area and orchestra pit according to the audience.
6) Variation in program- all production type must be chosen for performance in order to keep the theater running.
7) Variable house capacity- many designs are there which can varry the size of the auditorium as per the number of people and
production type.
8) Attractiveness of the house can generate potential audience.
9) Appropriate stage .
10) Storage facility( in order to maintain the efficiency of the theater)
11)Audience ( in order to grab audience it is essential that their seeing and hearing experience is highlighted to the maximum
level.
12) Other sourse of income – a theater might not always move in profit and because of this it requires alternate means of income
which can be acquired by means of exhibition, letting out of spaces etc.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
54
Literature study
:
KALA ACADEMY, GOA
Selection as case study:
The academy deals with both eastern and western form of art. Spaces are planned especially for
teaching and practice of performing arts.
KALA ACADEMY, GOA
LOCATION: Situated at Campal, Panaji along the banks of river Mandovi
Area has mixed land use with a military hospital across the
road, a cricket ground and a park on either side.
ARCHITECT: Charles Correa
BUILDING TYPE: Institution
SITEAREA: 6.3acres
SITE GRADIENT: Gentle Slope
INTRODUCTION:
• Venue of international film festival of India.
• 1969 - prime institution for promotion of art and culture in Goa.
ACCESS:
• Regular buses connecting Panaji and the academy are available.
• Dabolim airport, 35km
• Nearest railway station is Madgao, 53 km.
LAYOUT:
• Four entries to the site.
• Boat jetty provided on the river side.
• Coverage is about 40%
• Well defined pedestrian and vehicular systems
• Includes the cafeteria, garden and amphitheatre.
• Site is divided into main building ,service building, muktangan, parking
area, the exhibition space.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
Case study
55
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
Case study
BUILDING LEVEL ZONING:
• Building is divided into three zones:
Public, Administration, Academic
• Provided at different levels so as to avoid conflict between these zones
• Ground floor includes facilities like
Auditorium,
preview theater,
amphitheatre,
art gallery,
canteen etc, where public entry is invited
• First and second floors - academic and administration facilities.
• Circulation linked to the zoning is segregated through levels - ground floor for audience functions and first and second
floor for staff and students with degree of inter linking.
BUILDING STYLE AND CHARACTER:
• Designed by ar. Charles correa.
• Importance to the process of moving through the spaces in a building.
• Built form has been kept low ranging from one to three floors.
• This is further enhanced by the use of parapet walls for upper floors, which
emphasize horizontally.
• The 'pergola 'above the entrance acts as an extension to the foyer of the main
auditorium and amphitheatre.
• Use of coffer slabs and parapet walls
• Extensive use of specially designed seating
56
FACILITIES AT KALA ACADEMY
• D.M Kala mandir
• Open air theatre
• Mini OAT
• Black Box
• Rehearsal Room
• Art Gallery
• Meeting Room
• Guest Room
• Preview Theatre
• Cafeteria
• Library
• Teaching Studio
• Green Room
• Kitchen
• Administration
• Reception
• Lounge
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
57
Case study
D.M KALA MANDIR (A. C AUDITORIUM)
• Seating capacity – 1000 (1300 sq.m )
• Orchestra pit- 7.2 x 2.1 m
• Variety of acoustical conditions ranging from speech, plays to sitar recitals and orchestral arrangements
• Walls of the auditorium are painted illusions of an old goan theatre
• Stage is 80cm high from the first row.
• Raking height varies from 10-20 cm
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
58
Case study
MINI OPEN AIR THEATRE:
• Capacity-300 people.
• Used as an outdoor classroom and meeting space
• OAT seating has a tread of 85cm and rise of 45 cm depth.
• Farthest seat is 6m away and no amplication required.
• Two aisles run along either end. Width -120cm
• The steps have 15cm risers and 28 cm treads.
• Square shape stage is and has an area of 7.5 x 7.5 m
OPEN AIR AMPHITHEATRE:
• Seating capacity (no chair) - 2000
• Seating capacity (chair) - 1312
• Proscenium opening - 15m
• Depth from curtain line- 12m
• Amphitheatre is of double herringbone shape.
• Main entry from road main lobby and the restaurant area.
• Stage is raised at 75cm above the ground floor level(eye level of the first row)
• Lower Seat rise - 30 cm and tread of 100 cm
• Higher Seat rise of 45 cm
• Acoustics are good as the seats block out noise from the road side and the stage
blocks out noise from the river side
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
59
Case study
BLACK BOX:
• Seating capacity - 200.
• Area - 175 sq.m.
• Used for experimental productions, music concerts, meetings
and amateur performances.
• Also used as a recording studio.
• Control room and a green room provided.
• Black box lobby is also provided.
PREVIEW THEATRE:
• Capacity - 24.
• Used during ‘IFFI’ for special screening.
• Has got a jury room and projector room attached.
• Particle board has been used for acoustical effect.
ADMINISTRATION:
• Administrative area is on the first floor.
• The area divided into closed and open cabinets
• Total area -500 sq.m.
ART GALLERY:
• Running wall space - 30 x 1.50 mts
• Carpet area of gallery – 90 sq.mts
• The exhibits are displayed on the wall on four sides.
• Lighting features are very normal no facility to hold a good exhibition.
• Adjustable cove lightings are used in gallery
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
60
Case study
CAFETERIA :
• Capacity for 100 members
• Square table are provided each with 4 seats
• 3 sides open in to the outdoor landscape
• It is accessible from all theatre meeting room - 45 sq.m
LIBRARY :
• area- 135 SQ.M
• Library is in proximity with mini oat.
• Books are raked in glass shelves
TEACHING STUDIO:
• All the music studios are of the same size 3.3 x 2.6ms
• Central air conditioning is provided for all class rooms.
• Acoustically treated classrooms with the same type of
padding provided for the walls and ceilings.
• Three walls are faced with linen material and glass wool, the
rest is paneled with wood particle board
PARKING FACILITIES:
• Parking facilities is provided on the south-eastern side.
• Nearly 250 public parking are provided.
• Special VIP and staff parking provided.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
61
Case study
SERVICES:
• The service buildings (AC plant and generator room) are provided on the western corner of the site without disrupting
building functioning
• Two separate service entries have been provided.
generator room and the other
eastern corner of the site.
• The eastern entry caters to the need of the amphitheatre and the canteen.
• A loading deck has also been provided here
• The septic tank is provided underneath the garden.
LANDSCAPE:
• Beautiful lawns form the main part of the site. Trees are provided aptly at the front side of the building.
• Specially designed benches and lamp posts line the path Along the river side.
ANALYSIS
• The layout and the building zoning provided are excellent
• Good acoustical treatment
• Flow of spaces has resulted in a good built-open relationship.
• Good use of site features has successfully made the public spaces interesting by
use of sculptures, paintings, seating etc.
• The cafeteria is the most active space with good view to the river.
• Vehicular and pedestrian ways properly defined.
• Service blocks are separated
• Security measures provided are minimum.
• Signage provided is minimum.
• The trees have to some extent blocked the view to the river
• Public spaces too large.
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
62
Case study
NATIONAL CENTRE OF PERFORMING ARTS,MUMBAI
Selection as case study:
The center focuses mainly on performances and had succeeded in becoming a common platform for
performances ranging from small individual performance to large shows.
My aim to study NCPA was to understand the context . It is functioning and to study the different
spaces it involve. The scale of project is comparable.
NATIONAL CENTRE OF PERFORMING ARTS,MUMBAI
LOCATION: Niraman Point on NCPA marg
ARCHITECT: Ar. Phillip Johnson.
BUILDING TYPE: Institution
SITEAREA: 8 acre
INTRODUCTION:
• NCPA is a cultural building , lift the indian culture in the
society through events
Dance, Music, Drama and Opera .
• NCPA private sector undertaken by TATA.
• Designed by ar. Phillip johnson.
• Building having five theatres, Administration area (Music Library, small
gallery, Guest House and the apartments for the Directors)
VIEW FROM MAIN ENTRANCE VIEW FROM NARIMAN POINT
LOBBY AND RECEPTION:
• Approach to the reception area from the main entry
• Reception desk is located at the building entrance
• Right side of the reception located the administrative area
AUDITORIUM :
• Jamshed bhabha theatre
• Tata theatre
• Experimental theatre
• Dance theatre godrej
• Little theatre
The NCPA audio & film archives
Recording studio
Library
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
63
Case study
JAMSHED BHABHA THEATRE
SEATING CAPACITY
• Total capacity- 1109 seats
DRESSING ROOMS(BACKSTAGE):
• Ground floor, solo rooms 3 (9 sq.m. each)
• First floor, solo rooms 4 (9 sq.m. each)
• Second floor, group rooms 2 (18.5 sq.m. each) (7 persons)
• Third floor, group room 1 (46.5 sq.m. each) (18 persons)
STAGE
• Stage entry
From east & west foyer 2 Nos. (Stage Right & Left)
• Floor Hardwood timber flooring on MS framing (No traps, No revolve)
• Size 23.7m (w) x 14.6m (d) (Behind house-curtain)
•Top-of-stage from 1m auditorium level
CONTROL ROOM:
• Location Rear of the auditorium behind glass window; partially openable
divided into 4 compartments inter-connected through common
passage
• Compartment 160 sq.m.
• Compartment 228 sq.m.
• Compartment 310 sq.m. (Light Control Cubicle)
• Compartment 445 sq.m.
• Power supply 18 kW, 30 Amps per phase
REHEARSAL ROOMS (FRONT-OF-HOUSE)
These are separate venues
• West room 1 124 sq.m., height 2.88m(second floor West Wing)
(90 sq.m. adjoining open terrace)
• West room 2 115 sq.m., height 2.9m(third floor West Wing)
(50sq.m. adjoining open terrace)
• East room 1 113.5 sq.m., height 2.9m(second floor East Wing)
(55 sq.m. adjoining open terrace)
• East room 2 99 sq.m., height 2.9m(third floor East Wing)
(32 sq.m. adjoining open terrace)
VIEW OF STAGE JBT
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
64
Case study
MISCELLANEOUS SPACES
Foyers at two levels.
GROUND FLOOR (LEVEL 0)
• Area 930 sq.m.
• Height variable, minimum 2.5m
• Elevator 1 (West Foyer)
• Accessory electric 9 kW (East Foyer) Lighting supply
• Load 15 Amps per phase 9 kW (WestFoyer) Lighting load 15 Amps per phase
• Service Counter 2 (one Front Foyer and one in West Foyer)
FIRST FLOOR (LEVEL 1)
• Area 465 sq.m.
• Height variable; minimum 2.5m
• Service counter 1 (East Foyer)
MUSEUM
• Area 165 sq.m.
• Height 5.45m
MAIN ENTRY OF THE JBT FOYER AND THE FOOD COUNTER
INTERIOR OF THE AUDITORIUM
ORCHESTRA PIT
• Forestage orchestra elevator 19m (w) x 4m (d) : travel -2.9m(below stage),
0.0m (auditorium level) to + 1m (Stage level);locking @ 400mm increments(9)
• Capacity 60 musicians
• Below-stage pit, fixed portion 15.4m (w) x 4.2m (d) x 3.1m (h)
INTERIOR OF THE REHERSAL ROOM
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
65
Case study
SEATING CAPACITY
Total capacity -1010 seats
Capacity reduced in the following cases:
• Use of in-house
• sound mixer/monitor Reduced by 7 seats Sound System
• 8-Channel audio mixing console
• Basic sound system for speech and music reinforcement
STAGE
• Floor Hardwood timber flooring on concrete
• Size 9m (d) x 17.5m (w) at its maximum width:
• Height 3m at upstage: 6m at downstage rotatable stage
• Operation electronically controlled
• Rotation 180°
• Rotation time 80 sec.
