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Alan Bullick
 Dr. McGinley
EVHM 3305-H01
   History
   Current Technologies
     BWR
     PWR
   Limitations
     Resources
     Thermal Inefficiencies
     Maintenance
   New Fission Reactor Designs and Benefits
     (GFR) Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor
     (LFR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor
     (MSR) Molten Salt Reactor
     (SFR) Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor
     (SCWR) Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor
     (VHTR) Very-High-Temperature Reactor
   New Fusion Design Technology
     Tokamak
     Results
CHICAGO PILE 1                   DECEMBER 2, 1942

   Created by Enrico Fermi
   Consisted of a Pile of
    Uranium Contained
    Within Graphite Bricks
   Control Rods Manually
    Operated
   Built on a Racket Court
    Underneath the Alonzo
    Stagg Field Stadium of the
    University of Chicago
EXPERIMENTAL BREEDER          BEGIN OPERATING
REACTOR I                     DECEMBER 20, 1951
   World’s First Nuclear
    Power Plant to Generate
    Electricity
   Decommissioned in
    1964
   Located in Arco Idaho
    a.k.a (Atomic City)
   Nuclear Reactor Became
    Site of Idaho National
    Labs
(PWR) PRESSURIZED WATER   (BWR) BOILING WATER
REACTOR                   REACTOR
CURRENT RESOURCE
PROJECTIONS




                   RESOURCE PROJECTIONS
                   USING BREEDER REACTORS
                   AND MOX FUEL
THERMAL
INEFFICIENCIES                          MAINTENANCE
   Current Efficiencies of PWR             Every 1 to 2 Years a
    and BWR Designs are Limited              Conventional Nuclear Plant
    by the Operating
                                             Needs to Refuel Portions of
    Temperatures of Their
    Rankine Cycles.                          the Fuel Core Assembly
   Average Efficiency is 33%               Every 5 Years the Turbine-
       1500 MWe Nuclear Power               Generator Must be Inspected
        Plant Actually Produces 4500        1-2 Months Spent Offline for
        MW of Power and Wastes 3000
        MW.                                  Each Maintenance Process
       3000 MW of Power can Power
        876,000 Homes
       Average Inlet/Outlet Temps:
        275˚C/325˚C (525˚F/650˚F)
        Efficiency = ( 1 – Cold temperature / Hot temperature ) * 100
Members:
Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, the Republic of Korea,
the Republic of South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United
States, Switzerland, Euratom, the People’s Republic of China,
and the Russian Federation

Designs:
(GFR) Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor
(LFR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor
(MSR) Molten Salt Reactor
(SFR) Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor
(SCWR) Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor
(VHTR) Very-High-Temperature Reactor
Reactor Power: 600MWth
Net Efficiency: 48%
Coolant/Outlet Temp:
490˚C/850˚C
(914˚F/1562˚F)
Thermodynamic Cycle:
Brayton Cycle Operating
on Helium Gas
   Small/Modular
   Able to be Used as a Conventional Nuclear
    Power Plant Waste Conversion Facility
   Able to Utilize Pebble Bed Fuel Technology in
    Some Designs
   Hydrogen and Electrical Capabilities
Reactor Power:
50-150 MWe
300-400 MWe
1200 MWe
Coolant/Outlet Temp:
1022˚F-1472˚F
Thermodynamic Cycle:
Brayton Cycle Operating on
CO2 Gas
Rankine Cycle Operating on
Super Critical H20
   Easily Scalable Design
   Long Refueling Intervals (10-30 Years)
   Nuclear Waste Management Capabilities
