Fuel Pellet (3.5%) Uranium Fual Pellet A typical pellet of uranium weighs about 7 grams (0.24 ounces). It can generate as much energy as 3.5 barrels of oil, 17,000 cubic feet of natural gas, or 1,780 pounds of coal
Nuclear Fission Nuclear fission is the process of splitting the nucleus of a heavy atom (target nucleus) into two or more lighter atoms (fission products) when the heavy atom absorbs or is bombarded by a neutron. A few radionuclides can also spontaneously fission.
NUCLEAR POWER STATUS WORLDWIDE • About 440 Reactors Operating • Source of 17% of Worldwide Electricity • Source of 25% of Electricity in Industrial Countries • Source of 20% of United States Electricity (103 Reactors) • Effective New Plant Moratoria in Most Industrialized Countries • Japan, France Ordering a New Plant Every Few Years • China, Korea, Taiwan Have Been Ordering Frequently Some annual electricity demand growth rates near 10% until recently • Finland Is Ordering a New Plant
SUMMARY OF TYPES OF POWER REACTORS USED WORLDWIDE
US Electricity Fuel Costs (1981-2003) 2003 cents per kilo`watt-hour
Method of Nuclear Power PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) In the Pressurised Water Reactor the core is surrounded by water and is enclosed in a very thick steel pressure vessel. The water, under high pressure, serves as both coolant and moderator. It is circulated to a heat exchanger(steam generator) where water in a separate circuit is turned into steam.
A Nuclear Reactor Core Method of Nuclear Power
Republic of Korea PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor)
PHWR (Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor) Figure is shows the Canadian-designed and built CANDU reactor. Instead of being in a pressure vessel, the fuel is in a number of pressure tubes within a reactor vessel called a calandria. Pressurised water or heavy water flows through the tubes and conveys the heat to a steam generator. Heavy water under low pressure fills the calandria, surrounding the pressure tubes, and acts as moderator. Method of Nuclear Power
BWR(Boiling Water Reactor) The BWR is characterized by two-phase fluid flow (water and steam) in the upper part of the reactor core. Light water (i.e., common distilled water) is the working fluid used to conduct heat away from the nuclear fuel. The water around the fuel elements also "thermalizes" neutrons, i.e., reduces their kinetic energy, which is necessary to improve the probability of fission of fissile fuel. Fissile fuel material, such as the U-235 and Pu-239 isotopes, have large capture cross sections for thermal neutrons. Method of Nuclear Power
BWR(Boiling Water Reactor) Method of Nuclear Power
Boiling Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant A reactor behaves in a similar manner. As the reactor water is boiled, its volume increases, and the steam escapes at high speed through the outlet piping. The piping is designed so the steam strikes the cups on the turbine wheel; the wheel spins and its shaft turns the copper coil in the electrical generator. Method of Nuclear Power
Status Nuclear Power Plants of South Korea Station Type Capacity MWe Operator Reactor Supplier Construction Start First Criticality Grid Connection Commercial Operation Shutdown Date KORI-1 PWR 587 KHNP Westinghouse 1971 November 1977 June 1977 June 1978 April KORI-2 PWR 650 KHNP Westinghouse 1977 March 1983 April 1983 April 1983 July KORI-3 PWR 950 KHNP Westinghouse 1979 April 1985 January 1985 January 1985 September KORI-4 PWR 950 KHNP Westinghouse 1979 April 1985 October 1985 December 1986 April SHIN KORI-1 PWR 1000 KHNP DHIC - - - (2008 September) SHIN KORI-2 PWR 1000 KHNP DHIC - - - (2009 September) SHIN KORI-3 PWR 1000 KHNP - - - - (2010 September) SHIN KORI-4 PWR 1000 KHNP - - - - (2011 September) YONGGWANG-1 PWR 950 KHNP Westinghouse 1980 December 1986 January 1986 March 1986 August YONGGWANG-2 PWR 950 KHNP Westinghouse 1980 December 1986 October 1986 November 1987 June YONGGWANG-3 PWR 1000 KHNP KHI/KAERI 1989 June 1994 October 1994 October 1995 March YONGGWANG-4 PWR 1000 KHNP KHI/KAERI 1989 June 1995 July 1995 July 1996 January YONGGWANG-5 PWR 1000 KHNP DHIC/KOPEC 1996 September 2001 November 2001 December 2002 May YONGGWANG-6 PWR 1000 KHNP DHIC/KOPEC 1996 September 2002 September 2002 September 2002 December