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http://www.niso.org/news/events/2012/nisowebinars/alternative_metrics/




          NISO Webinar:
Beyond Publish or Perish: Alternative
      Metrics for Scholarship

         November 14, 2012


Speakers: Martin Fenner, Jason Priem,
           Aalam Wassef
Technical Lead ALM Project
                                                 Martin Fenner
http://www.flickr.com/photos/wallyg/156079118/
Journal-based metrics correlate poorly
with numbers for individual article




                                         3
PLOS ONE is not a second-tier journal
Combined Scopus citation counts for all PLOS
Biology and PLOS Medicine articles published in
2009, as well as top 200 PLOS ONE articles in 2009




                            Citation counts collected November 8, 2012


                                                                   4
The megajournal has changed how we use the
journal as a filter




                                         5
Citations are only a small fraction of how a
       paper is reused and discussed
                                   100%




                                   22.2%




        Article-Level Metrics
        from November 8, 2012
        for 63,771 PLOS Papers
                                   0.3%

                                               6
The PLOS Article-Level Metrics project
started in 2009 and tracks usage, citations
and social web activity for all PLOS articles
Usage                  Citations        Social Web
PLOS Journals    CrossRef               Mendeley
(HTML, PDF, XML)
                 Scopus                 CiteULike
PubMed Central         Web of Science   Facebook
(abstract, fulltext,
                       PubMed Central   Twitter
PDF, figures)
                                        Research Blogging

                                        PLOS Comments
                                        Wikipedia
                                                      7
8
9
Why use article-level metrics?




                                 10
Should article-level metrics be used to
 evaluate the impact of research?


• Can numbers reflect the impact of research, across
  disciplines and over time?
• Do the currently available metrics really measure impact or
  something else?
• Does the use of metrics for evaluation create undesired
  incentives?
• How easily can metrics be changed by self-promotion and
  gaming?



                                                           11
What do we measure?




                      12
Gaming and Spam




                  13
Metrics as a discovery tool




                              14
Data-driven stories about the post-
publication reception of a paper




                                      15
http://blogs.bbsrc.ac.uk/index.php/2012/09/summertime-reprise/
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000204

                                                                 16
17
Business intelligence for a
journal, university of funder




                                18
http://bit.ly/alm36




                  19
20
Tweets about Big Food Collection
Data collected August 19, 2012.




                                     21
Identify Open Access articles published by PLOS,
funded by the European Commission Seventh
Framework Programme (FP7)

Match articles with grant numbers

Show the impact of these publications

 PLOS Search API                      CORDIS
   2562 Articles                    1166 Articles

                                                    22
Author locations from the ENGAGE project
First authors (blue) and last authors (green).




European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology
http://www.openaire.eu/en/component/openaire/project_info/default/530?grant=201413

                                                                                 23
Scopus




         24
Mendeley




           25
Thank you




            Wordle of altmetrics manifesto by AJ Cann
            http://www.flickr.com/photos/ajc1/6795008004/


                                                      26
Altmetrics and Revolutions:

New media, new metrics, and a new
 scholarly communications system.




                            Nov 14, NISO
In the beginning:


  ...was the letter.
   • slow
   • costly
   • duplication
   • best solution given available
     technology
The First Revolution

In 1665, Oldenburg published The
Philisophical Transactions of the
Royal Society (now OA :).

This applied the best available
technology (the printing press) to
vastly improve dissemination.
The First Revolution
promoted homogeneity of
outputs.
The standardized article was born of
the need for industrial-scale replication
and interchangeability.
The Second Revolution
will promote diversity of
outputs.
Since publication is nearly free, it
becomes trivial to capture the missing
pieces of the scholarly record.
conversation
stories
analysis
data
Looking beneath the foliage:
    Web promises new tools for conversation.




     reference managers
                    blogs
      social bookmarking
          social networks
Examples: Mendeley


2 million user
libraries

200 million
documents
uploaded, 75M
unique (MEDLINE
has 18 million...)
Examples: Twitter

    In one month, over 58k citations from
    Twitter to scholarly articles (citwaitions?)



   It is like having a jury preselect what will
   probably interest you…. Occasionally there
   will be something that people will link to, and
   it will change what I think, or what I’m doing,
   or what I’m interested in.
                                   -study participant
Examples: Twitter
Bring on the
metrics.
A network of ideas: bibliometrics.

In 1961, Garfield creates the
Science Citation Index.
 • replaces expert judges with
   crowdsourced judgements
 • based on existing patterns of use:
   mining, not asking.
 • And that's awesome!
But only part of the picture


1. Only one type of person: academics.

2. Only one kind of resource: scholarly articles.

3. Only one kind of use: using to support a
scholarly article.
What about all the other uses?

    Reading, annotating, bookmarking, saving,
    discussing, sharing, etc?