   Hydrogen and Electrical Capabilities
Reactor Power:
1000 MWe
Outlet Temp: 1300˚F
Thermodynamic Cycle:
Brayton Cycle Operating
on Helium Gas
   Large Size
   Highly Sustainable Closed Fuel Cycle
   Nuclear Waste Management Capabilities
   Hydrogen and Electrical Capabilities
Reactor Power:
150-500 MWe
500-1500 MWe
Outlet Temp: 550˚C
(1022˚F)
Thermodynamic Cycle:
Brayton Cycle Operating
on CO2 Gas
   Large/Medium Size
   Near Term Deployment
   Nuclear Waste Management Capabilities
Reactor Power:
1700 MWe
Net Efficiency: 44%
Outlet Temp: 550˚C
(1022˚F)
Thermodynamic Cycle:
Brayton Cycle Operating
on Helium Gas
   Nuclear Waste Management Capabilities
Reactor Power:
600 MWth
Outlet Temp: 1000˚C
(1832˚F)
Thermodynamic Cycle:
Brayton Cycle Operating
on Helium Gas
   Medium Size Design
   Design Appropriate for Hydrogen Production
Nuclear technologies  alan bullick
   Fusion is the Process Powering the Sun
   Recreating Difficulties on Earth
       Material Limitations
       Gravitational Limitations
   Solutions
       Control Plasma Created From Ionized Atoms Using
        Super-Cooled Super-Conducting Magnets Named
        Tokamaks
Nuclear technologies  alan bullick
   The Joint European Torus (JET) was Able to
    Produce a 16 MW Pulse for 1 Second in 1997
   The Tora Supra was Able to Sustain Plasma
    Confinement for 6.5 Minutes in 2003.
   Current Goal is to Achieve Power
    Multiplication of 10x
   Radioactive Half-life of Tritium is 12.3 Years
    Instead of the 700 Million Year Half-life of
    Uranium
   The Fusion Process Has a Higher Energy/Mass
    Fuel Ratio Than the Fission Process
   Nuclear Power Remains a Very Viable Option
    Even Without Future Technological
    Advancements
   Nuclear Advancements Will be Able to Aid
    Developing Countries With Both Electrical and
    Water Generation Capabilities
   Generation IV Nuclear
    Plants Allow For the
    Possibility of a Hydrogen
    Fueled Future
[1] (2011, June 29). U.S & World Population Clocks. U.S. Census Bureau. [Online] Available:
http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html
[2] AREVA Communications Department, All About Nuclear Energy: From Atom to Zirconium. AREVACOM ed. Paris,
France: AREVA, April 2008
[3] “Nuclear Energy,” Alternative Energy, vol. 2, N. Schlager and J. Weisblatt, Eds. Detroit, MI: Thompson Gale, 2006,
pp. 169-208
[4] An Energy Landmark: Idaho’s Pioneering Experimental Breeder Reactor-I. Idaho National Laboratory. [Online]
Available: http://www.inl.gov/ebr/
[5] A. B. Reynolds, Bluebells and Nuclear Energy. Madison, WI: Cogito Books, 1996
[6] New Nuclear Technology Opportunities: Coal Steam from a Nuclear Boiler. Coal2Nuclear. [Online] Available:
http://www.coal2nuclear.com/coal_steam_from_a_nuclear_boiler.htm
[7] (2002 Dec.). Ten Nations Preparing Today for Tomorrow’s Energy Needs: A Technology Roadmap for Generation
IV Nuclear Energy Systems. U.S. DOE Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee and the Generation IV International
Forum. [Online] Available: http://www.ne.doe.gov/genIV/documents/gen_iv_roadmap.pdf
[8] S. Hough (2009 April). Supercritical Rankine Cycle: A Synopsis of the Cycle, it’s Background, Potential
Applications and Engineering Challenges. University of Idaho. [Online] Available:
http://www.if.uidaho.edu/~gunner/ME443-543/HW/rankine.pdf
[9] M. Ragheb. (2011, July 1). Chapter 1: Nuclear Reactor Concepts and Thermodynamic Cycles. University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign. [Online] Available:
https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/mragheb/www/NPRE%20402%20ME%20405%20Nuclear%20Power%20Engineering/Nucle