FOYER
ROTATING STAGE BACK SIDE
V.I.P. ENTRY TO THE RESTAURANT
MAIN ENTRY TO THE THEATRE
DRESSING ROOMS
Ground floor- Solo rooms 4 (11.6 sq.m. each)
Mezzanine- Group rooms 2 (23 sq.m. each)
TATA THEATRE:
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
66
Case study
EXPERIMENTAL THEATRE SEATING CAPACITY
• 285 seats maximum (variable)
• Plastic bucket-chairs (blue) on modular wooden tiers
STAGE
• 9.7m (w) x 7.3m (d) x 0.7m (h) maximum
• Variable configuration; modular wooden platforms
FLOOR
• Concrete floor 19.20m (l) x 19m (w)
• Floor-to-grid height (Catwalk) 9m (h), average
CONTROL ROOM
• Behind glass observation window at first floor level
LIGHTING
• Electronic light dimmer 1
Specifications
•Lighting console -Phoenix Cantor-48 ,48 channels (ADB make)
DRESSING ROOMS (with toilets & showers)
• Ground floor 2 (7 sq.m each)
• First floor 1 (20 sq.m)
MISCELLANEOUS SPACES
• Foyer (non A/C)
• Size 425 sq.m ; height 3m
VIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL THEATRE
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
67
Case study
SEATING CAPACITY
• 185 seats
STAGE
• Floor Timber flooring on MS slotted angle frame;
• 0.65m from auditorium level
• Wing-to-wing 9m (w) x 5.6m (d) height: 2.34 m
WING SPACE
• Stage- right 3.55m (w) x 6.7m (l) height: 2.34m
• Stage-left 2.2m (w) x 6.7m (l) height: 2.34m
• Cross-over space 14.9m (l) x 1.1m (w) height: 2.34m
• Proscenium opening 9.55m (w) x 2.40m (h)
• House curtain Maroon velour; motorized travel
MISCELLANEOUS SPACES
• Foyer( non-A/C)
• Area-158 sq.m
• Sunken Garden 232 sq.m
DRESSING ROOMS (2 nos)
• Ground floor - 13.8 sq.m & 17 sq.m
• Common lobby - 19.6 sq.M
OUTER AREA OF THE THEATRE
STAGE OF THE THEATRE AND FIXTURES
VIEW OF GODREJ THEATRE
DANCE THEATRE GODREJ
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
68
Case study
LITTLE THEATRE SEATING CAPACITY
• 114 seats
• Cushioned chairs (off-white) on carpet (Maroon)
STAGE
• Floor timber flooring on concrete slab;
• 0.8m (h) from auditorium level.
• Size with side wings and 6.66m (w) x
• 5.47m (d) x back concertina flat 3.96m (h)
• Downstage 3.08m (h) upstage
WING SPACE
• Stage-right 1.1m (w) x 6m (l) x 3.08m (h)
• Stage-left 1.0m (w) x 6m (l) x 3.08m (h)
• Cross-over space 8.7m (l) x 0.6m (w) x 3.08m (h)
• Proscenium opening 5.85m (w) x 3.96m (h)
• House curtain Maroon velour; motorized travel
DRESSING ROOMS
• Ground floor 1; 8.5 sq.m
• First floor 1; 15.8 sq.m
MISCELLANEOUS SPACE
• Foyer (air-conditioned)
• Size 13.3m (l) x 5.6m (w) x 6m (h)
• Area 74.5 sq.m
VIEW OF LITTLE THEATRE
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
69
Case study
RECORDING STUDIO
• Studio is equipped with state-of-the-art multi track
• recording equipment based on the Pro Tools HD platform
• Main recording hub , interconnected to all five theatres
• through fiber optic cable spreading an area of 24,000sqm.
LIBRARY
SUNKEN GARDEN (75-100 members)
• Located next to the dance theatre godrej.
• Reception space also used for small-scale performances
• Stepped seating leading down to a performing area.
STRUCTURE
• All the Auditoriums having column beam structure
• JBT and TATA theatre have good span column free space,
• Coffered ceiling is cast for making the space column free.
• Cantilevers more than 10 feets is projected at the entrance of TATA theatre.
• Building is finished with different materials like stone, plastered etc.
WAY TO THE BASEMENT PARKINGOUTER AREA OF JBT OUTER AREA OF TATA THEATRE
C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
70
Case study
Performing Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre final
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Performing Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre final
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Performing Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre final
Performing Arts Centre final
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Performing Arts Centre final

  • 1. Jyotsna Mishra | Msap | Xth sem | 070901162 Thesis report 1: 14/02/12
  • 2. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP Introduction Nehru center for performing arts, aims to provide the planned city of Chandigarh a traditional outlook. As this Indian city lacks the local street culture , this performing art center aims to make people aware about the Indian tradition and culture, and conserve it to educate the up-coming generation. It will also help promote tourism of Chandigarh. 1
  • 3. The movement arts is vibrant, evolving. Through the years, the art has evolved taking new shapes every time, converting and integrating through the passage of time. This gives to many new forms of art. Art has survived many criticism as well appreciation in the test of time. Today art is understood and appreciated by larger section of society. The Nehru center for performing arts at Chandigarh, attempts to be the converging point and a national level platform for people who are interested in performing arts. The site in Chandigarh is year marked at sector 34b by the Chandigarh development authority, this will be developed to cater to the surrounding population and beyond. The project focus on developing into a center that caters primarily to the performing arts, providing with space, infrastructure, knowledge recourse and acting as a magnet to those practicing or interested in art. A potential attempt will be made to promote learning and interest towards the arts through observation, interaction and practice. Mr Rakeshwar Katoch, a theatre buff, said: “The city has a potential to emerge as a major cultural centre in the North. All art forms need the support of the state and neighbouring state governments need to get together with the UT Administration to form a common action plan for the promotion of art and culture. Sanjeev Singh Bariana Tribune News Service The future of performing arts will be shaped by many factors, but perhaps none is more important than the future structure of demand. The size and shape of the market for performing arts has changed over time, reflecting shifts in demand that are stimulated by technological change as well as social, demographics and economic trends in society. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP justification 2
  • 4. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP Justification of support for both capital and revenue funding has included one or more of the following reasons:  Cultural: to safeguard an aspect of cultural heritage; continuity of art forms, display of performing skills and sustaining national, local or ethnic traditions; to retain and improve an existing stock of facilities and established companies for the performing arts, or to provide new facilities to ensure cultural opportunities.  Economic: direct employment of staff and performers; benefits to secondary businesses such as poster and programme printing and material supply; a widening of the tourist and conference market which, in turn, brings money into the town or city; an attraction to encourage relocation, and location of organizations, institutions, industry and commerce in an area with subsequent employment benefits.  Educational: to cultivate an appreciation of the art forms through the exposure of audiences to examples; to form part of an educational programme for schoolchildren, students and those in adult education.  Prestige: international, national, regional, city or town comparison; re-enforcement of regional identity emphasizing dispersal from metropolitan focus.  Quality of life: performing arts as acceptable complementary activities to work and domestic obligations as a positive use of leisure time which enriches life culturally and also socially.  Regeneration: part of a wider programme to revitalize an existing city or town centre or to assist in the formation of a new community, to attract industry, commerce, institutions, housing, and so on.  Cultural Democracy: to stimulate and foster participation in the performing arts by all sections of a community, defined locally, as a creative activity . Justification : Justification 3
  • 5. Aim: Developing a performing art center at Chandigarh, Punjab, which facilitates, practice, teaching, research, display and appreciation of various art forms. Objective:  To provide leadership on a national level as India’s premier performing arts, research and training centre through the presentation of Indian and international art forms, the promotion of excellence and the preservation of India’s rich cultural heritage.  Development of a performing arts center providing the required areas and infrastructure to be able to display and promote the art. Designing a self integrated and flexible space, and also ensure constant activity at the center, involving the community and public. Project Outline:  Performing art center at Chandigarh, Punjab shall be a center for research, understanding and promotion of the performing arts. It shall cater to all forms of performing arts stressing upon dance, theater and music also including the contemporary art form. It will also have a research center for music and dance form. Provision for accommodation for a limited number of people will also be included in design.  Focus on multiple use of one space, convertible spaces mostly for community and public interaction. Landscape plays an important role in making the planning and resolving the circulation, so it will be designed accordingly.The project envisages the creation of an environment for the arts, meant exclusively for the arts and not for any one exclusive art. It is therefore meant to encourage in a broad sense all kinds of artistic pursuits.  From an architectural point of view the building will be planned in order to create an environment befitting the nature of the activities related to the arts and their promotion. Apart from the functional spaces, therefore the creation of an ample amount of space for the interpretation of art by the sensitive art- lover and the interaction between the people interested in the arts is envisaged. The mood and the ambiance of the built space will be conductive for the reflecting over subjects and missing over art of the solitary thinker’s mind. The architecture will be sensitive to art and yearn to be an extension of it. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP SYNOPSIS 4
  • 6.  From the functional point of view the building will be designed to house the facilities required for the staging and presentation of various disciplines of performing arts.  Through the years, the art has evolved taking new shapes every time converting and branching out to give birth to new forms. The art has survived all test of time, and today it is appreciated and understood in all its forms by a larger section of people. Today people recognise the value and scope of performing arts, and more than a type of means of entertainment people are taking it up as a subject to study and research.  The performing arts center at chandigharh, punjab attempts to be the converging point for all interested in the performance arts and a source for information.  The site is in the heart of chandigharh, a planned city by architect le corbusier, and it is a flat tarrain, it lies in sector 34 B. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP SYNOPSIS 5
  • 7. Performing Arts: The performing arts are those forms art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own body, face, and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some physical art object . The term "performing arts" first appeared in the English language in the year 1711. Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch ( which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts; tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. The word derives from Greek μουσική (mousike; "art of the Muses"). The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their recreation in performance), through improvisational music to aleatoric forms. Music can be divided into genres and subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to individual interpretation, and occasionally controversial. Within "the arts", music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art, and auditory art. Performing arts Minor forms • Magic • puppetry Major forms • Theater – contemporary, folk • Dance – classical, folk, contemporary • Music- classical, folk, contemporary • Opera • Circus Genres • Drama • Tragedy • Comedy • Tragicomedy • Romance • Satire • Epic • lyrics C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP Performing art 6
  • 8. Theatre Theatre is the branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle—indeed any one or more elements of the other performing arts. In addition to the standard narrative dialogue style of plays, theatre takes such forms as plays, musicals, opera, ballet, illusion, mime, classical Indian dance, kabuki, mummers' plays, improvisational theatre, stand-up comedy, pantomime, and non-conventional or art house theatre. Dance Dance (from Old French dancier, perhaps from Frankish) generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. Dance is also used to describe methods of non-verbal communication (see body language) between humans or animals (bee dance, mating dance), motion in inanimate objects (the leaves danced in the wind), and certain music genres. Choreography is the art of making dances, and the person who does this is called a choreographer. Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, cultural, aesthetic artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement (such as folk dance) to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet. In sports, gymnastics, figure skating, and synchronized swimming are dance disciplines while martial arts "kata" are often compared to dances. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 7 Performing art
  • 9. Performing Arts in India: History of Classical Dances In its truest sense, Indian classical dance is an expression of life, involving the body as well as the emotions. Indian Dance is based on texts from Sanskrit, an ancient Indian language – also thought to be the mother of not only Indian languages but also modern European languages. Indian classical dance is one of the oldest dance traditions associated with any of the world’s major religions. It has evolved with the concepts of self and world. According to Hindu mythology, the Taandav (the frenzied dance performed by Lord Shiva, in grief after his consort Sati’s tragic demise) symbolises the cosmic cycles of creation and destruction, birth and death. His dance is therefore the dance of the Universe, the throb of eternal life. An interesting parallel may be seen in modern physics, which depicts that the cycle of creation and destruction is not only reflected in the turn of seasons and in the birth and death of living creatures but also in the life cycle of inorganic matter. Nataraja (literally the king of dancers) or Lord Shiva in a graceful dancing pose is worshipped all over India, by classical dancers, and also a collector’s item for connoisseurs of art. Nataraja – the divine dancer The origin of Indian dance can be traced back to Bharata Muni (a learned saint) who lived between the 1st and 2nd century and composed a magnum opus on dance, which is known to the world as Natya Shastra. In ancient times, dance was not merely a form of entertainment. On the contrary it was considered a medium of instruction of morality, good values, and scriptures and the expression of reality. Natya Shastra serves as a common text for all the varieties of Indian classical dance forms. It contains elaborate details on various types of postures, mudras or hand movements depicting different meanings, besides the construction of a stage, the art of make-up and lastly the orchestra. All dance forms make ample use of the nine basis rasas or emotions – hasya (joy and happiness), krodha (anger), bibhatsa (disgust), bhaya (fear), vira (courage), karuna (compassion), adbhuta (wonder) and shanta (serenity). C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 8 Performing arts in india