"...there are          Heart of scholarly     Spotting emerging
undoubtedly highly     communication          research fronts will
useful journals that   is "visits, personal   require tracking
are not cited          contacts, and          "formal and
frequently."           letters." (Bernal,     informal
(Garfield, 1972)       1944)                  communication"
                                              (Kuhn, 1977)
What about all the other uses?

We start to confuse
“the kind of use we can
track” with use

and “citation impact”
with impact.
Bibliometrics mined impact
on the first scholarly Web.


  altmetrics mines
impact on the next
              one.
Why altmetrics?

• We can more fairly evaluate researchers, publications,
  and institutions if we look at the whole impact picture.
• We can assess impact faster
• Etc, etc.
• Much more important: quantifying impact means we can
  teach machines what’s important. This changes the
  game. And the game needs to be changed.
Journals need an upgrade.

• First journals went hand in hand with the Scientific Revolution.
  Applied the most advanced technology available to the problem
  of spreading scholarship.
• Today’s journals are still the best scholarly communication
  system possible using 17th-century technology.
• They’ve got some problems:
   o   Slow
   o   Restrictive format: function follows form
   o   Closed
   o   Inconsistent quality control
   o   Hard to innovate
We don’t use the Web.

• Berners-Lee created the Web as a scholarly communication tool.
• Today the Web has revolutionized everything but scholarly
  communication.
• Online journals are essentially paper journals, delivered by faster
  horses.

  In the early days, CERN maintained a list of all the world’s Web
  servers. Haha, CERN ur so krazy.
• But today, we can fit every single meaningful outlet for
  scholarship (25k journals + some conferences) on one list, too.
But what if we did?

The Decoupled Journal article: a case study.
The second revolution has started.


Once we have alt-citation data, it’s too useful to
ignore; alternative filters and even certification paths
based on this data will open.
As Peter Vinkler says, citation graph data is like
Chekhov’s gun: once on stage, it has to be fired.
A wise man, that Chekov.
Questions?
Jason Priem @jasonpriem, http://jasonpriem.org




                        This is a living document; if a particular
                         version is important to you, make sure
                                         you link to that revision.
NISO Webinar: Beyond Publish or Perish: Alternative Metrics for Scholarship
NISO Webinar: Beyond Publish or Perish: Alternative Metrics for Scholarship
NISO Webinar: Beyond Publish or Perish: Alternative Metrics for Scholarship
NISO Webinar: Beyond Publish or Perish: Alternative Metrics for Scholarship
NISO Webinar: Beyond Publish or Perish: Alternative Metrics for Scholarship
NISO Webinar: Beyond Publish or Perish: Alternative Metrics for Scholarship
NISO Webinar: Beyond Publish or Perish: Alternative Metrics for Scholarship
NISO Webinar: Beyond Publish or Perish: Alternative Metrics for Scholarship
NISO Webinar: Beyond Publish or Perish: Alternative Metrics for Scholarship
NISO Webinar: Beyond Publish or Perish: Alternative Metrics for Scholarship
NISO Webinar: Beyond Publish or Perish: Alternative Metrics for Scholarship
NISO Webinar: Beyond Publish or Perish: Alternative Metrics for Scholarship

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NISO Webinar: Beyond Publish or Perish: Alternative Metrics for Scholarship