WOLSONG-1 PHWR 679 KHNP AECL 1977 May 1982 November 1982 December 1983 April WOLSONG-2 PHWR 700 KHNP AECL/KHI 1991 October 1997 January 1997 April 1997 July WOLSONG-3 PHWR 700 KHNP KHI/AECL 1993 August 1998 February 1998 March 1998 July WOLSONG-4 PHWR 700 KHNP KHI/AECL 1993 August 1999 April 1999 May 1999 October SHIN WOLSONG-1 PHWR 1000 KHNP DHIC - - - (2009 September) SHIN WOLSONG-2 PHWR 1000 KHNP DHIC - - - (2010 September) ULCHIN-1 PWR 950 KHNP Framatom 1982 March 1988 February 1988 April 1988 September ULCHIN-2 PWR 950 KHNP Framatom 1982 March 1989 February 1989 April 1989 September ULCHIN-3 PWR 1000 KHNP KHI/KAERI 1992 May 1997 December 1998 January 1998 August ULCHIN-4 PWR 1000 KHNP KHI/KAERI 1992 May 1998 December 1998 December 1999 December ULCHIN-5 PWR 1000 KHNP DHIC/KOPEC 1999 January 2003 November - (2004 June) ULCHIN-6 PWR 1000 KHNP DHIC/KOPEC 1999 January - - (2005 June)
Nuclear Power in Asia, and Involvement with the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Key: UM Uranium Mining, C Conversion, E Enrichment, FF Fuel Fabrication, R Reprocessing, WM Waste Management facilities for spent fuel away from reactors
NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS IN OPERATION AND UNDER CONSTRUCTION, 31 DEC. 2005 1 TW · h = 0.39 megatonnes of coal equivalent (input) = 0.23 megatonnes of oil equivalent (input)
REACTOR TYPES AND NET ELECTRICAL POWER, REACTORS CONNECTED TO THE GRID, 31 DEC. 2005
REACTOR UNITS AND NET ELECTRICAL POWER, 1970 TO 2006
Comparison with Other Energy Sources The fuel requirements for nuclear plants are significantly smaller than for plants using other fuels or sources of energy. This is shown in the following table for an example city.
Generation IV Nuclear Technology Nuclear power has developed in stages, or generations. We are currently in the third generation, researching technology for Generation IV.
<ul><li>The Long-Term Benefits from Nuclear Energy’s Essential Role </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Nuclear Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive Nuclear Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Safe and Reliable Systems </li></ul><ul><li>4. Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection </li></ul>Generation IV Nuclear Technology
The figures above show the six technologies selected for further Generation IV nuclear power systems research. Generation IV Nuclear Technology
Nuclear Power Plant (Japan) The Ikata Nuclear Power Plant is located on Shikoku island at Ikata-cho, Ehime, has two Mitisubishi 538 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor units with the 2 Reactor Coolant Loop design (similar to original Westinghouse design as Prairie Island, Kewaunee, and Point Beach plants) and one Mitsubishi Pressurized Water Reactor unit with the 3 Reactor Coolant Loop design (similar to the Westinghouse Surry, North Anna, and Robinson plants). Units 1 and 2 started up in Feb. 1977 and August 1981. Unit 3 is a 3 loop PWR rated at 846 MWe that started up in June 1994.
Nuclear Power Plant (Japan) The Arctic Sunrise in opposition to the Takahama nuclear power plant
Nuclear Power Plant (Japan) Oi Nuclear power plant is seen in this aerial view in Fukui, western Japan
The large Tricastin enrichment plant in France (beyond cooling towers) The four nuclear reactors in the foreground provide over 3000 MWe power for it Nuclear Power Plant (France)
Nuclear Power Plant (USA) Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant, USA
Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Nuclear Power Plant (USA)
Kori Nuclear Power Plant Nuclear Power Plant (Korea)
Yonggwang nuclear power plant is located in the west coast of southern part of Korea, ~400 km from Seoul as shown in Fig. The power plant has six reactors producing total thermal output of 16.4 GWth, the second largest in the world Nuclear Power Plant (Korea)
Environmental Benefits <ul><li>Nuclear generators eliminate Greenhouse gas generation </li></ul><ul><li>Existence of a nuclear plant assists in siting industrial facilities (environmental cap & trade) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eases burden of siting fossil fueled plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assists in maintaining a balanced & diversified generating portfolio </li></ul></ul></ul>