  • 10. Natya Shastra further divides classical dance into nritya- the rhythmic elements, nritya- the combination of rhythm and expression, and finally, natya – comprising the dramatic elements embedded in the dance recital. To appreciate natya or dance drama, an individual needs to possess sound knowledge, understanding and appreciation of Indian legends and mythology and folklore. Hindu deities like Vishnu, Krishna, Shiva and Lakshmi, Rama and Sita are commonly depicted in these dances. Each dance form also draws inspiration from stories depicting the life and traditional beliefs of the Indians. Ancient Indian history reveals that several centuries before Christ, India's art forms of dance, music and theatre were fairly well- advanced. The performing arts, i.e. dance and music reached the acme of their glory, during the reign of the Chola dynasty in Southern India. Dance forms were nurtured with a purpose in the sacred premises of temples. Temple dancing was imbued with the idea of taking art to the people, and conveying a message to the masses. The temple rituals necessitated the physical presence of mortal women (instead of the ornate, carved figures of heavenly damsels, apsaras) to propitiate the gods. The allegorical view of dance, used for the purpose of the pleasing the devas, was gradually transformed into a regular, service (with deep religious connotations) in the temples of the medieval times. This was possibly the reason behind the origin of devadasis (literally: servants of the deity), the earliest performers of the classical Indian dances. They were supposed to pursue the dance forms devotedly and excel in them. At the outset, devadasis were respectable women and highly talented artists hailing from the highest strata of the society. They lived and danced only in the temple premises – their vocation enjoying great religious prestige. It was only much later that the devadasis condescended to perform in royal courts, in the presence of the elite and the nobility. A devadasi not only performed on all festive occasions, but also had to be present for the daily rituals, connected with the deity. She was paid from temple funds; moreover the temple supplied the food grains for her and her family. To render a realistic touch a devadasi was ceremonially wedded to the deity. She was consecrated to her lord and thus out of bounds for mortals. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 9 Performing arts in india
  • 11. Kathakali Kathakali literally means story-play and is an elaborate dance depicting the victory of truth over falsehood. A Striking feature of Kathakali is the use of elaborate make-up and colourful costumes. This is to emphasize that the characters are super beings from another world, and their make-up is easily recognisable to the trained eye as satvik or godlike, rajasik or heroic, and tamasik or demonic. MohiniAttam The theme of Mohini attam dance is love and devotion to god. Vishnu or Krishna is most often the hero. The spectators can feel his invisible presence when the heroine or her maid details dreams and ambitions through circular movements, delicate footsteps and subtle expressions. Through slow and medium tempos, the dancer is able to find adequate space for improvisations and suggestive bhavas or emotions. The basic dance steps are the Adavus which are of four kinds: Taganam, Jaganam, Dhaganam and Sammisram. These names are derived from the nomenclature called vaittari. The Mohini attam dancer maintains realistic make-up and adorns a simple costume, in comparison to costumes of other dances, such as Kathakali. The dancer is attired in a beautiful white with gold border Kasavu saree of Kerala, with the distinctive white Jasmin flowers around a French bun at the side of her head. Dance forms in India: A land of contrast and variety India is about extremes, vastness, intensity and paradox - all are qualities that describe this ancient culture. The sharp peaks of the Himalayas, the sweltering heat of the great Indian plain, the delicious cool of Kashmir, arid deserts and monsoons in the tropical southwest- all these contrasts and many others are commonplace in India. Tiny villages where the slow pace of life remains the same as in centuries past are connected to teeming urban centres by dirt roads that seemingly stretch to the horizon. Culturally too, India is teeming with variety. There are several subcultures thriving within the composite Indian culture. This variety and diversity impart to the Indian culture. This variety and diversity impart to the Indian culture a mystical dimension and rich spirituality. There are many types of dance in India, from those which are deeply religious in content to those which are danced on more trivial happy occasions. Classical dances of India are usually always spiritual in content, although this is often true also of Folk dances. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 10 Performing arts in india
  • 12. Bharata Natyam Bharata Natyam dance has been handed down through the centuries by dance teachers (or gurus) called nattuwanars and the temple dancers, called devadasis. In the sacred environment of the temple these families developed and propagated their heritage. The training traditionally took around seven years under the direction of the nattuwanar who were scholars and persons of great learning. The four great nattuwanars of Tanjore were known as the Tanjore Quartet and were brothers named Chinnaiah, Ponnaiah, Vadivelu and Shivanandam. The Bharata Natyam repertiore as we know it today was constructed by this talented Tanjore Quartet. Kuchipudi The dance drama that stil exists today and can most closely be associated with the Sanskrit theatrical tradition is Kuchipudi which is also known as Bhagavata Mela Natakam. The actors sing and dance, and the style is a blend of folk and classical. Arguably this is why this technique has greater freedom and fluidity than other dance styles. Bhagavata mela natakam was always performed as an offering to the temples of either Merratur, Soolamangalam, Oothkadu, Nallur or Theperumanallur. Kathak This north Indian dance form is inextricably bound with classical Hindustani music, and the rhythmic nimbleness of the feet is accompanied by the table or pakhawaj. Traditionally the stories were of Radha and Krishna, in the Natwari style (as it was then called) but the Mughal invasion of North India had a serious impact on the dance. The dance was taken to Muslim courts and thus it became more entertaining and less religious in content. More emphasis was laid on nritya, the pure dance aspect and less on abhinaya (expression and emotion). C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 11 Performing arts in india
  • 13. Odissi Odissi is based on the popular devotion to Lord Krishna and the verses of the Sanskrit play Geet Govinda are used to depict the love and devotion to God. The Odissi dancers use their head, bust and torso in soft flowing movements to express specific moods and emotions. The form is curvaceous, concentrating on the tribhang or the division of the body into three parts, head, bust and torso; the mudras and the expressions are similar to those of Bharatnatyam. Odissi performances are replete with lores of the eighth incarnation of Vishnu, Lord Krishna. It is a soft, lyrical classical dance which depicts the ambience of Orissa and the philosophy of its most popular deity, Lord Jagannath, whose temple is in Puri. On the temple walls of Bhubaneshwar, Puri and Konark the dance sculptures of Odissi are clearly visible. Manipuri This dance style was originally called jogai which means circular movement. In ancient texts it has been compared to the movement of the planets around the sun. It is said that when Krishna, Radha and the gopis danced the Ras Leela, Shiva made sure that no one disturbed the beauty of the dancing. Parvati, the consort of Lord Shiva also wished to see this dance, so to please her he chose the beautiful area of manipur and re-enacted the Ras Leela. Hundreds of centuries later, in the 11th century, during the reign of Raja Loyamba, prince Khamba of the Khomal dynasty and Princess Thaibi of the Mairang dynasty re- enacted the dance and it became known as Lai-Haraoba, the most ancient dance of Manipur. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 12 Performing arts in india
  • 14. Forms of music in India: The music of India includes multiple varieties of folk, popular, pop, classical music and R&B. India's classical music tradition, including Carnatic and Hindustani music, has a history spanning millennia and developed over several eras. It remains fundamental to the lives of Indians today as sources of spiritual inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment. India is made up of several dozen ethnic groups, speaking their own languages and dialects having distinct cultural traditions. The two main traditions of classical music are Carnatic music, found predominantly in the peninsular regions, and Hindustani music, found in the northern and central regions. Hindustani music (Main article: Hindustani classical music) Hindustani music is an Indian classical music tradition that goes back to Vedic times around 1000 BC. It further developed circa the 13th and 14th centuries AD with Persian influences and from existing religious and folk music. The practice of singing based on notes was popular even from the Vedic times where the hymns in Sama Veda, a sacred text, were sung as Samagana and not chanted. Developing a strong and diverse tradition over several centuries, it has contemporary traditions established primarily in India but also in Pakistan and Bangladesh. In contrast to Carnatic music, the other main Indian classical music tradition originating from the South, Hindustani music was not only influenced by ancient Hindu musical traditions, historical Vedic philosophy and native Indian sounds but also enriched by the Persian performance practices of the Mughals. During the Medieval age especially in the Mughal era various Gharana became famous due to excellence and class in type of musics like raga, almost all from the lineage of Tansen one of the navratna of Mughal Emperor Akbar. Classical genres are dhrupad, dhamar, khyal, taranay sadra.. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 13 Performing arts in india
  • 15. Carnatic music (Main article: Carnatic music) The present form of Carnatic music is based on historical developments that can be traced to the 15th - 16th centuries AD and thereafter. However, the form itself is reputed to have been one of the gifts bestowed on man by the gods of Hindu mythology. It is one of the oldest musical forms that continue to survive today. Carnatic music is melodic, with improvised variations. It consists of a composition with improvised embellishments added to the piece in the forms of Raga Alapana, Kalpanaswaram, Neraval and in the case of more advanced students, Ragam Tanam Pallavi. The main emphasis is on the vocals as most compositions are written to be sung, and even when played on instruments, they are meant to be performed in a singing style (known as gāyaki). There are about 7.2 million ragas (or scales) in Carnatic Music, with around 300 still in use today. Purandara Dasa is considered the father of carnatic music. Sri Tyagaraja, Sri Shyama Shastryand Sri Muthuswami Dikshitarare considered the trinity of carnatic music and with them came the golden age in carnatic music in the 18th-19th century Noted artists of Carnatic Music include MS Subbulakshmi, Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar (the father of the current concert format), Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer,TN Seshagopalanand more recently Sanjay Subrahmanyan TM Krishna Bombay Jayashri etc. Every December, the city of Chennai in India has its six week-long Music Season, which has been described as the world's largest cultural event. It has served as the foundation for most music in South India, including folk music, festival music and has also extended its influence to film music in the past 100–150 years or so. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 14 Performing arts in india
  • 16. Theater in India: The earliest form of the theatre of India was the Sanskrit theatre. It began after the development of Greek and Roman theatre and before the development of theatre in other parts of Asia. It emerged sometime between the 2nd century BCE and the 1st century CE and flourished between the 1st century CE and the 10th, which was a period of relative peace in the history of India during which hundreds of plays were written. With the Islamic conquests that began in the 10th and 11th centuries, theatre was discouraged or forbidden entirely. Later, in an attempt to re-a India as one of the means of entertainment. As a diverse, multi-cultural nation, the theatre of India cannot be reduced to a single, homogenous trend. Traditional Indian theatre Kutiyattam is the only surviving specimen of the ancient Sanskrit theatre, thought to have originated around the beginning of the Common Era, and is officially recognised by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. In addition, many forms of Indian folk theatre abound. Bhavai (strolling players) is a popular folk theatre form of Gujarat, said to have arisen in the 14th century CE. Jatra has been popular in Bengal and its origin is traced to the Bhakti movement in the 16th century. Another folk theatre form popular in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Malwa region ofMadhya Pradesh is Swang, which is dialogue-oriented rather than movement-oriented and is considered to have arisen in its present form in the late 18th - early 19th centuries. Yakshagana is a very popular theatre art in Karnataka and has existed under different names at least since the 16th century. It is semi-classical in nature and involves music and songs based on carnatic music, rich costumes, storylines based on the Mahabharata and Ramayana It also employs spoken dialogue in-between its songs that gives it a folk art flavour. Kathakali is a form of dance-drama, characteristic of Kerala, that arose in the 17th century, developing from the temple- art plays Krishnanattam and Rananattam. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 15 Performing arts in india
  • 17. :