  • 1. http://www.niso.org/news/events/2012/nisowebinars/alternative_metrics/ NISO Webinar: Beyond Publish or Perish: Alternative Metrics for Scholarship November 14, 2012 Speakers: Martin Fenner, Jason Priem, Aalam Wassef
  • 2. Technical Lead ALM Project Martin Fenner http://www.flickr.com/photos/wallyg/156079118/
  • 3. Journal-based metrics correlate poorly with numbers for individual article 3
  • 4. PLOS ONE is not a second-tier journal Combined Scopus citation counts for all PLOS Biology and PLOS Medicine articles published in 2009, as well as top 200 PLOS ONE articles in 2009 Citation counts collected November 8, 2012 4
  • 5. The megajournal has changed how we use the journal as a filter 5
  • 6. Citations are only a small fraction of how a paper is reused and discussed 100% 22.2% Article-Level Metrics from November 8, 2012 for 63,771 PLOS Papers 0.3% 6
  • 7. The PLOS Article-Level Metrics project started in 2009 and tracks usage, citations and social web activity for all PLOS articles Usage Citations Social Web PLOS Journals CrossRef Mendeley (HTML, PDF, XML) Scopus CiteULike PubMed Central Web of Science Facebook (abstract, fulltext, PubMed Central Twitter PDF, figures) Research Blogging PLOS Comments Wikipedia 7
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  • 10. Why use article-level metrics? 10
  • 11. Should article-level metrics be used to evaluate the impact of research? • Can numbers reflect the impact of research, across disciplines and over time? • Do the currently available metrics really measure impact or something else? • Does the use of metrics for evaluation create undesired incentives? • How easily can metrics be changed by self-promotion and gaming? 11
  • 12. What do we measure? 12
  • 14. Metrics as a discovery tool 14
  • 15. Data-driven stories about the post- publication reception of a paper 15
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  • 18. Business intelligence for a journal, university of funder 18
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  • 21. Tweets about Big Food Collection Data collected August 19, 2012. 21
  • 22. Identify Open Access articles published by PLOS, funded by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) Match articles with grant numbers Show the impact of these publications PLOS Search API CORDIS 2562 Articles 1166 Articles 22
  • 23. Author locations from the ENGAGE project First authors (blue) and last authors (green). European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology http://www.openaire.eu/en/component/openaire/project_info/default/530?grant=201413 23
  • 24. Scopus 24
  • 25. Mendeley 25
  • 26. Thank you Wordle of altmetrics manifesto by AJ Cann http://www.flickr.com/photos/ajc1/6795008004/ 26
  • 27. Altmetrics and Revolutions: New media, new metrics, and a new scholarly communications system. Nov 14, NISO
  • 28. In the beginning: ...was the letter. • slow • costly • duplication • best solution given available technology
  • 29. The First Revolution In 1665, Oldenburg published The Philisophical Transactions of the Royal Society (now OA :). This applied the best available technology (the printing press) to vastly improve dissemination.
  • 30. The First Revolution promoted homogeneity of outputs. The standardized article was born of the need for industrial-scale replication and interchangeability.
  • 31. The Second Revolution will promote diversity of outputs. Since publication is nearly free, it becomes trivial to capture the missing pieces of the scholarly record.
  • 33. Looking beneath the foliage: Web promises new tools for conversation. reference managers blogs social bookmarking social networks
  • 34. Examples: Mendeley 2 million user libraries 200 million documents uploaded, 75M unique (MEDLINE has 18 million...)
  • 35. Examples: Twitter In one month, over 58k citations from Twitter to scholarly articles (citwaitions?) It is like having a jury preselect what will probably interest you…. Occasionally there will be something that people will link to, and it will change what I think, or what I’m doing, or what I’m interested in. -study participant
  • 38. A network of ideas: bibliometrics. In 1961, Garfield creates the Science Citation Index. • replaces expert judges with crowdsourced judgements • based on existing patterns of use: mining, not asking. • And that's awesome!
  • 39. But only part of the picture 1. Only one type of person: academics. 2. Only one kind of resource: scholarly articles. 3. Only one kind of use: using to support a scholarly article.
  • 40. What about all the other uses? Reading, annotating, bookmarking, saving, discussing, sharing, etc? "...there are Heart of scholarly Spotting emerging undoubtedly highly communication research fronts will useful journals that is "visits, personal require tracking are not cited contacts, and "formal and frequently." letters." (Bernal, informal (Garfield, 1972) 1944) communication" (Kuhn, 1977)
  • 41. What about all the other uses? We start to confuse “the kind of use we can track” with use and “citation impact” with impact.
  • 42. Bibliometrics mined impact on the first scholarly Web. altmetrics mines impact on the next one.
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  • 44. Why altmetrics? • We can more fairly evaluate researchers, publications, and institutions if we look at the whole impact picture. • We can assess impact faster • Etc, etc. • Much more important: quantifying impact means we can teach machines what’s important. This changes the game. And the game needs to be changed.
  • 45. Journals need an upgrade. • First journals went hand in hand with the Scientific Revolution. Applied the most advanced technology available to the problem of spreading scholarship. • Today’s journals are still the best scholarly communication system possible using 17th-century technology. • They’ve got some problems: o Slow o Restrictive format: function follows form o Closed o Inconsistent quality control o Hard to innovate
  • 46. We don’t use the Web. • Berners-Lee created the Web as a scholarly communication tool. • Today the Web has revolutionized everything but scholarly communication. • Online journals are essentially paper journals, delivered by faster horses. In the early days, CERN maintained a list of all the world’s Web servers. Haha, CERN ur so krazy. • But today, we can fit every single meaningful outlet for scholarship (25k journals + some conferences) on one list, too.
  • 47. But what if we did? The Decoupled Journal article: a case study.
  • 48. The second revolution has started. Once we have alt-citation data, it’s too useful to ignore; alternative filters and even certification paths based on this data will open. As Peter Vinkler says, citation graph data is like Chekhov’s gun: once on stage, it has to be fired.
  • 49. A wise man, that Chekov.
  • 50. Questions? Jason Priem @jasonpriem, http://jasonpriem.org This is a living document; if a particular version is important to you, make sure you link to that revision.