ar%20Reactors%20Concepts%20and%20Thermodynamic%20Cycles.pdf
[10] ITER Organization. (2011) ITER: The Way to New Energy. ITER. [Online] Available: http://www.iter.org/
[11] (2011, March 9). Economics of Nuclear Power. World Nuclear Association. [Online] Available: http://www.world-
nuclear.org/info/inf02.html

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Nuclear technologies alan bullick

  • 1. Alan Bullick Dr. McGinley EVHM 3305-H01
  • 2. History  Current Technologies  BWR  PWR  Limitations  Resources  Thermal Inefficiencies  Maintenance  New Fission Reactor Designs and Benefits  (GFR) Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor  (LFR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor  (MSR) Molten Salt Reactor  (SFR) Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor  (SCWR) Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor  (VHTR) Very-High-Temperature Reactor  New Fusion Design Technology  Tokamak  Results
  • 3. CHICAGO PILE 1 DECEMBER 2, 1942  Created by Enrico Fermi  Consisted of a Pile of Uranium Contained Within Graphite Bricks  Control Rods Manually Operated  Built on a Racket Court Underneath the Alonzo Stagg Field Stadium of the University of Chicago
  • 4. EXPERIMENTAL BREEDER BEGIN OPERATING REACTOR I DECEMBER 20, 1951  World’s First Nuclear Power Plant to Generate Electricity  Decommissioned in 1964  Located in Arco Idaho a.k.a (Atomic City)  Nuclear Reactor Became Site of Idaho National Labs
  • 5. (PWR) PRESSURIZED WATER (BWR) BOILING WATER REACTOR REACTOR
  • 6. CURRENT RESOURCE PROJECTIONS RESOURCE PROJECTIONS USING BREEDER REACTORS AND MOX FUEL
  • 7. THERMAL INEFFICIENCIES MAINTENANCE  Current Efficiencies of PWR  Every 1 to 2 Years a and BWR Designs are Limited Conventional Nuclear Plant by the Operating Needs to Refuel Portions of Temperatures of Their Rankine Cycles. the Fuel Core Assembly  Average Efficiency is 33%  Every 5 Years the Turbine-  1500 MWe Nuclear Power Generator Must be Inspected Plant Actually Produces 4500  1-2 Months Spent Offline for MW of Power and Wastes 3000 MW. Each Maintenance Process  3000 MW of Power can Power 876,000 Homes  Average Inlet/Outlet Temps: 275˚C/325˚C (525˚F/650˚F) Efficiency = ( 1 – Cold temperature / Hot temperature ) * 100
  • 8. Members: Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States, Switzerland, Euratom, the People’s Republic of China, and the Russian Federation Designs: (GFR) Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (MSR) Molten Salt Reactor (SFR) Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SCWR) Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) Very-High-Temperature Reactor
  • 9. Reactor Power: 600MWth Net Efficiency: 48% Coolant/Outlet Temp: 490˚C/850˚C (914˚F/1562˚F) Thermodynamic Cycle: Brayton Cycle Operating on Helium Gas
  • 10. Small/Modular  Able to be Used as a Conventional Nuclear Power Plant Waste Conversion Facility  Able to Utilize Pebble Bed Fuel Technology in Some Designs  Hydrogen and Electrical Capabilities
  • 11. Reactor Power: 50-150 MWe 300-400 MWe 1200 MWe Coolant/Outlet Temp: 1022˚F-1472˚F Thermodynamic Cycle: Brayton Cycle Operating on CO2 Gas Rankine Cycle Operating on Super Critical H20
  • 12. Easily Scalable Design  Long Refueling Intervals (10-30 Years)  Nuclear Waste Management Capabilities  Hydrogen and Electrical Capabilities
  • 13. Reactor Power: 1000 MWe Outlet Temp: 1300˚F Thermodynamic Cycle: Brayton Cycle Operating on Helium Gas
  • 14. Large Size  Highly Sustainable Closed Fuel Cycle  Nuclear Waste Management Capabilities  Hydrogen and Electrical Capabilities