  • 18. Metropolitan centres are traditionally the main focus of cultural activity within a country, with a concentration of companies and facilities for the performing arts, their organization, creative activity and education of performers, management and production staff. Such centres benefit from the major concentration of population and national focus of transportation networks. There are several categories as follows: Opera house National subsidized professional resident company in repertory or repertoire and visiting comparable companies of international standard providing large-scale opera productions. Such a facility may be exclusively for opera or combined with ballet. Ballet/dance theatre National subsidized professional resident company as described under opera house, but exclusively for ballet and dance. Concert hall Classical orchestral and choral music, jazz and pop/ rock music, with the leading subsidized professional orchestras and groups. Either housing a resident orchestra for their exclusive or seasonal use, or a touring facility hired by promotional organizations including the orchestras and groups. Recital room Medium- and small-scale classical orchestral and choral music, jazz and pop/rock music also with readings such as poetry. Either housing a resident orchestra for a season or, more often, hosting touring companies and groups. Experimental music workshop Facility for the development of new forms of music with a prevailing concentration on electronics and amplification. Metropolitan centre: C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP Literature study 16
  • 19. Commercial theatre Drama and musical productions usually initiated by the management or promoting organization with long runs over several months. Such theatres usually present new plays and musicals and originate the new productions. They may also be initiated by the subsidized sector and transferred to the commercial theatre. Arena Facilities for the presentation of very large-scale pop/ rock concerts and other spectacles covering opera, music and musicals, hired by commercial organizations who initiate and promote groups and companies as one-off events or part of a tour. Drama theatre National subsidized professional resident drama company in repertory, or repertoire and visiting companies of national and international standard, producing new and established works. Small- and medium-scale drama theatre Small theatres presenting new plays and experimental productions, with or without subsidy to supplement revenue, relying on low overheads and benefiting from a large catchment area from which audiences are attracted. Other categories ● Universities and Colleges including Schools of Music and Drama, providing theatres and concert halls for their own and public use ● Open-air auditoria for seasonal concerts and drama productions ● Informal external spaces for street theatre, music and entertainments ● Theatres with restrictions on company (e.g. Youth Theatre) and audience (e.g. club theatres with restricted membership) ● One-off events including stadium concerts and festivals. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 17 Literature study
  • 20. Entrance foyer The entrance foyer may be required to accommodate the following: ● ticket check if at entrance, and not at points of entry into the auditorium ● information in the form of leaflets and other handouts describing productions and events, notice boards providing information on events and, possibly, a reception/information desk ● circulation and waiting area ● seating (desirable for ambulant disabled) ● directional signage directing the public to the various facilities (consider carefully colour, size and type face for clarity and for the visually impaired and elderly) ● supervision: some consideration needs to be given to oversee the entrance area by the staff in order to offer assistance and exercise control ● exhibition and display: space for temporary exhibitions or wall display; display cases for merchandise and crafts ● access to box office, crèche, cloakrooms, toilets and sales, as well as meeting rooms and other public facilities The public needs to be able to easily identify visually the main circulation routes to the auditorium and other public facilities from the entrance foyer. Offices and associated areas The following staff may require individual offices; with each office being 12–15M2: ● Platform/stage manager ● Assistant platform/stage manager ● Secretary ● Chief technician ● Master carpenter ● Property master ● Wardrobe mistress/master In addition electricians, and platform/stage hands and including flymen (if appropriate) require changing rooms: allow 3M2 per person. Stage hands for opera, musicals, dance and drama productions, if seen within a performance will require make-up provision and to change into costumes. Showers should be available to stage hands and flymen, off their changing rooms. A separate toilet can be located at platform/stage level, suitable for wheelchair users. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 18 Literature study
  • 21. Foyer The foyer provides the means of access to all parts of the auditorium and should have facilities for the public to sit, talk, walk about and meet friends. These social aims can include also a legitimate level of self-display from formal promenading to a general awareness of those attending a performance. The floor area is related to the capacity of the auditorium: allow a minimum of 0.6M2 per person for all the foyer areas, excluding toilets, cloakroom and vertical circulation. Public entrance The front entrance provides the main access into, and egress from, the building for the public. The entrance should be located along the main access route and be clearly visible: the public should be aware of the entrance by its location and signage. The entrance gives information about the attitude of the management towards the public and can be welcoming or intimidating, exclusive or embracing, clear or obscure. Requirements for public entrance areas include: ● Access and parking: Provision for passengers to alight at the main entrance by taxi, car or coach, with a discrete lay by or service road, especially if it is a large building complex, and close proximity to parking. ● External display: Name of the building and/or company as an illuminated external sign; posters and advertising material; current and future attractions on adjustable signs or electronic signs; banners and flags. The building itself, suitably artificially lit when dark, is also an external display. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 19 Literature study
  • 22. Canopy: Provision of shelter at the main entrance from inclement weather with a protective cover over, and across, the line of doors.A canopy is a useful device for gathering together pedestrian routes and dropping-off points if dispersed (Figure 13.2). ● Entrance doors and lobbies: Two lines of doors reduce noise and draught penetration into the foyer; automatic doors are essential for wheelchair users. The distance between the lines of doors should be a minimum of 2 M: several pairs of doors Parking: Landscaping: Integration of all the spaces can be achieved by landscape, built form- such as connecting corridors, pergolas, pavement design etc. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 20 Literature study
  • 23. Signage's : Art gallery : The gallery may be designed as a formal interior essentially for pictures, or less formal and specific, allowing exhibitions to be created for the space. Live Art should be considered, as should the use of gallery space for recitals, drama performances and so on, in which case the acoustic characteristics of the space would require particular attention. The whole of the gallery can be the foyer space to the auditorium, with refreshment areas, toilets, etc. off the gallery, thus making the gallery the focus of the public spheres. A display can be provided within the foyer associated with a performance or conference, exhibitions of local interest, sponsors’ material and art-related displays, on walls or screens. Security can be covered by the general provision in the building. Standard signage's used for the building services, the signage's should reflect the cultural theme of the design it should be placed in such a manner that people need not ask which direction to go. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 21 Literature study
  • 24. Library : •Area required for a simple reading/work place is 2.5 m2 For a PC or individual work place > 4.0 m2 is needed • fire precaution •Installation of book security system will prevent theft of book, by giving electronic lock up. •The more efficient method is to have linked areas which as large as possible without change in level. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 22 Literature study
  • 25. Toilets: Legislation provides a guide to the minimum provision: this is usually inadequate especially for women. A general guide to the minimum requirements is as follows: Men WCs minimum of 2 for up to 500 males, then one for each additional 500. Urinals minimum of 2 for up to 100 males, then one for each additional 100. Wash basins one for each WC plus one for each five urinals. Women WCs minimum of 2 for up to 75 females, then one for each additional 50. Wash basin one for each WC. Also consider powder shelves, long mirrors and sanitary towel dispensers and disposal in women’s toilets and provision for changing nappies Allow for handdrying facilities: either electric warm air dryers, roller towels or paper towels with containers for disposal. Separate toilet or toilets for disabled persons, containing 1 WC and 1 wash basin in each toilet, are essential provision. Toilets should be located off the main circulation near the entrance lobby and also at each level of the foyer in a multi-level auditorium. Auditorium and platform/stage formats The relationship between the auditorium [the audience] and the platform/stage [the performance] is a fundamental requirement. The selected format affects the experience for both audience and performers, seating capacity and auditorium size and shape, from which follows the general arrangement of the building. The relationship may be summarized as either the proscenium format or open stage format: the proscenium format is as if the performance is seen through a window’ or hole in the wall and there is a clear division between audience and performers; the open stage formats follow the concept of the auditorium and platform/ stage being within a single volume with the seating confronting, partially surrounding or wholly surrounding the platform/stage. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 23 Literature study
  • 26. Predominant types of production: The following relationships accommodate a predominant type of production in purpose-built facilities. Compatible secondary uses may be included in the brief but they do not require any physical adaptation of the auditorium and platform/stage, or only require a modest level of flexibility. For orchestral and choral classical music in a concert hall or recital room, there are three broad categories: the audience focused towards the orchestra and choir on the platform, with or without choir stalls, in a single direction; the audience on three sides, semi-surrounding the platform; the audience surrounding the platform . Types of single direction relationship include the: ● rectangular box; ● variations on the rectangular box; ● fan-shaped auditorium. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 24 Literature study
  • 27. Open stage forms: The open stage forms may be classified into five broad categories: ● End stage: the audience focused towards the stage within a rectangular box: the stage at the narrow end, with stage and audience in the same space. ● Fan-shaped: the stage is encircled by the audience by 90°. This level of encirclement allows the performer to command the audience and for the performer to be seen against a scenic background by the audience. ● Thrust stage: with the audience on three sides, semi-surrounding the stage. ● Theatre-in-the-round: the audience surrounds the performance. Entrances by the performers are through the audience. Acoustically the performer needs to project to the whole audience in every direction, which implies a limit to the maximum distance from stage to rear row. ● Traverse stage: the audience either side of the stage. Multi-purpose formats: As opposed to an auditorium and platform/stage for a predominant type of production in a purpose-built facility, the brief may refer to more than one type of production to be accommodated within a single format. Also productions may require combination with non-performing arts activities. Each of the alternative uses will require specific provisions to be made in its design and equipment; in platform/stage space; in orchestra space and modification of acoustics; in scenery storage and workshops; in stage lighting and sound. While some degree of flexibility can be accommodated at reasonable cost and with success, there is a limit to the multiplicity of use. Apart from design difficulties, the cost of providing for the different requirements and of operating a multi-purpose form may become disproportionately high. The success of a multi-purpose format depends upon the compatibility of the various activities and the designer must be rigorous in the assessment of the activities. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 25 Literature study
  • 28. The viewer: •The horizontal angle of polychromatic vision is generally 40 degree without eye movements. •The horizontal angle to the projector screen at witch distortion on the screen becomes substantially intolerant is 60 degree measured to the far side of the projected image . LOCATION OF AUDIENCE •Audience will not choose a location beyond a line proximity 100 degree to the curtain at the side of the proscenium . DESIRABILITY OF LOCATIONS BY AUDIENCE •Judged by the ability to recognize shapes, and confirmed by free audience, choice of seats, the following are the desirable locations: A – front center B- middle center C-middle side D-front side E-rear center F-rear side C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 26 Literature study
  • 29. BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (actor/performer) Check in , get mails and messages. 1) vestibule – min 50sqft equipments- bulletin board. telephone booth 2) door mans booth – min 30 softy equipments- counter, mail box, small deck ,key rack Dress for performance 1) dressing room-50sqft/person -put makeup and costume location – near stage equipments- clothes, costume hanger, shoe racks, make up table 30’’ wide, 18’’ deep,18’’wide mirror, one lavatory each 1/ 4ppl in large dressing room. 2) makeup room – 300sqft(min) equipments- makeup table/ benches, chair on 2 sides, lights on face. Wait for call to stage 1) green room-50 sqft/person (min) -stage manager checks cast location- near stage equipments- lounge, furniture, tables, full length mirror, call system outlet. 2) stage anterroom – alternate to green room – 150 sqft equipments- chair and benches location- near proscenium without lounge aspects. Go to stage 1) passage of min. wifth 1.5m no stair only ramp for level change. -enter and perform leave the set ACTION SPACE C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 27 Literature study
