Nuclear Power

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Nuclear Power

  1. 1. 15.05.2009 Nuclear Power Romeo Shuka 1
  2. 2. LOGO Content The discovery of nuclear reactions need not bring about the destruction of mankind any more than the discovery of matches What is Nuclear Power? History The Reactor Nuclear Stations Benefits & Disadvantage 2
  3. 3. LOGO What is nuclear power?  Nuclear power is any nuclear technology designed to extract usable energy from atomic nuclei via controlled nuclear  The process of generation nuclear power starts with the mining and processing of uranium and other radioactive elements. These elements are used to feed the reactor of a nuclear power plant, generating a reaction known as fission which creates intense heat, turning water in the plant into steam. The steam powers steam turbines, which generate electricity and feed the electricity into the electrical grid. 3
  4. 4. LOGO Fossil fuels Uranium Plutonium 235 239 Basic fossil fuels 4
  5. 5. LOGO Uranium Name, symbol, number Uranium, U, 92 Element category actinide Phase solid Density 19.1 g / cm 3 Melting point 1132,3 oC Boiling point 4131 oC 5
  6. 6. LOGO Plutonium Name, symbol, number Plutonium, Pu, 94 Element category actinide Phase solid Density 19.816 g / cm 3 Melting point 639,4 oC Boiling point 3228 oC 6
  7. 7. LOGO History Origins Nuclear fission was first experimentally achieved by Enrico Fermi in 1934 when his team bombarded uranium with neutrons. Early years On June 27, 1954, the USSR's Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant became the world's first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a power grid. Developement Installed nuclear capacity initially rose relatively quickly, rising from less than 1 gigawatt (GW) in 1960 to 100 GW in the late 1970s, and 300 GW in the late 1980s. 7
  8. 8. LOGO Nuclear power capacity Capacity in GW Year 1980 130 Year 1990 310 Years 2000 350 Year 2010 380 8
  9. 9. LOGO Number of power reactors 2005 1995 420 1980 410 1. Pressurized Water Reactor - 265 US, France, Japan, Russia, China 250 2. Boiling Water Reactor - 94 1960 Us, Japan, Sweden 20 Power reactors 9
  10. 10. LOGO Pressurized Water Reactor PWRs keep water under pressure so that it heats, but does not boil. Water from the reactor and the water in the steam generator that is turned into steam never mix. In this way, most of the radioactivity stays in the reactor area. 10
  11. 11. LOGO Pressurized Water Reactor 11
  12. 12. LOGO Boiling Water Reactor BWRs actually boil the water. In both types, water is converted to steam, and then recycled back into water by a part called the condenser, to be used again in the heat process.. 12
  13. 13. LOGO Boiling Water Reactor 13
  14. 14. LOGO Nuclear Power Stations There are 17 Nuclear Power Stations in Germany Companys: E-On , RWE, EnBW in MW 1475 1480 A. Isar 2 1986 - 2021 840 B. Brokdorf 1988 - 2020 806 C. Neckarwestheim 1976 - 2010 D. Brunsbüttel 1977 - 2011 A B C D 14
  15. 15. LOGO Nuclear Stations Worldwide Op.104 Op. 59 Op. 55 off 29 off 11 off 3 15
  16. 16. LOGO Nuclear Station Unteweser 16
  17. 17. LOGO Nuclear Station Unteweser 100 security guards  1 reactor (1410 MW)  270 employers Data Reactor Power People  Country: Germany  2008 – 9.786 GW h  Operator: E.ON  Net generation: 284.290 GW h  Build: July 1, 1972  Commercial operation: Sep. 29, 1978 17
  18. 18. LOGO The reactor 18
  19. 19. LOGO The turbine 19
  20. 20. LOGO Benefits & Disadvantage • Greenhouse Emissions • Radiation 1. • don’t release CO2 1. • human health • Price • Reactor accidents 2. • cheap to produce 2. • prices are stable • Uranium is plentiful • Radioactive waste 3. • U-235 3. • isolation • U-238 • Nuclear energy is safe 4. • 1 or 2 death per year • Efficacy 99% 5. • alternative 10-20% • The future 6. • new technology, safer and cheaper 20
  21. 21. LOGO 21

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