  • 15. Reactor Power: 150-500 MWe 500-1500 MWe Outlet Temp: 550˚C (1022˚F) Thermodynamic Cycle: Brayton Cycle Operating on CO2 Gas
  • 16. Large/Medium Size  Near Term Deployment  Nuclear Waste Management Capabilities
  • 17. Reactor Power: 1700 MWe Net Efficiency: 44% Outlet Temp: 550˚C (1022˚F) Thermodynamic Cycle: Brayton Cycle Operating on Helium Gas
  • 18. Nuclear Waste Management Capabilities
  • 19. Reactor Power: 600 MWth Outlet Temp: 1000˚C (1832˚F) Thermodynamic Cycle: Brayton Cycle Operating on Helium Gas
  • 20. Medium Size Design  Design Appropriate for Hydrogen Production
  • 22. Fusion is the Process Powering the Sun  Recreating Difficulties on Earth  Material Limitations  Gravitational Limitations  Solutions  Control Plasma Created From Ionized Atoms Using Super-Cooled Super-Conducting Magnets Named Tokamaks
  • 24. The Joint European Torus (JET) was Able to Produce a 16 MW Pulse for 1 Second in 1997  The Tora Supra was Able to Sustain Plasma Confinement for 6.5 Minutes in 2003.  Current Goal is to Achieve Power Multiplication of 10x
  • 25. Radioactive Half-life of Tritium is 12.3 Years Instead of the 700 Million Year Half-life of Uranium  The Fusion Process Has a Higher Energy/Mass Fuel Ratio Than the Fission Process
  • 26. Nuclear Power Remains a Very Viable Option Even Without Future Technological Advancements  Nuclear Advancements Will be Able to Aid Developing Countries With Both Electrical and Water Generation Capabilities  Generation IV Nuclear Plants Allow For the Possibility of a Hydrogen Fueled Future
  • 27. [1] (2011, June 29). U.S & World Population Clocks. U.S. Census Bureau. [Online] Available: http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html [2] AREVA Communications Department, All About Nuclear Energy: From Atom to Zirconium. AREVACOM ed. Paris, France: AREVA, April 2008 [3] “Nuclear Energy,” Alternative Energy, vol. 2, N. Schlager and J. Weisblatt, Eds. Detroit, MI: Thompson Gale, 2006, pp. 169-208 [4] An Energy Landmark: Idaho’s Pioneering Experimental Breeder Reactor-I. Idaho National Laboratory. [Online] Available: http://www.inl.gov/ebr/ [5] A. B. Reynolds, Bluebells and Nuclear Energy. Madison, WI: Cogito Books, 1996 [6] New Nuclear Technology Opportunities: Coal Steam from a Nuclear Boiler. Coal2Nuclear. [Online] Available: http://www.coal2nuclear.com/coal_steam_from_a_nuclear_boiler.htm [7] (2002 Dec.). Ten Nations Preparing Today for Tomorrow’s Energy Needs: A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems. U.S. DOE Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee and the Generation IV International Forum. [Online] Available: http://www.ne.doe.gov/genIV/documents/gen_iv_roadmap.pdf [8] S. Hough (2009 April). Supercritical Rankine Cycle: A Synopsis of the Cycle, it’s Background, Potential Applications and Engineering Challenges. University of Idaho. [Online] Available: http://www.if.uidaho.edu/~gunner/ME443-543/HW/rankine.pdf [9] M. Ragheb. (2011, July 1). Chapter 1: Nuclear Reactor Concepts and Thermodynamic Cycles. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. [Online] Available: https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/mragheb/www/NPRE%20402%20ME%20405%20Nuclear%20Power%20Engineering/Nucle ar%20Reactors%20Concepts%20and%20Thermodynamic%20Cycles.pdf [10] ITER Organization. (2011) ITER: The Way to New Energy. ITER. [Online] Available: http://www.iter.org/ [11] (2011, March 9). Economics of Nuclear Power. World Nuclear Association. [Online] Available: http://www.world- nuclear.org/info/inf02.html