  • 30. Quick change 1) dressing room – min 50sqft/ actor space for dresser to help actor location- immediate to the stage. Waltz for curtain calls 1) green room , stage anteroom Removal costume 1) shower- adjoining each dressing room 1/6 actor Confer with stage manager/ director 1) green room with adjoining kitchenette. Check out and leave theater 1) vestibule and stage entrance ACTION SPACE C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 28 Literature study
  • 31. REPAIR SHOP CRATE STORAGE STORE ROOM LOADING PLATFORM LOADING DOOR RECEIVING AND SHIPPING SPACE STORAGE SPACE SCENERY SPACE PAINT SHOP CARPENTER SHOP STOCK ROOM DELIVERY DOCK A B C D E FLOW CHART FOR SCENERY Sequence e ABCDE for commercial theater EFGHDE for self contained theater C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 29 Literature study
  • 32. BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (musician ) Check in , get mails and messages. 1) vestibule – min 50sqft equipments- bulletin board. telephone booth 2) door mans booth – min 30 softy equipments- counter, mail box, small deck ,key rack Prepare for performance 1) musician room – 300sqft min -tune instruments and practice location – at basement level near pit , large instrument are usually kept in the pit equipments- locker or cloth racks ,chair , music cabinet, call system outlet. Go to pit 1) passage – direct large door allow carrying instruments. 2) orchestra pit -10sqft for musician -100sqft for grand piano -50 sqft tympana width from stage figured on per person basis / depth should be kept so that musicians are below audience sight line . Probable steps or platform to be set over orchestra pit 1) conductor must see stage. 2)singer and orchestra must see conductor. 3) elevated orchestra pit floor- featured orchestra as a part of performance , adds floor for seating if brought to auditorium level makes forestage when required. Leave pit and leave theater lavatories and toilets same as for actors, dressing room with lavatory and shower for the conductor. ACTION SPACE C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 30 Literature study
  • 33. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 31 Literature study
  • 34. BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (stage hand ) ACTION SPACE Entrance theater check in Stage entrance and vestibule Change clothes and go to stage Locker room according to number of men Equipment – individual lockers, chair benches and phone Location – in basement near stage, serves as stage hands lounge, direct to either side of stage Work the show Locker room equipment-lounge furniture , adjoining toilets Clean up and leave Locker room ,shower 1per 4 people Treatment of accidents First aid room – 50 sqft min. Equipments – surgical table, stools., sink and hot water facilities. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 32 Literature study
  • 35. BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (stage manager ) ACTION SPACE Checking in , getting mails and messages Use stage hands locker room Manage the show Stage managers desk- on stage near proscenium on working side. Equipments- calls, phone, monitor, moving stage control etc. Work the show Locker room equipment-lounge furniture , adjoining toilets Care of scripts, use sheets etc. Office min 50sqft BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (scenery ) ACTION SPACE Brought to theater Loading door-8’X 12’ / 2.5m x 3.6m located at side ear , rear of the stage Loading platform- width of 2 vans Stored pending set up Receiving space- 200sqft min, Equipments – pipe frame at right angles to wall optional for stacking Scenery / clear wall and floor space. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 33 Literature study
  • 36. BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (scenery ) ACTION SPACE Set up Stage equipment for flying , rolling and sinking scenery Repairing Repair shop- 300sqft(min) Equipments –work bench, tools for working. Dismantling and transportation Receiving space, loading door BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (properties) ACTION SPACE Brought to theater and unpacked Loading door – 6’x8’ / 1.83m x 2.5m Separate from scenery door, adjacent to loading platform - 100sqft Fitted to set of scenery , stored on stage (floor / rack / shelves) Operated during show, repaired, struck and transported. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 34 Literature study
  • 37. BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (lighting equipments ) ACTION SPACE Brought to theater Loading door Unpacked Receiving space – 100 sqft Additional space for properties, create storage when empty Location – alley /loading platform Installed Lighting equipment may be placed in any position on stage , above stage , in slots in auditorium ceiling or in front of balcony and boxes. Operated, dismantled, taken out. BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (sound apparatus) With less bulky by 75%, essentially the same lighting equipments. BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (costume) Brought to theater – loading door- property door Passage of – 5ft /1.5m clear width, no stairs, use ramp when needed Wardrobe room – 120 sqft(min) Equipment – costume hanger 12ft liner, ironing board C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 35 Literature study
  • 38. Auditorium design: The three-dimensional volume of an auditorium is conditioned by the limitations set by all members of the audience able to hear and see a performance, and for the performers to be able to command the audience. Seating density, floor rake and seating layout are covered by legislation to ensure a satisfactory means of escape in case of fire, and by an appropriate level of comfort for the audience. Performance organization requires lighting, sound and broadcasting positions within the auditorium and a view of the whole performance area from control rooms. Aural limitation Visual limitation Aural limitations There are limits to the distance across which speech, singing and music can be clearly heard in an auditorium, without the assistance of amplification, and this has a bearing on the maximum distance from performance to the rear row of seats. Beyond these limits the lack of audibility gives the audience less than the basic requirement to clearly hear a performance. The distance varies according to type of production. Other factors include the articulation of the spoken work by an actor or the sound quality, including loudness, from a musical instrument. Visual limitations: There are visual limitations that determine the maximum distance from the performance area beyond which the audience is unable to appreciate the performance adequately and for the performers to command an audience. The distance to the furthest seat varies according to the type and scale of production: ● In order to discern facial expression – essential with drama – the maximum distance from the point of command on the stage should not exceed 20 M. The point of command is the geometric centre of an open stage or the setting line of a proscenium stage. ● For opera and musicals, discerning facial expressions is less critical and the distance to the rear row can be 30 M. ● For dance, the audience needs to appreciate the body and feet of the dancers, and also to discern facial expressions: the maximum distance from the point of command on the stage should not exceed 20M. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 36 Literature study
  • 39. Auditorium acoustics: The acoustic performance of the auditorium is a critical design requirement and needs to be considered as part of the initial brief. Acoustic performance refers to the quality of the sound – music or speech – heard by each member of the audience, and also the performers on the platform/stage. Design considerations for the acoustics of an auditorium, when the sound is not amplified, include: ● Type of production: each type has its own requirements with different characteristics for music and speech. ● Shape and size of the auditorium: the extent to which the audience surrounds the platform/stage; seating capacity; number and depth of balconies; rake of the seating; for concerts, the proportion of length to width and height to width; for opera, dance and musicals, the location of the orchestra pit; location of performance lighting and sound equipment and lighting bridges. ● Setting for the performance: such as permanent architectural setting, within audience, proscenium stage and so on. ● Volume of the auditorium: calculated as the number in the audience multiplied by a ratio of volume to person, according to the type of production: 3.4M3 per person for music and 9M3 per person for speech within the auditorium enclosure: for opera the ratio is between 7M3 and 8M3 per person. ● Reverberation time: the difference in time between direct sound to each member of an audience and the reflected sound from all surfaces of the auditorium, which requires to be short for speech and long for music C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 37 Literature study
  • 40. Seating layout: The seating layout in an auditorium depends mainly on the selection of format – the relationship between audience and performance – and the visual and aural limitations associated with a particular type of production as well as the number of levels and sightlines. Other aspects which influence the layout, and thereby condition seating capacity, include factors in the following sections. Design of the individual auditorium seat The design aim is to provide an appropriate standard of comfort during a performance. The range of human body dimensions is wide, while a single, or restricted, size of seat is normally provided. Also tolerance levels vary between generations and indeed between different performing arts: the young can tolerate simple seating found less comfortable by older age groups, whereas those attending concerts of classical music appear to expect a level of comfort higher than those at a drama performance. The dimensions of a seat are generally based on a median characteristic of the anticipated users, which varies by age and also by nationality. Minor variation is achieved by the upholstery and adjustment of the back and seat pan material when the seat is occupied: otherwise the seat selection is a common size within the whole, or part of, the auditorium layout. Probably the best that can be achieved is in the order of 90 per cent of the audience within an acceptable range of comfort. Other factors include: ● Acoustics: upholstery must satisfy the acoustic requirements, usually the level of absorbency when unoccupied; this is especially the case with music. ● Ventilation/heating: for air supply or extract under a seat, space should be allowed in the floor or riser to receive a grille. ● Upholstery: thickness of padding should provide comfort and avoid fatigue, but should not encourage excessive relaxation; the material of the padding and finish must satisfy fire regulations. For choice of type of seat . C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 38 Literature study
  • 41. Seating density Density of seating can vary (Figure 12.20): seats with arms and a tippable seat can occupy an area as small as 500 mm wide, and less with seats without arms, with a row to row dimension of 760 mm, but can be as large as 750 mm wide by 1400 mm. This is a variation from 0.38M2 to 1.05M2, with these examples, and the increased dimensions means fewer seats within a given area and reduces the seating capacity. The minimum dimensions laid down by legislation offer a low standard of comfort for the audience. Comfort needs to be considered, especially knee room, and these dimensions should not be taken as the norm. Social cohesion of the audience may be lost if the space standards are too high, with the performer being less aware of the grouping and more the individuals. Travel distance The evacuation from each level of the auditorium within a limited period of time is required in case of a fire. For traditional seating the travel distance is 18 M measured from the gangway: for continental seating, 15 M from any seat. The aim is to evacuate the audience of each level within 2.5 minutes. Exit numbers At least two separate independent exits must be provided from each level within the auditorium. The exits should be located with sufficient remoteness from each other to allow alternative directions of escape. The number of exits per level are two for each level within an auditorium with the seating capacity up to 500: an additional exit is required for every further 250 seats as defined by legislation. Egress in case of emergencies should follow the natural flow of movement from the seats away from the platform/stage. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 39 Literature study
  • 42. Exit widths The exit widths are laid down by regulations. The base calculation is 45 persons per minute per unit width of 520–530 mm. The minimum total exit widths required are outlined Exit route The exits from the auditorium must lead directly to a place of safety. The exit route must be the same width as the exit and be a consistent width avoiding bottlenecks. The exit doors from the auditorium, any doors within the route and the final exit doors must open in the direction of egress. Staircases within the route are subject to the following conditions: the maximum number of steps, 16: the minimum number, 2; tread/riser to be 275 – 180, as a recommended ratio, and consistent. Ramps should be at a pitch of 1.15, in lengths of 10 m maximum with intermediate platforms. Exit routes for wheelchair users are required to be on the flat or ramped if there is a change of level, and may be required to be separate from the other routes. Routes are to be enclosed by fire-resistant material within the building. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 40 Literature study
  • 43. Circulation within auditorium: Audience entry points into the auditorium from the foyer can be at the rear or sides of the seating, or within the banks of seating, and should be related to the gangway positions While gangways are primarily calculated as part of the escape route in case of fire, they also act as circulation routes through the auditorium, with possible additional gangways, from the audience entry points to the particular row and seat. Access through banks of raked seating – vomitories – remove seats, and thereby reduce the potential seating capacity .A threshold space at the entry points for ticket checks, programme sales and for members of the audience to orientate themselves should be considered. Gangways for use by wheelchair users require to be flat or ramped: the pitch should not exceed 1.15 for a ramp with a maximum distance of 10 M. Beyond 10 M, the regulations require a flat platform, which in a large auditorium may be inconvenient as it may break the line of the seating banks. Permission will be necessary to have a continuous ramp. For a wheelchair user moving from a ramped gangway to a flat platform will require an intermediate ramp. Gangway widths are established through the regulations covering fire escape from auditoria. The minimum width though is taken as 1100 mm unless used by wheelchair users where the width increases to 1200mm. Handrails will be required to a stepped gangway adjacent to an enclosing wall; to a stepped gangway if a drop at the side; at landings, rear of rostra and where there is a drop of more than 600 mm; where the rake is above 25° to a gangway the ends of the rows served by the gangway may require a loop rail Rails are usually 900 mm above the pitch line and 1200 mm above landings, with panels either solid or sub- divisions which may require a 100mm maximum gap. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 41 Literature study
  • 44. Performers’ access through the auditorium Performers may have access to the stage through the auditorium during a performance by way of: ● access along the gangways, with stepped access onto the stage if raised; ● access through vomitories exclusively for performers. Details of a performers’ vomitory are shown in The performers’ vomitory can be filled to accommodate auditorium seating if not in use. Wheelchair location within the seating Regulations require a minimum number of places for wheelchairs at each level, or 1/100th of the audience capacity whichever is the greater. Wheelchair locations, as discrete areas, can occur at the rear, front, side or within the seating. Wheelchairs can be centrally positioned by forming a bay off a cross gangway. The actual location will be conditioned by the particular seating layout, the convenient points of entry from the public areas and the escape arrangements in the case of fire. Separate entrances into the auditorium as well as escape routes should be considered. Choice of location within an auditorium is desirable, covering each level and within different sections of the seating. In the larger auditorium, placing the wheelchair users in a single designated area should be avoided. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 42 Literature study
  • 45. Broadcasting requirements Television cameras External broadcasting – television and radio – and recording in auditoria may be a requirement especially in those buildings for the performing arts housing or hosting national and regional professional companies. Television cameras require to be located in the seating areas either in specific locations, on platforms, or by displacing seats. Sound control room In large auditoria with amplified sound and/or sound effects the sound control room may be located within the seating area to benefit from being in the acoustic volume of the auditorium. Adaptation In multi-purpose auditoria where different formats or uses are combined then all or part of the raked seating will require to be movable. This can be achieved by forming a structure off a flat floor, and include ● Bleacher seating: Telescopic structure with tippable upholstered seating with backs, able retracted into the depth of a single and highest row. The rows are straight and the extended structure is a simple rectangular block, which places a discipline on the seating layout. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 43 Literature study
  • 46. ● Rostra: Complete raked units with either permanent or removable seats, on wheels or air pallets for ease of movement into storage areas when not in use. ● Sectional rostra: A set of boxes able to be built up to form raked units with removable seats. The storage requirements are less than complete rostra. ● Kit of parts: Scaffolding or equivalent set of components able to form raked levels to receive seating. This is the most flexible system, it has efficient storage requirements, but is labour intensive. ● Hydraulic lifts: Mechanical method of raising sections of the flat floor to form a rake floor to receive seating. Loose seats, secured in position when required for Performances. Sightlines: seated audience For the whole of the audience to have an uninterrupted view of the performance and its setting over the heads in front and clear of overhangs, the section and plan of the auditorium needs to conform to certain limitations set by vertical and horizontal sightlines. Vertical sightlines Vertical sightlines may be calculated by establishing: Lowest and nearest point of sight on the platform/ stage for the audience to see clearly. The platform/stage height, when raised, can range from 600 to 1100 mm above the lowest level of the auditorium and point can be the leading edge, or setting line for the performance, at or above the platform/stage level. If a forestage is part of the proscenium or end stage formats then point needs to relate to the forestage. If an orchestra pit is included between stage and seating then point may be regarded as the conductor’s head. With a symphony orchestra in a concert hall, the ability to see each musician at the front of the stage (who partially masks the other musicians) may not be critical and point P may be taken as over 600 mm above the platform level at the front edge. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 44 Literature study
  • 47. Horizontal sightlines: Horizontal sightlines are to be considered only with a proscenium stage and possibly end stage and platforms for classical and choral music. Given a particular performance area, sightlines will limit the width of seating that can be provided in the auditorium. Conversely the sightlines from the side seats restrict the amount of the performance area that can be used. The narrowest dimension of the proscenium opening, if adjustable, should be taken as the basis of the calculations. Each member of the audience should have a direct view of the performance focused towards the centre of the performance area. Curved or angled rows direct the focus of the audience towards the centre. The curved rows radiating from the circular stage of a Greco-Roman theatre is a clear and simple example of this form with the geometry emanating from a single point. With a proscenium stage the geometry of the performance area varies from the setting out point of the seating; the audience should be contained within a 130° angle peripheral spread of vision from the performer at the point of command on the performance area for opera, dance, musicals and Drama. Without head movement the arc to view the whole of the performance area on plan is 40° from the eye. An acceptable degree of head movement is debatable, where the seat is focused away from the stage, as with side galleries, requiring the head to be turned by the member of the audience . C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 45 Literature study
  • 48. Ventilation The experience of enjoying a performance is influenced by the quality of the ventilation in the auditorium, and the avoidance of draughts, stuffiness and noise of mechanical ventilation. Health needs include respiration while comfort needs include maintaining body heat, control of airborne contamination and removal of odours. There is also the cost of the ventilation and associated questions about heating which can contribute significantly to the running costs. The approach to the ventilation of an auditorium reflects its size and shape (number of balconies in particular), level of flexibility (different audience/performance relationships), the type of construction of the auditorium enclosure and external climate conditions. The initial design decisions lie with defining the noise criterion and number of air changes per hour to be achieved in the auditorium. The acceptable level of noise can vary according to performing art: for drama the level can be NR25 while for orchestral music the level may be required to be much lower at NR20. For recording, the level would be even lower with a recommended NR15. This criteria refers to the background noise level and not the quality of the sound as experienced by members of an audience. Ventilation supply rates of air relate to the need to provide fresh air at a rate of change to achieve suitable comfort conditions: rates are subject to legislation expressed as a minimum of fresh air supply per person, including a proportion of recycled conditioned air. Air change rates appear to vary according to the authoritative body. The basic principle of mechanical ventilation lies with bringing air into an auditorium, with air which is fresh, clean and at a similar temperature, achieving a number of air changes per hour when the auditorium is occupied. This is complemented by the extract of air to achieve the air changes. There are different locations for the introduction of air into an auditorium and for the extraction of air. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 46 Literature study
  • 49. Lighting: Lighting within the auditorium covers the following: ● Performance lighting Lighting positions within the auditorium at ceiling level, on side and rear walls, balcony fronts and at low level within the seating; the lighting direction is towards the platform/stage with clear projection; each position requires ease of access for technicians to change and adjust, with lighting bridges at ceiling level and ladder access to wall locations; follow spotlights require a location at the rear of the auditorium or from a lighting bridge at ceiling lighting is an integral part of the staging of all types of production, except orchestral and choral music, and is subject to changes within a performance controlled by operatives at the rear of the auditorium . The tradition for orchestral and choral music is for the platform to be illuminated during the performance with a general and fixed level of lighting: however this may be changing with, say, follow spotlights as an increasingly common feature. Auditorium lighting: For illumination of circulation routes and seating areas for the audience to move around the auditorium, read programmes, and so on; decorative lighting emphasizing architectural features within the auditorium. Auditorium lighting is usually dimmed and out during the actual performance for all types of production except for classical and choral music, where the tradition is to dim the lights only. ● Emergency lighting: An illumination of the circulation routes within the auditorium during a performance, with the luminaires located at ceiling level or/and at a low level incorporated into the design of the gangways; exit signs and emergency directions at points of egress in the auditorium; lighting of the auditorium at times of emergency. Working lights: general illumination of the auditorium for cleaning and maintenance as a separate system during times when the auditorium is not used for performance and rehearsals. ● Director’s desk lighting: supply of power within the auditorium to serve temporary location of director’s desk during rehearsals. This is not usually applicable for classical music. ● Cue lights: at entry points into the auditorium. ● Blue lights: areas within the auditorium which will be accessed during the performance by technicians and performers require lighting but at a low level with a blue light to avoid distraction to the audience. This covers lighting bridges and entry points into the auditorium. Ease of access is required to service all luminaires. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 47 Literature study
  • 50. Sound equipment: The sound equipment described in the following sections may be required to be incorporated into the auditorium design. Control rooms for performance sound, broadcasting and recording are discussed under Performance Organization Sound reinforcement: Location of loudspeakers for the amplification of music, voices or special effects, especially for those performances relying on amplification such as musicals and pop/rock concerts. The aim is to locate the main loudspeaker to distribute sound across the whole of the audience and can be: ● over the platform/stage along the setting line or above the proscenium opening ● at the sides of the platform/stage as the traditional position for pop/rock/jazz concerts (often touring groups providing their own equipment) ● various positions within the auditorium to supplement main loudspeakers and for sound effects on side and rear walls, ceiling to auditorium and balconies and, possibly, under the floor. Location requires an uninterrupted line from speakers to members of the audience. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 48 Literature study
  • 51. Public address Loudspeakers may be required within the auditorium for announcements to the audience as a separate system. Rehearsals Loudspeakers may be required, usually located at the rear of the auditorium, for use during rehearsals on the stage, so that the director located in the auditorium can communicate with the performers on the stage. This requirement tends not to be applicable for orchestral and choral music rehearsals, or for small auditoria. Broadcasting and recording Consideration should be made of provision within the auditorium for television and radio transmission and for video, film and tape recording of a performance. Spatial requirements, beyond camera and operator locations, are nominal and mainly include access for cables and equipment. Aids for the hard of hearing To assist the hard of hearing, consider the applications of one of the following: ● induction loop: magnetic field transmission looped around auditorium ● infra-red system: modulated light signals, radiated from a number of sources ● hard-wired: cable within floor trunking connected to panel in seat. Fire protection The enclosing walls and floors of the auditorium should be fire-resistant as should the doors and other openings in the walls. Other aspects to be considered,include: ● non-combustibility of materials including finishes and seating ● detector system: smoke detectors in auditorium and associated voids ● extinguishers: hose-reels, portable extinguishers; automatic sprinkler systems will not be allowed over seating areas ● alarms: connected to automatic detector system and central indicator panel and, possibly, direct link to local fire station; alarms should be visual (flashing light) in auditorium and not audible. Fire precautions should be discussed with the local fire authority and fire insurers C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 49 Literature study
  • 52. Structure: A large span structure will be required, capable of carrying shaped ceiling, lighting bridges and ventilation ducts. Floors will be sloped, raked, dished or, if a multi-purpose auditorium, flat. Balconies introduce additional long spans able to carry heavy loads. For sound insulation purposes the auditorium walls will have to be substantial, which suggests load-bearing construction. Ceiling zone: The ceiling and ceiling zone are mainly determined by functional needs and include the following requirements: ● Acoustic requirements: Profiled reflector panels and possible adjustable diffusers to ensure distribution of sound over the whole seating area. For non-amplified music the reflectors will need to be suspended over the platform as well. ● Lighting requirements: Access and supporting framework for performance lighting, ‘house’ lighting and also working lights and emergency lights. ● Ventilation requirements: Air ducts and plenums, diffusers, noise attenuation and monitoring equipment, supporting hangers and means of access for servicing. ● Production requirements: For opera, dance, musicals and drama, a grid and pulley suspension system for flying or suspending scenery over forestage, including access by technicians. ● Fire control requirements: Alarm system in voids; fire dampers in ducts. Seating capacity: The maximum capacity within an auditorium depends on the selection of format and the aural and visual limitations set by the type of production. Other influences on the calculation include, levels, sightlines, acoustics, circulation and seating density, as well as the size and shape of the platform/stage (to be described in the following section). To maximize the seating capacity within these limitations, sightlines may be compromised so that, say, 10 per cent of the audience experiences 90 per cent of the performance area. This is a debatable issue mainly associated with the proscenium format, where, to achieve an intimate character in the auditorium, a desire to provide perfect sightlines for everyone may have to be overridden. The actual seating capacity depends on the ability to attract audiences which may be less than the possible maximum. Also the potential peak demand could exceed the selected capacity on a particular evening: the aim though should be to spread attendance across less popular days, or extend performances over a longer period of time rather than increase the capacity over a short duration. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 50 Literature study
  • 53. Safety curtain: In case of fire on the stage, traditionally it is necessary to separate the stage areas from the auditorium, with the proscenium opening being closed by a safety curtain. The normal form of safety curtain is a rigid type which is suspended immediately behind the proscenium opening, running between side tracks and dropping onto the stage front from the flytower The safety curtain can be on the straight line of the stage separating the orchestra pit, as part of the auditorium from the stage, or on the line of the rail to the orchestra pit so that when the pit is exchanged for an apron stage it is accommodated within the stage area. If there is a curved or angled pit rail then the safety curtain should follow the same line. The safety curtain tends to be obligatory for auditoria with a seating capacity over 500, as outlined in the building regulation. The need for a safety curtain is historically-defined, based on pre- electric lighting and extensive use of combustible materials on the stage. The continued use of the traditional barrier of the safety curtain to separate the stage volume from the auditorium has been questioned. Alternatives include a sprinkler system along the line of a proscenium opening and/or controlled smoke extract within the stage volume as well as away from the stage in the auditorium. Access to the stage: performers The door leading from the dressing rooms for the performers should be located down stage of the prompt side (PS) as the primary point of entry to the stage, with a cross-over behind the stage, and at least a second point of entry on the non-PS side. All entrances to the stage require lobbies as sound and light locks. The entrances should be located so as to leave a maximum amount of clear wall space. Access is also required to the sub-stage by performers from both sides of the performance area and possibly also from the auditorium, which may require steps at the side of the front of the stage. With opera, there are a large number of performers including principals, chorus and dancers: separate access points should be considered for each group. . C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 51 Literature study
  • 54. Orchestra pit: opera, musicals, dance: The orchestra for opera, musicals and dance is in a pit between the stage and the audience. The limiting factor is for the conductor to be seen by both the singers and dancers on the stage and the musicians. The audience requires to hear a balance of singers and orchestra, especially for opera. Amplification in musicals makes this requirement less of a necessity. Allow 1.3M2 average per player, 5M2 for the piano, 10M2 for tympani and percussion and 4M2 for the conductor. The actual production will have specific orchestral requirements with variation in the size and composition of the orchestra. The conductor’s eye level must not be lower than stage level when seated on a high stool. To minimize the gulf between stage and audience the pit can extend under the stage front for a distance no greater than 2 M. The soffit of the overhang should reflect the sound outward into the auditorium. For opera, the pit should be designed for a maximum of 100 musicians: for musicals, 60; for dance, 60–90. The numbers could be less with touring companies. The floor level of the orchestra pit should be adjustable, between 2–3 m, below the stage level to suit the different requirements of the musicians and directors. The fire separation between auditorium and stage must be maintained including the entry point into the pit: access must be possible from both ends. The orchestra pit requires its own independent ventilation system, locally controlled. Lifts may be required to reduce the size of the pit, and its acoustics. The orchestra pit requires acoustic treatment and working lights, as well as the socket outlets for lighting to music stands. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 52 Literature study
  • 55. Relationship between public spaces The functional relationships between the various public spaces are shown in. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 53 Literature study
  • 56. Conclusion A complete theater unit :must : 1) Accommodate an audience 2) accommodate a performance 3) Bring audience and performance together in the most efficient way A theater must have the following salient feature: 1) Interdependence of functions- optimizing the audience performance relationship in order to increase the appreciation of audience towards the performance and also to encourage the performers to give their best effort. 2) Universality – functional requisites are identical irrespective of the origin of the building project . 3) Harmony between functions and architectural stage theatrical functions must be the primary determinants of the site, shape and arrangements of the parts of the theater building. 4) Appropriate selection of site- the site must be big enough to hold the theater and to provide access and outside audience landing facilities. 5) Development of plan – shape and size of the stage and auditorium , acting area and orchestra pit according to the audience. 6) Variation in program- all production type must be chosen for performance in order to keep the theater running. 7) Variable house capacity- many designs are there which can varry the size of the auditorium as per the number of people and production type. 8) Attractiveness of the house can generate potential audience. 9) Appropriate stage . 10) Storage facility( in order to maintain the efficiency of the theater) 11)Audience ( in order to grab audience it is essential that their seeing and hearing experience is highlighted to the maximum level. 12) Other sourse of income – a theater might not always move in profit and because of this it requires alternate means of income which can be acquired by means of exhibition, letting out of spaces etc. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 54 Literature study
  • 57. :
  • 58. KALA ACADEMY, GOA Selection as case study: The academy deals with both eastern and western form of art. Spaces are planned especially for teaching and practice of performing arts.
  • 59. KALA ACADEMY, GOA LOCATION: Situated at Campal, Panaji along the banks of river Mandovi Area has mixed land use with a military hospital across the road, a cricket ground and a park on either side. ARCHITECT: Charles Correa BUILDING TYPE: Institution SITEAREA: 6.3acres SITE GRADIENT: Gentle Slope INTRODUCTION: • Venue of international film festival of India. • 1969 - prime institution for promotion of art and culture in Goa. ACCESS: • Regular buses connecting Panaji and the academy are available. • Dabolim airport, 35km • Nearest railway station is Madgao, 53 km. LAYOUT: • Four entries to the site. • Boat jetty provided on the river side. • Coverage is about 40% • Well defined pedestrian and vehicular systems • Includes the cafeteria, garden and amphitheatre. • Site is divided into main building ,service building, muktangan, parking area, the exhibition space. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP Case study 55
  • 60. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP Case study BUILDING LEVEL ZONING: • Building is divided into three zones: Public, Administration, Academic • Provided at different levels so as to avoid conflict between these zones • Ground floor includes facilities like Auditorium, preview theater, amphitheatre, art gallery, canteen etc, where public entry is invited • First and second floors - academic and administration facilities. • Circulation linked to the zoning is segregated through levels - ground floor for audience functions and first and second floor for staff and students with degree of inter linking. BUILDING STYLE AND CHARACTER: • Designed by ar. Charles correa. • Importance to the process of moving through the spaces in a building. • Built form has been kept low ranging from one to three floors. • This is further enhanced by the use of parapet walls for upper floors, which emphasize horizontally. • The 'pergola 'above the entrance acts as an extension to the foyer of the main auditorium and amphitheatre. • Use of coffer slabs and parapet walls • Extensive use of specially designed seating 56
  • 61. FACILITIES AT KALA ACADEMY • D.M Kala mandir • Open air theatre • Mini OAT • Black Box • Rehearsal Room • Art Gallery • Meeting Room • Guest Room • Preview Theatre • Cafeteria • Library • Teaching Studio • Green Room • Kitchen • Administration • Reception • Lounge C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 57 Case study
  • 62. D.M KALA MANDIR (A. C AUDITORIUM) • Seating capacity – 1000 (1300 sq.m ) • Orchestra pit- 7.2 x 2.1 m • Variety of acoustical conditions ranging from speech, plays to sitar recitals and orchestral arrangements • Walls of the auditorium are painted illusions of an old goan theatre • Stage is 80cm high from the first row. • Raking height varies from 10-20 cm C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 58 Case study
  • 63. MINI OPEN AIR THEATRE: • Capacity-300 people. • Used as an outdoor classroom and meeting space • OAT seating has a tread of 85cm and rise of 45 cm depth. • Farthest seat is 6m away and no amplication required. • Two aisles run along either end. Width -120cm • The steps have 15cm risers and 28 cm treads. • Square shape stage is and has an area of 7.5 x 7.5 m OPEN AIR AMPHITHEATRE: • Seating capacity (no chair) - 2000 • Seating capacity (chair) - 1312 • Proscenium opening - 15m • Depth from curtain line- 12m • Amphitheatre is of double herringbone shape. • Main entry from road main lobby and the restaurant area. • Stage is raised at 75cm above the ground floor level(eye level of the first row) • Lower Seat rise - 30 cm and tread of 100 cm • Higher Seat rise of 45 cm • Acoustics are good as the seats block out noise from the road side and the stage blocks out noise from the river side C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 59 Case study
  • 64. BLACK BOX: • Seating capacity - 200. • Area - 175 sq.m. • Used for experimental productions, music concerts, meetings and amateur performances. • Also used as a recording studio. • Control room and a green room provided. • Black box lobby is also provided. PREVIEW THEATRE: • Capacity - 24. • Used during ‘IFFI’ for special screening. • Has got a jury room and projector room attached. • Particle board has been used for acoustical effect. ADMINISTRATION: • Administrative area is on the first floor. • The area divided into closed and open cabinets • Total area -500 sq.m. ART GALLERY: • Running wall space - 30 x 1.50 mts • Carpet area of gallery – 90 sq.mts • The exhibits are displayed on the wall on four sides. • Lighting features are very normal no facility to hold a good exhibition. • Adjustable cove lightings are used in gallery C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 60 Case study
  • 65. CAFETERIA : • Capacity for 100 members • Square table are provided each with 4 seats • 3 sides open in to the outdoor landscape • It is accessible from all theatre meeting room - 45 sq.m LIBRARY : • area- 135 SQ.M • Library is in proximity with mini oat. • Books are raked in glass shelves TEACHING STUDIO: • All the music studios are of the same size 3.3 x 2.6ms • Central air conditioning is provided for all class rooms. • Acoustically treated classrooms with the same type of padding provided for the walls and ceilings. • Three walls are faced with linen material and glass wool, the rest is paneled with wood particle board PARKING FACILITIES: • Parking facilities is provided on the south-eastern side. • Nearly 250 public parking are provided. • Special VIP and staff parking provided. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 61 Case study
  • 66. SERVICES: • The service buildings (AC plant and generator room) are provided on the western corner of the site without disrupting building functioning • Two separate service entries have been provided. generator room and the other eastern corner of the site. • The eastern entry caters to the need of the amphitheatre and the canteen. • A loading deck has also been provided here • The septic tank is provided underneath the garden. LANDSCAPE: • Beautiful lawns form the main part of the site. Trees are provided aptly at the front side of the building. • Specially designed benches and lamp posts line the path Along the river side. ANALYSIS • The layout and the building zoning provided are excellent • Good acoustical treatment • Flow of spaces has resulted in a good built-open relationship. • Good use of site features has successfully made the public spaces interesting by use of sculptures, paintings, seating etc. • The cafeteria is the most active space with good view to the river. • Vehicular and pedestrian ways properly defined. • Service blocks are separated • Security measures provided are minimum. • Signage provided is minimum. • The trees have to some extent blocked the view to the river • Public spaces too large. C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 62 Case study
  • 67. NATIONAL CENTRE OF PERFORMING ARTS,MUMBAI Selection as case study: The center focuses mainly on performances and had succeeded in becoming a common platform for performances ranging from small individual performance to large shows. My aim to study NCPA was to understand the context . It is functioning and to study the different spaces it involve. The scale of project is comparable.
  • 68. NATIONAL CENTRE OF PERFORMING ARTS,MUMBAI LOCATION: Niraman Point on NCPA marg ARCHITECT: Ar. Phillip Johnson. BUILDING TYPE: Institution SITEAREA: 8 acre INTRODUCTION: • NCPA is a cultural building , lift the indian culture in the society through events Dance, Music, Drama and Opera . • NCPA private sector undertaken by TATA. • Designed by ar. Phillip johnson. • Building having five theatres, Administration area (Music Library, small gallery, Guest House and the apartments for the Directors) VIEW FROM MAIN ENTRANCE VIEW FROM NARIMAN POINT LOBBY AND RECEPTION: • Approach to the reception area from the main entry • Reception desk is located at the building entrance • Right side of the reception located the administrative area AUDITORIUM : • Jamshed bhabha theatre • Tata theatre • Experimental theatre • Dance theatre godrej • Little theatre The NCPA audio & film archives Recording studio Library C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 63 Case study
  • 69. JAMSHED BHABHA THEATRE SEATING CAPACITY • Total capacity- 1109 seats DRESSING ROOMS(BACKSTAGE): • Ground floor, solo rooms 3 (9 sq.m. each) • First floor, solo rooms 4 (9 sq.m. each) • Second floor, group rooms 2 (18.5 sq.m. each) (7 persons) • Third floor, group room 1 (46.5 sq.m. each) (18 persons) STAGE • Stage entry From east & west foyer 2 Nos. (Stage Right & Left) • Floor Hardwood timber flooring on MS framing (No traps, No revolve) • Size 23.7m (w) x 14.6m (d) (Behind house-curtain) •Top-of-stage from 1m auditorium level CONTROL ROOM: • Location Rear of the auditorium behind glass window; partially openable divided into 4 compartments inter-connected through common passage • Compartment 160 sq.m. • Compartment 228 sq.m. • Compartment 310 sq.m. (Light Control Cubicle) • Compartment 445 sq.m. • Power supply 18 kW, 30 Amps per phase REHEARSAL ROOMS (FRONT-OF-HOUSE) These are separate venues • West room 1 124 sq.m., height 2.88m(second floor West Wing) (90 sq.m. adjoining open terrace) • West room 2 115 sq.m., height 2.9m(third floor West Wing) (50sq.m. adjoining open terrace) • East room 1 113.5 sq.m., height 2.9m(second floor East Wing) (55 sq.m. adjoining open terrace) • East room 2 99 sq.m., height 2.9m(third floor East Wing) (32 sq.m. adjoining open terrace) VIEW OF STAGE JBT C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 64 Case study
  • 70. MISCELLANEOUS SPACES Foyers at two levels. GROUND FLOOR (LEVEL 0) • Area 930 sq.m. • Height variable, minimum 2.5m • Elevator 1 (West Foyer) • Accessory electric 9 kW (East Foyer) Lighting supply • Load 15 Amps per phase 9 kW (WestFoyer) Lighting load 15 Amps per phase • Service Counter 2 (one Front Foyer and one in West Foyer) FIRST FLOOR (LEVEL 1) • Area 465 sq.m. • Height variable; minimum 2.5m • Service counter 1 (East Foyer) MUSEUM • Area 165 sq.m. • Height 5.45m MAIN ENTRY OF THE JBT FOYER AND THE FOOD COUNTER INTERIOR OF THE AUDITORIUM ORCHESTRA PIT • Forestage orchestra elevator 19m (w) x 4m (d) : travel -2.9m(below stage), 0.0m (auditorium level) to + 1m (Stage level);locking @ 400mm increments(9) • Capacity 60 musicians • Below-stage pit, fixed portion 15.4m (w) x 4.2m (d) x 3.1m (h) INTERIOR OF THE REHERSAL ROOM C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 65 Case study
  • 71. SEATING CAPACITY Total capacity -1010 seats Capacity reduced in the following cases: • Use of in-house • sound mixer/monitor Reduced by 7 seats Sound System • 8-Channel audio mixing console • Basic sound system for speech and music reinforcement STAGE • Floor Hardwood timber flooring on concrete • Size 9m (d) x 17.5m (w) at its maximum width: • Height 3m at upstage: 6m at downstage rotatable stage • Operation electronically controlled • Rotation 180° • Rotation time 80 sec. FOYER ROTATING STAGE BACK SIDE V.I.P. ENTRY TO THE RESTAURANT MAIN ENTRY TO THE THEATRE DRESSING ROOMS Ground floor- Solo rooms 4 (11.6 sq.m. each) Mezzanine- Group rooms 2 (23 sq.m. each) TATA THEATRE: C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 66 Case study
  • 72. EXPERIMENTAL THEATRE SEATING CAPACITY • 285 seats maximum (variable) • Plastic bucket-chairs (blue) on modular wooden tiers STAGE • 9.7m (w) x 7.3m (d) x 0.7m (h) maximum • Variable configuration; modular wooden platforms FLOOR • Concrete floor 19.20m (l) x 19m (w) • Floor-to-grid height (Catwalk) 9m (h), average CONTROL ROOM • Behind glass observation window at first floor level LIGHTING • Electronic light dimmer 1 Specifications •Lighting console -Phoenix Cantor-48 ,48 channels (ADB make) DRESSING ROOMS (with toilets & showers) • Ground floor 2 (7 sq.m each) • First floor 1 (20 sq.m) MISCELLANEOUS SPACES • Foyer (non A/C) • Size 425 sq.m ; height 3m VIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL THEATRE C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 67 Case study
  • 73. SEATING CAPACITY • 185 seats STAGE • Floor Timber flooring on MS slotted angle frame; • 0.65m from auditorium level • Wing-to-wing 9m (w) x 5.6m (d) height: 2.34 m WING SPACE • Stage- right 3.55m (w) x 6.7m (l) height: 2.34m • Stage-left 2.2m (w) x 6.7m (l) height: 2.34m • Cross-over space 14.9m (l) x 1.1m (w) height: 2.34m • Proscenium opening 9.55m (w) x 2.40m (h) • House curtain Maroon velour; motorized travel MISCELLANEOUS SPACES • Foyer( non-A/C) • Area-158 sq.m • Sunken Garden 232 sq.m DRESSING ROOMS (2 nos) • Ground floor - 13.8 sq.m & 17 sq.m • Common lobby - 19.6 sq.M OUTER AREA OF THE THEATRE STAGE OF THE THEATRE AND FIXTURES VIEW OF GODREJ THEATRE DANCE THEATRE GODREJ C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 68 Case study
  • 74. LITTLE THEATRE SEATING CAPACITY • 114 seats • Cushioned chairs (off-white) on carpet (Maroon) STAGE • Floor timber flooring on concrete slab; • 0.8m (h) from auditorium level. • Size with side wings and 6.66m (w) x • 5.47m (d) x back concertina flat 3.96m (h) • Downstage 3.08m (h) upstage WING SPACE • Stage-right 1.1m (w) x 6m (l) x 3.08m (h) • Stage-left 1.0m (w) x 6m (l) x 3.08m (h) • Cross-over space 8.7m (l) x 0.6m (w) x 3.08m (h) • Proscenium opening 5.85m (w) x 3.96m (h) • House curtain Maroon velour; motorized travel DRESSING ROOMS • Ground floor 1; 8.5 sq.m • First floor 1; 15.8 sq.m MISCELLANEOUS SPACE • Foyer (air-conditioned) • Size 13.3m (l) x 5.6m (w) x 6m (h) • Area 74.5 sq.m VIEW OF LITTLE THEATRE C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 69 Case study
  • 75. RECORDING STUDIO • Studio is equipped with state-of-the-art multi track • recording equipment based on the Pro Tools HD platform • Main recording hub , interconnected to all five theatres • through fiber optic cable spreading an area of 24,000sqm. LIBRARY SUNKEN GARDEN (75-100 members) • Located next to the dance theatre godrej. • Reception space also used for small-scale performances • Stepped seating leading down to a performing area. STRUCTURE • All the Auditoriums having column beam structure • JBT and TATA theatre have good span column free space, • Coffered ceiling is cast for making the space column free. • Cantilevers more than 10 feets is projected at the entrance of TATA theatre. • Building is finished with different materials like stone, plastered etc. WAY TO THE BASEMENT PARKINGOUTER AREA OF JBT OUTER AREA OF TATA THEATRE C e n t e r f o r p e r f o r m I n g a r t s Thesis 2012 Jyotsna Mishra 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP 70 Case study